ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; cannula-associated arterial thrombosis; flow rate.
Online: 26 January 2023 (08:33:01 CET)
Introduction: Hemostatic dysfunction during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to blood-circuit interaction and the consequences of shear stress by flow rates lead to rapid activation of the coagulation cascade and thrombus formation in the ECMO system and blood vessels. In this study, we aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors for cannula-associated arterial thrombosis (CaAT) post-decannulation. Methods: A retrospective study of patients undergoing arterial cannula removal following ECMO. We evaluated the incidence of CaAT and compared clinical characteristics, pre-ECMO severity, and daily hemostasis parameters in patients with and without CaAT. Multivariate analysis revealed the risk factors for CaAT. Results: Forty-seven patients requiring venoarterial ECMO or hybrid methods were recruited to be screened for thrombosis. The median SOFA score was 11 (8-13). CaAT occurred in 29 patients (61.7%), with thrombosis in the superficial femoral artery accounting for 51.7%. Limb ischemia complications in the group with CaAT was 17.2%. In multivariate analysis, an ECMO flow rate of 100 mL/min was determined to be the independent factor for CaAT with an OR of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73–0.95, p=0.008). Conclusion: In patients successfully weaned from ECMO, the incidence of CaAT was 61.7%. Our study found that a low-flow rate of ECMO was an independent risk factor for CaAT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cancer-associated thrombosis; survey; anticoagulant; cancer patients
Online: 17 June 2021 (09:17:59 CEST)
Ongoing concerns regarding the morbidity and mortality from cancer-associated thrombosis led the European Cancer Patient Coalition (ECPC), the voice of cancer patients across Europe, to create a pan-European cancer-associated awareness patient survey to assess CAT knowledge among a large population of patients with cancer. The ECPC survey represents the largest of its kind amongst patients/caregivers with CAT and identified significant gaps in patient awareness and knowledge of CAT. It also identified a need for educational CAT-related discussions and interventions between healthcare professionals and patients with cancer and their caregivers. The aim of this paper is to highlight these gaps and to provide healthcare professionals with awareness of what information should be shared with patients/caregivers as well as how and when that information should be provided. Notably, the importance of providing information on CAT risk and risk factors, how to reduce their risk of CAT, the role of anticoagulant prophylaxis and treatment (short- and long-term) including possible side-effects, and finally how to early identify CAT symptoms. Here we outline what type of information should be provided, as well as when and how to best discuss CAT with our oncology patients and their caregivers along the cancer care continuum, to reduce the risk of CAT and associated complications with a goal of improving patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1916.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: High flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy; acute respiratory failure; geriatrics; acute non-intensive hospital setting
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:22:17 CEST)
Background. There are scant data about the effectiveness of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive medical wards, particularly regarding the effect on arterial oxygenation compared to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods. In a retrospective observational study, oxygenation parameters were measured before and immediately after HFNC initiation in 37 consecutive patients hospitalized in a geriatric ward in 2017. Results. HFNC was used as escalation therapy for untreatable hypoxia after failure of NIV/CPAP (n=18) or COT (n=19). Twenty-two patients died, 2 were transferred to the intensive care unit, while 13 were discharged alive. A “do not intubate” status was identified in 17 of the 22 deceased patients. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2, p< 0.0001), oxygen saturation (SO2, p< 0.0001), pO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (p=0.004) and peripheral SO2 measured by pulse oximetry (p< 0.0001) significantly increased soon after HFNC application. Oxygenation improvements were greater after escalation from NIV/CPAP and in patients discharged alive. Conclusion. HFNC significantly improved oxygenation in severe ARF after failure of COT or NIV/CPAP and may be particularly suitable for older patients hospitalized in non-intensive medical wards.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0951.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue diseases; drugs; novel drugs; therapy; treatment; prognosis
Online: 11 August 2023 (13:25:08 CEST)
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe vascular complication of connective tissue diseases (CTD). Patients with CTD may develop PH belonging to different groups: 1) pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), 2) PH secondary to lung disease and/or hypoxia, 3) PH due to left heart disease, and 4) chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). PAH most often develops in systemic scleroderma (SSc), mostly in its limited variant. PAH-CTD is a progressive disease characterized by poor prognosis, therefore the early diagnosis should be established A specific treatment for PAH-CTD is currently available and recommended: prostacyclin derivative (treprostinil, epoprostenol, iloprost, selexipag), nitric oxide and natriuretic pathway: stimulators of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC: riociguat) and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i: sildenafil, tadalafil), endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA: bosentan, macitentan, ambrisentan). Moreover, novel drugs e.g. sotatercept are intensively investigated in the clinical trials. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the recent advances in treatment strategy and prognosis of patients with PAH-CTD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: bronchiolitis; children; respiratory syncytial virus; high flow nasal cannula; acute bronchiolitis
Online: 21 November 2023 (17:18:53 CET)
Bronchiolitis is an acute viral infection of the lower respiratory tract that affects infants and young children. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common causative agent, however other viruses can be the reason of the disease. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features of infants aged less than 12 months referred to our Pediatric Units of Chivasso, Cirié and Ivrea for acute bronchiolitis requiring hospitalization over two consecutive bronchiolitis seasons. Patient-, disease- and treatment related variables were analyzed in this retrospective study. We were able to show how with the high flow oxygen support (HFNC) only a very low number of children (8 out of 192) need to be trasferred to our HUB referral centers. The probability of success were 96% for all patients and 93% for RSV vs. 98% for non-RSV patients (P=NS). Factor associated to failure of treatment were age below 1 months and the failure of HFNC. The wide and increasing use of HFNC in pediatric inpatients improved management of bronchiolitis in Spoke hospitals, reducing transfer to a Hub hospital provided with Intensive Care Units.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1669.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD); Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD); Probiotic; Tube-fed elderly; Infectious disease
Online: 27 November 2023 (10:22:14 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of probiotics in elderly hospitalized tube-fed patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Probiotics were administered to 29 patients, with twice-daily doses for 7 days following the completion of antibiotic treatment. In the probiotic group, while stool form showed no significant change, there was a significant decrease in stool frequency. Conversely, the control group exhibited improved stool form but not frequency. The probiotic group maintained a significant difference in stool form during the follow-up period. Additionally, the control group showed a positive correlation between stool form, frequency, antibiotic therapy, and intensive care unit admission, which was not observed in the probiotic group. These findings suggest that supplementing with probiotics can effectively normalize stool form in elderly hospitalized tube-fed patients undergoing antibiotic treatment for CDAD, highlighting the potential benefits of probiotic intervention in this specific population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: alcohol-associated liver cirrhosis; microRNAs; biomarker
Online: 15 September 2023 (03:31:18 CEST)
Background: Alcohol-associated Liver Disease (ALD) is the most common disorder of prolonged drinking. Mechanisms underlying cirrhosis in such patients remain unclear. MicroRNAs play regulatory role in several diseases, are affected by alcohol and may be important players in alcohol use disorders, such as cirrhosis. Methods: We investigated serum samples from heavy chronic alcohol users (80g/d (M) and 50g/d (F) for ≥10 years) that were available from our previously reported GenomALC study. A subset of drinkers with liver cirrhosis (cases, n=24) and those without significant liver disease (controls, n=23) were included. Healthy controls (HC, n=5) were volunteers in the study. Global microRNA profiling was performed using high-throughput real-time quantitative PCR to identify the microRNA signatures. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software (IPA) was utilized to identify target mRNAs of significantly altered microRNAs and molecular pathways were analysed. Identified microRNAs were analysed for correlation with traditional liver disease biomarkers and risk gene variants previously reported from GenomALC genome-wide association study. Results: The expression of 81 and 21 microRNAs was significantly downregulated in cases compared to HC and controls, respectively (p<0.05, Ct >1.5-fold). Most microRNAs showed lower abundance in alcohol users compared with HC. Seven microRNAs (miR-16, miR-19a, miR-27a, miR-29b, miR-101, miR-130a, & miR-191) had a highly significant correlation (p<0.001) with INR, bilirubin and MELD score. Three microRNAs (miR-27a, miR-130a and miR-191) significantly predicted cases with AUC-ROC 0.8, 0.78 and 0.85, respectively (P<0.020), however, INR performed best (0.97, p<0.001). A different set of 6 microRNAs (miR-19a, miR-26a, miR-101, miR-151-3p, miR-221, & miR-301) showed positive correlation (ranging 0.32-0.51, p<0.05) with rs10433937:HSD17B13 gene variant, associated with risk of cirrhosis. IPA analysis revealed mRNA targets of the significantly altered microRNAs associated with cell death/necrosis, fibrosis and increased steatosis, particularly triglyceride metabolism related mRNA targets. Conclusions: MicroRNA signatures in drinkers distinguished those with liver cirrhosis from those without liver disease. We identified mRNA targets in liver functions that were enriched for disease pathogenesis pathways.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Gordonia sputi; Dialysis; Catheter-associated infection
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:35:49 CEST)
Improvement in medical care has turned severe diseases into chronic conditions, but often their treatment and use of medical devices are related to specific complications. Here we present a clinical case of a long-term dialysis patient, who is infected with a rare opportunistic infectious agent – Gordonia sputi. In recent years the incidence of Gordonia spp. infections in immunocompromised patients with central venous catheters (CVC) appear to rise. Their isolation and identification are challenging and require modern techniques. In addition, the treatment is usually persistent and often results in CVC extraction, which is associated with further risk and costs for the patient. We also studied the alternations in the immune status of the patient caused by long-term renal replacement therapy and persistent HCV infection. Antibiotic therapy and immunostimulation with Inosine pranobex lead to successful eradication of the infection without the need for CVC replacement.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0492.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: glideosome-associated connector; protein; crystallography; structure
Online: 30 December 2021 (17:13:26 CET)
A model for parasitic motility has been proposed in which parasite filamentous actin (F-actin) is attached to surface adhesins by a large component of the glideosome, known as the glideosome-associated connector protein (GAC). This large 286 kDa protein interacts at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane with the phosphatidic acid-enriched inner leaflet and cytosolic tails of surface adhesins to connect them to the parasite actomyosin system. GAC is observed initially to the conoid at the apical pole and re-localised with the glideosome to the basal pole in gliding parasite. GAC presumably functions in force transmission to surface adhesins in the plasma membrane and not in force generation. Proper connection between F-actin and the adhesins is as important for motility and invasion as motor operation itself. This notion highlights the need for new structural information on GAC interactions, which has eluded the field since its discovery. We have obtained crystals that diffracted to 2.6-2.9 Å for full-length GAC from Toxoplasma gondii in native and selenomethionine-labelled forms. These crystals belong to space group P212121, cell dimensions are roughly a=119 Å, b=123Å, c=221Å, α=90, β=90, γ=90 with 1 molecule per asymmetric unit, suggesting a more compact conformation than previously proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0175.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Krein space; fundamental symmetry; Hilbert associated; frames
Online: 12 July 2022 (08:10:52 CEST)
In the present paper we introduce the concept of orthogonal frames in Krein spaces, prove the independence of the choice of the fundamental symmetry, and from this we obtain a number of interesting properties that they satisfy. We show that there is no distinction between orthogonal frames in a Krein space and orthogonal frames in its associated Hilbert. Furthermore, we characterize frames dual to a given frame, which is a useful tool for constructing examples.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Rwanda; Risk associated MTCT; HIV-exposed infants
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:18:07 CEST)
Several factors enhance the possibility of vertical HIV transmission in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, the data of the prevalence of HIV and associated risk factors in these populations remain limited in Rwanda. The study aimed to assess HIV prevalence and risk factors for infants born to mothers on ARV treatment at CHUB/Rwanda. MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out on infants who were born to mothers under ARV treatment at CHUB. The associated risk factors were retrospectively assessed using prevention vertical HIV transmission records, and Dried Blood spots (DBS) were prospectively tested using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Ethical clearance (Ref: CMHS/IRB/198/2017) was issued by University of Rwanda to fulfill research ethical consideration.ResultsAmong 185(100%) infants born to HIV-positive mothers under ARV treatment, 5(2.7%) were HIV positive. The most associated risk factors were increased to over 1log copies/ml mother’s viral load (OR 9.3, 95% CI 1.01-85.45, P= 0.04) and mother’s CD4 count lower than 350 cells/µl (OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.03-40.06, P=0.04). The factors found to reduce the rate of vertical transmission of HIV were health facility as a delivery place (P=0.03), exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (P= 0.006), and attending the antenatal care (P=0.01) while feeding children and vaginal delivery were associated risks but not statistically significant.ConclusionThe current study supports that the more mothers’ viral load and CD4 count decrease, so does the risk of HIV to their infants. A fact which indicates that both prevalence and risk factors remain an alarming issue. Much effort and multi-disciplinary approach are highly recommended.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: ANCA-associated vasculitis; organ limited vasculitis; GPA
Online: 13 August 2020 (06:59:27 CEST)
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is an autoimmune disease which is a type of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis that frequently affects the lungs and kidneys. However, GPA limited to a single organ has also been reported. A 73-year-old man was admitted for back pain and fever. We detected elevated levels of inflammatory markers and myeloperoxidase-ANCA. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated diffuse inflammation of the back and psoas muscles. Histology showed degenerated muscle fibers and granulomatosis vasculitis with mixed lymphoplasma cell infiltration. High-dose methylprednisolone therapy improved his symptoms. A final diagnosis of GPA limited to the muscles was made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: catheter-associated infection; CAUTI; urinary tract infection; healthcare-associated infection; active drain line clearance; burns; intra-abdominal pressure; measurement
Online: 30 September 2022 (04:13:24 CEST)
OBJECTIVE A quality improvement study to assess catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rate post-implementation of a bladder catheter with integrated active drain line urine clearance and automated intra-abdominal pressure monitoring in a burn intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN Eight-year retrospective before and after study (2015–2022). SETTING A single American Burn Association verified Burn Center with fourteen inpatient beds. PATIENTS Patients meeting criteria for admission to a Burn Center METHODS Retrospective cohort study following the implementation of a novel urine output monitoring system with integrated drain line and urine clearance. Data from a 48-month (from January 2015-December 2018) historical control (period 1) were compared to data from a 28-month (from January 2020 to April 2022) post-implementation period (period 2). Pre- and post-implementation CAUTI event incidences were compared. Charts were reviewed to characterize the patients. RESULTS A total of 42 CAUTIs in 2243 patients were identified using the National Health and Safety Network (NHSN) definition during the analyzed period. There were 40 CAUTI events in period 1 and two CAUTIs in period 2. The incidence of CAUTI events pre-implementation was 0.030 (mean of 10 CAUTI events per year) compared to 0.002 (mean of 1 CAUTI event per year) post-implementation of an automatic drain line clearing UO monitoring system showing a significant reduction in CAUTI events (P<0.01, risk ratio novel vs. gravity bladder catheter 0.071, 95% confidence interval: 0.017-0.294). CONCLUSIONS CAUTIs were reduced in the period following the implementation of a novel urinary catheter system with an integrated active drain line and urine clearance in burn patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Trace amine-associated receptor 5; antagonist; AtomNet; BRET.
Online: 7 February 2022 (11:57:16 CET)
Trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor that belongs to the TAARs family (TAAR1-TAAR9). TAAR5 is expressed in the olfactory epithelium and is responsible for sensing 3-methylamine (TMA). However, recent studies showed that TAAR5 is also expressed in the limbic brain regions and is involved in the regulation of emotional behaviour and adult neurogenesis, suggesting that TAAR5 antagonism may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for anxiety and depression. We used the AtomNet® model, the first deep learning neural network for structure-based drug discovery, to identify putative TAAR5 ligands and tested them in an in vitro BRET assay. We found two mTAAR5 antagonists with low to submicromolar activity that are able to inhibit the cAMP production induced by TMA. Moreover, these two compounds also inhibited the mTAAR5 downstream signalling, such as the phosphorylation of CREB and ERK. These two hits exhibit drug-like properties and could be used to develop further more potent TAAR5 ligands with putative anxiolytic and antidepressant activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0638.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Shugoshin; tumor suppressor; cancer; oncogene; tumour associated gene
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:31:59 CET)
Proper and timely segregation of cellular genome is an important and a prime requirement of all cell division programmes. Mis-segregation of chromosomes and resulting aneuploidy leads to several clinical consequences. Over the years, shugoshin emerges as a key protein factor involved in the segregation of genetic material in dividing cells. Deletion or altered level of shugoshin is reported in several human malignancies, as a result, shugoshin now emerges as an important tumour associated gene and a possible target for cancer therapy. Apart from the role in cancer, recent studies also showed the involvement of shugoshin in several other clinical disorders. Through this review, we tried to highlight the clinical relevance of shugoshin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0861.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis; tuberculosis; population-based study
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:10:55 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Treatment for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) must deal with immunosuppression as well as infections associated with compromised immune system, such as tuberculosis (TB). Our aim was to overcome the gap in the literature concerning the risk of incidental TB after diagnosis of AAV. Materials and Methods: This retrospective population-based cohort study was based on the data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We used a novel algorithm to identify patients with newly diagnosed granulomatous polyangiitis (GPA) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012. The primary outcome was risk of incidental TB. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between AAV and incidental TB. Results: A total of 2,257 patients with AAV and a propensity-score matched cohort of 9,028 patients were studied. Overall, patients with AAV were at a 1.48x higher risk of contracting incidental TB than were patients in the matched cohort (adjusted HR 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.15). Note that the highest risk of contracting incidental TB was in the first two years following a diagnosis of AAV, with a nearly 1-fold increase in risk (adjusted HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.01-3.60). Female AAV patients were 3.24x more likely than females without AAV to develop TB (adjusted HR 3.24; 95%CI, 1.85-5.67). Conclusion: Patients with AAV face an elevated risk of contracting incidental TB, particularly within the first two years after AAV diagnosis. The risk of contracting TB is higher among female AAV patients than among females without AAV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1932.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Anti-aging, DNA damage response, senescence-associated secretory phenotype
Online: 28 September 2023 (04:56:53 CEST)
Cellular aging has drawn the attention of researchers, scientists, and biotech businesses for the treatment of a number of medical conditions. Cellular aging is primarily defined by consistent cessation of proliferative development in response to internal and external stressors, including DNA damage, telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and regulation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Disturbances involving these factors may contribute to age-related disease development. Therefore, the current review aims to explore anti-aging factors targeting DNA damage response and SASP regulation and their detailed signaling networks. In addition, it provides an opportunity for researchers to identify not only anti-aging targets, but also anti-aging therapeutic strategies based on identified and non-identified targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: uveitis-associated cataract; postoperative complications; phacoemulsification; uveitis; visual prognosis
Online: 21 September 2023 (04:56:43 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Uveitis, a prevalent eye disorder characterized by inflammatory processes, often leads to cataract formation and significant visual impairment. This study aimed to evaluate preoperative conditions and postoperative outcomes following cataract surgery in uveitis patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at the University Hospital Center Rebro Zagreb, Croatia, involving uveitis patients who underwent cataract surgery between 2013 and 2022. Eligible patients had uveitic cataracts affecting visual acuity or posterior segment visualization in a "quiet eye" and were disease-inactive for at least three months. Patients with certain preexisting ocular conditions were excluded. Data collected included patient demographics, uveitis type, preoperative therapy, preexisting lesions, and postoperative outcomes such as visual acuity, intraocular pressure, central macular thickness, and complications. Statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with complications. Results: The study included 105 patients. After cataract surgery, there was a significant improvement in visual acuity at various time points, with 90% of eyes showing improvement. Intraocular pressure decreased over time. Central macular thickness increased at three months post-surgery but remained stable thereafter. Early and late complications were observed in 52.4% and 63.8% of eyes, respectively. The most common complications were posterior capsular opacification, macular edema, and epiretinal membrane. Factors associated with complications varied between early and late stages but included age, age at onset of uveitis, and uveitis type. Conclusion: Cataract surgery in uveitis patients presents challenges but can lead to significant visual improvement. This study highlights the importance of careful patient selection, preoperative and postoperative inflammation management, and precise surgical techniques. Although complications were common, they were manageable, and most patients experienced improved vision, emphasizing the benefits of cataract surgery in this population. However, future investigations should address the study's limitations and further refine perioperative strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1717.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Healthcare-associated infections; indoor air quality; infection control; Candida
Online: 25 July 2023 (11:50:29 CEST)
Background: Fungi are ubiquitous microorganisms that are easily dispersed through the air. In healthcare environments, indoor air can favor the spread of healthcare-associated fungal infections, compromising mainly immunocompromised hospitalized individuals. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the indoor air contamination in healthcare environments, investigating mainly the presence of potentially pathogenic yeasts. Methods: Indoor air samples were collected from twelve healthcare environments (hospital and medical clinics). After the growth, isolation, and purification of the yeast colonies, the isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction using species-specific primers for yeasts of the genus Candida and sequencing of D1/D2 domains of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU rRNA). Results: Fourteen yeast species were identified, including emerging pathogens. Species of clinical importance such as Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida glabrata, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Trichosporon mucoides were present. C. Parapsilosis was the most prevalent species, followed by Rodothorula mucilaginosa. Conclusions: The present study shows that potentially fungal pathogens were present in air samples from healthcare environments, proving the role of indoor air in spreading infections. Thus, monitoring air quality in healthcare environments is a fundamental approach in developing infection control measures, especially those related to invasive fungal infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetic kidney disease; metabolic-associated fatty liver disease; biomarker
Online: 16 June 2023 (13:36:04 CEST)
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) share various pathophysiological factors, and epidemiological evidence suggests that these two diseases are associated. Albuminuria and the estimated glomerular filtration rate, which are conventional biomarkers of DKD, are reportedly associated with the risk or severity of MAFLD. Recently, novel DKD biomarkers reflecting renal tubular injury have been introduced to complement conventional DKD markers. In this article, we looked at previous studies that showed an association between MAFLD and DKD and also reviewed the significance of DKD biomarkers as predictive risk factors for MAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cachexia; pancreatic cancer; ketogenic diet; gemcitabine; cancer-associated cachexia
Online: 7 June 2023 (03:53:16 CEST)
Cancer associated cachexia (CAC) is a critical contributor to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) mortality. Thus, there is an urgent need for new strategies to mitigate PDAC-associated cachexia; and the exploration of dietary interventions is a critical component. We previously observed that a ketogenic diet (KD) combined with gemcitabine enhances overall survival in the autochthonous LSL-KrasG12D/+; LSL-Trp53 R172H/+; Pdx1-Cre (KPC) mouse model. In this study, we investigated the effect and cellular mechanisms of a KD in combination with gemcitabine on the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass in KPC mice. For this purpose, male and female pancreatic tumor-bearing KPC mice were allocated to a control diet (CD), a KD, a CD + gemcitabine (CG), or a KD + gemcitabine (KG) group. We observed that a KD or a KG mitigated muscle strength decline over time and presented higher gastrocnemius weights compared CD-fed mice. Mechanistically, we observed sex-dependent effects of KG treatment, including the inhibition of autophagy, and increased phosphorylation levels of eIF2α in KG-treated KPC mice when compared to CG-treated mice. Our data suggests that a KG results in preservation of skeletal muscle mass. Additional research is warranted to explore whether this diet-treatment combination can be clinically effective in combating CAC in PDAC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1641.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; biofilm; extensively drug resistance; biofilm associated genes
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:33:26 CEST)
Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is a bacterium that causes infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Treatment is challenging due to biofilm formation by AB strains, which hinders antibiotic effec-tiveness and promotes drug resistance. The aim of our study was to analyze the biofilm-producing capacity of AB isolates from various forms of infections in relation to biofilm-related genes and their drug resistance. We tested one hundred isolates for biofilm formation using the crystal violet microplate method. Drug re-sistance analyses were performed based on EUCAST and CLSI guidelines, and biofilm genes were detected using PCR. All tested strains were found to form biofilms, with 50% being ICU strains and 72% classified as strong biofilm-producers. Among these, 87% were extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and 2% were extra extensively drug-resistant (E-XDR). The most common gene set was bap, bfmS, csuE, and ompA, found in 57% of all isolates. Our research has shown that, regardless of the form of infection, biofilm-forming strains can be expected among AB isolates. The emergence of E-XDR and XDR strains among non-ICU infections highlights the necessity for the rational use of antibiotics to stop or limit the further acquisition of drug re-sistance by A. baumannii.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: ANCA-associated vasculitis; Proteinase 3; Myeloperoxidase; Clinical Phenotype; Outcome
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:58:51 CEST)
The traditional nomenclature system for classifying Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV), based on clinical phenotype, described Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) and Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) as distinct clinical entities. This classification has proved its expedience in clinical trials and every day clinical practice, yet, a substantial overlap in clinical presentation still exists, and often causes difficulties in prompt definition and clinical distinction. Additionally, new insights into the AAV pathogenesis point out that PR3 and MPO-AAV may not represent expressions of the same disease spectrum but rather two distinct disorders, as they display significant differences. Thus, it is supported that a classification based on ANCA serotype (PR3-ANCA, MPO-ANCA or ANCA-negative), could be more accurate and also closer to the nature of the disease, instead of the phenotype-based one. This review aims to elucidate the major differences between PR3 and MPO-AAV, in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis, histological and clinical manifestations, and response to therapeutic approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0209.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma; tumor microenvironment; immune escape; tumor-associated macrophages
Online: 18 April 2019 (08:14:50 CEST)
Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is characterized by a few tumor cells surrounded by a protective, immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment composed of normal cells that are an active part of the disease. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells evade the immune system through a variety of different mechanisms. They are invisible to antitumor effector T cells and natural killer cells and promote T cell exhaustion. Using cytokines and extracellular vesicles, they recruit normal cells, induce their proliferation, and “educate” (i.e., reprogram) them to become immunosuppressive and protumorigenic. Therefore, alternative treatment strategies, targeting not only tumor cells but also the tumor microenvironment, are being developed. Here we summarize current knowledge on the ability of HRS cells to build their microenvironment and to educate normal cells to become protective or immunosuppressive. We also describe therapeutic strategies to counteract formation of the tumor microenvironment and related processes leading to T cell exhaustion and repolarization of immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: MicroRNA; cancer associated fibroblasts; cell-cell communication; transformation; epigenetic
Online: 28 February 2017 (10:29:27 CET)
Tumor microenvironment including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) has developed as an important target for understanding tumor progression, clinical prognosis and treatment responses of cancer. Cancer cells appear to transform normal fibroblasts (NF) into CAFs involving direct cell-cell communication and epigenetic regulations. This review summarizes the current understanding on miR involvement in cancer cell – tumor environment/stroma communication, transformation of NFs into CAFs, their involved targets and signaling pathways in these interactions; and clinical relevance of CAF-related miR expression profiles. There is evidence that miRs have very similar roles in activating hepatic (HSC) and pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) as part of precancerous fibrotic diseases. In summary, deregulated miRs affect various intracellular functional complexes, such as transcriptional factors, extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton, EMT/MET regulation, soluble factors, tyrosine kinase and G-protein signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle & differentiation, but also formation and composition of the extracellular microenvironment. These processes result in the clinical appearance of desmoplasia involving CAFs and fibrosis characterized by deregulated stellate cells. In addition, modulated release of soluble factors can act as (auto)activating feedback loop for transition of NFs into their pathological counterparts. Furthermore, epigenetic communication between CAFs and cancer cells may confer to cancer specific functional readouts and transition of NF into their pathological counterparts. MiR related epigenetic regulation with many similarities should be considered as key factor in development of cancer and fibrosis specific environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1256.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: inflammageing; senescence; pro-inflammatory stimulus; Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP)
Online: 20 November 2023 (16:15:05 CET)
Objectives: The term "inflammageing” describes the process of inflammation-induced aging that leads living cells to a state of permanent cell cycle arrest due to chronic antigenic irritation. This in vitro study aimed to shed light on the mechanisms of “inflammageing” on human oral cells. Methods: Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) were exposed to variable pro-inflammatory stimuli, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFa), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from active periodontal pockets of systemically healthy patients. Inflammageing was studied through two experimental models, employing either late-passage (“aged”) cells (p.10) that were exposed to the pro-inflammatory stimuli or early-passage (“young”) cells (p.1) continuously exposed during a period of several passages (up to p.10) to the above-mentioned stimuli. Cells were evaluated for the expression of beta-galactosidase activity (histochemical staining), senescence-associated genes (qPCR analysis), and biomarkers related to a Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP), through proteome profile analysis and bioinformatics. Results: A significant increase (p<0.05) of beta-galactosidase-positive cells was observed after exposure to each pro-inflammatory stimulus. The senescence-associated gene expression included upregulation for CCND1 and downregulation for SUSD6, and STAG1, a profile typical for cellular senescence. Overall, pro-inflammatory priming of late-passage cells caused more pronounced effects in terms of senescence, than long-term exposure of early-passage cells to these stimuli. Proteomic analysis showed induction of SASP, evidenced by upregulation of several pro-inflammatory proteins (IL-6, IL-10, IL-16, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-2, M-CSF, MIP-1a, MIP-1b, TNFb, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, TIMP-2) implicated in cellular aging and immune responses. The least potent impact on the induction of SASP was provoked by LPS and the most pronounced by GCF. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that long-term exposure of hGFs to various pro-inflammatory signals induced or accelerated cellular senescence with the most pronounced impact noted for the late-passage cells. The outcome of this analyses provides insights into oral chronic inflammation, as a potential confounder of age-related diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma; residual disease; recurrence; survival; endometriosis- associated
Online: 10 April 2023 (05:14:42 CEST)
A retrospective study including 49 women with ovarian clear cell carcinoma between January 2009 and December 2021 at Oxford cancer centre was done. The mean age was 63 years, with 78% post-menopausal. All women underwent cytoreductive surgery with no residual disease (R0) in 39 women. The follow-up time ranged between 12-144 months, with mean of 105.5 months. The 3-year OS was 73.4%, and 3-year PFS was 81.3%, with a mean of 101.7months (95%CI, 84.63-118.93). As expected, women with stage 1 disease had the best outcome. In comparing OS in respect to absence or presence of residual disease, the 3-year OS was 88.6% (95% CI 108.6-141.8), compared to 12.5% (95% CI 4.48-32.11) respectively (P<0.001). In multivariant analysis the variables included were CA 125 (< or >200 IU/ml), Hb (< or >115 g/L), albumin (< or >40 g/L), associated endometriosis, ascites, residual disease, and FIGO staging. FIGO stage was the only independent prognostic indicator of OS with (p<0.05). Surgery to achieve no residual tumour is necessary to improve the prognosis in advanced OCCC. At present, the true challenge is to predict which patients with early-stage disease are at higher risk of recurrence and would most benefit from adjuvant treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0078.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; neurodegenerative disorders; mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns; inflammation
Online: 6 July 2022 (09:16:21 CEST)
Neuroinflammation is a common hallmark in different neurodegenerative conditions that share neuronal dysfunction and a progressive loss of a selectively vulnerable brain cell population. Alongside ageing and genetics, inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are considered key risk factors. Microglia are considered immune sentinels of the central nervous system capable of initiating an innate and adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying the initiation and spread of inflammation in the brain are still poorly described. Recently, a new mechanism of intercellular signalling mediated by small extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been identified. EVs are nanosized particles (30-150 nm) with a bilipid membrane that carries cell-specific bioactive cargos that participate in physiological or pathological processes. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are cellular components recognized by the immune receptors of microglia, inducing or aggravating neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. Diverse evidence links mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation mediated by mitochondrial-DAMPs (mtDAMPs) such as mitochondrial DNA, TFAM and cardiolipin, among others. Mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are a subtype of EVs produced after mild damage to mitochondria and, upon fusion with multivesicular bodies (MVBs), are released as EVs to the extracellular space. MDVs are particularly enriched in mtDAMPs which can induce an immune response and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, growing evidence supports the association between mitochondrial dysfunction, EVs release and inflammation. Here, we describe the role of extracellular vesicles-associated mtDAMPS in physiological conditions and as neuroinflammation activators contributing to neurodegenerative disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis E; Associated risk factors; Pregnant women; Environment; Prevention; Senegal
Online: 7 June 2022 (08:06:52 CEST)
In West Africa, research on the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is barely covered despite the recorded outbreaks. The still low level of access to safe water and adequate sanitation is one of the main factors of HEV spread in developing countries. HEV infection induces acute or sub-clinical liver diseases with a mortality rate ranging from 0.5 to 4%. The mortality rate is more alarming (15 to 25%) among pregnant women, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. Here, we conducted a multicentric socio-demographic and seroepidemiological survey of HEV in Senegal among pregnant women. A total of 1,227 consenting participants attending antenatal clinics responded to our questionnaire. Plasma samples were collected and tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG by using the WANTAI HEV-IgM and IgG ELISA assay. HEV global seroprevalence was 7.9% with 0.5% and 7.4% for HEV IgM and HEV IgG, respectively. One participant's sample was IgM/IgG positive, while four were declared indeterminate to anti-HEV IgM as per the manufacturer's instructions. From one locality to another, the seroprevalence of HEV antibodies varied from 0 to 1% for HEV IgM and from 1.5 to 10.5% for HEV IgG. The data also showed that seroprevalence varied significantly by marital status (p<0.0001), by the regularity of income (p=0.0043) and by access to sanitation services (p=0.0006). These data could serve as a basis to setup national prevention strategies focused on socio-cultural, environmental and behavioral aspects for a better management of HEV infection in Senegal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0385.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Trace amine-associated receptor 5; cognition; decision-making; switch task
Online: 25 January 2022 (14:49:51 CET)
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors present in mammals in the brain and in several peripheral organs. Apart from its olfactory role, TAAR5 is expressed in the major limbic brain areas and regulates brain serotonin functions and emotional behaviors. However, most of its functions remain undiscovered. Given the role of serotonin and limbic regions in some aspects of cognition, we used a temporal decision-making task to unveil a possible role of TAAR5 in cognitive processes. We found that TAAR5 knock-out (KO) mice showed a generally better performance due to a reduced number of errors and displayed a greater rate of improvement at the task than WT littermates. However, task-related parameters, such as time accuracy and uncertainty have not changed significantly. Overall, we show that TAAR5 modulates specific domains of cognition, highlighting a new role in brain physiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0320.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Boechera; Brassicaceae; CENH3; APOLLO; apomixis associated genes; cell division; apomeiosis
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:40:57 CET)
Apomictic plants (reproducing via asexual seeds), unlike sexual individuals, avoid meiosis and egg cell fertilization. Consequently, apomixis is very important for fixing maternal genotypes in the next plant generations. Despite the progress in the study of apomixis, molecular and genetic regulation of the latter remains poorly understood. So far APOLLO (Aspartate Glutamate Aspartate Aspartate histidine exonuclease) is one of the very few described genes associated with apomixis in Boechera species. The centromere-specific histone H3 variant encoded by CENH3 gene is essential for cell division. Mutations in CENH3 disrupt chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis since the attachment of spindle microtubules to a mutated form of the CENH3 histone fails. This paper presents in silico characteristic of APOLLO and CENH3 genes, which may affect apomixis. Also, we characterize the structure of CENH3, study expression levels of APOLLO and CENH3 in gynoecium/siliques of the natural diploid apomictic and sexual Boechera species at the stages of before and after fertilization. While CENH3 was a single copy gene in all Boechera species, the APOLLO gene have several polymorphic alleles associated with sexual and apomictic reproduction in the Boechera genera. Expression of the APOLLO apo-allele during meiosis was upregulated in gynoecium of apomict B. divaricarpa downregulating after meiosis until 4th day after pollination (DAP). On the 5th DAP, expression in apomictic siliques increased again. In sexual B. stricta gynoecium and siliques APOLLO apo-allele did not express. Expression of the APOLLO sex-allele during and after meiosis in gynoecium of sexual plants was several times higher than that in apomictic gynoecium. However, after pollination the sex-allele was downregulated in sexual siliques to the level of apomicts and increased sharply on the 5th DAP, while in apomictic siliques it almost did not express. At the meiotic stage, the expression level of CENH3 in the gynoecium of apomicts was two times lower than that of the sexual Boechera, decreasing in both species after meiosis and keep remaining very low in siliques of both species for several days after artificial pollination until the 4th DAP, when the expression level raised in sexual B. stricta siliques exceeding 5 times the level in apomictic B. divaricarpa siliques. We also discuss polymorphism and phylogeny of the APOLLO and CENH3 genes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0331.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; associated comorbidities; treatment; ACE2 inhibitors; Type 2 diabetes
Online: 19 April 2020 (05:42:22 CEST)
The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is becoming pandemic with the highest mortality in people with associated comorbidities. These RNA viruses containing four structural proteins usually use spike protein to enter the host cell. It has been demonstrated that Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) ,as a part of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), acts as a host receptor for the virus which is the main target of therapeutic approaches. However, medications acting on RAAS can lead to serious complications especially in people with diabetes and hypertension. To avoid this, other potential treatment modalities should be used in COVID-19 patients with associated comorbidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1202.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthcare-associated infections; Intensive Care Unit; cardiovascular diseases, multidrug resistant bacteria
Online: 18 October 2023 (18:26:38 CEST)
Nowadays, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represent a major global public health problem and the burden of these infections is high. In order to reduce the incidence of HAIs and to prevent the spread antibi-otics resistant organisms is mandatory to develop surveillance systems. We undertook a retrospective case-control study of all patients presenting HAIs admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in order to assess risk factors associated with death among patients with HAIs. Patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit who died were more likely to present an infection with a multidrug resistant bacteria, an infection with Acineto-bacter baumannii, and to suffer from acute myocardial infarction. Among the patients enrolled in the study, a higher probability of death was also observed in association with certain gram-negative pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The longer the patient remains admitted in ICU, the higher the risk of getting an infection that can often become fatal. Acquiring a noso-comial infection also increases the length of hospitalization which will lead to increased financial damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1121.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: clinical nurses; visual differentiation; diagnostic ability; pressure injury; incontinence-associated dermatitis
Online: 18 October 2023 (10:00:18 CEST)
This study investigated clinical nurses’ knowledge and visual differentiation ability of the pressure injury classification system (PICS) and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD), additionally analyzing possible influencing factors. A convenience sample of 248 nurses took the PICS and IAD knowledge test (KT) and completed the visual differentiation ability test (VDAT), consisting of 21 photographs with clinical information. The overall mean score for correct answers was 12.65±2.90 points in PICS & IAD KT and 11.43±4.57 points in VDAT. Incorrect responses were most common for statements related to stage Ⅱ, Ⅲ, IAD for PICS & IAD KT, and deep tissue pressure injury (DTPI), unstageable, and stage Ⅲ for VDAT. Significant correlations were found between PICS & IAD KT and VDAT (r=.252, p<.001). Factors affecting scores for VDAT were the scores of PICS & IAD KT, debridement experience in nursing patients with PI, and the management frequency of PI and IAD. Results indicate that nurses have an overall understanding of PICS and IAD, but low visual differentiation ability regarding stage Ⅲ, DTPI, and unstageable PI. Continuing education is needed to further improve knowledge and visual differentiation ability for PICS and IAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1794.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA methylation; cancer associated genes; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
Online: 25 August 2023 (08:33:03 CEST)
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) takes the sixth place among the most common cancers in the world. Abnormal methylation can be one of the reasons for this cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA promotor methylation status of cancer-associated genes (ATM, APC, CDO1, RB1, TP53, WIF1) in patients with HNSCC. Bisulfite Conversion and Methylation-Sensitive High-Resolution Melting was used for analysis of the DNA methylation level of normal and tumor tissues in 44 patients. There were significant differences in DNA methylation level between patient’s tumor and normal tissues for CDO1 and WIF1 genes in all subjects and subgroups (p<0.05). In T3 subgroup there was significant correlation between CDO1 gene methylation and age in the normal tissue. The same correlation was detected also for the WIF1 gene methylation in tumor tissue samples in the subgroup with T3 and in normal tissue samples in the subgroup with T4 (p<0,05). In all genes no significant differences were found between the subgroups (T2, T3, T4 stage, primary/recurrent lesion, non-keratinizing/keratinizing SCC, age before/ after 50, smokers/non-smokers) of the patients. Thus, changes in the expression of the CDO1 and WIF1 genes can affect mechanisms of the occurrence and development of HNSCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0307.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: conditional distribution function; asymptotic normality, conditionalhazard function; quasi-associated; functional data
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:53:17 CEST)
The objective of this study is to examine a nonparametric estimate , using the kernel approach, of the conditional distribution function of a scalar response variable that is given a random variable whose values take place in a separable real Hilbert space. The observations will be dependent on one another in a quasi-associated fashion. The pointwise practically perfect consistencies with rates of this estimator are established by us under some broad conditions. The study’s major objective is to investigate the convergence rate of the proposed estimator and its application in the convergence rate and asymptotic normality of the hazard function. The asymptotic normality of the developed estimator is established precisely. Simulation studies were conducted to investigate the behavior of the asymptotic property in the context of finite sample data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0751.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD); EDEM1; ER chaperone; EGF receptor; TSP1
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:58:21 CEST)
Secretory and membrane proteins are vital for cell activities, including intra- and intercellular communication. Therefore, protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential and crucial process for eukaryotic cells. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) targets misfolded proteins during the protein maturation process in the ER and leads to their disposal. This process maintains the ER productive function and prevents misfolded protein stress (i.e., ER stress). The ERAD-stimulating factor ER degradation-enhancing α mannosidase-like 1 protein (EDEM1) acts on misfolded proteins to accelerate ERAD, thereby maintaining the productivity of the ER. However, the detail mechanism underlying the function of EDEM1 in ERAD is not completely understood due to lack of established physiological substrate proteins. In this study, we attempted to identify substrate proteins for EDEM1 using siRNA. The matrix component thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were identified as candidate targets of EDEM1. Their protein maturation status and cellular localization were markedly affected by knockdown of EDEM1. We also showed that EDEM1 physically associates with EGFR and enhances EGFR degradation via ERAD. Our data highlight the physiological role of EDEM1 in maintaining specific target proteins and provide a potential approach to the regulation of expression of clinically important proteins.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0160.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Cellular Senescence Network; Normal Aging; Senescence; Senescence-associated secretory phenotype; SenNet
Online: 15 September 2022 (12:52:05 CEST)
Cells respond to a myriad of stressors by senescing, acquiring stable growth arrest, morphologic and metabolic changes, and a senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype (SASP). The heterogeneity of senescent cells (SnCs) and their SASP is vast, yet poorly characterized. SnCs have diverse roles in health and disease and are therapeutically targetable, making characterization of SnCs and harmonization of their nomenclature a priority. The Cellular Senescence Network (SenNet), a NIH Common Fund initiative, will leverage emerging single cell and spatial-omics to identify and map SnCs in numerous organs across the lifespan of humans and mice. A common coordinate framework will integrate the data, using validated, standardized methods, creating public 4-dimensional SnC atlases. Key SenNet deliverables include development of innovative tools/technologies to detect SnCs, biomarker discovery, common annotations to describe SnCs and extensive public data sets. The goal is to comprehensively understand and map SnCs for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes to improve human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0232.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Small RNA sequencing; miRNAs; Target prediction; Chemosensory-associated genes; Apolygus lucorum
Online: 18 February 2022 (10:01:58 CET)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which function as regulators of gene expression and contribute in numerous physiological processes. However, little is known referring to miRNAs function in insect chemosensation. In the current study, nine small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the antennae of nymphs, adult males and females of Apolygus lucorum. In total, 399 miRNAs were identified including 275 known and 124 novel miRNAs. Known miRNAs were classified into 71 families, amongst which, 23 families were insect-specific. Expression profile analysis showed that miR-7-5p_1 was the most abundant miRNAs in the antennae of A. lucorum. Altogether, 69708 target genes related to biogenesis, membrane and binding activities were predicted for 399 miRNAs. Particularly, 15 miRNAs were found to target 16 olfactory genes. These miRNAs could be involved in regulation of olfactory-associated genes ex-pression. Comparing the antennae of nymphs, adult males and females, 94 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed. The expression levels of some differentially expressed miRNAs measured by qPCR were consistent with sequencing results. This study provides a global miRNAs transcriptome in the antennae of A. lucorum and valuable information for further investigation on miRNA-mRNA interactions, especially the functions of miRNAs in regulating chemosensation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0573.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: healthcare-associated infections; HCAIs; hospital acquired infections; nosocomial infections; statistical analysis
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:19:38 CEST)
Statistical data on officially registered cases of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) in Ukraine in the period 2009-2019 have been analysed. On average, 5089±756 cases of HCAIs were registered annually. Odessa region of Ukraine is the leading country in the number of reported cases. The majority of HCAIs cases involve surgical and therapeutic invasive interventions and perinatal HCAIs. On average, 78.0±5.8 % of HCAIs cases involved adults. The estimated minimum number of HCAIs in Ukraine was expected to be about 1 million per year. Official statistics on registered cases of HCAIs in Ukraine do not reflect reality, so the system of registration and investigation of HCAIs in Ukraine needs to be reformed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0003.v6
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Riemann hypothesis, Farey sequence, Gauss sum associated with a Dirichlet character
Online: 10 August 2016 (11:35:25 CEST)
Relationships between the Farey sequence and the Riemann hypothesis other than the Franel-Landau theorem are discussed. Whether a function similar to Chebyshev’s second function is square-root close to a line having a slope different from 1 is discussed. The nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function can be used to approximate many functions in analytic number theory. For example, it could be said that the nontrival zeta function zeros and the Möbius function generate in essence the same function - the Mertens function. A different approach is to start with a sequence that is analogous to the nontrivial zeros of the zeta function and follow the same procedure with both this sequence and the nontrivial zeros of the zeta function to generate in essence the same function. A procedure for generating such a function is given.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1080.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: peripheral nerve regeneration; delayed surgical nerve repair; regeneration associated genes; electrical stimulation
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:02:56 CEST)
Injured peripheral nerves regenerate their axons in contrast to those in the central nervous system. However, functional recovery after surgical repair is often disappointing. The basis for the poor recovery is the progressive deterioration with time and distance, of the growth capacity of the neurons that lose their contact with targets (chronic axotomy) and the growth support of the chronically denervated Schwann cells (SC) in the distal nerve stumps. This is despite the retained capacity of chronically denervated and atrophic muscle to accept reinnervation. Progressive decline in regeneration associated genes in both axotomized neurons and denervated SCs accounts for the decline in regenerative success in association with silencing of neural activity in sensory neurons due to their disconnection from their sense organs and, in motoneurons due to loss of their synaptic contacts in the spinal cord. Whilst exogenous neurotrophic factors promote nerve regeneration, the profuse axonal outgrowth and difficulties in delivery are avoided by promoting their endogenous expression with brief (1 hour) low frequency (20Hz) electrical stimulation (ES) proximal to the injury site. ES accelerates axon outgrowth and in turn, target reinnervation in both animals and human subjects. Applying ES to intact nerve days prior to nerve injury, conditional ES (CES) increases axonal outgrowth and regeneration rate with the potential for application in nerve transfer surgeries and end-to-side neurorrhaphies. However, the additional surgery for applying CES electrodes may be a hurdle. ES is applicable in all surgeries with excellent outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1231.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aneurysms; polyphenols; diffusion; stabilization; docking simulations; elastin; collagen; elastin-associated microfibrillar proteins
Online: 16 June 2023 (11:04:39 CEST)
Pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) is currently being investigated as a non-surgical treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA); however molecular mechanisms of action of PGG on the AAA matrix components and the intra-luminal thrombus (ILT) still need to be better understood. To assess these interactions, we utilized peptide fingerprinting and molecular docking simulations to predict the binding of PGG to vascular proteins in normal and aneurysmal aorta, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cytokines and fibrin. We performed PGG diffusion studies in pure fibrin gels and human ILT samples. PGG was predicted to bind with high affinity to most vascular proteins, the active sites of MMPs, and several cytokines known to be present in AAA. Finally, despite potential binding to fibrin, PGG was shown to diffuse readily through thrombus at physiologic pressures. In conclusion, PGG can bind to all the normal and aneurysmal aorta protein components with high affinity, potentially protecting the tissue from degradation and exerting anti-inflammatory activities. Diffusion studies showed that thrombus presence in AAA is not a barrier to endovascular treatment. Together, these results provide a deeper understanding of the clinical potential of PGG as a non-surgical treatment of AAA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma; tumor microenvironment; tumor associated macrophages; CD169+ macrophages; immune evasion; immunosuppression
Online: 17 May 2023 (09:37:22 CEST)
Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is a lymphoid neoplasm composed of rare neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells surrounded by a reactive tumor microenvironment (TME) with suppressive properties against anti-tumor immunity. TME is mainly composed of T-cells (CD4 helper, CD8 cytotoxic and regulatory), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) but the impact of these cells on the natural course of the disease is not absolutely understood. TME contributes to the immune evasion of neoplastic HRS cells through production of various cytokines and/or aberrant expression of immune checkpoint molecules, in ways that have not been fully understood yet. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of findings regarding the cellular components and the molecular features of the immune TME in cHL, its correlation with treatment response and prognosis as well as the potential targeting of the TME with novel therapies. Among all cells, macrophages appear to be a most appealing target for immunomodulatory therapies, based on their functional plasticity and antitumor potency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0470.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; MEK; thymidine kinases; lytic replication; infectivity; ORF21; herpesvirus
Online: 25 November 2022 (06:13:52 CET)
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus-8, is the causative agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma, Castleman’s disease, and primary effusion lymphoma. Although the functions of the viral thymidine kinases (vTK) of herpes simplex virus-1/2 and varicella zoster virus are well understood, that of KSHV ORF21 (an ortholog of vTK) is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of ORF21 in lytic replication and infection by generating two ORF21-mutated KSHV BAC clones: ORF21-kinase activity deficient-KSHV (21KD) and stop codon-induced ORF21-deleted-KSHV (21del). The results showed that both ORF21-mutations did not affect viral genome replication, lytic genes transcription, or the production of viral genome-encapsidated particles. ORF21 molecule-dependent function, other than the kinase function of ORF21, was involved in the infectivity of progeny virus. ORF21 was expressed at 36 h after induction of lytic replication, and endogenously expressed ORF21 was localized in the whole cytoplasm and decreased on the cell surface area. Moreover, the effects of ORF21 expression on signaling pathways and proliferation were analyzed. The results showed that ORF21 upregulated the MEK phosphorylation and anchorage-independent cell growth. These findings indicate that ORF21 plays key roles in both infection and oncogenesis of KSHV through the manipulation of cellular function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0099.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Leptospira spp., secretome; virulent-associated secreted proteins; in-vivo mimic mammalian condition
Online: 9 October 2022 (02:07:23 CEST)
Leptospirosis remains an important worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira spp affecting human and animals. This research aims to study the virulent-associated secreted proteins (protein secretome) of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohemorrhagiae strain RGA (Leptospira RGA) transition from the environment to mammalian physiological osmolarity, temperature (37 °C) and carbon dioxide concentration (5% CO2) conditions for 24 h. Mass Spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches, we identified 69 potential secreted proteins from the culture supernatant of the Leptospira RGA isolate. We discovered transporters and porins such as phosphate porin, outer membrane efflux, ompA family protein, and polymer-forming cytoskeletal family protein under hyperosmotic condition. Under heat stress, degradation enzymes included zinc metallopeptidase, M23 family (LA3456, LA0709), Rhs family protein (LA1765), thermolysin metallopeptidase; / hydrolase family (LA1345, LA2501). Oxidative stress response proteins induced by osmolarity and temperature shifts included chaperon GrpE, DnaK (LA3705), antioxidants, i.e., thiol-specific redoxin, and peroxiredoxin (LA2809). In response to the in vivo transition, metabolic and other enzymes involved in energy production (COG:C), amino acid metabolism and transport (COG:E), and lipid metabolism and transport (COG:I), as well as moonlighting proteins functionally binding to plasminogen and fibronectin and regulating transcription, were also discovered. An overview of secreted proteins will supplement our understanding of Leptospira biology and pathogenesis during infection and also in response to environmental stimuli and their potential virulent determinants have the potential for developing leptospirosis vaccines and diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0423.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Aging; cellular senescence; fibroblast; osteoarthritis; remodeling-associated secretory phenotype (RASP); remodeling activation
Online: 27 July 2022 (13:38:36 CEST)
One of the most striking findings in biogerontology in the 2010s was the demonstration that elimination of senescent cells delays many late-life diseases and extends lifespan in mice. This implied that accumulation of senescent cells promotes late-life diseases, particularly through action of senescent cell secretions (the senescence-associated secretory phenotype or SASP). But what exactly is a senescent cell? Subsequent to the initial characterization of cellular senescence it became clear that, prior to aging, this phenomenon is in fact adaptive. It supports tissue remodeling functions in a variety of contexts, including embryogenesis, parturition and acute inflammatory processes that restore normal tissue architecture and function, such as wound healing, tissue repair after infection, and amphibian limb regeneration. In these contexts such cells are normal and healthy, and not in any way senescent in the true sense of the word, as originally meant by Hayflick. Thus, it is misleading to refer to them as “senescent”. Similarly, the common assertion that senescent cells accumulate with age due to stress and DNA damage is no longer safe, particularly given their role in inflammation - a process that becomes persistent in later life. We therefore suggest that it would be useful to update some terminology, to bring it into line with contemporary understanding, and to avoid future confusion. To open a discussion of this issue, we propose replacing the term cellular senescence with remodeling activation, and SASP with RASP (remodeling-associated secretory phenotype).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0340.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: herbivore-associated elicitors; plant defense; secondary metabolites; signaling metabolites; pattern recognition receptors
Online: 25 May 2022 (03:53:53 CEST)
Insect herbivores have a wide range of life cycles and feeding habits, making them extremely diverse. With their host plants, they form close relationships and suppress their defense mecha-nisms. Molecular elicitors are the key bio-elements in detection and recognition of attacking enemies in tissue consumption. Insect oral secretion, frass, and fluid of egg deposition contain bio-logical active molecules called herbivore-associated elicitors (HAEs) are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). However, in insect herbivores, little is known about the molecular basis of signal transduction and regulation of plant resistance. Many plants distinguish insect feeding from wounding by HAEs presenting in their oral secretions (OS) and induce local and systemic responses against arthropod feeding. PRRs perceive HAEs in the oral secretion of cater-pillars in a species-specific manner to elicit exclusive defense responses. HAEs-PRRs interactions induce plant resistance by reprogramming plant metabolism and transcriptional machinery. Quantitative, timely, and coordinated plant response initiate early signalling events including Ca+2, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). We have discussed how early signalling cascades converge into the accumulation of phytohormones that regulate down-stream special metabolites against herbivores. In this review, we have drawn a hypothetical model of PPRs-HAEs mediated induced responses in plants and discussed how PRRs-HAEs interactions based on molecular mechanism that elicit short- and long-term induced defenses in plants. The identification of plant target insect herbivore PRRs-HAEs interactions will help to explore the fundamental molecular mechanisms of host manipulation and may generate prospects to develop novel pest resistance strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: N-glycosylation; NGLY1; ER associated degradation process; congenital disorder of deglycosylation; NFE2L1
Online: 10 March 2022 (12:51:22 CET)
The cytosolic PNGase (peptide:N-glycanase; Png1 in yeast; NGLY1/Ngly1 in human/mice), also known as peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)-asparagine ami-dase, is a well-conserved deglycosylation enzyme (EC 188.8.131.52) which catalyzes the non-lysosomal hydrolysis of an N(4)-(acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl) asparagine residue into N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylamine and a peptide containing an aspartate residue. This enzyme (NGLY1) plays essential roles in clearance of misfolded or unassembled gly-coproteins through a process named ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Accumulating evidence also points out that NGLY1 deficiency can cause an autosomal recessive hu-man genetic disorder associated with abnormal development and congenital disorder of deglycosylation. In addition, the loss of NGLY1 can affect multiple cellular pathways, including but not limited to NFE2L1 pathway, Creb1/Atf1-AQP pathway, BMP path-way, AMPK pathway, and SLC12A2 ion transporter, which might be the underlying reasons for a constellation of clinical phenotypes of NGLY1 deficiency. The current comprehensive review indeed uncovers the detailed NGLY1’s structure and its im-portant roles for participation in ERAD, involvement in CDDG and potential treatment for NGLY1 deficiency.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0774.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; infection control; healthcare-associated infections; healthcare workers; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 29 April 2021 (11:35:40 CEST)
In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, thousands of healthcare workers (HCWs) infected with COVID-19 have lost their lives worldwide. At the early stage of the epidemic, when COVID-19 was still not considered as a pandemic, a large number of Chinese HCWs were infected. Officials reported that more than 3,000 HCWs in Hubei contracted the virus at the early stage of the outbreak due to limited knowledge of the virus. Following reports of overloaded local hospitals, more than 42,000 medical staff, including those from the military, were dispatched to Hubei from across the country. At the peak of the fight, one in 10 intensive care medics in China were working in Wuhan. During fighting against COVID-19 in China, although a large number of HCWs were infected by SARS-CoV-2 in the early stages of the epidemic, the timely adoption of measures indicated that, a faster rate of diagnosis could be achieved, patients were isolated in-time, HCWs’ safety was prioritized, training on basic protective knowledge and unified management of HCWs was strengthened, and effective protective measures were implemented. This resulted in the accomplishment of zero SARS-CoV-2 infection among the 42,632 members of the national medical teams sent to Hubei, and the number of COVID-19 cases among HCWs in local hospitals also significantly decreased, thereby indicating that hospital-acquired infections of SARS-CoV-2 among HCWs are fully preventable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0479.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: suboptimal health status; associated factors; high school students; Shanxi; Guangzhou; Tibet; China
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:50:30 CEST)
Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a state between health and disease, has several associated factors, although, its underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the status of SHS and its associated factors of high school students in three areas of China (Shanxi, Guangzhou, and Tibet). A multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescent (MSQA) is used to evaluate SHS. Among 1461 respondents, females proportion 56.47% was higher than males 43.53% where SHS was higher in Shanxi followed by Tibet and then Guangzhou. The rural area, grade, lack of sleep, home visit in a week, lack of exercise, a heavy burden of study, smoking, drinking, and fewer friends were the risk factors of SHS, while, families living status, seeking help and extroversion were the protective factors. SHS is significantly associated with different influencing factors. For comprehensive prevention and control measures, reduce the risk factors and enhance the protective factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0501.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: circoviridae; circoviruses; bobcat; lynx rufus; Sonoran desert; Sonoran felid associated (Sonfela) circoviruses
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:09:36 CEST)
Sonoran felids are threatened by drought and habitat fragmentation. Vector range expansion and anthropogenic factors such as habitat encroachment and climate change are altering viral evolutionary dynamics and exposure. However, little is known about the diversity of viruses present in these populations. Small felid populations with lower genetic diversity are likely to be most threatened with extinction by emerging diseases, as with other selective pressures, due to having less adaptive potential. We used a metagenomic approach to identify novel circoviruses, which may have a negative impact on the population viability, from confirmed bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) scats collected in Sonora, Mexico. Given some circoviruses are known to cause disease in their hosts, such as porcine and avian circoviruses, we took a non-invasive approach using scat to identify circoviruses in free-roaming bobcats and puma. Three circovirus genomes were determined, and, based on the current species demarcation, they represent two novel species. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that one circovirus species is more closely related to rodent associated circoviruses and the other to bat associated circoviruses, sharing the highest genome-wide pairwise identity of approximately 70% and 63%, respectively. At this time, it is unknown whether these scat-derived circoviruses infect felids, their prey, or another organism that might have had contact with the scat in the environment. Further studies should be conducted to elucidate the host of these viruses and assess health impacts in felids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; cancer-associated fibroblasts; metastasis; cell migration; cell invasion; Akt; EGFR
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:25:20 CEST)
Oral cancer cells (TYS) and the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, in response to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, COM) and normal oral mucosal fibroblasts (MM1) was studied. Metastatic cell behaviour was observed by cell-scatter, 3D-collagen gel migration and 3D-spheroid invasion assays. Akt, MAPK, EGFR, TGFβRii and CXCR4 inhibitors were used to identify the signalling pathways involved. Signalling pathway protein expression and activation were assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting. COM-CM (conditioned medium) and MM1-CM stimulated cancer cell scattering, which was blocked only by the Akt inhibitor. COM-CM induced scattered cancer cells showed higher levels of Akt phosphorylation than the negative control and MM1-CM. Migration and invasion of TYS cells into the collagen gels from the spheroids was stimulated by CM from both sources, compared to the negative control. COM cells stimulated TYS, cancer cell invasion into the collagen more than MM1 and the control. Akt and EGFR inhibitors effectively blocked CM and COM cell-induced invasion. Akt-silenced cancer cells were not stimulated to migrate and invade by fibroblast-CM and did not survive addition of the EGFR inhibitor. This suggests that CAFs stimulate oral cancer cell migration and invasion in an Akt- dependent manner. EGFR and Akt are potential therapy targets in metastatic oral cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: gingiva; bisphosphonate; soft tissue; fibroblasts; keratinocytes; bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaws
Online: 15 October 2016 (08:03:48 CEST)
Since the first description of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) numerous research groups have focused on possible pathological mechanisms including the suppression of the bone turnover of the jaw, antiangiogenic effects and soft tissue toxicity. In our review we focused on summarizing the role of the soft tissues in the development and progression of BRONJ. The biological behavior of fibroblasts can be significantly influenced by bisphosphonates (BP) such as a concentration dependent reduction of cell viability. High concentrations of BP can induce apoptosis and necrosis of the cells. Comparable effects could be detected for keratinocytes. Compared to non-nitrogen containing bisphosphonates nitrogen-containing BP have worse effects on cell biology by blocking the mevalonate pathway. Next to this the cell architecture and the expression levels of several genes and proteins are significantly disturbed by BP. These inhibitory effects of BP are in accordance with BP related reduced angiogenesis and neovascularization and could underline the hypothesis that inhibition of fibroblasts and keratinocytes results in delayed wound healing and can induce and trigger BRONJ.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Cancer surgery; Cancer radiotherapy; Cancer immunotherapy; Cancer stroma; Cancer-associated fibroblasts; Carcinogenesis; Cancer resistance to immunotherapy; Exosomes; Hypoxia; Neutrophil extracellular traps; Sphingomyelin; Neutral sphingomyelinase; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-associated macrophages
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:25:07 CEST)
The central reason behind emergence of clinically-detectable tumors is evasion from immune surveillance due to lack of cancer cells surface membrane expression of tumor-specific peptides in association with MHC class I molecules, concealment of natural killer cells-activating molecules, and absence of inflammation resulting from inefficient stimulation of innate immunity receptors and co-stimulatory molecules. The tumor microenvironment (TME) also contributes to tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapeutic interventions because of its dense, fibrogenic, barrier-like composition, aberrant vasculature, and production of cytokines and chemokines responsible for recruitment of immune suppressive cells, notably myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, regulatory T cells, extracellular trap-forming neutrophils, and cancer-associated fibroblasts. We herein show that the relentless efforts and strategies to overcome the TME elusive tumor-promoting impact produced contrasting, opposed, controversial effects, characterized by limited efficacy and proven adversity, and most importantly deterred from attempts to discover and counteract the fundamental inherent mechanisms initiating, and not consequent to, carcinogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: male infertility; azoospermia; oligozoospermia; next-generation sequencing; single nucleotide polymorphism; microtubule-associated genes
Online: 1 September 2023 (13:38:35 CEST)
Background: Identifying genetic mutations that lead to spermatogenic impairment is essential for offering patients informed genetic counseling and preventing the transmission of genetic defects to their offspring, often through the use of advanced reproductive technologies. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with male infertility. Methods and Materials: Genetic variants that may cause infertility are identified by combining targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) panel and whole exome sequencing (WES). The validation step of Sanger sequencing adds confidence to the identified variants. Results: Our analysis revealed five distinct affected genes covering seven SNPs: based on targeted NGS panel and WES data, namely SPATA16 (rs16846616, 1515442, 1515441), CFTR (rs213950), KIF6 (rs2273063), STPG2 (r2903150) and DRC7 (rs3809611). Infertile men have a higher mutation rate than fertile men, especially those with azoospermia. Discussion and Conclusions: These findings strongly support the hypothesis that dysfunction of microtubule-related and spermatogenesis-specific genes contributes to idiopathic male infertility. The SPATA16, CFTR, KIF6, STPG2 and DRC7 mutations are associated with male infertility, specifically azoospermia, further examination of this genetic function is required.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1577.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Sepsis-associated encephalopathy; Microglial activation; M1/M2 microglial polarization; cognitive impairment; therapeutic strategies
Online: 22 August 2023 (12:09:47 CEST)
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common brain dysfunction following sepsis that often results in severe cognitive and neurological sequelae and increases the mortality rate in patients with sepsis. Microglia are resident macrophages in the brain that play essential roles in the pathological and physiological processes of SAE. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, microglia can adopt two polarization states (M1/M2), which correspond to altered microglial morphology, gene expression, and function. Therefore, we systematically described the pathogenesis, morphology, function, and phenotype of microglial activation in SAE. We demonstrated that microglia are closely related to occurrence and development of SAE and concomitant cognitive impairement. Finally, we outlined some potential therapeutic approaches that can prime microglia and neuroinflammation towards the beneficial restorative microglial phenotype in SAE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2003.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: neurodegeneration; microglia; inflammation; neuroprotection; trace-amine associated receptors type 1 (TAAR1); 3-iodothyronamine
Online: 29 May 2023 (09:35:35 CEST)
Microglial dysfunction is one of the hallmarks and leading causes of common neurodegenerative diseases (NDD), including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). All these pathologies are characterized by aberrant aggregation of disease-causing proteins in the brain, which can directly activate microglia, trigger microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, and increase oxidative stress. Inhibition of glial activation may represent a therapeutic target to alleviate neurodegeneration. Recently, 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), an endogenous derivative of thyroid hormone (TH) able to interact directly with a specific GPCR known as trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), gained interest for its ability to promote neuroprotection in several models. Nevertheless, T1AM’s effects on microglial disfunction remain still elusive. In the present work we investigated whether T1AM could inhibit the inflammatory response of human HMC3 microglial cells to LPS/TNFα or β-amyloid peptide 25-35 (Aβ25-35) stimuli. The results of ELISA and qPCR assays revealed that T1AM was able to reduce microglia-mediate inflammatory response by inhibiting the release of proinflammatory factors, including IL-6, TNFα, NF-kB, MCP1 and MIP1, while promoting the release of anti-inflammatory mediators, such as IL-10. Notably, T1AM anti-inflammatory action in HMC3 cells resulted to be a TAAR1-mediated response, further increasing the relevance of the T1AM/TAAR1 system in the management of NDD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: arthroscopy; sports medicine; anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; implant-associated infection; biofilm; septic arthritis.
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:26:50 CEST)
Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the formation of biofilm in bone patellar tendon bone grafts (BPTB grafts) and to compare it to the formation of biofilm formation in quadrupled hamstring anterior cruciate ligament grafts (4xHt graft). Methods: A descriptive in vitro study was conducted. One 4xHt graft and one BPTB graft were prepared. They were then contaminated with a strain of S. epidermidis. Later, a quantitative analysis was carried out by means of microcalorimetry and sonication with plating. Additionally, a qualitative analysis was carried out by means of electron microscopy. Results: No significant differences were found between the bacterial growth profiles of 4xHt graft and BPTB graft in microcalorimetry and colony counting. In the samples analyzed with electron microscopy, no specific biofilm growth pattern was identified upon comparing BPTB graft to 4xHt graft. Conclusions: There were no significant differences at either the quantitative or qualitative level when comparing bacterial growth in BPTB graft to that in 4xHt graft. Therefore, the presence of sutures in 4xHt graft cannot be established as a predisposing factor for increased biofilm growth in this in vitro study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer-associated-fibroblast; fibroblast activation protein; FAPi; Positron emission tomography; FAPi PET; theranostics
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:31:31 CET)
The tumor microenvironment (TME) surrounding tumor cells is a complex and highly dynamic system that promotes tumorigenesis. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are key elements in TME playing a pivotal role in cancer cells’ proliferation and metastatic spreading. Considering the high expression of the fibroblast activation protein (FAP) on cell membrane, CAFs emerged as appealing TME targets, namely for molecular imaging, leading to a pan-tumoral approach. Therefore, FAP inhibitors (FAPis) have been recently developed for PET imaging and radioligand therapy, exploring the clinical application in different tumor sub-types. The present review aimed to describe recent developments on radiolabeled FAP inhibitors and evaluate the possible translation of this pan-tumoral approach in clinical practice. At present, the application of FAPi-PET has been explored mainly in single-center studies, generally performed in small and heterogeneous cohorts of oncological patients. However, preliminary results were promising, in particular in low FDG-avid tumors such as primary liver and gastro-entero-pancreatic cancer, or in regions with unfavorable tumor-to-background ratio at FDG-PET/CT (i.e. brain), as well as in radiotherapy planning of head and neck tumors. Further promising results have been obtained in the detection of peritoneal carcinomatosis, especially in ovarian and gastric cancer. Data regarding the theranostics approach are still limited at presents, and definitive conclusion about its efficacy cannot be drawn at present. Nevertheless, the use of FAPi-based radio-ligand to treat the TME has been evaluated in first-in-human studies and appears feasible. Although the pan-tumoral approach in molecular imaging showed promising results, its real impact in day-to-day clinical practice has yet to be confirmed, and multi-center, prospective studies powered for efficacy are needed.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs); moonlighting proteins; drug target; biofilm; specificity determination; phylogenetic analysis
Online: 7 June 2020 (09:07:56 CEST)
Nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) play an architectural role by bending, bridging, and wrapping the DNA along with a regulatory role of controlling various transcriptional units in the cell. Previews reviews have highlighted the role of HU and its paralog IHF plays in intracellular function as a transcriptional regulator, nucleoid bending protein and sometimes also moonlights in other functions. This review highlights along with the canonical functions of HU and IHF which affects genes responsible for translational machineries, cell wall biosynthesis, aerobic respiration and virulence ; other non-canonical roles which HU plays outside the cellular milieu, notably in acting as an adhesin and playing role in host-cell adhesion, its role in biofilm architecture and its association with cationic low complexity region, resembling histone like H1 proteins. HU and IHF thus has evolved as a hub protein performing a vast type of functions which makes it a important drug target for antibacterial therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0023.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Unfolded protein response; ER morphology; Mitochondria-associated ER membrane; ER-PM contact sites
Online: 2 October 2018 (13:41:17 CEST)
The function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can be impaired by the alternation of the extra- and intracellular environment such as disruption of calcium homeostasis, expression of mutated proteins and oxidative stress. In response to disruptions to ER homeostasis, eukaryotic cells activate canonical branches of signal transduction cascades, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR attempts to recover the protein folding capacity and avoid irreversible cellular damage. Additionally, the UPR has been shown to play unique physiological roles in the regulation of diverse cellular events, including cell differentiation and development and lipid biosynthesis. Recent studies have indicated that these important cellular events are also regulated by contact and communication among organelles. These reports suggest strong involvement among the UPR, organelle communication and regulation of cellular homeostasis. However, the precise mechanisms for the formation of contact sites and the regulation of its dynamics by UPR remain unresolved. In this review, we summarized the current understanding of how the UPR regulates morphological changes to the ER and the formation of contact sites between the ER and other organelles. We also review how UPR-dependent connections between the ER and other organelles affect cellular and physiological functions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0521.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Unfolded protein response; ER morphology; Mitochondria-associated ER membrane; ER-PM contact sites
Online: 26 September 2018 (15:44:54 CEST)
The function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can be impaired by the alternation of the extra- and intracellular environment such as disruption of calcium homeostasis, expression of mutated proteins and oxidative stress. In response to disruptions to ER homeostasis, eukaryotic cells activate canonical branches of signal transduction cascades, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR attempts to recover the protein folding capacity and avoid irreversible cellular damage. Additionally, the UPR has been shown to play unique physiological roles in the regulation of diverse cellular events, including cell differentiation and development and lipid biosynthesis. Recent studies have indicated that these important cellular events are also regulated by contact and communication among organelles. These reports suggest strong involvement among the UPR, organelle communication and regulation of cellular homeostasis. However, the precise mechanisms for the formation of contact sites and the regulation of its dynamics by UPR remain unresolved. In this review, we summarized the current understanding of how the UPR regulates morphological changes to the ER and the formation of contact sites between the ER and other organelles. We also review how UPR-dependent connections between the ER and other organelles affect cellular and physiological functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0059.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: open-cyclic tautomers; molecular switching; decay-associated spectra; warfarin; excited-state lifetime; cyclodextrins
Online: 21 July 2017 (04:56:54 CEST)
The excited-state lifetimes of the anticoagulant drug warfarin (W) in water and in the absence and presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (Me-β-CD) were recorded using time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Selective excitation of the open and cyclic protonated isomers of W were acquired with laser emitting diodes (LED) producing 320 and 280 nm excitation pulses, respectively. Formation of the inclusion complex was checked by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and the values of binding constants (2.9 × 103 M–1 and 4.2 × 102 M–1 for protonated and deprotonated forms, respectively) were extracted from the spectrophotometric data. Both absorption and time-resolved fluorescence results established that the interior of the macromolecular host binds preferentially the open protonated form, red shifts the maximum of its absorption of light at ~305 nm, extends its excited-state lifetime, and decreases its emission quantum yield (ФF). Collectively, sequestration of the open guest molecules decreases markedly their radiative rate constants (kr), likely due to formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes in both the ground and excited states. Due to lack of interactions, no change was observed in the excited-state lifetime of the cyclic form in the presence of Me-β-CD. The host also increases the excited-state lifetime and ФF of the drug deprotonated form (W¯). These later findings could be attributed to the increased rigidity inside the cavity of Me-β-CD. The pKa values extracted from the variations of the UV–visible absorption spectra of W versus the pH of aqueous solution showed that the open isomer is more acidic in both ground and excited states. The positive shifts in pKa values induced by three derivatives of cyclodextrins: HE-β-CD, Ac-β-CD, and Me-β-CD supported the preferential binding of these hosts to open isomers over cyclic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human cytolytic fusion proteins; immunotherapy; microtubule associated protein tau (MAP); cancer; inflammatory diseases
Online: 15 June 2017 (12:02:31 CEST)
Some of the most promising small molecule toxins used to generate antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) include anti-mitotic agents (e.g auristatin and its derivatives) which are designed to attack cancerous cells at their most vulnerable state during mitosis. We were interested to identify a human cystostatic protein eventually showing comparable activities and allowing the generation of corresponding targeted fully human cytolytic fusion proteins. Recently, we identified the human microtubule associated protein tau (MAP tau) which binds specifically to tubulin and modulates the stability of microtubules thereby blocking mitosis and presumably vesicular transport. By binding and stabilizing polymerized microtubule filaments, MAP tau-based fusion proteins skew microtubule dynamics towards cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This biological activity makes rapidly proliferating cells (e.g cancer and inflammatory cells) an excellent target for MAP tau-based targeted treatments. Their superior selectivity for proliferating cells confers additional selectivity towards upregulated tumor-associated antigens at their surface, thereby preventing off-target related toxicity against normal cells bearing tumor-associated antigens at physiologically normal to low levels. In this review, we highlight recent findings on MAP tau-based targeted cytolytic fusion proteins reported in preclinical immunotherapeutic studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0713.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: hospital infection; rapid microbiological test; antimicrobial consumption; defined daily dose; ventilator-associated pneumonia; filmarrays
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:35:51 CET)
Background: Data on the benefits of rapid microbiological testing on antimicrobial consumption (AC) and antimicrobial resistance patterns(ARP) are scarce. We evaluated the impact of a protocol based on rapid techniques on AC and ARP in intensive care (ICU) patients. Methods: Retrospective pre(2018) and post-intervention(2019-21) study in ICU patients. A rapid diagnostic algorithm was applied from 2019 in patients with lower respiratory tract infection. Incidence of nosocomial infection, ARP, and AC as DDD(defined daily dose) were monitored. Results: A total of 3635 patients were included, 987(pre-intervention) and 2648(post-intervention). A median age was 60 years, 64% male, with APACHE II of 19 points and SOFA of 3 points. Overall ICU mortality of 17.2% without differences between the periods. An increase in the number of infections was observed in the post-intervention period(44.5% vs 17.9%, p<0.01), especially due to an increase in ventilator-associated pneumonia(44.6% vs 25%,p<0.001). AC decreased from 128.7 DDD in 2018 to 66.0 DDD in 2021(Rate Ratio=0.51). A recovery of P.aeruginosa susceptibility of 23% for Piperacillin/tazobactam and 31% for Meropenem was observed. Conclusion: The implementation of an algorithm based on rapid microbiological diagnostic techniques allowed a significant reduction in AC and ARP without affecting the prognosis of critically ill patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: cardiovascular disease; fatty acids; insulin resistance; metabolic-dysfunction associated steatotic liver disease; pemafibrate; triglyceride
Online: 18 September 2023 (08:37:02 CEST)
Metabolic-dysfunction associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) is a chronic liver disease that affects more than a quarter of the global population, and is increasing worldwide, due to the pandemic of obesity. Insulin resistance is closely associated with the development and progression of MASLD. Hepatic entry of increased fatty acids (FA) released from adipose tissue, increase in FA synthesis and reduced FA oxidation in the liver, and hepatic overproduction of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins may induce the development of MASLD. Since insulin resistance also induces atherosclerosis, the leading cause for death in MASLD patients is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Considering that the development of CVD determines the prognosis of MASLD patients, the ideal therapeutic interventions for MASLD should reduce body weight, improve coronary risk factors, in addition to an improvement in liver functiom. Lifestyle modification such as diet and exercise and surgical interventions such as bariatric surgery and intragastric balloons have shown to improve MASLD by reducing body weight. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) have been shown to improve coronary risk factors and to suppress the occurrence of CVD. Both SGLT2i and GLP-1 have been reported to improve liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. We recently reported that the selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) modulator, pemafibrate, improved liver function. PPARα agonists have multiple anti-atherogenic properties. Here, we consider the pathophysiology of MASLD and the mechanisms of action of such drugs, and consider whether such drugs and the combination therapy of such drugs could be the ideal treatments for MASLD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpes Virus; Epigenetics; DNA methylation; Histone Modification; Non-coding RNAs; Oncogenesis
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:14:28 CEST)
Epigenetic reprogramming represents a series of essential events during many cellular processes including oncogenesis. Genome of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), an oncogenic herpesvirus is predetermined for a well-orchestrated epigenetic reprogramming once it enters into a host cell. The initial epigenetic reprogramming of KSHV genome allow restricted expression of encoded genes and helps to hide from host immune recognition. The infection with KSHV is associated with Kaposi's Sarcoma, Multicentric Castleman's disease, KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome and primary effusion lymphoma. The major epigenetic modifications associated with KSHV can be labelled under three broad categories: DNA methylation, modifications of Histone, and the role of noncoding RNAs. These epigenetic modifications significantly contribute towards the latent-lytic switch of the KSHV lifecycle. This review gives a brief account of the major epigenetic modifications affiliated with the KSHV genome in infected cells and their impact on pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: End-stage renal disease; medication review; drug-related problems; negative outcomes associated with medication.
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:13:13 CEST)
(1) Background: This article reviews the available scientific literature on drug-related problems and negative outcomes associated with medications identified by medication review with follow-up for end-stage renal disease and discussed with the physicians; (2) Methods: A systematic review was conducted of the scientific literature retrieved from the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library: The Cochrane Central Register and Control Trials (CENTRAL) and Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe (LILACS), Medicina en Español (MEDES), and the SciELO bibliographic database (collection of scientific journals). The following terms were used as descriptors and searched in free text: "end-stage renal disease", "medication review", and "drug-related problems” and “negative outcomes associated with medication". The following limits were applied: "humans" and "adults (more than 18 years)”; (3) Results: A total of 59 references were recovered and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 16 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 15 provided information on drug-related problems and only 1 on negative outcomes associated with medications; (4) Conclusions: It can be concluded that drug-related problems and negative outcomes associated with medication affect patients with end-stage renal disease, mainly those receiving renal replacement therapy. More evidence is needed, especially on negative outcomes associated with medication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0156.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: depression; obesity; genetics; leptin; fat mass- and obesity-associated gene; melanocortin receptor; neuropeptide Y
Online: 9 February 2023 (06:54:05 CET)
Depression and obesity are highly comorbid with one another, with evidence for bidirectional causal links between each disorder and a shared biological basis. The available evidence suggests that genetic factors play a major role in influencing both the occurrence of comorbid depression and obesity, their courses, and their response to existing treatments. The current paper is a scoping review of studies that have evaluated the contribution of specific genetic variants to the comorbidity between obesity and depression. Based on a search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases, 28 studies were included in this review, covering 54 candidate genes. Positive associations were identified for fourteen genetic loci (AKR1C2, APOA5, COMT, DAT1, FTO, KCNE1, MAOA, MC4R, MCHR2, NPY2R, NR3C1, Ob, PCSK9 and TAL1). Replicated findings across two or more independent samples were observed for the FTO and MC4R genes. Many of these gene products represent novel molecular targets for the pharmacological management of obesity which are not pharmacologically influenced by existing anti-obesity or antidepressant medications. The implications of these associations for future drug development are discussed, with an emphasis on recent evidence on the polygenic architecture of comorbid depression and obesity, and on a precision medicine approach to these conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0344.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: microtubule-severing enzyme; tubulin isotypes; tubulin code; post-translational modifications; katanin; microtubule-associated protein
Online: 19 January 2023 (03:16:41 CET)
In celIs, microtubule location, length, and dynamics are regulated by a host of microtubule-associated proteins and enzymes that read where to bind and act based on the microtubule “tubulin code,” which is predominantly encoded in the tubulin carboxy-terminal tail (CTT). Katanin is a highly conserved AAA ATPase enzyme that binds to the tubulin CTTs to remove dimers and sever microtubules. We have previously demonstrated that short CTT peptides are able to inhibit katanin severing. Here, we examine effects of CTT sequences on this inhibition activity. Specifically, we examine CTT sequences found in nature, alpha1A (TUBA1A), detyrosinated alpha1A, Δ2 alpha1A, beta5 (TUBB/TUBB5), beta2a (TUBB2A), beta3 (TUBB3), and beta4b (TUBB4b). We find that these natural CTTs have distinct abilities to inhibit, most noticeably beta3 cannot inhibit katanin. Two non-native CTT tail constructs are also unable to inhibit – despite having 94% sequence identity with alpha1 or beta5 sequences. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that poly-E and poly-D peptides are capable of inhibiting katanin significantly. An analysis of the hydrophobicity of the CTT constructs indicates that more hydrophobic polypeptides are less inhibitory than more polar polypeptides. These experiments not only demonstrate inhibition, but also likely interaction and targeting of katanin to these various CTTs when they are part of a polymerized microtubule filament.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: alcohol use disorder; gut-dysfunction; gut-thyroid axis; pro-inflammatory cytokines; thyroid-associated hormones
Online: 19 September 2022 (03:09:51 CEST)
(1) Background: Heavy and chronic alcohol intake causes altered gut-permeability and dysfunction; and exhibits a unique pro-inflammatory state. Thyroid-associated hormones and proteins may be dysregulated by alcohol administration; however, the impact of altered gut-derived changes on thyroid function is unclear. This study investigated the role of gut-dysfunction and pro-inflammatory activity on thyroid function in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). (2) Methods: Male and female AUD patients (n=44) were grouped as Gr.1 with normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (n=28, 0.8≤TSH≤3 mIU/L); and Gr.2 with clinically elevated TSH levels (n=16, TSH> 3 mIU/l). Demographics, drinking measures, comprehensive metabolic panel, and candidate thyroid markers (TSH, circulating triiodothyronine [T3] and free thyroxine [fT4]) were tested. Plasma-derived gut-dysfunction associated markers (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], LPS-binding protein [LBP], and LPS-induced pathogen-associated protein [CD14]), and cytokine profile (IL1-β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, PAI-1) were analyzed and compared with the thyroid, demographic, and drinking markers. (3) Results: Both groups presented with a borderline overweight category of BMI. Gr.2 presented with numerically higher level of chronic and heavy drinking patterns vs Gr.1. fT4 levels were elevated while T3 was within normal limits in both the groups. Gut-dysfunction markers LBP and CD14 were numerically elevated in Gr.2 vs Gr.1 suggesting subtle ongoing changes; however, the difference was not statistically significant. All pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated in Gr.2 among IL1-, MCP-1, and PAI-1. Gr.2 showed a strong and statistically significant effect of gut-immune-pituitary response (r=0.896, p=0.002) on TSH levels in a multivariate regression model with LBP, CD14, and PAI-1 levels as upstream variables; this assessment was not significant in Gr.1. In addition, AUROC analysis demonstrated that many of the cytokines strongly predicted TSH in Gr.2, including IL-6 (area=0.774, p<0.001) and TNF- (area=0.708, p=0.017) among others. This was not observed in Gr.1. Gr.2 demonstrated elevated fT4 as well as TSH, which suggests that there was subclinical thyroiditis with underlying CNS dysfunction and lack of a negative feedback loop. (4) Conclusions: These findings reveal the toxic effects of heavy and chronic drinking that play a pathological role in thyroid gland dysregulation employing the gut-brain axis. These results also strongly emphasize potential directions to strongly consider thyroid dysregulation in the overall medical management of AUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: cancer-associated fibroblasts; tumor microenvironment; pancreatic cancer; intracellular metabolism; glycolysis; oxidative phosphorylation; cell differentiation
Online: 20 January 2022 (19:42:29 CET)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment perform glycolysis to produce energy, i.e., ATP. Since the origin of CAFs is unidentified, it is not determined whether the intracellular metabolism transitions from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis when normal tissue fibroblasts differentiate into CAFs. In this study, we established an experimental system and induced the in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to CAFs. Additionally, we performed metabolomic and RNA-sequencing analyses before and after differentiation to investigate changes in the intracellular metabolism. Consequently, we discovered that OXPHOS, which was the primary intracellular metabolism in MSCs, was reprogrammed to glycolysis. In addition, we identified CAF-specific metabolites that were expressed during this reprogramming and determined their presence in the pancreatic tumor tissues of mouse models. Thus, we conclude that normal tissue fibroblasts that differentiate into CAFs undergo a metabolic reprogramming from OXPHOS to glycolysis. Moreover, we identified the CAF-specific metabolites expressed during metabolic reprogramming as potential future biomarkers for pancreatic cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: medulloblastoma; tumor progression; tumor microenvironment; tumor-associated astrocytes; hedgehog signaling; tumor-astrocytes cross talk
Online: 11 June 2021 (10:23:14 CEST)
The molecular evolution of medulloblastoma is more complex than was previously imagined as emerging evidence suggests that multiples interactions between the tumor cells and components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) are important for tumor promotion and progression. The identification of several molecular networks within the TME, which interact with tumoral cells, has provided new clues to understand the tumorigenic roles of many TME components as well as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the most recent studies regarding the roles of astrocytes in supporting the sonic hedgehog (SHH)–activated medulloblastoma molecular subgroup, and provide an overview of medulloblastoma progression through SHH expression and signal transduction mechanisms into the complex tumor microenvironment. In addition, we highlight the associations between tumor and stromal cells as possible prognostic markers and new therapeutic strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma; cancer associated fibroblasts; Ki-67; spatial analysis; immunohistochemistry
Online: 26 May 2021 (10:53:24 CEST)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are highly prevalent cells in the tumor microenvironment in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). CAFs exhibit a pro-tumor effect in vitro and have been implicated in tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, and treatment resistance. Our objective is to analyze the geospatial distribution of CAFs with proliferating and apoptotic tumor cells in the ccRCC tumor microenvironment and determine associations with survival and systemic treatment. Pre-treatment primary tumor samples were collected from 96 patients with metastatic ccRCC. Three adjacent slices were obtained from 2 tumor-core regions of interest (ROI) per patient, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed for αSMA, Ki-67, and caspase-3 to detect CAFs, proliferating cells, and apoptotic cells, respectively. H-scores and cellular density were generated for each marker. ROIs were aligned, and spatial point-patterns were generated, which were then used to perform spatial analyses using a normalized Ripley's K function at a radius of 25μm (nK(25)). The survival analyses used an optimal cut-point method, maximizing the log-rank statistic, to stratify the IHC-derived metrics into high and low groups, and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed accounting for age and International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) risk category. Survival outcomes included overall survival (OS) from the date of diagnosis, OS from the date of immunotherapy initiation (OS-IT), and OS from the date of targeted therapy initiation (OS-TT). Therapy resistance was defined as progression-free survival (PFS) <6 months, and therapy response was defined as PFS >9 months. CAFs exhibited higher cellular clustering with Ki-67+ cells than with caspase-3+ cells (nK(25): Ki-67 1.19; caspase-3 1.05; P = .04). The median nearest neighbor (NN) distance from CAFs to Ki-67+ cells was shorter compared to caspase-3+ cells (15 μm vs 37μm, respectively; P < .001). Multivariable Cox regression analyses demonstrated that both high Ki-67+ density and H-score were associated with worse OS, OS-IT, and OS-TT. Regarding CAFs, only a high H-score was associated with worse OS, OS-IT, and OS-TT. For caspase-3+, high H-score and density were associated with worse OS and OS-TT. Patients whose tumors were resistant to targeted therapy (TT) had higher Ki-67 density and H-scores than those who had TT response. Overall, this ex vivo geospatial analysis of CAF distribution suggests that close proximity clustering of tumor cells and CAFs potentiates tumor cell proliferation, resulting in worse OS and resistance to TT in metastatic ccRCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1902.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ulcerative colitis; immune infiltration; activated NK-associated genes; diagnostic signature; bulk RNA-seq; scRNA-seq
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:01:01 CEST)
Natural killer cells are associated with the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), but their precise contributions remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate the diagnostic value of activated NK-associated genes (ANAGs) in UC. Bulk RNA-seq and scRNA-seq datasets were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and Single Cell Portal (SCP) databases. In the bulk RNA-seq, 92 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out by the “Batch correction” and “Robust rank aggregation” (RRA) methods. The immune infiltration landscape was estimated by single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) and CIBERSORT, which revealed a higher abundance of activated NK cells in noninflamed UC tissues. 54 DEGs correlated with activated NK cells were identified as ANAGs. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression were utilized to screen out 4 key ANAGs (SELP, TIMP1, MMP7, and ABCG2) and establish an activated NK-associated gene score (ANAG score). The ANAG score demonstrated excellent diagnostic value and was validated in three external datasets. The expression of the 4 key ANAGs was validated in UC patients and healthy controls (HC) samples. Through scRNA-seq data analysis, higher expression levels of SELP, TIMP1, MMP7, and ABCG2 were observed in post-capillary venules, inflammatory fibroblasts, enterocytes, and immature enterocytes. The cell scores based on the ANAGs showed enrichment in endothelial cells and fibroblasts. In conclusion, we established and validated an ANAG score with the ability to precisely diagnose UC. The 4 key ANAGs have the potential to serve as therapeutic targets in UC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0367.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Community health workers; Competence in prevention of non-communicable diseases; Associated factors literacy; Community commitment
Online: 21 March 2023 (02:39:23 CET)
Background Community health workers (CHWs) drawn from the general population are an important human resource in health care systems, preventing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and contributing to an increase in healthy life expectancy in Japan. Thus, we have developed the COmmunity health workers perceptual and behavioral Competency Scale for preventing Non-communicable diseases (COCS-N) to measure CHWs’ competence in preventing NCDs. The purpose of this study is to examine individual and community factors affecting CHWs’ COCS-N scores. Methods Municipal public health nurses and other public health professionals are responsible for training and supporting CHWs in Japan. Therefore, the existence of CHWs and their willingness to participate in the study were confirmed with the municipalities, who were asked to distribute the self-administered questionnaire to CHWs where consent was obtained (N = 6,480). Variables used included demographic characteristics, COCS-N scores, and individual- and community-related factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between variables. Results A total of 3,120 people completed the questionnaire, a valid response rate of 48.1%. The respondents’ mean age was 67.0 years (standard deviation = 9.0), and 88.0% were female. Comparison of the high- and low- competence groups in terms of NCD prevention based on COCS-N scores identified 13 factors associated with significant differences, including years spent working as a CHW (p < 0.001), subjective sense of health (p = 0.005), European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) scores (p < 0.001), and community commitment scale (CCS) scores (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that HLS-EU-Q47 scores (odds ratio [OR]: 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.03) were a significant individual factor, while CCS scores (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11–1.16) were a significant community factor. Conclusions We found that the COCS-N score was associated with the individual factors overall health literacy (HL), perceptions of HL, and subjective sense of health, and with the community factor CCS scores. These results suggest that strengthening individual factors such as HL and subjective sense of health, and community factors such as sense of community is an effective strategy for increasing CHWs’ competence in preventing NCDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: tumor-associated macrophage; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; heat shock proteins; oral cancer; fluorescent labeling of exosomes
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:50:52 CEST)
Tumor-associated macrophages are a key component in the tumor microenvironment, secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes and other various factors for intercellular communication. However, macrophage-derived EVs heterogeneity and their cytotoxicity to cancer cells has not been well understood. Here, we aimed to separately isolate various types of macro-phage-EVs by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) method and investigate EV transmission and cytotoxicity to oral cancer cells. For fluorescence-labeling of cellular and EV membranes, palmitoylation signal-fused GFP and tdTomato were expressed in THP-1 monocytic cells and HSC-3 oral cancer cells, respectively. We found that fluorescence-labeled EVs secreted by macrophages were highly transmissive to oral cancer cells than those from parental monocytic cells. In a co-culture system and conditioned medium (CM), a macrophage-secreted unidentified factor was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells. We fractionated macrophage-derived EVs by the SEC method and performed western blotting to characterize various EV types. Three fractions were characterized: small exosomes (EXO-S: < 50 nm) fraction containing HSP90α, HSP90β, CD63 (EV marker) and β-actin; large exosomes (EXO-L: 50-200 nm) fraction containing CD9 (EV marker) and HSP90β; large EVs (100-500 nm) fraction. Notably, the macrophage-derived small exosomes fraction was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells, while large exosomes and large EVs were not. There-fore, it was implicated that macrophage-derived small exosomes are cytotoxic with high trans-mission potential to cancer cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: secondary epimutations; repeat associated diseases; genetic editing; epigenetic editing; transcriptional editing; DNA methylation; histone modifications
Online: 10 March 2021 (16:14:10 CET)
Epimutations are the cause of a considerable number of genetically inherited conditions in humans. All result from the mis-expression of genes due to epigenetic changes that are triggered by an underlying heritable mutation. The correction of these epigenetic defects in the context of epigenetically regulated diseases constitutes a good paradigm to probe the fundamental mechanisms underlying the development of these diseases, and the molecular basis for the establishment, maintenance and regulation of epigenetic modifications in general. Here, we review current applications of key editing tools to address the epigenetic aspects of these diseases by focusing on epimutations caused by, or relate to repetitive elements, primarily unstable noncoding repeat expansions. For each approach we summarize the efforts conducted to date, highlight their contribution to a better understanding of the molecular basis of epigenetic mechanisms, describe the limitations of each approach and suggest perspectives for further exploration in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0043.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: enveloped viruses; viral glycoproteins; endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation; ERAD; unfolded protein response; UPR; ER stress
Online: 4 August 2016 (11:44:59 CEST)
Enveloped viruses represent a significant category of pathogens that cause serious diseases in animals. These viruses express envelope glycoproteins that are singularly important during infection of host cells by mediating fusion between the viral envelope and host cell membranes. Despite low homology at protein levels, three classes of viral fusion proteins have, as of yet, been identified based on structural similarities. Their incorporation into viral particles is dependent upon their proper sub-cellular localization after being expressed and folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, viral protein expression can cause stress in the ER, and host cells respond to alleviate the ER stress in the form of the unfolded protein response (UPR); the effects of which have been observed potentiating or inhibiting viral infection. One important arm of UPR is to elevate the capacity of the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, which is comprised of host quality control machinery that ensures proper protein folding. In this review, we provide relevant details regarding viral envelope glycoproteins, UPR, ERAD, and their interactions in host cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: tumor microenvironment; extracellular matrix; proteoglycans; tumor-associated fibroblasts; tumor immunity; immune checkpoint inhibitors; tumor stroma; angiogenesis
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:16:16 CEST)
Similarly to our healthy organs, tumor tissue also generates an ecosystem. This implies that stromal cells acquire an altered phenotype in tandem with tumor cells, thereby promoting tumor survival. Cancer cells are fueled by abnormal blood vessels, allowing them to develop and proliferate. Tumor-associated fibroblasts adapt their cytokine and chemokine production to the needs of tumor cells, alter the peritumoral stroma by generating more collagen, thereby stiffening the matrix, all promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor cell invasion. Chronic inflammation and the mobilization of pro-tumorigenic inflammatory cells further facilitate tumor expansion. All of these events can impede the effective administration of tumor treatment, so the successful inhibition of tumorous matrix remodeling could further enhance the success of tumor treatment. Numerous publications describe efforts to inhibit tumor matrix components, but the true breakthrough has yet to be achieved. If, on the other hand, we assume that tumorous blood vessels and inflammatory cells are residents of the tumorous stroma, then two steps forward have occurred.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0539.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: adeno-associated virus; metachromatic leukodystrophy; arylsulfatase A; gene therapy; central nervous system; peripheral nervous system; neurodegeneration
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:17:50 CEST)
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease characterized by demye-lination and motor and cognitive impairment due to the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A (ARSA) or the saposin B activator protein (SapB). Current treatments are limited; however, gene therapy using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for ARSA delivery has shown promising results. The main challenges for MLD gene therapy include optimizing AAV dosage, selecting the most effective serotype, and determining the best route of administration for ARSA delivery into the central nervous system. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of AAV serotype 9 encoding ARSA (AAV9-ARSA) gene therapy when administered intrave-nously or intrathecally in minipigs, a large animal model with anatomical and physiological similarities to humans. By comparing these two administration methods, this study contributes to the understanding of how to improve the effectiveness of MLD gene therapy and offers valuable insights for future clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0152.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI); Klebsiella pneumoniae; Hospital-acquired infections; Proteus mirabilis; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; antibiogram
Online: 10 June 2022 (07:53:43 CEST)
Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Prolonged hospitalization, invasive devices such as catheters, and irrational use of antimicrobial agents are believed to be the major causes of high rates of HAIs. Infections such as pyelonephritis, urethritis, cystitis, and prostatitis are the main concern in catheterized ICU patients. In these cases, Gram-negative bacteria are the most common. The present study is undertaken to determine the frequency, antibiograms, disease pattern, and risk factors involved in providing an advocacy recommendation to prevent CAUTI. A total of 1078 patients were admitted to the hospital ICU, out of which healthcare-associated infection was reported in 316 patients. CAUTI was reported only in 70 patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae (20%) was the predominant isolate, with Serratia (3%) and Providencia (3%) species as the least common in this study. The present study provides CAUTI incidence rates in a tertiary care hospital in Hail, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, information on risk factors of CAUTI common causative organism associated, and their antibiogram patterns are also presented. This study provides vital information that can be used to formulate an effective antibiotic stewardship program that can be implemented throughout the kingdom.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0401.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: AMPK; TOR Complex I; mitochondria; FMR1; Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS); CGG trinucleotide repeat
Online: 23 September 2021 (11:10:47 CEST)
The X-linked FMR1 gene contains a non-coding trinucleotide repeat in its 5’ region that in normal, healthy individuals contains 20-44 copies. Large expansions of this region (>200 copies) cause fragile X syndrome (FXS), but expansions of 55-199 copies (referred to as premutation alleles) predispose carriers to a neurodegenerative disease called fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). The cytopathological mechanisms underlying FXTAS are poorly understood, but abnormalities in mitochondrial function are believed to play a role. We previously reported that lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, or lymphoblasts) of premutation carriers have elevated mitochondrial respiratory activities. In the carriers, especially those not clinically affected with FXTAS, AMPK activity was shown to be elevated. In the FXTAS patients, however, it was negatively correlated with brain white matter lesions, suggesting a protective role in the molecular mechanisms. Here we report an enlarged and extended study of mitochondrial function and associated cellular stress-signalling pathways in lymphoblasts isolated from male and female premutation carriers, regardless of their clinical status, and healthy controls. The results confirmed the elevation of AMPK and mitochondrial respiratory activities and reduction of reactive O2 species (ROS) levels in premutation cells and revealed for the first time that TORC1 activities are reduced. Extensive correlation, multiple regression and Principal Components analysis revealed the best fitting statistical explanations of these changes in terms of the other variables measured. These suggested which variables might be the most “proximal” regulators of the others in the extensive network of known causal interactions amongst the measured parameters of mitochondrial function and cellular stress signalling. In the resulting model, the premutation alleles activate AMPK and inhibit both TORC1 and ROS production, the reduced TORC1 activity contributes to activation of AMPK activation and of nonmitochondrial metabolism, and the higher AMPK activity results in elevated catabolic metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and ATP steady state levels. In addition the results suggest a separate CGG repeat number-dependent elevation of TORC1 activity that is insufficient to overcome the inhibition of TORC1 in premutation cells, but may presage the previously reported activation of TORC1 in FXS cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: breakthrough cancer pain; cancer-associated pain; cancer; health-related quality of life; sleep disorders; transmucosal fentanyl
Online: 14 February 2020 (03:36:53 CET)
Objectives: To explore the effect of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) treatment on quality of sleep and other aspects of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with cancer pain. Methods: In an observational, multicenter, cohort study, cancer patients from palliative care units, oncology departments, and pain clinics and affected by BTcP were included. Enrolled patients were assessed at the four visits: T0 (baseline), T7, T14, and T28. Well-controlled chronic background pain during the whole study period was mandatory. BTcP was treated through transmucosal fentanyl. Three questionnaires were used to measure the HRQoL: EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). Results: In 154 patients, the HRQoL showed a significant improvement for all physical and emotional characteristics in the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, except for nausea and vomiting (Linear p-value = 0.1) and dyspnoea (Linear p-value =0.05). The ESAS and PSQI questionnaires confirmed these positive results (p<0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions: This prospective investigation by an Italian expert group, has confirmed that careful management of BTcP induces a paramount improvement on the HRQoL. Because in cancer patients there is a high prevalence of BTcP and this severe acute pain has deleterious consequences, this information can have an important clinical significance
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0203.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immunoglobulin (Ig); nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD); nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS); B lymphocytes; plasma cells
Online: 18 January 2020 (10:21:18 CET)
The presence of premature termination codons (PTCs) in transcripts is dangerous for the cell as they encode potentially deleterious truncated proteins that can act with dominant-negative or gain-of-function effects. To avoid synthesis of these shortened polypeptides, several RNA surveillance systems can be activated to decrease the level of PTC-containing mRNAs. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) ensures an accelerated degradation of mRNAs harboring PTCs by using several key NMD factors such as up-frameshift (UPF) proteins. Another pathway called nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS) upregulates transcripts that have skipped disturbing PTCs by alternative splicing. Therefore, these RNA quality control processes eliminate abnormal PTC-containing mRNAs from the cells by using positive and negative responses. In this review, we will describe the general mechanisms of NMD and NAS and their respective involvement in the decay of aberrant immunoglobulin and TCR transcripts in lymphoid cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV); human herpesvirus-8; zebrafish; ddPCR; xenotransplantation; primary effusion lymphoma (PEL); hypoxia
Online: 8 November 2019 (03:23:22 CET)
Kaposi’s sarcoma associated-herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as human herpesvirus-8) is a gammaherpesvirus that establishes life-long infection in human B lymphocytes. KSHV infection is typically asymptomatic but immunosuppression can predispose KSHV-infected individuals to primary effusion lymphoma (PEL); a malignancy driven by aberrant proliferation of latently infected B lymphocytes, and supported by pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors produced by cells that succumb to lytic viral replication. Here, we report the development of the first in vivo model for a virally-induced lymphoma in zebrafish, whereby KSHV-infected PEL tumour cells engraft and proliferate in the yolk sac of zebrafish larvae. Using a PEL cell line engineered to produce the viral lytic switch protein RTA in the presence of doxycycline, we demonstrate drug-inducible reactivation from KSHV latency in vivo, which enabled real-time observation and evaluation of latent and lytic phases of KSHV infection. In addition, we developed a sensitive droplet digital PCR method to monitor latent and lytic viral gene expression and host cell gene expression in xenografts. The zebrafish yolk sac is not well-vascularized and using fluorogenic assays we confirmed that this site provides a hypoxic environment that may mimic the microenvironment of some human tumors. We found that PEL cell proliferation in xenografts was dependent on the host hypoxia-dependent translation initiation factor, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E2 (eIF4E2). This demonstrates that the zebrafish yolk sac is a functionally hypoxic environment and xenografted cells must switch to dedicated hypoxic gene expression machinery to survive and proliferate. The establishment of the PEL xenograft model enables future studies that exploit the innate advantages of the zebrafish as a model for genetic and pharmacologic screens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0374.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Keywords: Tumor microenvironment (TME), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), GBM- associated macrophages (GAMs), exosomes, oncomiR-21, STAT3 inhibitor.
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:18:33 CEST)
Background: Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a crucial role in virtually every aspect of tumorigenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The dysfunctional TME promotes drug resistance, disease recurrence and distant metastasis. Recent evidence indicates that exosomes released by stromal cells within TME may promote oncogenic phenotypes via transferring signaling molecules such as cytokines, proteins and microRNAs. Results: In this study, clinical GBM samples were collected and analyzed. We found that GBM-associated macrophages (GAMs) secreted exosomes which were enriched with oncomiR-21. Co-culture of GAMs (and GAM derived exosomes) and GBM cell lines resulted in the increased GBM cells’ resistance against temozolomide (TMZ) by upregulating pro-survival gene, PDCD4 and stemness markers Sox2, STAT3, Nestin and miR-21-5p and increased M2 cytokines, IL-6 and TGF-β1 secreted by GBM cells, promoting the M2 polarization of GAMs. Subsequently, pacritinib treatment suppressed GBM tumorigenesis and stemness; more importantly, pacritinib-treated GBM cells showed markedly reduced ability to secret M2 cytokines and reduced miR-21 enriched exosomes secreted by GAMs. Pacritinib-mediated effects were accompanied by a reduction of oncomiR miR-21-5p, by which tumor suppressor PDCD4 was targeted. We subsequently established a patient-derived xenograft models where mice bore patient GBM and GAMs. The treatment of pacritinib, and the combination of pacritinib/TMZ appeared to significantly reduce tumorigenesis of GBM/GAM PDX mice, overcome TMZ-resistance, and M2 polarization of GAMs. Conclusion: In summation, we showed that potential of pacritinib alone or in combination with TMZ for suppressing GBM tumorigenesis via modulating STAT3/miR-21/PDCD4 signaling. Further investigations are warranted for adopting pacritinib for the treatment of TMZ-resistant GBM in the clinical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0311.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Discrete Mathematics And Combinatorics Keywords: Formal Calculation; nested sums; Gaussian coefficient; Stirling number; associated Stirling numbers; Eulerian number and polynomial; Wolstenholme theorem
Online: 7 October 2023 (03:26:10 CEST)
Formal Calculation uses an auxiliary form to calculate various nested sums and provides results in three forms. In addition to computation, it is also a powerful tool for analysis, allowing one to study various numbers in a unified way. This article contains many results of two types of Stirling numbers, associated Stirling numbers, and Eulerian numbers, making a great generalization of Euler polynomials, Wilson's theorem, and Wolstenholme's theorem, showing that they are just special cases. Formal Calculation provides a novel method for obtaining combinatorial identities and analyzing q-binomial.This article has obtained a large number of results in q-analogues, including inversion formulas for q-binomial coefficients. This article also introduces a theorem on symmetry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1877.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM); Tumor microenvironment (TME); Cytokine; Immunosuppression; Pro-tumor functions; Anti-tumor functions; Clinical application.
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:31:53 CEST)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play critical roles in the tumor microenvironment (TME), where they are recruited by signals released by cancer cells. Although they have great potential as therapeutic targets for cancer treatment, the dual roles of TAMs in promoting or inhibiting tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis make their function in cancer progression complex. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of TAMs, including their phenotypic diversity, regulatory signaling pathways, and interactions with other cells in the TME. We also discuss the challenges related to the standard isolation protocols of TAMs, inconsistent research results, and translation of TAM knowledge into clinical applications. Additionally, we review the status of clinical trials involving TAMs and potential strategies to overcome the limitations. The future direction of TAM research should focus on developing more targeted therapies that specifically regulate TAM function and non-invasive methods for monitoring TAM activity in cancer patients. A comprehensive understanding of the complex role of TAMs in cancer may lead to the development of more effective treatments and improved outcomes for cancer patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0555.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Gastric Cancer; Helicobacter pylori; cag Pathogenicity Island; Cytotoxin-Associated Gene A; Oncoprotein; Vacuolating Toxin A; Immune Evasion
Online: 19 April 2023 (07:14:39 CEST)
Gastric cancer is a challenging public health concern worldwide and remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The primary risk factor implicated in gastric cancer development is infection with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori induces chronic inflammation affecting the gastric epithelium, which can lead to DNA damage and promotion of precancerous lesions. Disease manifestations associated with H. pylori are attributed to virulence factors with multiple activities and its capacity to subvert host immunity. One of the most significant H. pylori virulence determinants is the cagPAI gene cluster, which encodes a type IV secretion system and the CagA toxin. This secretion system allows H. pylori to inject the CagA oncoprotein into host cells, causing multiple cellular perturbations. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection, only a small percentage of affected individuals develop significant clinical outcomes, while most remain asymptomatic. Therefore, understanding how H. pylori triggers carcinogenesis and its immune evasion mechanisms is critical in preventing gastric cancer and miti-gating the burden of this life-threatening disease. This review aims to provide an overview of our current under-standing of H. pylori infection, its association with gastric cancer and other gastric diseases, and how it subverts the host immune system to establish persistent infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: PSP; Progressive Supranuclear Palsy; 4R-tau; four-repeat tau; MAPT; Microtubule-associated ligand; PET; Positron Emission Tomography
Online: 12 June 2020 (09:41:06 CEST)
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a sporadic parkinsonism tauopathy characterised by the deposition of aggregations of abnormal, hyperphosphorylated four-repeat tau (4R-tau). A revised clinical diagnostic criterion for PSP allows early presentations for the full spectrum of clinical phenotypes to be recognised enabling doctors to make a more accurate diagnosis. The major genetic risk factor for sporadic PSP is a common variant in the gene encoding microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT). Research into the biochemical and pathological pathways of tau is vital to improve the chances of developing an effective diagnostic biomarker to monitor tau pathogenesis. Neuroimaging biomarkers, such as tau PET ligands, are proving the most successful tool in providing a differential diagnosis between neurodegenerative disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for PSP, however tau-directed therapies in the last five years have rapidly advanced. Latest tau therapies are proposed to have disease-modifying effects by reducing toxic aggregations of tau through manipulating tau gene expression. After encouraging results from long awaited trials, additional funding is being injected into this field and with new results expected, this proves an exciting area for scientific discovery. This paper reviews advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis, biomarkers and disease-modifying therapeutic treatments for PSP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: lifestyle factors; chronic inflammatory diseases; treatment result; treatment response; diet; meat intake; dietary pattern; food; mucosa associated bacteria; epithelium-associated bacteria; microbiome; fibre intake; personalized medicine; mucus; sulphate-reducing bacteria; mucin-degrading bacteria; Western style diet; anti-TNF
Online: 15 March 2017 (07:29:13 CET)
We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51). A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX) compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0930.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nonlinear systems, vibration energy harvester (VEH), output frequency response function (OFRF), generalised associated linear equations (GALEs), frequency domain
Online: 14 November 2023 (11:54:02 CET)
Ambient vibration energy is widely being harnessed as a source of electrical energy to drive low-power devices. The vibration energy harvester (VEH) of interest employs an electromagnetic transduction mechanism, whereby ambient mechanical vibration is converted to electrical energy. The limitations affecting the performance of VEHs, with an electromagnetic transduction structure, include its operational bandwidth as well as the enclosure-size constraint. In this study, an analysis and design of a nonlinear VEH system is conducted, using the Output Frequency Response Function (OFRF) representations of the actual system model. However, the OFRF representations are determined from the Generalised Associated Linear Equation (GALE) decompositions of the system of interest. The effect of both nonlinear damping and stiffness characteristics, to respectively extend the average power and operational bandwidth of the VEH device, is demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0407.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Parenteral fluids in premature infants; late premature infants; infections associated with the use of lines; early oral feeds
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:05:52 CEST)
Introduction: Some of the practices in medicine are carried out of habit without proven benefits. This is the case of premature babies from 30 to 34 weeks of gestation who are always given parenteral fluids, even though this practice has been associated with an increase incidence of infection. At the end of 2017, we started a protocol of rationalization in the use of parenteral fluid. To administer nutrition/fluids, we used oral fluids by suction if this was possible or otherwise by oral/nasogastric tube at volumes of 70-80 mL/Kg/day divided every 3 hours, with 5 mL increments every 12-24 hours until 200 mL/K/day was achieved, always using breast milk when possible. Material and methods: The present study sought to compare results before and after this new policy. For this work, we review all premature babies between 30-34 weeks of gestation in two time periods, the first from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2017 and the second from 01/01/2018 to 08/15/2022. The number of cases with and without parenteral fluids (PF), the incidence of infection, the weight at admission and discharge, and the change in the weight Z score between birth and discharge were compared. Both the anthropometric and outcome variables were compared using the different statistical methods according to each variable. Results: were found 920 cases with the described characteristics. The groups before and after the intervention did not show significant differences in their general demographic characteristics. We observed a decrease use of PF in the second period, from 425 cases (82.0%) before to 297 (26.2%) after implementation, p <0.0001 and fewer days of use (4.1 days/average before vs 1.3 after, p <0.0001) of PF. The weight at discharge and the change in weight Z-score were the same in both groups. Infections went from nine cases before to two cases after but it was not statistically significant. There were no complications due to less use of PF. Discussion: This study showed that the use of PF is not associated with significant changes in outcomes of interest, which reinforces that its use does not generate any benefit for the patient. Larger number of cases is required to detect differences in low incidence events such as infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0155.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tumor microenvironment; tumor stroma; cancer-associated fibroblasts; heterogeneity; biomarkers; cancer; The Cancer Genome Atlas; gene expression; computational biology
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:56:44 CET)
Current therapeutic strategies targeting cancer cells within solid tumors have displayed limited success owing to the presence of non-cancer components referred to as the tumor stroma within the tumor microenvironment (TM). These stromal cells, extracellular matrix and blood vessels influence cancer cell response to therapy and play key roles in tumor relapse and resistance. Of the stromal cells present in the TM, a lot of attention has been given to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as they are the most abundant and are important in cancer initiation, progression and therapy resistance. In this updated review I emphasize the role of CAFs in the regulation of tumor cell behaviour and reveal how CAF-derived factors and signaling influence tumor cell heterogeneity and development of novel strategies to combat cancer. To investigate the expression of CAF markers in tumor tissues versus normal tissues, transcriptomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) databases was used. Bioinformatic analysis reveals differential expression of CAF markers in several cancer types, underscoring the need for further multiomics and biochemical studies on CAFs, CAF subsets and markers. Differences in CAF markers’ expression could be due to different cellular origins as well as the effect of cancer-specific tumor microenvironmental effect on CAFs. Lastly, I present recent advances in therapeutic targeting of CAFs and the success of such endeavours or its lack thereof. It is recommended that for patients’ outcomes to improve, cancer treatment be combinatorial in nature, targeting both cancer cells and stromal cells and interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0029.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: blood stream health care associated infections; neonates; risk factors, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance; neonatal intensive care unit; India
Online: 30 January 2018 (08:03:04 CET)
Very little is known about laboratory confirmed blood stream infections (LCBIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this cohort study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of LCBIs in a level-2 NICU in India. The diagnosis of LCBIs was established using the Centre for Disease Control, USA criteria. A predesigned questionnaire containing risk factors associated with LCBIs was filled-in. A total of 150 neonates (43% preterm) were included in the study. The overall incidence of LCBIs was 31%. The independent risk factors for LCBIs were: preterm neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.23), duration of NICU stay more than 14 days (RR 1.75), chorioamnionitis in the mother (RR 3.18), premature rupture of membrane in mothers (RR 2.32), neonate born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (RR 2.32), malpresentation (RR 3.05), endotracheal intubation (RR 3.41), umbilical catheterization (RR 4.18), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 3.17). The initiation of minimal enteral nutrition was protective from LCBIs (RR 0.22). The predominant causative organisms were gram-negative pathogens (58%). The results of the present study can be used to design antibiotic interventions to reduce LCBIs in resource-limited settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3; osteoarthritis; extracorporeal shockwave therapy; 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathway; two dimensional electrophoresis
Online: 1 September 2016 (10:47:39 CEST)
Dysregulation of cartilage homeostasis and the changes in the density and the architecture of the subchondral bone were postulated as a potent mechanically pathological activity contributing to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a new, none invasive and effective method in the treatment of animal OA model. In the current study, we demonstrated that shockwave induced the expression of protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3 (Pdia-3) which is a multifunctional protein hypothesized to be a significant mediator for 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) signaling pathway using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Histological analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were verified and observed that the expression of Pdia-3 at 2 weeks was significantly higher than that of any other group at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks post-shockwave treatment in early OA knee of rat. The other factors of the 1α,25(OH)2D3 rapid membrane signaling pathway including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 (ERK1), osteopontin (OPG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP13) were measured and significantly increased by qPCR at 2 weeks post-shockwave treatment in early OA knee. Our proteomic data revealed significant Pdia-3 expression in microenvironments of joint tissue that could be actively responded to ESWT, which may potentially regulate biological function of chondrocytes and osteoblasts in the treatment of OA knee.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0749.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: brain tumor; glioma; neuronal system tumor; deubiquitinase (DUB); Endoplasmic Reticulum Associated Degradation (ERAD); immune response; therapeutic target; DNA repair
Online: 12 September 2023 (11:04:42 CEST)
The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) utilizes an orchestrated enzymatic cascade of E1, E2, and E3 ligases to add single or multiple ubiquitin-like molecules as post-translational modification (PTM) to proteins. Ubiquitination can alter protein functions and/ or marks ubiquitinated proteins for proteasomal degradation but deubiquitinases (DUBs) can reverse protein ubiquitination. While the importance of DUBs as regulatory factors in the UPS is undisputed, many questions remain on DUB selectivity for protein targeting, their mechanism of action, and the impact of DUBs on the regulation of diverse biological processes. Furthermore, little is known about the expression and role of DUBs in tumors of the human central nervous system (CNS). In this comprehensive review, we have used publicly available transcriptional datasets to determine the gene expression profiles of 99 deubiquitinases (DUBs) from five major DUB families in seven primary pediatric and adult CNS tumor entities. Our analysis identified selected DUBs as potential new functional players and biomarkers with prognostic value in specific subtypes of primary CNS tumors. Collectively, our analysis highlights an emerging role for DUBs in regulating CNS tumor cell biology and offers a rationale for future therapeutic targeting of DUBs in CNS tumors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1599.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: pregnancy associated plasma protein-A; breast cancer; triple negative breast cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cancer therapy; cancer biomarker; immunotherapy
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:35:57 CEST)
Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) plays an integral role in breast cancer (BC), especially triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). This subtype accounts for the most aggressive BC, possesses high tumor heterogeneity, is least responsive to standard treatments and has the poorest clinical outcomes. There is a critical need to address the lack of effective targeted therapeutic options available. PAPP-A is a protein that is highly elevated during pregnancy. Frequently, higher PAPP-A expression is detected in tumors than in healthy tissues. The increase in expression coincides with increased rates of aggressive cancers. In BC, PAPP-A has been demonstrated to play a role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as acting as a biomarker for predicting patient outcomes. In this review, we present the role of PAPP-A, with specific focus on TNBC. The structure and function of PAPP-A, belonging to the pappalysin subfamily, and its proteolytic activity are assessed. We highlight the link of BC and PAPP-A with respect to the IGFBP/IGF axis, EMT, the window of susceptibility and the impact of pregnancy. Importantly, the relevance of PAPP-A as a TNBC clinical marker is reviewed and its influence on immune-related pathways are explored. The relationship and mechanisms involving PAPP-A reveal the potential for more treatment options that can lead to successful immunotherapeutic targets and the ability to assist with better predicting clinical outcomes in TNBC.