ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0350.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: infant; breastfeeding; gut microbiome; Bifidobacterium
Online: 28 February 2022 (08:53:11 CET)
Bifidobacterium are a beneficial and dominant member of the breast-fed infant gut microbiome. However, the health benefits of Bifidobacterium are partially species dependent. Here we characterize the species and subspecies of Bifidobacterium present in breastfed infants around the world. Across populations, three distinct patterns of Bifidobacterium colonization emerged: 1) Dominance of Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis, 2) Prevalent Bifidobacterium of multiple species, and 3) Frequent absence of Bifidobacterium. These patterns appear related to country history of breastfeeding, with infants in countries with historically high rates of long duration breastfeeding more likely to be colonized by B. longum subspecies infantis compared with infants in countries with histories of shorter duration breastfeeding. These findings highlight the need to consider historical and cultural influences on gut commensal survival influence present day colonization patterns in order to understand epidemiological transmission patterns of Bifidobacterium and other major gut commensals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0786.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, Working class, Women, Knowledge.
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:27:52 CEST)
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 months of life improves the growth, health and survival status of newborns. Breastfeeding has been accepted as the most vital intervention for reducing infant mortality and ensuring optimal growth and development of children. Objectives: The general objective was to identify the factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding among working class women in selected wards in Egbedore Local Government in Osun state, Nigeria. Methodology: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Leslie Kish formula was used for sample size calculation and multistage sampling was used in selecting 316 working class women for the study. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 and level of significance was set at 5%. Results: 58% of the respondents were between the ages of 25-30. 72% demonstrated good understanding of exclusive breastfeeding based on the 6 months WHO recommendation for exclusive breast feeding, 25.9% had a fair knowledge and awareness of exclusive breastfeeding. 63.3% of the working class mother has a good practice of exclusive breast feeding, 19.6% of the women moderately practices exclusive breastfeeding while 17.1% poorly practices exclusive breastfeeding. Less than 3-months maternity leave for mothers, lack of crèche closer to place of work and lack of breastfeeding break were identified as barriers to exclusive breastfeeding practices among the working class women. The findings demonstrated a significant relationship between knowledge and practices of exclusively breastfeeding among working class women (P-value .009). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that working class women had good knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding and this influenced their breastfeeding practices. A good knowledge was associated with favorable attitudes to the practice of exclusive breast feeding. To derive long-term benefits from early childhood nutrition, interventions should focus on health education and community-based sensitization programs on the needs for mothers to engage in exclusive breast needing for global development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Phenylketonuria; PKU; Breastfeeding; complementary feeding; education
Online: 28 June 2023 (16:08:36 CEST)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited disorder of protein metabolism. It is generally treated using dietary management with limited intake of phenylalanine (Phe). Partial breastfeeding (BF) is encouraged among mothers of infants with PKU, together with a Phe-free mixture of synthetic amino acids. We aimed to describe our current BF rates and complementary feeding practices, as well as examining parental experiences of infant feeding. The aim was to better understand the challenges faced by families so improvements can be made to clinical care. A chart review was carried out on 39 PKU patients, examining the BF rate and duration, use of second stage synthetic protein (SP) and average complementary feeding age. A parental questionnaire on complementary feeding and BF experience was designed. 26% of babies were partially breastfed at three months. 70% of mums would like to have breastfed for longer and cited PKU as a reason for stop-ping. 52% parents reported challenges during the complementary feeding process including food refusal, protein calculation and anxiety around maintaining good Phe levels. Suggestions to improve BF continuation and duration include active promotion of the benefits and suitability, access to lactation consultant and peer support. The delay in introducing a second stage SP may contribute to long-term bottle use for SP. Improved patient education, written resources and sup-port is necessary to improve food choices and long term acceptance of SP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: early initiation of breastfeeding; exclusive breastfeeding; anemia; nutritional status; infants under six months; Syrian refugees; Lebanon
Online: 16 September 2022 (02:01:22 CEST)
The objective is to describe infant feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants under six months among Syrian refugees in Greater Beirut, Lebanon. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Syrian refugee mothers with children under five years (July-October 2018), mothers with infants under six months were included in the analysis (n=114). Additionally, eleven focus groups discussions were conducted to explore supportive factors and barriers associated with early breastfeeding practices. The prevalence of pre-lacteal feeding was high (62.5%), whereas early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) was low (31%), and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) very low (24.6%). About one-fifth of the infants were suffering from anemia (20.5%) and 9.6% were wasted. Supporting factors of adequate infant feeding practices comprised knowledge on maternal nutrition and EBF, in addition to receiving support from healthcare professionals and family members. Identified barriers included preterm delivery, pre-lacteal feeding, an at-risk waist circumference and moderate to severe depression among mothers, bottle feeding, early introduction of food, maternal health reasons, breastmilk substitutes’ distribution, and misinformation offered by mothers-in-law. To address sub-optimal feeding practices documented among Syrian refugees in our study, existing infant and young child feeding policies and programs need to be strengthened and revised to tackle the identified gaps.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Breastfeeding; Infants; Bangladesh; Morbidity; Adolescent mothers; Mortality
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:04:09 CET)
Optimal breastfeeding practices among mothers have been proven to have health and economic benefits, but evidence on breastfeeding practices among adolescent mothers in Bangladesh is limited. Hence, this study aims to estimate breastfeeding indicators and factors associated with selected feeding practices. The sample included 2554 children aged 0-23 months of adolescent mothers aged 12-19 years from four Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys collected between 2004 and 2014. Breastfeeding indicators were estimated using World Health Organization indicators. Selected feeding indicators were examined against potential confounding factors using univariate and multivariate analyses. Only 42.2% of adolescent mothers initiated breastfeeding within the first hour of birth, 53% exclusively breastfed their infants, predominant breastfeeding was 17.3%, and 15.7% bottle-fed their children. Parity (2-3 children), older infants and adolescent mothers who made postnatal check-up after two days were associated with increased exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. Adolescent mothers aged 12-18 years and who watched television were less likely to delay breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of birth. Adolescent mothers who delivered at home (adjusted OR=2.63, 95% CI:1.86, 3.74) and made postnatal check-up after two days (adjusted OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.30) were significantly more likely to delay initiation breastfeeding within the first hour of birth. Younger infants, adolescent mothers living in Barisal region and who listened to radio reported increased odds of predominant breastfeeding and increased odds for bottle-feeding included male infants, an infant aged 0-5 months, Adolescent mothers who had eight or more antenatal clinic visits and richest wealth quintiles. In order for Bangladesh to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 and 3 by 2030, breastfeeding promotion programmes should discourage bottle-feeding among adolescent mothers from richest households and promote early initiation of breastfeeding especially among adolescent mothers who delivered at home and had late postnatal check-up after delivery
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breastfeeding; telemedicine; lactation support; telelactation; COVID-19
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:09:48 CET)
The objectives were to identify conditions under which mothers may be willing to use telelactation and explore associations between participant characteristics, willingness, and beliefs regarding telelactation use. Mothers 2-8 weeks postpartum were recruited from two Florida maternal care sites and surveyed to assess demographics, breastfeeding initiation, and potential telelactation use. Analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. Of the 88 participants, most were white, married, earned less than $50,000 per year, had access to technology, and were willing to use telelactation if it was free (80.7%) or over a secure server (63.6%). Fifty-six percent were willing to use telelactation if it involved feeding the baby without a cover, but only 45.5% were willing if their nipples may be seen. Those with higher odds of willingness to use telelaction under these modesty conditions were experienced using videochat, white, married, and of higher income. Mothers with security concerns had six times the odds of being uncomfortable with telelactation compared to mothers without concerns. While telelactation can improve access to critical services, willingness to use telelactation may depend on conditions of use and sociodemographics. During the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, these findings offer important insights for lactation professionals implementing virtual consultations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Drospirenone 4mg; breastfeeding; plasma concentration; milk concentration
Online: 24 May 2020 (20:26:11 CEST)
Objective: The primary objective of this trial was to assess the transfer of drospirenone to breast milk after daily administration of an oral test preparation containing 4 mg of drospirenone at the steady state. The secondary objective of the trial was to assess the safety of the preparation based on safety clinical and laboratory measurements (at the beginning and at the end of the trial) and reporting of adverse events and/or adverse drug reactions. Patients and Methods: This was an open label, non-comparative single center study. Drospirenone 4mg per day was the first postpartum contraceptive for the study participants who were no longer breastfeeding yet were still lactating. It was administered for 7 (seven) days to achieve steady-state concentration. All participants were volunteers who planned to use oral contraceptives as their family planning method in the future. Results: A total number of 12 volunteers completed the trial according to the protocol and the samples of all the 12 study completers were analyzed. The average concentration-time curve of drospirenone in plasma 24 h after the administration of the last dose (AUC(0-24h)) was 635.33 ng*h/mL and 120 h after the single repeat dose administration (AUC(0-120h) was 1180.57 ng*h/mL, respectively. The average Cmax was 48.64 ng/mL. The average concentration-time curve of drospirenone in milk 24 h after the administration of the last dose (AUC(0-24h)) was 134.35 ng*h/mL and 120 h after the single repeat dose administration (AUC(0-120h) was 227.17 ng*h/mL respectively. The average Cmax was 10.34 ng/mL. Conclusion: On average 18.13% of plasma drospirenone made it to breast milk and the highest concentration of drospirenone in breast milk was 17.55% of that in plasma. The total quantity of drospirenone passing to breast milk is on average 4478 ng during a 24 h period representing 0.11% of the maternal daily dose. Thus, at the recommended doses, no effects on breastfed newborns/infants are anticipated with drospirenone 4 mg.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0404.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: milk; human; microbiota; microbiome; extracellular vesicle; breastfeeding
Online: 23 April 2020 (05:11:19 CEST)
The microbiota of human breast milk (HBM) contributes to infant gut colonization; however, whether bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in HBM or might contribute to this process remains unknown. In the present study, we characterized the HBM microbiota of healthy Korean mothers and measured the key bacteria likely affecting infant gut colonization by analyzing both the microbiota and bacterial EVs. A total of 22 HBM samples were collected from lactating mothers. The DNA of bacteria and bacteria-derived EVs was extracted from each sample. Gene analysis was performed using Illumina MiSeq. Firmicutes accounted for the largest portion among the phyla, followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, and Actinobacteria in both bacteria and bacterial EV samples. At the genus level, Streptococcus (25.1%) and Staphylococcus (10.7%) were predominant in bacterial samples, whereas Bacteroides (9.1%), Acinetobacter (6.9%), and Lactobacillaceae(f) (5.5%) were prevalent in bacterial EV samples. Several genera including Bifidobacterium were significantly positively correlated between the two samples. Our findings reveal the diverse bacterial communities in HBM of healthy lactating mothers and suggest the presence of key bacteria with metabolic activity in HBM and that EVs derived from these bacteria may contribute to the vertical transfer of gut microbiota from mother to infant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: asthma; breastfeeding; milk other than breast milk
Online: 3 October 2018 (11:32:20 CEST)
Prevalence of asthma in Australian children is amongst the highest in the world. Although breastfeeding positively influences infants’ immunity, early introduction of Milk Other than Breast Milk (MOTBM) may also play an important role in the development of Asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the introduction of MOTBM in the first six months after birth and the development of reported persistent asthma in children 3-years old. As sample of 1,121 children were extracted from the Environments for Healthy Living longitudinal birth cohort study. Introduction of MOTBM during the first six months after birth increased the risk of development of persistent asthma by almost two-folds (Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR): 1.71, 95%CI: 1.03-2.83, p= 0.038). This study indicates that the introduction of MOTBM in the first six months of life is a risk factor for asthma incidence among children 3 years old or younger. This result is important in explaining the benefits of breastfeeding as part of public health interventions to encourage mothers to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration and avoid introduction of MOTBM in the first six months after childbirth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: paracetamol; breastfeeding; post; childhood; prophylactic; immunization; vaccination
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:09:16 CET)
Background: Paracetamol may be use as antipyretic agent for the treatment of fever, as well as an analgesic in the treatment of mild to moderate pain on post vaccination in infants. The use of Paracetamol during fever may be or may not be recommended since it may alter natural human body immune response although it may reduce pain. Objectives: This study described the relevancy of Paracetamol use post infants vaccination based on data collection systematic review analyses. This study aims to describe the effectiveness of breastfeeding in reducing pain and Paracetamol in reducing fever and pain post infants vaccination. Data Sources and Study Selection: Electronic literature search by hand searching six (6) databases which include Ovid LWW Total Access Collection and Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Alled Health Literature) Plus with Fulltext, Science Direct, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, Proquest Education Journal and Proquest Health and Medical Complete. Additionally, manual reference checks of all articles on Paracetamol and breastfeeding post infants vaccination published in English Language between 1978 and 2017. Two level of screening were used on 9614 citations which include screening of abstracts and titles followed by full text screening. Data Synthesis: Data synthesis were tabulated into study characteristics, quality and effects. Authors of trials were not contacted for further details or provision of original data if the published report contained insufficient information. The study findings, as reported by the authors, were included in this review. The data in this research cannot be pool due to not enough data regarding odd ratio or relative risk as well as confidence interval in each study. Results: Systematic review of breastfeeding included three (3) studies from 9614 of database searching. The reviews of all these three (3) studies found significant benefit from breastfed in pain score and duration of crying as well as behavioral changes. None study stated the unbeneficial of breastfeeding before, during and after immunization. Meanwhile, systematic review of Paracetamol effectiveness included four (4) studies from 1177 of database searching. The reviews of two (2) studies found significant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fever and only one (1) study found significant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fussiness. On the other hand, there was one (1) study found not signifiant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fever. Other than that, there were two (2) studies evaluate the safety of prophylactic Paracetamol which revealed different outcomes, in which study by Prymula et. al. in 2009 found that antibody responses to several antigens were reduced significantly, and the other study by Uhari et. al. in 1988 found that antibody titres to DTP bacteria of placebo and PCM not differ significantly. Thus, Paracetamol seems to be not relevant post infants vaccination and breastfeeding was found to be beneficial post infants vaccination. Conclusions: The relevancy of giving Paracetamol post all types of vaccination may be questionable since the safety issue of this intervention may be arised. Breastfeeding before, during and after immunization are recommended for pain reduction as it was proved effectively. Finally, in deciding Paracetamol to be of rational use following infants immunization, it may need for further research which include in depth quantitative and qualitative studies to identify specific problem and causes regarding this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0940.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: nonylphenol; breast milk; HPLC-SPE analysis, breastfeeding, lifestyle
Online: 15 November 2023 (04:08:43 CET)
: Nonylphenol is an endocrine disruptor who belongs to alkylphenol group of chemicals and its high occurrence in the environment can caused an adverse effect on human health. The breast milk can serve as a marker to take measure of human exposure to these chemicals through different routes of exposure. In this study, the influence of different factors (kind of wastes mothers drink, consummation of fish, pork and beef; using gloves, mail polish, using vitamins and medication) on the concentration on nonylphenol in breast milk were studied. Concentrations of nonylphenol in breast milk were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The lowest and highest concentration of nonylphenol in breast milk was 0.97 ng/mL and 4.37 ng/mL, respectively. The selected factors such as pork, beef, fish consumption, vitamin supplementation, medication, using of gloves, nail polish and gel nails were observed in relation to 4-nonylphenol concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1131.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: nonylphenol; breast milk; HPLC-SPE analysis; breastfeeding; lifestyle
Online: 18 September 2023 (13:29:54 CEST)
Nonylphenol is a endocrine disruptors who belongs to alkyphenol groups. It´s high occurrence in the environment can caused an adverse effect on human health. The breast milk can serve as a marker to take measure of human exposure to these chemicals through different routes of exposure. In this study, the influence of different factors (including the length of accommodation, kind of wastes mothers drink, con summation of fish, pork and beef; using gloves, mail polish, using vitamins and medication) on the concentration on nonylphenol in breast milk were studied. The length of accommodation has a statistically significant effect on nonylphenol, concentration in breast milk (p value was 0.02). Other mentioned factors had not a significant influence on nonylphenol values.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0969.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: electrocardiography; infant formula; breastfeeding; body mass index; asthma
Online: 14 June 2023 (03:36:23 CEST)
BACKGROUND: It has been known for decades that breastfeeding leads to a lower risk of asthma, respiratory infections, or metabolic syndrome at school age. In addition, evidence is now accumulating on the influence of breast milk on the shape, volume, or function of the heart and lungs. Within this field of research into the effects of breast milk on the structure of the heart and lungs, we have set out to analyze the differential electrocardiographic characteristics of schoolchildren who were once breastfed. METHOD: Observational cross-sectional study including 138 children aged 6 or 12 consecutively presenting to a well-child clinic between May and December 2022. Inclusion criteria: the ability to perform reproducible ECG records, the feasibility of weighing and measuring patient, and breastfeeding data collected from birth. RESULTS: Using the 40º cut-off value for the mean P-wave axis among schoolchildren, 76% of never breastfed children in our sample have a P-wave axis in a more vertical position than the mean as compared to 58% of ever-breastfed children (OR:2.25;95%CI:3.13-1.36); there was no other significant difference between infant feeding groups in somatometric characteristics or ECG parameters, CONCLUSION: We found a significant difference of the mean values of the P-wave axis between never and ever breastfed children. Although this report should be approached cautiously, these findings add to the renewed interest in discerning developmental interventions to improve cardiovascular health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1715.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia; extremely preterm infants; human milk; breastfeeding
Online: 25 May 2023 (02:28:28 CEST)
Introduction The increase in survival of extremely preterm infants has led to increased rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Therefore, a potential role of human milk feeding in protecting against this condition has been suggested. Material and methods Retrospective descriptive study based on data about morbidity in the population of infants born from 22+0 to 26+6 weeks of gestation, included in the Spanish network SEN1500 during the period 2004-2019 and who were alive at discharge. The primary outcome was moderate-severe BPD. In addition, associated conditions were studied, including breastfeeding at discharge. The temporal trends of BPD and breastfeeding rates at discharge were also studied. Results In the study population of 4341 infants who survived to discharge, the rate of moderate-severe BPD was 43,7% and increased over the period to a rate >50% in the last three years. The factors significantly associated with a higher risk of moderate-severe BPD were male sex, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, patent ductus arteriosus, and late-onset sepsis. Exclusive human milk feeding at discharge and any amount of human milk at discharge were associated with a lower incidence of moderate-severe BPD (OR 0.752, 95% CI 0.629-0.901, and OR 0.714, 95% CI 0.602-0.847, respectively). The rates of human milk at discharge in infants with moderate-severe BPD increased over the period. In the last years, more than one-third of extremely preterm infants were discharged on exclusive human milk feeds, and about two-thirds of them on any amount of human milk feeding. Conclusions The results of the present study strongly support the role of any amount of human milk in preventing BDP in extremely preterm infants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: female; HIV infections; breastfeeding; vertical transmission; patient’s autonomy.
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:55:13 CET)
Background: Vertical transmission of HIV infection can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or through breastfeeding. The recommendations issued by the various international guidelines (WHO 2010, EACS 2017, DHHS 2017) on the safety of breastfeeding of HIV-infected women in effective antiretroviral treatment do not provide univocal indications referring to individual countries the choice to advise or advise against such procedure. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a small cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women who, despite the information received, decided to breastfeed their children. The observation was carried out in the period between March 2017 and June 2021. In all newborns, prophylaxis therapy was initiated at birth, according to the treatment guidelines, the scheme adopted involved the administration of zidovudine (AZT) orally for 4 weeks, started immediately after the childbirth. Breastfeeding time was, on average, 5 months. Results: No contagion was diagnosed. All infants were tested for HIV-RNA at birth, 1, 3, and 6 months after birth, and 1, 3 and 3 months after stopping breastfeeding. Conclusions: The data obtained represent, in our opinion, a solicitation to discuss and re-evaluate scientific evidence that starting from "Undetectable Equals Untransmittable" (U = U) can open a scientific and cultural review of breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: ankyloglossia; breastfeeding; Coryllos; frenotomy; lingual frenulum; newborn; tongue tie
Online: 8 November 2022 (16:07:13 CET)
Ankyloglossia is a condition of limited tongue mobility caused by a short lingual frenulum. The diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia are still controversial. The main clinical problem encountered during breastfeeding is difficulty in sucking and its clinical reflections. This study aims to evaluate the newborn population born regarding ankyloglossia and to determine the results of frenotomy. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study among newborns born in a tertiary hospital. We included all newborns born between January 1 and June 30, 2022. The study algorithm was determined before the defined dates and data were recorded during the screening period. The recorded data were retrospectively collected from the files. Within six months, 705 babies were born. Due to additional problems and other conditions that prevent breastfeeding, evaluable data of 207 (29.3%) infants could not be provided. Of the remaining 498 infants, 234 (33.2%) had ankyloglossia. Breastfeeding was unsuccessful before frenotomy in 12 Coryllos type-1 patients, and all had difficulty in sucking. Frenotomy was performed within the three-months follow-up period in all patients with complaints of inability to firmly grasp the breast, nipple slipping from the mouth, and nipple biting during the first 24 hours. In terms of breastfeeding problems, regardless of the anatomical typology, frenotomy can be performed safely in the early life with successful results. If deficiencies or difficulties in nursing is noticed in ankyloglossia patients even at the first control, frenotomy should be recommended in clinical conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Breastfeeding; The theory of planned behavior; Psycho-social Factors
Online: 26 October 2022 (03:24:10 CEST)
Psycho-social factors are key factors to the powerlessness of infant mothers who breastfeed. As the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is widely used to investigate the correlation between psycho-social factors and breastfeeding behavior, this study aims to examine the utility of TPB constructs to predict breastfeeding behavior and understand TPB-based psycho-social factors’ effectiveness on breastfeeding behavior. A narrative review consulting Web of Science, Scopus, Ebsco, PubMed, and PsycInfo in English and Chinese has been conducted, with the inclusion of twenty studies published between January 2000 and May 2022. It is reported that psycho-social factors based on TPB for breastfeeding such as affective attitude, instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (including self-efficacy), moral norm, breastfeeding knowledge, and self-identity can effectively explain the breastfeeding behavior. Future research should improve the theoretical model of TPB-based breastfeeding and implement more localized prediction and intervention studies on breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Breastfeeding; Evidence-based Nursing; Health Promotion; Women's Health; Newborn.
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:00:23 CEST)
Background: It is clear that breastfeeding is the gold standard of infant feeding because of the many advantages it offers to both the child and the mother. Objective: to identity the main reasons for cessation breastfeeding declares by the mother themselves during the first year. Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting 969 newborns in a third level hospital in Spain. The main maternal variables studied were: maternal age, parity, educational level, work occupation, smoking habit, gestational age, birth, weigh, feeding type, and duration of breastfeeding. All the participants were followed for a year to determinate the duration of breastfeeding and to know the reason of the abandonment. Results: At 6 months, the percentage of maternal lactation was cut in half and only 24.6% of these mothers maintain. Mainly 15.80% of the mothers decide to give up the exclusive maternal lactation of their own free desire, and 15.41% because they suspect hypogalactia. The work cause is the third reason of abandonment in both cases. Conclusions: Our results show the need to improve the health policies of promotion, protection and support the initiation of breastfeeding. In particular, our results show the importance of the work factor with particular emphasis on improving conciliation measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: breastfeeding; mortality; obesity; overweight; stunting; wasting; education; life expectancy
Online: 20 March 2018 (10:29:32 CET)
Background: The preexistence of obesity with nutritional anaemia is becoming an increasing problem in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Much controversy exists around the role of continued breastfeeding in alleviating the health and survival consequences of these problems in the region. Aim: To examine trends and relationships of nutritional anaemia (NA) in women and children under-five years of age (CU5) with obesity and breastfeeding practices in the EMR. Methods: Data from regional database banks of WHO and UNICEF for anaemia in pregnant and non-pregnant women and CU5 from 22 countries in EMR were retrieved, compiled, and statistically analyzed. Breastfeeding indicators for timely first suckle (TFS), exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and continued breastfeeding for 12 (BFC12) and 24 months (BFC24), low-birth-weight (LBW), stunting, overweight, total fertility rates (TFR) and mortality rates (MR) were correlated with nutritional anaemia and analyzed by income groups into 5 low income countries (LIC), 11 middle income countries (MIC) and 6 high income countries (HIC). Results: Trends in mean prevalence of anaemia in women showed a concave curve increasing after a short decrease in the early 2000 in all income groups (P > 0.05). Trends in anaemia in the CU5 exhibited a steep decrease from a mean of 52.59 ± 16.4 in 2000 to 37.3 ± 14.9 in 2016 at P < 0.002, the steep decline was significant in HIC (P < 0.01) and MIC (P < 0.02), but not for LIC (P > 0.05). Anaemia prevalence in women and CU5 was significantly correlated to LBW, stunting, and with overweight and obesity in adults but negatively in CU5. All age specific MRs were highly correlated with anaemia in pregnant, non-pregnant and CU5 at P < 0.001 and TFR at P < 0.05. BFC for shorter durations was negatively correlated with anaemia in pregnant women (r-0.5) at P < 0.05 and was positively correlated in MIC and HIC. In non-pregnant women, BFC12 and BFC 24 correlated positively with anaemia prevalence in all three income groups at P < 0.01. Conclusions: Completing optimal breastfeeding for two years should be promoted to protect women and CU5 from anemia and obesity. Nutritional anemia during pregnancy increases regional rates of LBW, stunting and mortality. Spacing out births by encouraging longer duration of breastfeeding, to replenish iron stores, can help alleviate many of the health and nutritional problems in the region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1577.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Early life; Breastfeeding; Milk; Microbiota; Immune system; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Online: 26 November 2023 (06:05:40 CET)
The first 1000 days of life is a critical period that contributes significantly to the programming of an individual's future health. Among the many changes that occur during this period, there is growing evidence that the establishment of a healthy gut microbiota early in life plays an important role in the prevention of both short- and long-term health problems. Numerous publications suggest that the quality of gut microbiota colonization depends on several dietary factors, including breastfeeding. In this respect, a relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been suggested. IBD are chronic intestinal diseases in which perinatal factors may be partly responsible for its onset. We propose to review the existence of links between breastfeeding and IBD, based on experimental and clinical studies. Overall, despite encouraging experimental data in rodents, the association between breastfeeding and the development of IBD remains controversial in humans, partly due to considerable heterogeneity between clinical studies. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding is probably decisive for its lasting effect on IBD. Thus, specific improvements in our knowledge could support dietary interventions targeting the gut microbiome, such as the early use of prebiotics, probiotics or postbiotics in order to prevent the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: adenoid hypertrophy; breastfeeding; snoring; open mouth breathing, acute otitis media
Online: 5 November 2023 (17:28:39 CET)
Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between breastfeeding duration and adenoid size, snoring and acute otitis media (AOM). Methods: We analyzed the medical history, reported symptoms, ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, and flexible nasopharyngoscopy examination of 145 children aged 3-5 years. Results: Breastfeeding duration of 3 and 6 months or more had a significant effect on the reduction of snoring (p = 0.021; p = 0.039). However, it had no effect on the adenoid size, mucus coverage and sleeping with an open mouth. Snoring was correlated with open mouth sleeping (p < 0.001), adenoid size with a 75% A/C ratio or more (p < 0.001), and adenoid mucus coverage in the Mucus of Adenoid Scale by Nasopharyngoscopy Assessment - MASNA scale (p = 0.009). Children who were breastfed for less than 3 months had more than a 4-fold greater risk of snoring. There was a statistically significant correlation between AOM and gender (p = 0.033), breastfeeding duration in groups fed 1, 3 or 6 months or more (p = 0.018; p = 0.004; p = 0.004) and those fed with mother’s breast milk 3 or 6 months or more (p = 0.009; p = 0.010). Moreover, a correlation was found between adenoid size and mucus coverage, tympanogram, and open-mouth sleeping (p < 0.001). Independent factors of snoring in 3- to 5-year-old children were breastfeeding duration of less than 3 months (p = 0.032), adenoid size with an A/C ratio of 75% or more (p = 0.023) and open mouth sleeping (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Children breastfed for 3 and 6 months or more exhibited reduced rates of snoring. There was no effect of breastfeeding duration on adenoid size in children aged 3 to 5 years, suggesting that the link between breastfeeding duration and snoring is primarily associated with craniofacial development and muscle tone stimulation. A breastfeeding duration of 1 month or more plays a key role in reducing the rate of AOM. The mother’s milk plays a protective role against AOM. The presence of mucus might be responsible for snoring in preschool children. A medical history of breastfeeding should be taken into consideration when snoring children are suspected of adenoid hypertrophy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0284.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: human milk; breastfeeding; activin A; preeclampsia; newborn nutrition; neuro-biomarker
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:28:36 CEST)
Background: It is known that Preeclampsia affects the lactogenesis. However, data on effects of this pathology on the human milk neurobiomarkers composition are not available. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of this gestational pathology on Activin A levels, a neurobi-omarker known to play an important role in the development and protection of the central nerv-ous system. Methods: The women recruited were divided in two different study groups: preeclamptic or normotensive women. All the human milk samples were collected using the same procedure. Activin A was quantified using an ELISA test. To investigate the effect of Preeclampsia on the Activin A concentration in the 3 lactation phases, mixed linear model with unistructural covariance structure, mother as random effect, and fixed effects were performed. Results: Activin A was detected in all samples. There were no significant differences between Preeclamptic and Normotensive women. The only significant effect is related to the lactation phase: it is significant the difference between colostrum and mature milk (p<0.01). In conclusion these results allow us to affirm that breast milk beneficial properties are maintained even if preeclampsia occurs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0077.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: questionnaire development; lactation; breastfeeding; analgesics; education; knowledge assessment; midwife; nurse
Online: 5 October 2021 (10:57:49 CEST)
There is a need to assess the knowledge of healthcare providers on the use of maternal analgesics during lactation, while a valid instrument is not yet available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire on the knowledge of analgesics (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin, tramadol, codeine, oxycodone) during lactation, using a prospective, stepwise approach. To generate a pool of item subgroups, literature was assessed as first step. This preliminary version was subsequently reviewed in two focus groups [midwives (n=4), pediatric nurses (n=6)], followed by an expert panel (n=7, 2 rounds) to confirm content validity [item-level and scale content validity]. This resulted in a instrument consisting of 33 questions, and 5 clincial case descriptions specific for both disciplines. Based on known-groups validity between midwives and pediatric nurses (assuming an a priori difference related to their curricula), high construct validity was subsequently demonstrated in a pilot e-survey (86 midwives, 73 pediatric nurses). We therefore conclude that an instrument to assess knowledge on lactation-related exposure to analgesics was generated, that can be further developed and validated. Furthermore, pilot findings suggest suboptimal knowledge for both professions, so that adaptations in their curricula and postgraduate training are warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: fenugreek; milk production; milk composition; galactagogue; insulin; hypoglycemic; constituents; Diabetes, Breastfeeding
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:31:18 CEST)
This scoping review comprehensively explores the existing literature on fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), a versatile herb known for its culinary and traditional medicinal uses. The review focuses on two key aspects: the hypoglycemic mechanism of fenugreek and its impact on milk production in breastfeeding women. By systematically analyzing and synthesizing the available evidence, this review aims to enhance our understanding of fenugreek's potential applications and identify research gaps for future systematic reviews. The search strategy targeted English-language animal studies published within the last five years that specifically investigated fenugreek's hypoglycemic mechanism and its effects on milk production. A total of 15,236 articles were initially identified from databases such as PubMed, Sci finder and ScienceDirect. After a rigorous selection process, including thorough evaluation of titles, abstracts, and full-texts, a subset of articles (including those titled "Impact of Fenugreek on Milk Production in Rodent Models of Lactation Challenge" and "Fenugreek Stimulates the Expression of Genes Involved in Milk Synthesis and Milk Flow through Modulation of Insulin/GH/IGF-1 Axis and Oxytocin Secretion") were included for detailed analysis. The findings 18 articles from the included studies demonstrate promising results regarding fenugreek's potential to stimulate milk production and regulate blood glucose levels. However, further research is necessary to unravel the underlying molecular pathways, establish optimal dosage guidelines, and assess long-term side effects. Overall, this scoping review offers valuable insights for lactating women seeking to enhance milk production and individuals managing blood sugar levels, providing potential alternative approaches for supporting lactation and glycemic control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Human milk; breastfeeding; GSH; LOOHs; preeclampsia; gestational diabetes mellitus; newborn nutrition
Online: 1 September 2023 (13:45:53 CEST)
Background. Human Milk (HM) is a dynamic nourishment: its composition is influenced by several conditions such as gestational age, maternal diet and ethnicity. It appears important evaluate the impact that gestational diseases have on HM components and if their presence, as source of oxidative stress in the mother, influence milk’s redox homeostasis. To assess Preeclampsia (PE) and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) effect on milk’s total oxidative load, we chose to investigate both oxidative and antioxidant aspects, with respectively Lipid hydrop-eroxides (LOOHs) and Glutathione (GSH)). Methods. GSH and LOOHs were quantified using an ELISA test. To investigate the effect of pathology on redox homeostasis, mixed linear model with unistructural covariance structure was performed. Results. A total of 120 mothers were re-cruited. The GSH concentration results significant lower in GDM women than in healthy only in colostrum (p<0.01). No other differences emerged. LOOHs was not detectable in almost all the samples. Discussion. Our study is the first to extensively evaluate these components in the HM of women with these gestational pathologies. The main observation is that GDM can alter the anti-oxidant composition of HM mainly in colostrum, but in case of PE, the composition of HM milk is preserved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: breastfeeding; feeding practices; infant feeding; nutrition; malnutrition; pediatrics; primary health care
Online: 9 January 2018 (05:23:01 CET)
Infant malnutrition remains as an important cause of death and disability, Haiti has the highest prevalence in America, so preventive strategies are needed. Our objective was to assess infant and young children malnutrition in Haiti and to study an association to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended feeding practices adherence. Cross-sectional study of children younger than 2 years old, recruited at Saint Espri Health Center, Port Au Prince (August to September 2014). We registered feeding practices, social and demographic data, and performed anthropometry (WHO-2006 standard). We evaluated 278 infants and young children, 8.08 ± 6.5 months old, 53.2% female. 18.35% had underweight; 13.31% were stunted and 13.67% had moderate or severe wasting. Malnutrition was associated to male gender, older age, lower education of mothers and higher number of siblings. The adherence to WHO recommended practices for breastfeeding was from 11.8 to 97.9% and was related to a lower prevalence of malnutrition. For complementary food, adherence was 9.7 to 90.3%, also associated to lower malnutrition. Conclusion: Prevalence of infant and young children malnutrition in this Haitian Health Center population was high, related to some risk factors. The adherence to WHO recommended feeding practices was associated to a better nutritional status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1655.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: breastfeeding; on-site nurse; on-call nurse; rooming in; mother-newborn dyad
Online: 23 June 2023 (10:43:48 CEST)
Background: Exclusively breastfeeding your newborn while in the hospital is imperative for suc-cessful breastfeeding at home. This study will investigate if having a nurse on-site during rooming-in can enhance the proportion of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods: We carried out a prospective cohort study to assess exclusive breastfeeding in the first three months of life among two Neona-tology Units in Southern Italy with different hospital settings. The Ente Ecclesiastico Miulli of Ac-quaviva delle Fonti had on-site nurses available 24/7 (on-site group), while the Policlinico of Bari had nurses available on call 24/7 from the Neonatology Unit (on-call group). Results: Between January 3rd and March 31st, 2018, a total of 564 sets of mothers and babies were admitted - 299 on-site and 265 on-call. The exclusive breastfeeding rate for the entire group was 76.4% at 90 days, demonstrating the positive impact of rooming-in and nursing, regardless of the setting. Infants delivered via ce-sarean section in the on-site group demonstrated higher rates of exclusive breastfeeding at both 30 and 90 days of life. Conclusions: Our research indicates that having a nurse available at all times is crucial for promptly identifying any problems with breastfeeding. We highly suggest having an on-site nurse present during rooming-in for mothers who have had a caesarean delivery. This nurse should continuously promote exclusive breastfeeding until the baby is three months old.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: newborn; cord care; newborn bathing; home deliveries; institutional deliveries; birth attendants; breastfeeding
Online: 19 January 2023 (08:41:54 CET)
Introduction: In the marginalised countries most neglected health issue is Newborn mortality. A study was undertaken to assess the influence of factors and newborn care practices influencing newborn health in the rural area of Bareilly district. Methodology: The Descriptive cross-sectional study was organized in the rural areas of Bareilly. Study participants were selected based on the mothers who gave birth to a baby during the last six months. The mothers who delivered in that area within six months were included, and using the semi-structured questionnaire, data was collected. Data analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS 2021 version for windows. Results: Mothers initiating early breastfeeding were more commonly 78 (52.3%) observed in the younger mothers at 24-29 years, followed by 48(32.3%) at 30-35 years, the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Delayed bathing was observed in nearly 125 (70.1%) three fourth in the age of 24-29 years, followed by 29 (16.8%) in the age period 30-35 years. It was observed that unsafe cord care practices were observed more among 8(53.4%) nuclear families than 7(46.6%) joint families, and it was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The practice of essential newborn care still needs to improve in Bareilly; there is a need to create awareness to the mothers and family members on newborn and early neonatal care aspects, such as promoting exclusive and early initiation of breastfeeding and delayed bathing practices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: infant; premature; pain; acupuncture; skin to skin contact; sucrose; massage; musical therapy; breastfeeding
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:09:31 CEST)
Pain is a major problem in sick newborn infants, especially for those needing intensive care. Pharmacological pain relief is the most commonly used but may be ineffective, have side effects, including long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. The effectiveness and safety of alternative analgesic methods are ambiguous. The objective is to review the effectiveness and safety of non-pharmacological methods of pain relief in newborn infants and to identify those that are the most effective. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms: ‘infant’, ‘premature’, ‘pain’, ‘acupuncture’, ‘skin to skin contact’, ‘sucrose’ ‘massage’, ‘musical therapy’ and ‘breastfeeding’. We included 24 studies assessing different methods of non-pharmacological analgesic techniques. Most resulted in some degree of analgesia but many were ineffective and some were even detrimental. Sucrose, for example, was often ineffective but more effective than music therapy, massage, breast milk (for extremely premature infants) or non-invasive electrical stimulation acupuncture. There were also conflicting results for acupuncture, skin to skin care and musical therapy. Most non-pharmacological methods of analgesia provide some modicum of relief for preterm infants but none are completely effective and there is no clearly superior method. Study is also required to assess potential long-term consequences of any of these methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0188.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Zika virus; Zika virus infection; perinatal transmission; mother-to-child transmission; breast milk; breastfeeding
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:44:05 CET)
To gain new insights into the potential of mother-to-child transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) through breast milk or breastfeeding practices, we systematically searched regional and international databases and screened 1,658 non-duplicate records describing women with suspected or confirmed ZIKV infection, intending to breastfeed or give breast milk to an infant. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria and inform this analysis. These studies reported on 97 mother-children pairs who provided breast milk for ZIKV assessment. Seventeen breast milk samples from different women were found positive for ZIKV via RT-PCR, and ZIKV replication was found in cell cultures from five out of seven breast milk samples from different women. Only three out of six infants who had ZIKV infection were breastfed, no evidence of clinical complications were found to be associated with ZIKV RNA in breast milk. This review updates our previous report by synthesizing the evidence from 12 new articles and we find no evidence of mother-to-child transmission through breast milk intake or breastfeeding. As the certainty of the present evidence is low, additional studies are still warranted to completely understand any potential of transmission of ZIKV through breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1646.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: gut-brain axis; post-partum; depression; Limosilactobacillus reuteri PBS072; Bifidobacterium breve BB077; delivery; breastfeeding; probiotics
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:14:42 CEST)
Background: Post-delivery period could be characterized by psychological distress (e.g., anxiety, sadness, and irritability), leading to post-partum depression (PPD). Objective: The present clinical study assess the effect of probiotic supplementation containing Limosilactobacillus reuteri PBS072 and Bifidobacterium breve BB077 (4x109 CFU/day) on mother’s mood and breastfeeding quality during the first trimester after delivery. Methods: A Randomized Double Blind Controlled (RDBPC) trial has been carried out in 200 healthy new mothers divided into an active group taking a supplement containing Limosilactobacillus reuteri PBS072 and Bifidobacterium breve BB077 (4x109 CFU/day) plus multivitamins, and a control group (multivitamin complex only) for 90 days. Symptoms related to maternal depression and breastfeeding quality were evaluated at days 45 and 90 by Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short-Form (BSES-SF). Results: At days 45 and 90, probiotic treatment significantly ameliorated the mothers’ mood compared to the control treatment (p<0.001). Likewise, breastfeeding quality and baby’s cries significantly improved in the probiotic group (p<0.001). Conclusions: Microbiota alterations could influence post-delivery woman’s mental state. According to our results, L. reuteri PBS072 and B. breve BB077 are potential candidates able to improve stress resilience in the post-partum period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: workforce nutrition; nutrition outcomes; health outcomes; business outcomes; healthy food; health checks; nutrition counselling; nutrition education; breastfeeding support
Online: 14 March 2023 (12:25:34 CET)
One in three people globally suffer from at least one form of malnutrition, leading to poor health outcomes and low productivity in the workplace. The workplace offers an important, relatively unexploited opportunity to address malnutrition in all its forms. This literature review aims to understand the potential for impact of workforce nutrition programmes on nutrition, health, and business outcomes, based on high-strength-of-evidence studies. We conducted a systematic search on PubMed and a rapid hand-search on Google Scholar to identify systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials published between January 2010 and October 2021. In total, 26 records were included. We found that comprehensive workforce nutrition programmes, including a variety of intervention areas, and/or programmes targeting high-risk categories of workers (overweight/obese or (pre-)diabetic) were more likely to be effective on nutrition, health, and business outcomes. Within comprehensive and targeted programmes, individualized counselling and environmental modifications were often mentioned as the most effective components. However, a high degree of heterogeneity in outcome measures and programme designs made it difficult to draw strong conclusions on impact of workforce nutrition interventions. Limited evidence was found on business outcomes, longer-term effects of interventions, and programme implementation in LMICs. Therefore, further research is needed to address these evidence gaps.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0607.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: gut microbiota; human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs); complementary feeding; food allergy (FA); breastfeeding; first 1000 days of life; dysbiosis; newborns
Online: 8 August 2023 (07:13:59 CEST)
Background: allergic diseases and, in particular food allergy (FA), have been identified as one of the major diseases in the world. The first 1000 days of life can be a “window of opportunity” or a “window of susceptibility” during which several factors can predispose children to FA development. Changes in gut microbiota composition, from pregnancy to infancy, could have a pivotal role in this regard: some bacterial genus such as Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium seem to be protective from FA development, on the contrary Clostridium and Staphylococcus appear to be unprotective. Methods: we conducted a research through the most recent literature (2013-2023), using Pubmed and Scopus as databases. We included English original papers, clinical trials, metanalysis and reviews. Case reports, series and letters have been excluded. Results: during pregnancy, maternal diet can play a fundamental role in influencing gut microbiota composition of newborns. After birth, human milk can promote the development of protective microbial species by human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), that play a prebiotic role. Also complementary feeding can modify gut microbiota composition. Conclusions: the first two years of life are a critical period where several factors, in genetic predisposed children, can increase the risk of FA development.