ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0678.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: corrugated board; box strength estimation; packaging flaps; crease line shifting
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:08:44 CEST)
In the modern world, all manufacturers strive for the optimal design of their products. This general trend is recently also observed in the corrugated board packaging industry. Colorful prints on displays, perforations in shelf-ready-packaging and various types of ventilation holes in trays, although extremely important for ergonomic or functional reasons, weaken the strength of the box. To meet the requirements of customers and recipients, packaging manufacturers outdo each other in new ideas for the construction of their products. Often the aesthetic qualities of the product become more important than the attention to maintaining the standards of the load capacity of the packaging (which, apart from their attention-grabbing functions, are also intended to protect transported products). The particular flaps design (both top and bottom) and their influence on the strength of the box is investigated in this study. The updated analytical-numerical approach is used here to predict the strength of the packaging with various flap’s offsets. Experimental results indicated a significant decrease in the static load-bearing capacity of packaging in the case of shifted flap creases. The simulation model proposed in our previous work has been modified and updated to take into account also this effect. The results obtained by the model presented in the paper are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0324.v1
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:52:36 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is required since multiple resources are in need to complete depending on a daily basis. As a result, automating routine tasks is an excellent idea. This reduces the foundation's work schedules while also improving efficiency. Furthermore, the business can obtain talented personnel for the business strategy through Artificial Intelligence. Explainability in XAI derives from a combination of strategies that improve machine learning models' environmental flexibility and interpretability. When Artificial Intelligence is trained with a large number of variables to which we apply alterations, the entire processing is turned into a black box model which is in turn difficult to understand. The data for this research's quantitative analysis is gathered from the IEEE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. This study looked at a variety of fields engaged in the (Explainable Artificial Intelligence) XAI trend, as well as the most commonly employed techniques in domain of XAI, the location from which these studies were conducted, the year-by-year publishing trend, and the most frequently occurring keywords in the abstract. Ultimately, the quantitative review reveals that employing Explainable Artificial Intelligence or XAI methodologies, there is plenty of opportunity for more research in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Algiers Stock Exchange; Box-Jenkins methodology; SARIMA model
Online: 13 September 2019 (12:33:41 CEST)
The Algiers Stock Exchange (ASE) is the only stock exchange in Algeria. It’s one of the newest and smallest emerging stock exchanges in the world. The focus of this paper is to model and forecast monthly returns of the ASE index (DZAIRINDEX) using The Box- Jenkins methodology. The period of this study is from Jun 2010 to July 2019. According to Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) estimator, the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average SARIMA(2,0,0)(0,0,1) is chosen as the best model for forecasting the monthly DZAIRINDEX returns. Diagnostic tests confirm that the fitted model is adequate, where the residuals of this model are normally distributed with no autocorrelation and no heteroskedasticity. The forecast of the monthly DZAIRINDEX returns for one year ahead using this model shows a decreasing fluctuations trend. Based on different measures of forecast accuracy such as ME, MAE, RMSE, MASE, we show that the forecast accuracy of SARIMA(2,0,0)(0,0,1) is acceptable and this model performs much better than a naïve model. These results could be used by the financial communities in Algeria to deal with stock exchange risks and to improve their decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0072.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep Learning; Black-box; Interpretability; Explainability; Model introspection; MRA segmentation
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:39:37 CET)
Clinicians are often very sceptical about applying automatic image processing approaches, especially deep learning based methods, in practice. One main reason for this is the black-box nature of these approaches and the inherent problem of missing insights of the automatically derived decisions. In order to increase trust in these methods, this paper presents approaches that help to interpret and explain the results of deep learning algorithms by depicting the anatomical areas which influence the decision of the algorithm most. Moreover, this research presents a unified framework, TorchEsegeta, for applying various interpretability and explainability techniques for deep learning models and generate visual interpretations and explanations for clinicians to corroborate their clinical findings. In addition, this will aid in gaining confidence in such methods. The framework builds on existing interpretability and explainability techniques that are currently focusing on classification models, extending them to segmentation tasks. In addition, these methods have been adapted to 3D models for volumetric analysis. The proposed framework provides methods to quantitatively compare visual explanations using infidelity and sensitivity metrics. This framework can be used by data scientists to perform post-hoc interpretations and explanations of their models, develop more explainable tools and present the findings to clinicians to increase their faith in such models. The proposed framework was evaluated based on a use case scenario of vessel segmentation models trained on Time-of-fight (TOF) Magnetic Resonance Angiogram (MRA) images of the human brain. Quantitative and qualitative results of a comparative study of different models and interpretability methods are presented. Furthermore, this paper provides an extensive overview of several existing interpretability and explainability methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0160.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: bounding box; deep learning; mangifera indica; panicle classification, rotation; segmentation
Online: 12 December 2019 (04:17:07 CET)
A pixel-based segmentation method was demonstrated to be confounded by developmental stage in estimation of flowering of mango. Categorization of panicles into three developmental stages was undertaken with a single and a two-stage deep learning framework (YOLO and R2CNN), using either upright or rotated bounding boxes. For a validation image set and for total panicle count, the models MangoYOLO(-upright), MangoYOLO-rotated, YOLOv3-rotated, R2CNN(-rotated) and R2CNN-upright achieved: (i) RMSEs of 25.6, 16.0, 15.4, 25.8 and 32.3 panicles per tree image, (ii) Mean average precision (mAP) scores of 72.2, 69.1, 65.0, 62.5 and 70.9% and (iii) weighted F1-scores of 76.5, 76.1, 74.9, 74.0 and 82.0, respectively. For a test set of images involving a different orchard and cultivar and use of a different camera, the R2 for machine vision to human count of panicles per tree was 0.86, 0.80, 0.83, 0.81 and 0.76 for the same models, respectively. Thus, models generalised well, but with no consistent benefit from use of rotated over upright bounding boxes. While the YOLOv3-rotated model was superior in terms of total panicle count, the R2CNN-upright model was more accurate for panicle stage classification. To demonstrate practical application, panicle counts were made weekly for an orchard of 994 trees, with a peak detection routine applied to document multiple flowering events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0093.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: projection; optimization; generalization; box constraints; declipping; desaturation; proximal splitting; sparsity
Online: 7 March 2019 (12:11:19 CET)
In theory and applications, it is often inevitable to work with projectors onto convex sets, where a linear transform is involved. In this article, a novel projector is presented, which generalizes previous results in that it admits a broader family of linear transforms, but on the other hand it is limited to box-type convex sets in the transformed domain. The new projector has an explicit formula and it can be interpreted within the framework of proximal optimization. The benefit of the new projector is demonstrated on an example from signal processing, where it was possible to speed up the convergence of a signal declipping algorithm by a factor of more than two.
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Punica granatum leaves extract; silver nanoparticles; Box-Behnken design; antibacterial; antibiofilm
Online: 11 August 2021 (11:40:07 CEST)
The current research work illustrates an economic and rapid approach towards biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous Punica granatum leaves extract (PGL-AgNPs). The optimization of major parameters involved in the biosynthesis process was done using Box-Behnken Design (BBD). The effects of different independent variables (parameters) namely concentration of AgNO3, temperature and ratio of extract to AgNO3on response viz. particle size and polydispersity index were analyzed. As a result of experiment designing, 17 reactions were generated which were further validated experimentally. The statistical and mathematical approaches were employed on these reactions in order to interpret the relationship between the factors and responses. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were initially characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry followed by physicochemical analysis for determination of particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential via dynamic light scattering (DLS), SEM and EDX studies. Moreover, the determination of functional group present in the leaves extract and PGL-AgNPs was done by FTIR. Antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacies of PGL-AgNPs against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were further determined. The physicochemical studies suggested that PGL-AgNPs were round in shape and of ~ 37.5 nm in size with uniform distribution. Our studies suggested that PGL-AgNPs exhibit potent antibacterial, and antibiofilm properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0452.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: RAD51; E-box; USF1; USF2; MITF; Cancer cell lines; Gene regulation
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:43:42 CEST)
RAD51 is a recombinase that plays a pivotal role in homologous recombination. Although the role of RAD51 in homologous recombination has been extensively studied, it is unclear whether RAD51 can be involved in gene regulation as a co-factor. In this study, we found in silico evidence that RAD51 may contribute to the regulation of genes involved in the autophagy pathway through interaction with E-box proteins such as USF1, USF2, and/or MITF in GM12878, HepG2, K562, and MCF-7 cell lines. The canonical USF binding motif (CACGTG) was significantly identified at RAD51 binding sites in all four cell lines. In addition, genome-wide USF1, USF2, and/or MITF-binding regions significantly coincided with the RAD51-binding sites in the same cell line. Interestingly, the promoters of genes associated with the autophagy pathway were significantly occupied by RAD51 in all four cell lines. Taken together, these results predicted a novel role of RAD51 that had not been addressed previously, and provided evidence that RAD51 could possibly be involved in regulating genes associated with the autophagy pathway, through interaction with E-box binding proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Bioavailability; Box-Behnken design; β-cyclodextrin; erectile dysfunction; taste masking; vardenafil.
Online: 4 December 2018 (16:39:51 CET)
Because of lower solubility and considerable metabolism, vardenafil (VRD) bioavailability is 15 %. To get over this obstacle, this study aimed to increase the solubility, hasten the onset of action, and mask the unpleasant taste of VRD utilizing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and formulation of the inclusion complex as oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs). The solubility of the obtained complexes in various ratios has been studied. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was utilized to investigate the influence of excipients on the quality of ODTs. The solubility of VRD was improved at 1:2 drug: β-CD ratio. The formulated VRD-ODTs exhibited satisfying results regarding the hardness and disintegration time. In addition, in vivo taste masking and disintegration time showed improved results, after placing the tablets in the oral cavity of the healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetic parameters for the optimized VRD–ODTs exhibited a significant improvement with P < 0.05 in the maximum plasma concentration and reduction in the time needed to reach this concentration when compared with the marketed tablets. Finally, the optimized VRD-ODTs exhibited increased oral absorption of VRD and subsequent decreasing the time of onset of clinical effect and masking the unpleasant taste, which is favored for patients with erectile dysfunction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0313.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: artificial intelligence; human-AI interaction; human factors; safety challenges; black-box challenge
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:50:32 CET)
In response to the need to address the safety challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI), this research aimed to develop a framework for a safety controlling system (SCS) to address the AI black-box mystery in the healthcare industry. The main objective was to propose safety guidelines for implementing AI black-box models to reduce the risk of potential healthcare-related incidents and accidents. The system was developed by adopting the multi-attribute value model approach (MAVT), which comprises four symmetrical parts: extracting attributes, generating weights for the attributes, developing a rating scale, and finalizing the system. On the basis of the MAVT approach, three layers of attributes were created. The first level contained 6 key dimensions, the second level included 14 attributes, and the third level comprised 78 attributes. The key first level dimensions of the SCS included safety policies, incentives for clinicians, clinician and patient training, communication and interaction, planning of actions, and control of such actions. The proposed system may provide a basis for detecting AI utilization risks, preventing incidents from occurring, and developing emergency plans for AI-related risks. This approach could also guide and control the implementation of AI systems in the healthcare industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0310.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Box culverts; Haunch; Cushion; Earth pressure; Surcharge loading; Breadth of the culvert
Online: 29 August 2019 (09:28:36 CEST)
Culverts are often required under earth embankment to allow for the crossing of a watercourse, like streams, to prevent the road embankment from obstructing the natural waterway. The opening of the culvert is determined based on the waterway required to accommodate the design flood, whereas the thickness of the culvert section is designed based on the loads applied to the culvert. This paper studies some design parameters of box culverts, such as the thickness of the haunch, the coefficient of earth pressure, the thickness of box culvert, and depth of fill on the top slab, to show the effect of haunch on the stresses of the box culvert. The study investigated the variation in stresses and the cost comparison made for different width of the box culvert. The percentage reduction in the cost of culvert based on the presence of haunch is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: thermal performance; ventilated bioclimatic wall; air space thickness; air flow rate; Hot Box
Online: 2 February 2021 (09:17:28 CET)
The building sector is the largest consumer of energy and there are still major scientific challenges in this field. The façade, being the interface between the exterior and interior space, plays a key role in the energy efficiency of a building. In this context, this paper focuses on a ventilated bioclimatic wall for NZEB zero energy buildings. The objective of this study is to investigate an experimental set-up based on a Hot Box allowing characterizing the thermal performances of the ventilated wall. A specific ventilated prototype and an original thermal metrology has been developed. This paper presents the ventilated prototype, the experimental set-up and experimental results on the thermal performances of the ventilated wall. The influence of the air space thickness and the air flow rate on the thermal performances of the ventilated wall is studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0320.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: District Heating Network; reduced-order model; building heat capacity; scalability; gray box model
Online: 28 June 2020 (08:26:31 CEST)
District heating networks have become widespread due to their ability to distribute thermal energy efficiently, which leads to reduced carbon emissions and improved air quality. The characteristics of these networks vary remarkably depending on the urban layout and system amplitude. Moreover, extensive data about the energy distribution and thermal capacity of different areas are seldom available. Design, optimization and control of these systems are enabled by the availability of fast and scalable models of district heating networks. This work addresses this issue by proposing a novel method to develop a scale-free model of large-scale district heating networks. Starting from coarse data available at the main substations, a physics-based model of the system aggregated regions is developed by identifying the heat capacity and heat loss coefficients. The model validation on the network of Västerås, Sweden, shows compatibility with literature data and can therefore be exploited for system design, optimization and control-oriented applications. In particular, the possibility to estimate the heat storage potential of network regions allows new smart management strategies to be investigated.
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Amazonian fat; Ucuùba fat; Box Behnken Design; solid lipid nanoparticles; antifungal therapy; onychomycosis
Online: 23 April 2019 (12:57:42 CEST)
Ucuùba fat is fat obtained from a plant found in South America, mainly in Amazonian Brazil. Due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity, the Ucuùba fat was used for production of ketoconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in view of an application for the treatment of onychomycosis and other persistent fungal infections. The development and optimization of the Ucuùba fat based NLC were performed using a Box-Behnken design of experiment. The independent variables were surfactant concentration (% w/v), liquid lipids concentration (% w/v), solid lipids concentration (% w/v), while the outputs of interest were particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE). The Ucuùba fat based NLC were produced and the process optimized determining a predictive mathematical model. Applying the model, two formulations with the pre-required particle size, i.e., 30 and 85 nm, were produced for further evaluation. The optimized formulations were characterized and showed a particle size in agreement to the predicted value, i.e. 33.6 nm and 74.6 nm, respectively. The optimized formulations were also characterized using multiple techniques in order to investigate the solid state of drug and excipients (DSC and XRD), particle morphology (TEM) and interactions between the formulation components (FTIR). Furthermore, particle size and surface charge of the formulations was studied during a one-month stability study and did not evidence any significative modification during storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0481.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Irukandji syndrome; box jellyfish; CSL antivenom; nematocyst extracts; antigenicity; human sera; human antibodies
Online: 29 August 2018 (05:23:55 CEST)
Carukia barnesi (Cb), Malo kingi (Mk) and Chironex fleckeri (Cf) are dangerous Australian box jellyfish species that provoke distinct and not well understood envenomation syndromes. Specifically, Cb and Mk are small, rare and able to induce a systemic syndrome of generalised muscle pain and catecholamine excess termed “Irukandji syndrome”; Cf has been widely regarded as one of the most venomous organisms in the animal kingdom causing severe sting site pain combined with potentially lethal cardiotoxicity. Building on past studies of major chirodropid and carybdeid species venoms, this study compared the utility of various cubozoan specific antibody reagents to better define the relationships between venom proteins from both exemplar Irukandji species (Cb and Mk) and the archetype C. fleckeri box jellyfish. With the aid of commercial ovine derived Cf-specific antivenom, mouse antibodies reactive to Cb and Mk and rabbit antibodies specific to two Cf toxins (CfTX-1 and 2), as well as human sera, the cross-reactivity of jellyfish species-specific polyclonal antibodies against these three cubozoan venoms was investigated. Immunoblot assays revealed distinc levels of immune recognition across the three species, indicating that Mk specific reagents may bind both Irukandji and Cf venoms. Irukandji venom appears to be antigenic with the exception of a few proteins in the range of 43/46 kDa maybe homologous to CfTX-1 and 2. The implications of such antibody binding for future antivenom development require further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Scum from fat box; Açaí seeds; Thermal processing; Biofuels; Economic analysis; Tech-nical feasibility
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:08:02 CEST)
This work aims to investigate systematically the tecno-economic feasibility of ther-mos-catalytic cracking process for two solid waste materials, a lipid-base material (re-sidual fat/scum from retention box of the University Restaurant of UFPA) and a lig-nin-cellulosic material Açaí seed (Euterpe oleracea. Mart). The thermo-catalytic process-es were carried out in pilot scale (THERMTEK/LEQ/UFPA/IME/RJ), and their economic feasibility analyzed. The yields of biofuels produced by fractional distillation were al-so studied. The physicochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the organic liquid product (bio-oil) and the chemical composition of kerosene, light-diesel and heavy-diesel from the lipid-base material, as well as those of kerosene and light-diesel from the Açaí seed were also determined. The economic indicators for the evaluation of the most viable cracking (pyrolysis) and distillation process of bio-oils were: a) the sim-ple payback criterion, b) discounted payback, c) net present value (NPV), d) internal rate of return (IRR), and e) index of profitability (IP). The analysis of the indicators showed the economic viability of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq) and unfeasibil-ity for the palm oil neutralization. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) obtained is this work for the biofuels was of 1.34 US$/L) and the breakeven point obtained was of 1.28 US$/L. The sensibility analysis demonstrated that the pyrolysis and distillation yields are the most important variables to affect the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Non-ordinary state-based Peridynamics; Compression-compression fatigue load; Multiple Cracks; Aircraft wing corner box
Online: 10 May 2022 (11:43:03 CEST)
In this work, we have developed a non-ordinary state-based peridynamic model for multiple crack initiation and propagation due to compression-compression fatigue load. In each loading cycle, the fatigue loading is redistributed among the peridynamic solid body, leading to the progressive fatigue damage initiation and propagation in an autonomous fashion. The proposed fatigue model parameters are firstly validated by 3D numerical benchmark tests, and then it is applied to simulate widespread fatigue damage evolution of the aircraft wing corner box. The modified constitutive damage model has been implemented into the peridynamics framework at finite strain. Furthermore, the criterion algorithm from multiple initiation to propagation is discussed. It is shown that the numerical results obtained from peridynamics simulations are in general agreement with those from the experiment data. The comparison of experimental and numerical results indicates that the proposed non-ordinary state-based peridynamics fatigue model has the ability to capture the multiple crack initiation and propagation and other features of the aluminium alloy material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0116.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General Mathematics Keywords: Fractal dimension; self-similarity; box-counting method; sandbox method; fractal trees; canopies; vascular networks; branching structures
Online: 8 February 2022 (13:59:05 CET)
Branching patterns are ubiquitous in nature, consequently over the years many researchers have tried to characterize the complexity of their structures. Due to their hierarchical nature and resemblance to fractal trees, they are often thought to have fractal properties, however their non-homogeneity (i.e., lack of strict self-similarity) is often ignored. In this paper we review and examine the use of the box-counting and sandbox methods to estimate the fractal dimensions of branching structures. We highlight the fact that these methods rely on an assumption of self-similarity that is not present in branching structures due to their non-homogeneous nature. Looking at the local slopes of the log-log plots used by these methods reveals the problems caused by the non-homogeneity. Finally, we examine the role of the canopies (endpoints or limit points) of branching structures in the estimation of their fractal dimensions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0425.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Covid-19; fractal analysis; epidemic curves; box-counting dimension; reproduction rate; global radiation; daily mean temperature
Online: 24 September 2021 (11:19:52 CEST)
The present paper proposes a fractal analysis of the Covid-19 dynamics in 45 European countries. We introduce a new idea of using the box-counting dimension of the epidemiologic curves as a means of classifying the Covid-19 pandemic in the countries taken into consideration. The classification can be a useful tool in deciding upon the quality and accuracy of the data available. We also investigated the reproduction rate, which proves to have significant fractal features, thus enabling another perspective on this epidemic characteristic. Moreover, we studied the correlation between two meteorological parameters: global radiation and daily mean temperature and two Covid-19 indicators: daily new cases and reproduction rate. The fractal dimension differences between the analysed time series graphs could represent a preliminary analysis criterion, increasing research efficiency. Daily global radiation was found to be stronger linked with Covid-19 new cases than air temperature (with a greater correlation coefficient -0.386, as compared with -0.318), and consequently it is recommended as the first-choice meteorological variable for prediction models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0538.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: ferulic acid esters; octyl ferulate; esterification; Box-Behnken design; response surface methodology; molar conversion; optimum condition
Online: 27 July 2018 (11:43:22 CEST)
Ferulic acid esters have been suggested as a group of natural chemicals with sunscreen function. The study aimed to utilize an environment-friendly enzymatic method to produce octyl ferulate by esterification of ferulic acid with octanol. The Box-Behnken design with response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to evaluate the effects of synthesis variables, including reaction temperature (70–90 °C), enzyme amount (1000–2000 PLU) and stir speed (50–150 rpm), on the molar conversion of octyl ferulate. According to the joint test, both the reaction temperature and enzyme amount had great impacts on the molar conversion. RSM-developed second-order polynomial equation further showed great ability on data-fitting. Based on ridge max analysis, the optimum parameters for the biocatalyzed reaction were: 72 h reaction time, 92.2 °C reaction temperature, 1831 PLU enzyme amount and 92.4 rpm stir speed, respectively. Finally, the molar conversion of octyl ferulate under optimum condition was verified to be 93.2 ± 1.5%. In conclusion, high yield of octyl ferulate synthesized by commercial immobilized lipase under elevated temperature conditions has been suggested, which our findings could broaden the utilization of the lipase and provide a biocatalytic approach, instead of the chemical method, for ferulic acid ester synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0131.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Citrus aurantium L. blossoms; total phenolics; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; Box-Behnken design; free radical scavenging activity; anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity
Online: 10 May 2019 (14:41:59 CEST)
The objective of this study was to develop an ultrasonic-assisted procedure for the extraction of total phenolics from Citrus aurantium L. blossoms (CAB) and evaluate the free radical scavenging activity, anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity of total phenolics. In this work, a Box-Behnken design based on the single-factor experiments was used to explore the optimum extraction process. Under the optimum conditions (extraction solvent 70.31% ethanol, extraction temperature 61.94 °C, extraction time 51.73 min and liquid-to-solid ratio 35.63 mL/g), the extraction yield of total phenolics was 95.84 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry matter (DM), which was highly consistent with the theoretical value (96.12 mg GAE/g DM). The total phenolic extract showed excellent free radical scavenging properties against DPPH·, ABTS+·, ·OH and ·O2-, with the IC50 values of 197.007, 83.878, 218.643 and 158.885 μg/mL, respectively, and the extracts also showed good inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity, with the IC50 value of 117.165 μg/mL. Total phenolics from CAB could be a potential source of natural free radical scavenger and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0313.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; faster region-based convolutional neural network (FRCNN); single-shot multi-box detector (SSD); super-resolution; remote sensing imagery; edge enhancement; satellites
Online: 16 April 2020 (03:08:50 CEST)
The detection performance of small objects in remote sensing images is not satisfactory compared to large objects, especially in low-resolution and noisy images. A generative adversarial network (GAN)-based model called enhanced super-resolution GAN (ESRGAN) shows remarkable image enhancement performance, but reconstructed images miss high-frequency edge information. Therefore, object detection performance degrades for small objects on recovered noisy and low-resolution remote sensing images. Inspired by the success of edge enhanced GAN (EEGAN) and ESRGAN, we apply a new edge-enhanced super-resolution GAN (EESRGAN) to improve the image quality of remote sensing images and use different detector networks in an end-to-end manner where detector loss is backpropagated into the EESRGAN to improve the detection performance. We propose an architecture with three components: ESRGAN, Edge Enhancement Network (EEN), and Detection network. We use residual-in-residual dense blocks (RRDB) for both the ESRGAN and EEN, and for the detector network, we use the faster region-based convolutional network (FRCNN) (two-stage detector) and single-shot multi-box detector (SSD) (one stage detector). Extensive experiments on a public (car overhead with context) and a self-assembled (oil and gas storage tank) satellite dataset show superior performance of our method compared to the standalone state-of-the-art object detectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: deformation monitoring; distributed monitoring; single-cell box girder; long-gage strain; long-gage Fiber Bragg Grating; strain distribution; shear lag effect; shear action
Online: 12 June 2018 (05:47:08 CEST)
Distributed deformation based on Fiber Bragg Grating sensors or other kinds of strain sensors can be used to evaluate safety in operating periods of bridges. However, most of the published researches about distributed deformation monitoring are focused on solid rectangular beam rather than box girder—a kind of typical hollow beam widely employed in actual bridges. Considering that the entire deformation of a single-cell box girder contains not only bending deflection but also two additional deformations respectively caused by shear lag and shearing action, this paper again revises the improved conjugated beam method (ICBM) based on the LFBG sensors to satisfy the requirements for monitoring two mentioned additional deformations. The best choice for the LFBG sensor placement in box gilder is also proposed in this paper due to strain fluctuation on flange caused by shear lag effect. Results from numerical simulations show that most of the theoretical monitoring errors of the revised ICBM are 0.3%~1.5%, and the maximum error is 2.4%. A loading experiment for a single-cell box gilder monitored by LFBG sensors show that most of the practical monitoring errors are 6%~8%, and the maximum error is 11%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0061.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: rett syndrome; intrinsically disordered region; phylogenetic profile analysis; post-transcriptional modification; methyl-cpg-binding protein 2; cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5; forkhead box protein g1
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:58:54 CET)
Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder, is mainly caused by mutations in methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), which alter the functions of domains to either bind to methylated DNA or interact with a transcriptional co-repressor complex. It has been established that alterations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) or forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1) correspond to distinct neurodevelopmental disorders, given that a series of studies have indicated that RTT is also caused by alterations in either one of these genes. We tried to elucidate RTT through evolution and structure assessment of MeCP2, CDKL5, and FOXG1, by focusing on their binding partners and disordered structures. Here, we provide insight into the similarities of the FOXG1 and MECP2 binding partners evolution and function. On the other hand, we suggest that CDKL5 could be a potential candidate for a classical RTT treatment, particularly based on its disordered structure that spans after the catalytic domain to the C-terminus, which shows abundant linear motifs that can bind to molecules with divergent structures of similar affinity. Additionally, we provide insight into the relationship between disordered structure and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0013.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Rett Syndrome; intrinsically disordered region; phylogenetic profile analysis; post-transcriptional modification; methyl-CpG-binding protein 2; cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5; forkhead box protein G1
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:59:56 CEST)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is mainly caused by mutations in methyl CpG-binding protein 2, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5, or forkhead box protein G1. These RTT-causing proteins harbor an intrinsically disordered region (IDR) whose conformation exhibits spatiotemporal heterogeneity, which not only confer versatility to the protein, but also implicates them in diseases. The IDR generally evolves more rapidly than an ordered structure. In this study, we examined the relationship between pathogenic RTT-associated point mutations in RTT-causing proteins and the evolutionary dynamics of sequence features including structural order–disorder, phosphorylation sites, and evolutionary rates. We also analyzed the molecular properties and evolution of proteins that interact with RTT-causing proteins in terms of phylogenetic profiles, tissue specificity, subcellular localization, expression level, and functions. The results indicate that constrained IDRs may function by forming contacts with other regions in the protein sequence causing pathogenic missense mutations likely to arise in the rapidly evolving IDR and affect molecular networks, leading to disease. The results also provide novel insights into the genetic basis for RTT and the evolution of the neocortex in higher vertebrates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0052.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Gauss-exponential distribution; Gauss-Laplace distribution; stochastic vector representation; geometric measure representation; (p,q)-generalized polar coordinates; (p,q)-arc length; dynamic intersection proportion function; (p,q)-generalized Box-Muller simulation method; (p,q)-spherical uniform distribution; dynamic geometric disintegration
Online: 19 July 2017 (04:35:06 CEST)
For evaluating probabilities of arbitrary random events with respect to a given multivariate probability distribution, specific techniques are of great interest. An important two-dimensional high risk limit law is the Gauss-exponential distribution whose probabilities can be dealt with based upon the Gauss-Laplace law. The latter will be considered here as an element of the newly introduced family of (p,q)-spherical distributions. Based upon a suitably defined non-Euclidean arc-length measure on (p,q)-circles we prove geometric and stochastic representations of these distributions and correspondingly distributed random vectors, respectively. These representations allow dealing with the new probability measures similarly like with elliptically contoured distributions and more general homogeneous star-shaped ones. This is demonstrated at hand of a generalization of the Box-Muller simulation method. En passant, we prove an extension of the sector and circle number functions.