ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0665.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Delft3D; Object Mobility Model; Munitions Mobility and Burial; Object Shields Parameter; Sediment Shields Parameter; Equilibrium Burial Percentage; Sediment Supporting Point
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:24:25 CEST)
Coupled Delft3D-object model has been developed to predict object’s mobility and burial on sandy seafloor. The Delft3D model is used to predict seabed environment such as currents, waves (peak period, significant wave height, wave direction), water level, sediment transport, and seabed change, which are taken as the forcing term to the object model consisting of three components: (a) object‘s physical parameters such as diameter, length, mass, and rolling moment, (b) dynamics of rolling cylinder around its major axis, and (c) empirical sediment scour model with re-exposure parameterization. The model is compared with the observational data collected from a field experiment from 21 April to 23 May 2013 off the coast of Panama City, Florida funded by the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. The experimental data contain both objects’ mobility using sector scanning and pencil beam sonars and simultaneous environmental time series data of the boundary layer hydrodynamics and sediment transport conditions. Comparison between modeled and observed data clearly show the model capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0183.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: death; bodies; human rights; burial; ethics; tourism; heritage; culture; memory
Online: 14 May 2018 (05:32:40 CEST)
In The Work of the Dead: A Cultural History of Mortal Remains, Thomas Laqueur argues that the work of the dead is carried out through the living and through those who remember, honour, and mourn the dead. Further, he maintains that the brutal or careless disposal of the corpse “is an attack of extreme violence”. To treat the dead body as if it does not matter or as if it were ordinary organic matter would be to deny its humanity. From Laqueur’s point of view it is inferred that the dead are believed to have rights and dignities that are upheld through rituals, practices, and beliefs of the living. Drawing on dark tourism scholarship and cultural memory theory, this paper examines the display of human bones at Sedlec Ossuary, Czech Republic and the tourist culture that has built up around the site. Primarily, my writing calls into question the commoditization of burial places as a conceivable violation of the human rights of the dead. My research is driven by a number of questions: What is it that draws tourists to burial grounds and how do heritage sites negotiate visitor experiences? What are the ethical boundaries when a final resting place with bodies on display is also marketed as a tourist site? Do the dead have human rights and how are the living responsible for preserving those rights?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0074.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: archaeological topography; tumulus; burial mound; geomorphometry; high-resolution; DEM; LiDAR; Random Forest
Online: 6 February 2020 (02:43:29 CET)
Archaeological topography identification from high-resolution DEMs is a current method that is used with high success in archaeological prospecting of wide areas. I present a methodology trough which burial mounds (tumuli) from LiDAR DEMS can be identified. This methodology uses geomorphometric and statistical methods to identify with high accuracy burial mound candidates. Peaks, defined as local elevation maxima are found as a first step. In the second step, local convexity watershed segments and their seeds are compared with positions of local peaks and the peaks that correspond or have in vicinity local convexity segments seeds are selected. The local convexity segments that correspond to these selected peaks are further feed to a Random Forest algorithm together with shape descriptors and descriptive statistics of geomorphometric variables in order to build a model for the classification. Multiple approaches to tune and selected the proper training dataset, settings and variables were tested. The validation of the model was performed on the full dataset where the training was performed and on an external dataset in order to test the usability of the method for other areas in a similar geomorphological and archaeological setting. The validation was performed against manually mapped and field checked burial mounds from two neighbor study areas of 100 km2 each. The results show that by training the Random Forest on a dataset composed of between 75% to 100% of the segments corresponding to burial mounds and ten times more non-burial mounds segments selected using latin hypercube sampling, 93% of the burial mound segments from the external dataset are identified. There are 42 false positive cases that need to be checked, and there are two burial mound segments missed. The method shows great promise to be used for burial mound detection on wider areas by delineating a certain number of tumuli mounds for model training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0152.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: riverine particulate material; phytoplankton; seawater; growth; organic carbon cycle; nutrients; primary production; carbon burial; CO2
Online: 9 January 2023 (07:52:27 CET)
Riverine particulates dominate the transport of vital nutrients like Si, Fe or P to the ocean mar-gins, where they may increase primary production by acting as slow release fertilizer. Further-more, the supply of particulate surface area to the ocean is considered to be a major control or-ganic carbon burial. Taken together, these observations suggest a close link between the supply of riverine particulate material and the organic carbon cycle. To explore this link, we conducted microcosm experiments to measure the growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii in the presence and absence of different types and concentrations of riverine particulate material. Results demonstrate a strong positive effect of riverine particulate material on diatom growth with increased total diatom concentrations and slowed post-exponential death rates with in-creasing particulate concentration. Moreover, SEM and optical microscope investigations con-firm that riverine particulates facilitates organic carbon burial through their role in the aggrega-tion and sedimentation of phytoplankton. The supply of riverine particulate material has been shown to be markedly climate sensitive with their fluxes increasing dramatically with increas-ing global temperature and runoff. This pronounced climate sensitivity implies that riverine particulates contribute substantially in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations through their role in the organic carbon cycle.