ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0292.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: bread wheat, biochar, grain yield, natural water extracts
Online: 16 July 2018 (14:38:03 CEST)
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is staple of Pakistani people. However, its yield at farmer field is low as compared with its genetic potential. Integration of various crop and soil management strategies might be an option to enhance wheat productivity at farmer field. This 2-year experiment was conducted to check the influence of combine application of natural plant water extracts and biochar on the productvity of wheat during the winter season of 2015-16. The experiment consisted of seven treatment viz. (1) control (2) application of biochar (0.18 kg pot-1) alone, (3) application of sorghum water extract (SWE) alone, (4) application of moringa water extract (MWE) alone, (5) application of biochar + SWE, (6) application of biochar + MWE, (7) application of biochar + SWE+MWE. The results revealed that application of both crop water extracts in combination with biochar improved the growth and grain yield of wheat. Use of MWE in combination with biochar enhanced the grain weight, grain number and grain yield of wheat by 44, 14, and 24%, respectively than the control treatment. In crux, use of MWE in combination with biochar might be a viable option to improve the productivity of bread wheat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0172.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Red bread wheat; white bread wheat; flour; rheological properties
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:47:24 CET)
In this study, rheological properties of the bread wheat flour dough from 6 wheat genotypes were determined. For the pereparation of flour, 3 red bread (Pandas, Sagitorya, Pehlivan) and 3 white bread (Kaşifbey, Göktan, Ceyhan-99) were selected as wheat genotype. To determine the rheological properties of the wheat flour dough, farinograph, extensograph, mixolab and glutograph devices were used. According to the results of the Farinograph analysis, the average development time of wheat White and red genotypes were 1.95 minutes and 8.96 minutes, respectively. According to the extensograph results of the flour samples, the most extended stability value was determined with 7.47 min in Ceyhan-99 cultivar. As a result of the research, it was determined that flour yields of red bread varieties were higher other genotypes, gas retention capacities of white bread flours were showed high result in extensograph application and resistance of dough to elongation was higher. In the Mixolab analysis, it determined that white bread wheat varieties have higher values in terms of kneading properties and gluten properties, and red bread wheat varieties have higher values in values of viscosity, amylase value and starch retrogradation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0313.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Cistus incanus; wheat; bread; baking; physical properties; antioxidants
Online: 28 July 2019 (14:31:29 CEST)
Cistus incanus L. (CI) has been proposed as an innovative functional supplement of food products, and hence the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of dried CI on the properties of bread. Bread was prepared from white wheat flour supplemented with the addition of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% of ground CI. After the completion of baking process, various characteristics of the obtained bread product, such as yield, volume, porosity, acidity, color, and texture, were evaluated. In addition, total phenolic content (TPC), ABTS radical scavenging activity, CHEL chelating power, and ability to quench OH∙ radicals were measured. The results showed that the addition of CI to bread caused a reduction in the volume of bread, but texture of the crumbs was acceptable. Acidity and moisture content of bread were found to be increased following CI enrichment. Significant changes in the ash content and the color of bread crumbs were also observed. Bread incorporated with CI was characterized by significantly higher TPC and much higher antioxidant activity, as measured by ABTS, CHEL, and OH∙ radicals, compared to control bread. Supplementation of bread with 3% CI produced a product with desirable characteristics which was also favored by consumers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0464.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: wheat aleurone; dietary fibre; extraction process; antioxidant; bread; arabinoxylans
Online: 29 September 2022 (09:00:46 CEST)
The wheat aleurone layer is, according to millers, the main bran fraction. It is a source of nutritionally valuable compounds, such as dietary fibres, proteins, minerals and vitamins, that may exhibit health benefits. Despite these advantages, the aleurone layer is scarce on the market, probably due to issues related to its extraction. Many processes exist with some patents, but a choice must be made between the quality and quantity of the resulting product. Nonetheless, its potential has been studied mainly in bread and pasta. While the nutritional benefits of aleurone-rich flour addition to bread agree, opposite results have been obtained concerning its effects on end-product characteristics (namely loaf volume and sensory characteristics), thus ensuing different acceptability responses from consumers. However, the observed negative effects of aleurone-rich flour on bread dough could be reduced by subjecting it to pre- or post-extracting treatments meant to either reduce the particle size of the aleurone’s fibres or to change the conformation of its components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0081.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: bread wheat; durum wheat; introgression; homologous chromosomes; SNP microarray; functional enrichment
Online: 5 December 2022 (15:30:20 CET)
The hexaploid bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42) and the tetraploid durum wheat Triticum durum (2n = 4x = 28) are two commercially the most important wheat species worldwide. These two species are components of the same gene pool, which evolved under different conditions, which made it possible to acquire different adaptations to a wider range of environmental conditions. Identification and characterization of introgressed fragments of one species in the genome of another can help in the search for new loci responsible for economically valuable traits. SNP microarrays provide information on the genotypes of thousands of positions throughout the genome. This information can be used to obtain the distribution of alleles of one species in the genome of another and to determine the location of introgressed fragments. In our work, we used genotyping data from the SNP microarray to identify durum wheat chromosome fragments containing bread wheat alleles in the offspring from crossing bread and durum wheat. We have studied the distribution of the genetic material of bread wheat in 15 combinations from crosses of bread and durum wheat. Introgressed fragments of bread wheat into the durum wheat genome were identified on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 4A, 5B, 6B, and 7A. The introgressed fragments showed polymorphism in different breeding lines. A functional enrichment analysis of genes in the introgression fragments was performed, which showed the presence of statistically significant enrichment of genes responsible for various molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components. The obtained data can be used to identify new QTL of economically valuable traits for obtaining durum wheat varieties with improved agronomic traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0272.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Bread wheat; terminal drought; GWAS; grain yield; kernel abortion
Online: 19 February 2020 (10:48:02 CET)
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important cereal crops for food security. Of all the stresses that curtail wheat productivity, drought has the most detrimental effects. Especially terminal drought stress i.e. at the time of flowering imposes a big challenge to sustain grain production. In the current study, 339 pre-breeding lines derived from three-way crosses of exotics x elite lines were evaluated in the irrigated and drought stress environments at Obregon, Mexico for the year 2016 and 2018. Drought significantly reduced yield (Y), spike length (SL), number of grains per spikes (NGS) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) by 46.4, 19.2, 23.5 and 25.9%, respectively in comparison to irrigated conditions. Kernel abortion (KA), highly correlated with Y, increased significantly (11.6%) under drought stress environment. Population structure analysis in this panel revealed three sub-populations and a genome wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay was at 2.5 cM. Single marker and haplotypes-based genome wide association study (GWAS) revealed significant associations on three chromosomes; 4A (HB10.7), 2D (HB6.10) and 3B (HB8.12) with Y, SL and TKW, respectively. Likewise, associations on chromosomes 6B (HB17.1) and 3A (HB7.11) were identified for NGS and on 3A (HB7.12) for KA. Five traits i.e. normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), canopy temperature depression (CTD) days to heading (DTH), NGS, KA were associated at chromosome 3A both under irrigated and drought conditions however, different haplotypes were estimated. Twenty-six SNPs were part of 10 haplotype blocks associated with Y, SL, TKW, NGS and KA. In silico analysis of the associated SNPs/haplotypes showed hits with candidate genes known to confer abiotic stress resistance in model species and crops. Potential candidate genes include those coding for sulfite exporter TauE/SafE family in Arabidopsis thaliana, TBC domain containing protein in Oryza sativa subsp. Japonica and heat shock proteins in Aegilops tauschii subsp. tauschii were revealed. The SNPs linked to the promising genes identified in the study can be used for marker-assisted selection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0101.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Bread wheat; general combining ability; specific combining ability; heritability; genetic advance
Online: 10 January 2022 (11:30:43 CET)
: Using line × tester analysis, the current research analyses parental genotypes and their combinations in normal conditions and identifies the genes influencing yield characteristics. In the present study, 15 diverse genotypes, including 10 lines, 5 testers, and 50 F1s hybrids, were evaluated for 13 morphological and 2 biochemical traits. A suitable location was taken to study the effect of 15 characters. The results exposed that ability mean squares were significant for all studied additive and non-additive components. In this direction, the general combining ability of PBW-343, DBW-39, K-402, K-1317, KRL-210, and K-68 were higher than the remaining parents. For morphological traits like yield, the top five crosses were described based on SCA effects, namely, HD-3086 × HD-3171, K-402 × K-9107, K-1317 × K-9107, HD-2967 × K-0307 and K-402 × K-68 in F1 generation. In addition, the high value of heritability was estimated for plant height (77.32%), spike length (32.26%), biological yield/plant (59.52%), and grain yield/plant (68.76%). However, the moderate values of heritability were estimated for days to maturity (22.78%) and phenol color reaction (18.00%). The higher genetic advance was not found for recorded characters; however, a moderate genetic advance was recorded for grain yield per plant (13.15%) and harvest index (11.72%). High heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance was recorded for two characters grain yield per plant and harvest index in F1 and F2 generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: bread wheat; correlations, gamma, grain nutrients concentrations; mutation, phytic acid; metals bioavailability
Online: 9 July 2018 (15:39:51 CEST)
Metal, primarily Fe and Zn, deficiencies affect over half of the world's population. Human diets with prevalent cereal products cause micronutrient malnutrition. Biofortification is one of the most effective approaches to alleviate malnutrition. Spring wheat genetically stable (M7) mutant lines developed with 100 and 200 Gy gamma treatments to broaden genetic variation and search for new resources were analyzed for nutritionally important minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, and Zn), their bioavailability, and grain protein content (GPC). The variation was 172.3–883.0 mg/kg for Ca, 472.9–1088 mg/kg for Mg, 3128.6–5487.5 mg/kg for K, 40.9–89.0 mg/kg for Fe, and 22.2–89.6 mg/kg for Zn. In mutant lines, among the investigated minerals, the highest increases in concentrations were observed in Fe, Zn, and Ca when compared to the parent. Some mutant lines, mostly in the 100 Gy-derived germplasm, had two to three times higher Fe, Zn, and Ca concentrations, lower phytic acid concentration (1.4–2.1 times), and 6.5–7% higher GPC compare to the parent. Variation was detected for the Ca:Phy, Mg :Phy, Phy:K, Phy:Fe, and Phy:Zn molar ratios, (1.27–10.41, 5.05–18.68, 1.66–4.87, 1.40–5.32 and 1.78–11.78, respectively). The results showed how the genetic variation could be generated through radiation and be useful to develop biofortification by micronutrient varieties with their appropriate bioavailability to overcome malnutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0429.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Blumeria graminis; hexaploid bread wheat; Magnaporthe oryzae; Mlo; plant disease resistance; powdery mildew; TALEN; TILLING; Zymoseptoria tritici
Online: 29 March 2020 (09:10:52 CEST)
Barley mlo mutants are well known for their profound resistance against powdery mildew disease. Recently, mlo mutant plants were generated in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) with the help of transgenic (transcription-activator-like nuclease, TALEN) and non-transgenic (targeted induced local lesions in genomes, TILLING) biotechnological approaches. While full gene knockouts in the three wheat Mlo (TaMlo) homoeologs, created via TALEN, confer full resistance to the wheat powdery mildew pathogen (Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici), the currently available TILLING-derived Tamlo missense mutants provide only partial protection against powdery mildew attack. Here we studied the infection phenotypes of TALEN- and TILLING-derived Tamlo plants to the two hemibiotrophic pathogens Zymoseptoria tritici, causing Septoria leaf blotch in wheat, and Magnaporthe oryzae pv. Triticum (MoT), the causal agent of wheat blast disease. While Tamlo plants showed unaltered outcomes upon challenge with Z. tritici, we found allele-specific levels of enhanced susceptibility to MoT, with stronger powdery mildew resistance correlated with more invasive growth by the blast pathogen. Surprisingly, unlike barley mlo mutants, young wheat mlo mutant plants do not show undesired pleiotropic phenotypes such as spontaneous callose deposits in leaf mesophyll cells or signs of early leaf senescence. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for allele-specific levels of enhanced susceptibility of Tamlo plants to the hemibiotrophic wheat pathogen MoT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0601.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: menopause, women, phytoestrogens, bread, soy
Online: 29 January 2021 (06:05:18 CET)
Menopause is the last step in the reproductive history of a woman. The ovaries stop producing hormones and the body reacts by lowering its functions, including the neuronal one. Phytoestrogens are plant products with estrogen-like activity able to affect many body functions. The aim of the present experiment was to study the effects of 30 days of regular consumption of a soy-enriched bread containing a known amount of phytoestrogens (genistein and daidzein). Women at climacteric, within 5 years or more than 5 years of menopause, were asked to include in their diet 200 g/day of a bread containing 40 mg of phytoestrogens. The effect on common menopausal symptoms and neurophysiological, hormonal and antioxidant parameters were determined before and after 30 days through questionnaires and experimental tests. Phytoestrogens were measured in the urine. In all groups, there was a significant increase of phytoestrogens in the urine and a decrease of the classical symptoms of menopause as well as a significant improvement in attentional performance tests, the quality of life index and pain intensity. Phytoestrogens present in the soy-enriched bread, are an important supplement in aging women due to their ability to induce estrogen-like effects without the potential side effects of estrogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0695.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: deoxynivalenol; corn; cultivar; grains; flour; bread; Pakistan
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:15:34 CEST)
The objectives of the current research were to determine the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) in four different cultivars of corn and subsequently to investigate the fate of DON during pro-cessing steps involved for the production of cornbread. The samples (n = 30) of each cultivar which were found positive were selected for the study. The average level of DON was ranged from LOD to 650 µg/kg. The amount of DON in cornflour samples were ranged from LOD to 630 µg/kg and insignificantly lower than the levels found in corn grain samples (p ≥ 0.05). Further-more, the levels of DON in corn dough samples were insignificantly higher than the levels in cornflour samples (p ≥ 0.05), with levels ranged from LOD to 645 µg/kg. However, the amount of DON in cornbread samples was significantly different from the levels found in corn grains sam-ples (p ≤ 0.05), with levels ranged from LOD to 611.5 µg/kg. The percentage reduction of DON in grains to cornbread samples was 22.4%, 35.6%, 44.5%, and 42.6% in type 1, type 2, type 3, and type 4 cultivars, respectively. The highest dietary exposure and hazard quotient (HQ) of DON was 0.13 and 0.17 µg/kg bw/d, in male and female individuals resulted from the consumption of cornbread samples, respectively.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0116.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Bread; NMR Spectroscopy; Propionic Acid; Quality Control; Sorbic Acid
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:56:55 CET)
The food additive sorbic acid is considered as an effective preservative for certain cereal products, and propionic acid is commonly added in bakery wares, e.g. bread and fine bakery wares. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H NMR) method for routine screening and quantification of sorbic and propionic acids in bread and several bakery products for quality control purposes. Results showed that none of the screened samples contained higher concentrations than regulatory maximum limits. However, for some samples, labelling of preservatives was lacking or they were used in food categories, for which the use is not approved. It can be concluded that the developed NMR method can be used for routine screening of bakery products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0188.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: caraway; cumin; bread quality; by-products; radical scavenging activity; total phenolic
Online: 26 January 2018 (03:59:04 CET)
This study investigated the effect of protein bread fortification with 2, 4 and 6% of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and caraway (Carum carvi) whole seeds and by-products flour, respectively. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties as well as their nutritional values. Total phenolic contents and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity were also analyzed. Results indicated that bread fortification shows significant effects on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-products flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0246.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: white- and biofortified cassava flour; bread; nutritional composition; physical properties; sensory properties
Online: 25 June 2019 (08:33:46 CEST)
With proper processing and utilization, biofortified cassava may contribute to the nutritional status of the consumers, thus, the need for this study. High-quality cassava flour from white- (TME 419) and biofortified (TMS 01/1368) cassava varieties were produced at a commercial processing factory, after which the flour is composite with wheat flour to produce bread. The nutritional composition, physical properties and sensory quality of the composite bread were analyzed using standard methods. Results showed that composite bread from 20% biofortified cassava flour (20-YCF) had a higher value of total β-carotene (0.74 μg/g), moisture (37.83%) and ash (2.29%) contents. The fat (3.72%) and protein (12.83%) contents were higher in 20% white cassava flour (20-WCF) composite bread. The 20-YCF composite bread had the highest loaf volume (3286.2 cm3), elasticity (6.32), chewiness (40.51 N) and gumminess (6.41), 20-WCF composite bread had higher specific volume (3.59 cm3/g) and hardness (176.50 N). The 100% wheat bread had higher cohesiveness (0.10) and loaf weight (932.35 g). A significant negative correlation (r = - 0.98, p≤0.05) exist between bread hardness and protein content. The composite bread compared favourably with the 100% wheat bread in terms of weight and aroma, but, the 100% wheat bread was more acceptable.