ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0130.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: brown-throated sloth; human-animal interactions; questionnaire; urban wildlife; Bradypus variegatus
Online: 8 May 2018 (10:53:37 CEST)
Free-range sloths living in an urban environment is rare. In this study, human opinions, attitudes and interactions with a population of Bradypus variegatus in a public square were investigated. A questionnaire was applied to people in the square where the sloths reside, and informal, opportunistic observations of human-sloth interactions were made. 95% of respondents knew of the sloths’ existence in the square and 87.8% likes their presence. Opinions about population size differed greatly and younger people were concerned if the square was appropriate place for them. Some human-sloth interactions showed the consequence of lack of biological knowledge. People initiated all sloth-human interactions. The fact that sloths are strictly folivorous has limited their interactions with humans and consequently minimised negative impact of the human-animal interaction on their wellbeing. These results demonstrate that while there is a harmonious relationship between people and sloths, actions in environmental education of the square’s public could be beneficial for the sloths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0201.v1
Online: 21 February 2019 (10:01:04 CET)
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) function may depend on its anatomical location and developmental origin. Interscapular BAT (iBAT) regulates acute macronutrient metabolism, whilst perivascular BAT (PVAT) regulates vascular function. Although phenotypically similar, whether these depots respond differently to acute nutrient excess is unclear. Given their distinct anatomical locations and developmental origins and we hypothesised that iBAT and PVAT would respond differently to brief period of nutrient excess. Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 weeks (n = 12) were fed either a standard (10% fat, n = 6) or high fat diet (HFD: 45% fat, n = 6) for 72 h and housed at thermoneutrality. Following an assessment of whole body physiology, fat was collected from both depots for analysis of gene expression and the proteome. HFD consumption for 72 h induced rapid weight gain (c. 2.6%) and reduced serum NEFA with no change in either total adipose or depot mass. In iBAT, an upregulation of genes involved in insulin signalling and lipid metabolism was accompanied by enrichment of lipid-related processes and functions, plus glucagon and PPAR signalling pathways. In PVAT, HFD induced a pronounced down-regulation of multiple metabolic pathways which was accompanied with increased abundance of proteins involved in apoptosis (e.g. Hdgf and Ywaq) and toll-like receptor signalling (Ube2n). There was also an enrichment of DNA-related processes and functions (e.g., nucleosome assembly and histone exchange) and RNA degradation and cell adhesion pathways. In conclusion, we show that iBAT and PVAT elicit divergent responses to short-term nutrient excess highlighting early adaptations in these depots before changes in fat mass.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0073.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Phenylbutyrate, PFKL, Obesity, UCP1, Brown adipose tissue
Online: 8 January 2019 (15:22:39 CET)
Obesity, which is characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, is one of the critical factors causing metabolic syndrome. Many studies have been performed to identify appropriate agents to control obesity, but toxicity remains a problem. Herein, we identified that phenylbutyrate (PBA), which has been used to treat urea cycle disorder with very low toxicity for a long time, efficiently inhibited high fat-induced body weight gain in a diet-induced obesity mouse model (DIO model). PBA treatment decreased body fat mass and increased lean composition. Moreover, PBA increased brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity by increasing glucose uptake, thereby improving glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Interestingly, PBA could induce the expression of phosphofructokinase (PFKL), a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, and knocking down PFKL dramatically repressed the expression level of Ucp1 as well as those of Prdm16, Cidea, Pgc1α, and Pparγ, which are marker genes for BAT activation. These results strongly suggested that PBA could increase energy expenditure by increasing BAT activity via the induction of PFKL. Taken together, PBA could be used as a therapeutic agent for people with obesity to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Biological control, egg parasitoid; biological characteristics; brown stink bug.
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:28:34 CEST)
Temperature is the abiotic factors that strongly influence the biology and behavior of insects. Thus, we assessed the development of the egg parasitoids, Ooencyrtus submetallicus and Telenomus podisi, parasitizing eggs of the brown stinkbug, Euschistus heros, at different temperatures, in addition to estimating the average number of generations using temperature records for seven representative soybean producing regions in Brazil. The comparative biology study conducted evidenced that O. submetallicus and T. podisi had similar percentages of parasitism and emergence, life cycle duration (egg-adult), and longevity. The sex ratio and the number of adult parasitoid emerged per parasitized egg was superior for O. submetallicus. The study of thermal requirements evaluated temperatures of 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 33 °C. Ooencyrtus submetallicus and T. podisi developed at temperatures between 16 and 31°C. The lower temperature (Tb) threshold for O. submetallicus and T. podisi was 9.3° and 6.7°C, while the thermal constant (K) was 336.9 and 272.7 degree days, respectively. The estimated average number of generations per year for both parasitoids was greater than the pest E. heros. Ooencyrtus submetallicus and T. podisi exhibited the same biological capacity to parasitize and to develop parasitizing E. heros eggs under laboratory studied conditions. The temperature range between 16° and 33 °C was favourable for the development of both parasitoids parasitizing E. heros eggs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0159.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: metabolomics; NMR; PEMT; knockout; aging; mice; liver; intestine; white/brown adipose tissue
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:36:04 CEST)
Phospholipid metabolism, including phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis, is crucial for various biological functions and is associated to longevity. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) is a protein that catalyzes the biosynthesis of PC, the levels of which change in various organs such as brain and kidney during aging. However, the role of PEMT for systemic PC supply is not fully understood. To address how PEMT affects aging-associated energy metabolism in tissues responsible for nutrient absorption, lipid storage and energy consumption, we employed NMR-based metabolomics to study liver, plasma, intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), brown/white adipose tissues (BAT, WAT), and skeletal muscle of young (9–10 weeks) and old (96–104 weeks) wild-type (WT) and PEMT knockout (KO) mice. We found that the effect of PEMT-knockout was tissue-specific and age-dependent. Deficiency of PEMT affected the metabolome of all tissues examined, among which the metabolome of BAT from both young and aged KO mice was dramatically changed in comparison to WT mice, whereas the metabolome of jejunum was only slightly affected. As for aging, the absence of PEMT increased the divergence of metabolome during aging of liver, WAT, duodenum and ileum and decreased the impact on skeletal muscle. Overall, our results suggest that PEMT plays a previously unexplored critical role in both aging and energy metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0036.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: parboiled rice; medium-grain white rice; medium-grain brown rice; sensory evaluation; consumer acceptability
Online: 6 November 2017 (07:07:41 CET)
Background: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that storage of cooked rice at 4 °C for 24 h and reheating to 65 °C significantly reduced starch digestibility and postprandial glycaemic responses. Moreover, the effect was greater for parboiled rice compared to other rice varieties commonly consumed in New Zealand. This study aimed to evaluate consumer preferences of related sensory attributes and consumer acceptability of several rice varieties freshly cooked or reheated. Method: Sixty-four consumers volunteered and recorded on Visual Analoge Scales their preference and acceptability of freshly prepared or cold-stored and reheated medium grain white, medium grain brown and parboiled rice. Results: All six rice samples were accepted by participants (average 54%). Reheated parboiled rice and reheated medium grain brown rice were both accepted by participants as a preferred staple meal compared to other rice samples. Among all rice samples, the sweetness and the flavour of freshly cooked warm medium-grain white rice were less preferred (scored 42.1% and 45.0% respectively) compared with other samples (P = 0.05). Participants who prepared and consumed brown rice at home regularly (more than 10 times per month), preferred the reheated brown rice (73.8% (67.4, 80.2)) and reheated parboiled rice (74.3% (67.9, 80.7)) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It is suggested that reheated parboiled rice, with the lowest starch digestibility and glycaemic impact (both in vitro glucose release and in vivo glucose response) could be accepted as a healthier alternative for the daily staple meal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Apolipoprotein A-1; High-density lipoprotein; Brown adipose tissue; White adipose tissue; Beige (Hybrid) adipose tissue
Online: 24 March 2022 (05:26:34 CET)
In the present study, we studied the effect of apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA1) on the spatial and molecular characteristics of bone marrow adipocytes, using well-characterized ApoA1 knockout mice. APOA1 is a central regulator of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, and thus HDL; our recent work showed that deficiency of APOA1 increases bone marrow adiposity in mice. We found that ApoA1 deficient mice have greatly elevated adipocytes within their bone marrow compared to wild type counterparts. Morphologically, the increased adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes, and displayed proximal tibial-end localization. Marrow adipocytes from wild type mice were significantly fewer and did not display bone-end distribution pattern. The mRNA levels of the brown/beige adipocyte-specific markers Ucp1, Dio2, Pat2, Pgc1a, and the expression of leptin were greatly reduced in the ApoA1 knock-out in comparison to the wild-type mice. In the knock-out mice adiponectin was remarkably elevated. In keeping with the close ties of hematopoietic stem cells and marrow adipocytes, we found that the elevated adiposity in the ApoA1 knock out mice is associated with a significant reduction of the hematopoietic stem cells and common myeloid, but not common lymphoid, progenitors. Moreover, the “beiging”-related marker osteopontin and the angiogenic factor VEGF were also reduced in the ApoA1 knock-out mice, further supporting the notion that APOA1, and most probably HDL-C, regulate bone marrow microenvironment, favouring beige/brown adipocyte characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0112.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: apoptosis; necrosis; brown algae,; mitochondria; mg63 cells; fucoidan; molecular weight fraction; crude extract; cell cycle; transmission electron microscopy
Online: 9 December 2019 (03:45:59 CET)
Fucoidan is a brown algae-derived polysaccharide having several biomedical applications. This study simultaneously compares the anticancer activities of crude fucoidans from Fucus vesiculosus and Sargassum filipendula, and effects of low (LMW, 10-50kDa), medium (MMW, 50-100kDa) and high (HMW, >100kDa) molecular weight fractions of S. filipendula fucoidan against osteosarcoma cells. Glucose, fucose and acid levels were lower and sulphation was higher in F. vesiculosus crude fucoidan compared to S. filipendula crude fucoidan. MMW had highest the levels of sugars, acids and sulphation among molecular weight fractions. There was a dose dependent drop in focal adhesion formation and proliferation of cells for all fucoidan-types, but F. vesiculosus fucoidan and HMW had the strongest effects. G1-phase arrest was induced by F. vesiculosus fucoidan, MMW and HMW, however F. vesiculosus fucoidan treatment also caused accumulation in sub G1-phase. Mitochondrial damage occurred for all fucoidan-types, however F. vesiculosus fucoidan led to mitochondrial fragmentation. Annexin V/PI, TUNEL and cytochrome c staining confirmed stress induced apoptosis-like cell death for F. vesiculosus fucoidan but features of stress-induced necrosis-like cell death for S. filipendula fucoidans. There was also variation in penetrability of different fucoidans inside the cell. These differences in anti-cancer activity of fucoidans are applicable for osteosarcoma treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0079.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: pepino mosaic virus (PepMV); Solanum elaeagnifolium; S. rostratum; tomato brown rugose fruit virus (To-BRFV); virus reservoir; weed management
Online: 3 August 2022 (08:35:30 CEST)
Invasive weeds cause significant crop yield and economic losses in agriculture. The highest in-direct impact may be attributed to the role of invasive weeds as virus reservoirs especially within the commercial growing areas. The new tobamovirus tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV), recently identified in the Middle-East, overcomes the Tm-22 resistance allele in the cultivated tomato varieties grown in greenhouses. In this study, we determined the role of invasive weed species as potential hosts for ToBRFV and pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). Out of all tested weed species, the invasive species So-lanum elaeagnifolium and S. rostratum, mechanically inoculated with ToBRFV, were positive for To-BRFV in both enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR tests. S. rostratum was also positive for PepMV. No conspicuous phenotype was observed on ToBRFV infected S. elaeagnifolium plants suggesting a hostplant associated defense response. S. rostratum plants inoculated with either ToBRFV alone or a mixture of ToBRFV and PepMV-IL, contained high ToBRFV levels. In addition, when inoculated with ToBRFV or PepMV-IL disease symptom manifestations were observed in S. rostratum plants and the symptoms were exacerbated upon mixed infections with both viruses. The distribution and abundance of both Solanaceae species increase the risks of virus transmission between species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0005.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Brown adipose tissue; beige adipose tissue; obesity; cold exposure; uncoupling protein-1, beta-adrenergic receptor; energy expenditure; adipose browning; micro-RNA
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:30:39 CEST)
Obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities comprise of a cluster of conditions including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases that has affected more than 650 million people all over the globe. Obesity results from accumulation of white adipose tissues mainly due to the chronic imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure. Variety of approaches to treat or prevent obesity, including lifestyle interventions, surgical weight loss procedures and pharmacological approaches to reduce energy intake and increase energy expenditure have failed to substantially decrease the prevalence of obesity. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), the primary source of thermogenesis in infants and small mammals may represent a promising therapeutic target to treat obesity by promoting energy expenditure through non-shivering thermogenesis mediated by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Since the confirmation of functional BAT in adult humans by several groups, approximately a decade ago and its association with a favorable metabolic phenotype, intense interest on the significance of BAT in adult human physiology and metabolic health has emerged within the scientific community to explore its therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity and metabolic diseases. Substantially decreased BAT activity in individuals with obesity indicates a role for BAT in setting of human obesity. On the other hand, BAT mass and its prevalence has been reported to correlate with lower body mass index (BMI), decreased age and glucose levels, leading to lower incidence of cardio metabolic diseases. Increased cold exposure in adult humans with undetectable BAT was associated with decreased body fat mass and increased insulin sensitivity. Deeper understanding of the role of BAT in human metabolic health and its inter-relationship with body fat distribution and deciphering proper strategies to increase energy expenditure by either increasing functional BAT mass, or inducing white adipose browning holds the promise for possible therapeutic avenues for the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0201.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); Circadian clock; Soleus Muscle (SM); Brown adipose tissue (BAT); liver; 6-meal feeding; Respiratory exchange ratio (RER); Clock genes; metabolic genes; Shift work.
Online: 11 September 2018 (14:21:48 CEST)
Restricted feeding is well known to affect expression profiles of both clock and metabolic genes. However, it is unknown whether these changes in metabolic gene expression result from changes in the molecular clock or in feeding behavior. Here we eliminated the daily rhythm in feeding behavior by providing 6-meals evenly distributed over the light/dark-cycle. Animals on this 6-meals-a-day feeding schedule retained the normal day/night difference in physiological parameters including body temperature and locomotor activity. The daily rhythm in respiratory exchange ratio (RER), however, was significantly phase-shifted through increased utilization of carbohydrates during the light phase and increased lipid oxidation during the dark phase. This 6-meals-a-day feeding schedule did not have a major impact on the clock gene expression rhythms in the master clock but did have mild effects on peripheral clocks. By contrast, genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism showed differential expression. Concluding, eliminating the daily rhythm in feeding behavior in rats does not affect the master clock and only mildly affects peripheral clocks, but disturbs metabolic rhythms in liver, skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue in a tissue-dependent manner. Thereby a clear daily rhythm in feeding behavior strongly regulates timing of peripheral metabolism, separately from circadian clocks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0182.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Ralstonia solanacearum species complex; taxonomy; phylogenomic; plant bacteria; tomato wilt; bacterial wilt; brown rot of potato; Granville Wilt of tobacco; moko disease of banana; Bugtok disease; spewy eye
Online: 8 September 2020 (10:19:34 CEST)
The bacterial wilt pathogen, first known as Bacillus solanacearum, has undergone numerous taxonomic changes since its first description in 1896. The history and significance of this pathogen is covered in this review with an emphasis on the advances in technology that were used to support each reclassification that finally led to the current separation of Ralstonia solanacearum into three genomic species. Frequent name changes occurred as methodology transitioned from phenotypic, biochemical, and molecular studies, to genomics and functional genomics. The diversity, wide host range and geographical distribution of R. solanacearum has resulted in its inclusion in a “species complex” as genomic analyses of elucidated phylogenetic relationships among strains. Current advances in phylogenetics and functional genomics now open new avenues for research into the epidemiology and control of the devastating bacterial wilt disease.