ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0551.v1
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:24:09 CET)
The data for the study on the epidemiology of bovine mastitis were collected fromNovember 2015 to February 2016 to investigate the prevalence of mastitis in administrative towns of three selected districts of Arsi zone, Oromia Regional State, namely Iteya, Sagure, and Asella, Ethiopia; and to analyze the association between the risk factors and mastitis occurrence. Sample cows were selected and examined for clinical mastitis and at the same time, milk samples were evaluated both clinically and using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Some parameters of the cows which have biological relation with this disease together with other potential risk factors were collected along with primary data collection. The analysis of the primary data showed that overall mastitis prevalence in the locations covered by the study was 28.6% of which 83.3% was subclinical, while 16.7% were clinical mastitis cases. Analysis related to the investigation of the existence of an association between risk factors and mastitis revealed that there was a significant association between the occurrence of mastitis and two of the risk factors evaluated, breed and age of the cow. The other risk factors investigated (i.e. parity, location, and lactation stage had no significant association with mastitis occurrence). Since mastitis is a complex disease that results from the interaction of different factors, it may be difficult to limit it to only some given factors. Environment and management factors and their combination may also have an additional impact on the epidemiology of the disease. A prevalence with the indicated magnitude together with the added effect of a lower level of awareness of the society about milk-associated zoonoses implies that this disease causes significant public health problems. In addition, mastitis may cause silent economic loss through unnoticed production loss along with reduced milk yield from subclinical and clinical (e.g. blind teats) cases. Due to a lack of awareness about mastitis and/or negligence, farmers in all corners of the country are suffering from economic and public health problems imposed by mastitis. This lack of awareness about mastitis-associated problems and/or negligence could be a possible reason for the use of raw milk which is a common scenario particularly in pastoral areas and the selling of adulterated milk which is becoming increasingly practiced in Ethiopia which is also true in these specific localities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0357.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Prototheca bovis; bovine mastitis; microalga; cattle; Ecuador; prevalence
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:59:00 CEST)
The genus Prototheca, unicellular, non-photosynthetic, yeast-like microalgae, is a pathogen of concern for the dairy industry causing bovine mastitis that currently cannot be cured and hence generates significant economic losses in milk production. In this study, for the first time in Ecuador, we identify Prototheca bovis as the etiologic agent of chronic mastitis in dairy cattle. Milk samples (n=458) of cows with chronic mastitis were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). Microscopy and cytB gene sequencing were used to identify Prototheca, whereby Prototheca bovis was isolated from 15.1% (n=69) of the milk samples, one of the highest infection rates that can be found in the literature in a “non-outbreak” situation. No other Prototheca species were found. We were unable to isolate the alga from environmental samples. We showed that P. bovis was relatively resistant to disinfectants used to sterilize milking equipment on the cattle farms where it was isolated. We discuss how to avoid future infection and also hypothesize that the real prevalence of Prototheca infection in bovine mastitis is probably much higher than what was detected. We recommend a protocol to increase the diagnostic yield in the bacteriology laboratory.
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:06:20 CET)
Up to forty percent of dairy cows develop metritis or endometritis when pathogenic bacteria infect the uterus after parturition. However, resilient cows remain healthy even when exposed to the same pathogens. Here, we provide a perspective on the mechanisms that dairy cows use to prevent postpartum uterine disease. We suggest that resilient cows prevent the development of uterine disease using the three complimentary defensive strategies of avoiding, tolerating and resisting infection with pathogenic bacteria. Avoidance maintains health by limiting the exposure to pathogens. Avoidance mechanisms include intrinsic behaviors to reduce the risk of infection by avoiding pathogens or infected animals, perhaps signaled by the fetid odor of uterine disease. Tolerance improves health by limiting the tissue damage caused by the pathogens. Tolerance mechanisms include neutralizing bacterial toxins, protecting cells against damage, enhancing tissue repair, and reprogramming metabolism. Resistance improves health by limiting the pathogen burden. Resistance mechanisms include inflammation driven by innate immunity and adaptive immunity, with the aim of killing and eliminating pathogenic bacteria. Farmers can also help cows prevent the development of postpartum uterine disease by avoiding trauma to the genital tract, reducing stress, and feeding animals appropriately during the transition period. Understanding the mechanisms of avoidance, tolerance and resistance to pathogens will inform strategies to generate resilient animals and prevent uterine disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0670.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: MTHFR; bovine; bioinformatics; gene expression; testes
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:00:47 CEST)
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme expressed in mammalian testes exerts direct effect on spermatogenesis; however, its protein characteristics in bovine testes remain unknown. Here, we analysed bovine testicular structure, MTHFR bioinformatics profile, mRNA, and protein expression characteristics in yellow-cattle (y-c) and yak testis using histological procedures, bioinformatics analysis, qRT-PCR, and western blot. Testes from 13 bovines, ≤ 2 years juvenile (y-c, n = 3; yak, n=3) and ≥ 3 years adult (y-c, n = 3; yak, n = 4) were collected and analysed. Anatomical characteristics of testis in y-c and yak were similar except the weight or size for which that of y-c was significantly higher or greater than yak. In y-c, an open reading frame (ORF) for 2600 nucleotides sequence, encoding 655 amino acids showed high homology with zebu cattle (99.51%) and wild yak (98.68%). Secondary and 3D protein structures were similar to that of humans with differences in number of nucleotides, amino acids, and some physico-chemical characteristics. MTHFR mRNA expression in y-c and yak were significantly higher in adult testes compared with juvenile ones. However, its protein expression was higher but not statistically significant in adult y-c and yak compared to the juvenile ones. The highlights and inferences of these and other findings are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0425.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: bovine tuberculosis; TB; attenuation; genomes; immunopathogenesis; SNPs
Online: 25 August 2022 (07:18:29 CEST)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis variant bovis (MBO) has one of the widest known mammalian host ranges, including humans. Despite characterization of this pathogen in the 1800s, and whole genome sequencing of a UK strain (AF2122) nearly two decades ago, the basis of its host specificity and pathogenicity remains poorly understood. Recent experimental calf infection studies show that MBO strain Ravenel (MBO Ravenel) is attenuated in the cattle host. In the present study, experimental infections were performed to define attenuation and whole genome sequencing completed to identify regions of differences (RD) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to explain the observed attenuation. Comparative genomic analysis of MBO Ravenel against three pathogenic strains of MBO (strains AF2122-97, 10-7428 and 95-1315) was performed. Experimental infection studies on 5 calves each, with either MBO Ravenel or 95-1315, revealed no visible lesions in all 5 animals in the Ravenel group despite robust IFN-γ responses. Out of 486 polymorphisms in the present analysis, 173 were unique to MBO Ravenel among the strains compared. A high-confidence subset of 9 unique SNPs were missense mutations in genes with annotated functions impacting 2 major MBO survival and virulence pathways: 1) Cell wall synthesis & transport [espH (A103T), mmpL8 (V888I), aftB (H484Y), eccC5 (T507M), rpfB (E263G)], and 2) Lipid metabolism & respiration [mycP1(T125I), pks5 (G455S), fadD29 (N231S), fadE29 (V360G)]. These substitutions likely contribute to the observed attenuation. Results from experimental calf infections and the functional attributions of polymorphic loci on the genome of MBO Ravenel provide new insights into the strain’s genotype-disease phenotype associations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0082.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: vaccines; vaccination; bovine respiratory disease; antigen; adjuvants
Online: 3 August 2021 (13:39:11 CEST)
Vaccination is widely regarded as a cornerstone in animal or herd health and infectious disease management. Nineteen vaccines against the major pathogens implicated in bovine respiratory disease are registered for use in the UK by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD). However, despite annual prophylactic vaccination, bovine respiratory disease is still conservatively estimated to cost the UK economy approximately £80 million per annum. This review examines the vaccine types available, discusses the surrounding literature and scientific rationale of the limitations and assesses the potential of novel vaccine technologies.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Bovine respiratory disease; Pasteurella multocida; resistance; tolerance; satP.
Online: 20 July 2021 (14:48:06 CEST)
Under the pressure of fluoroquinolones, Pasteurella multocida (PM) can easily develop resistance to fluoroquinolones mediated by QRDR target mutation. It is imperative to find new drug resistance inhibitor targets to combat the rapid development of drug resistance. In order to overcome these problems, we sequenced the transcriptome of PM with different levels of resistance to ENR(0.03 μg/mL; 8 μg/mL; 32μg/Ml, Enrofloxacin). The results showed that with the increase of resistance to fluoroquinolones, the expression of satP gene was significantly up-regulated. The satP gene deletion strain and replenishment strain were constructed, and their drug resistance and tolerance were determined. The results showed that the deletion of satP gene did not affect the resistance of PM to fluoroquinolones, rather affected the time when PM developed resistance to fluoroquinolones. After 10 generations of drug induction, the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of fluoroquinolones for wild strain was 64 μg/mL, while the MIC for satP gene deletion strain was only 8 μg/mL. The MDK99 test (time to kill 99% bacteria),agar diffusion test and mutation frequency test showed that the tolerance of satP gene deletion strain was significantly lower than that of wild strain. At the same time, the virulence of gene deletion strain and wild strain was tested, and about 400 times decreased virulence was observed for satP gene deletion strain. The mouse infection model confirmed that mice infected with satP gene deletion strains were more likely to be treated with ENR than mice infected with wild-type bovine PM strains. The results show that satP has potential to be a target of fluoroquinolone resistance inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0149.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: vaccine; Staphylococcus aureus; T cell response; mastitis; bovine
Online: 7 June 2021 (07:54:02 CEST)
Staphylococcus aureus mastitis remains a major challenge for dairy farming. Here, 24 mice were immunized and divided into four groups: G1: control; G2: Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) DNA vaccine; G3: F0F1 ATP synthase subunit α (SAS), succinyl-diaminopimelate (SDD), and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CTS) recombinant proteins; and G4: SAS+SDD+CTS plus GM-CSF DNA vaccine. The lymphocyte subpopulations and the intracellular interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and interferon-γ production in the draining lymph node cells were immunophenotyped by flow cytometry. The immunophenotyping and lymphocyte proliferation was determined in spleen cells cultured with and without S. aureus stimulus. Immunization with S. aureus recombinant proteins generated memory cells in draining lymph nodes. Immunization with the three recombinant proteins plus GM-CSF DNA led to an increase in the percentage of IL-17A+ cells among overall CD44+ (memory), T CD4+, CD4+ T CD44+ CD27-, γδ TCR, γδ TCR+ CD44+ CD27+ and TCRVγ4+ cells. Vaccination with S. aureus recombinant proteins associated with GM-CSF DNA vaccine downregulates TH2 immunity. Immunization with the three recombinant proteins plus the GM-CSF DNA led to a proliferation of overall memory T, CD4+ and CD4+ TEM cells upon S. aureus stimulus. This approach fostered type 3 immunity, suggesting the development of a protective immune response against S. aureus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0054.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Bovine enterovirus, EV-E, Nigeria, Sewage, Complete Genome
Online: 3 October 2018 (14:24:49 CEST)
We describe the draft genome of a Bovine enterovirus (EV) recovered from sewage in Nigeria. The virus replicates on both RD and L20B cell lines, but is negative for all EV screens in use by the GPEI. It contains 7,368nt, with 50.2% G+C content and an ORF with 6,525nt (2,174aa).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0291.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: ferulic acid; UVA light; cyclic peptide; bovine serum albumin
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:48:39 CEST)
Ferulic acid (FA) is known for its excellent antioxidant properties that can provide a lot of health benefits. One of its drawbacks is being unstable under UVA light that limits its potency. In this study, new peptides LW2 (QNKRFYFRKNQ) and CW2 (a cyclic form of LW2) have been designed based on bovine serum albumin site ⅡA conformation. UVA irradiation experiment was performed to investigate the protective ability of these peptides towards FA against UVA damage. The percentage of FA remaining under UV irradiation by the protection of CW2 and LW2 was 83%, 76% respectively. The results showed the importance of the cationic residues and hydrophobic residues included in the peptide sequences. Moreover, the cyclic rigid structure showed more protecting ability over that of the linear counterpart.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0749.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Bovine coronavirus; intersititial pneumonia; phylogenetic analysis; Real time PCR
Online: 31 July 2020 (13:46:21 CEST)
An outbreak of winter disease, complicated by severe respiratory syndrome, occurred in January 2020 in a high production dairy cow herd located in a hilly area of the Calabria region. Of the 52 animals belonging to the farm, 5 (9.6%) died with severe respiratory distress, death occurring 3-4 days after the appearance of the respiratory signs (caught and gasping breath). Microbiological analysis revealed absence of pathogenic bacteria whilst Real-time PCR identified the presence of RNA from Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) in several organs: lungs, small intestine (jejunum), mediastinal lymph nodes, liver and placenta. Since being the only pathogen identified, BCoV was hypothesized to be the cause of the lethal pulmonary infection. Like the other CoVs, BCoV is able to cause different syndromes. Its role in calfhood diarrhoea and in mild respiratory disease is well known: we report instead the involvement of this virus in a severe and fatal respiratory disorder, with symptoms and disease evolution resembling that of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (SARS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0015.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Bovine tuberculosis; molecular epidemiology; spatial; badgers; MLVA; Northern Ireland
Online: 3 June 2020 (09:38:28 CEST)
Bovine tuberculosis surveillance in Northern Ireland includes Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) to determine the Mycobacterium bovis genetic type present in both cattle, and the predominant wildlife host, the European badger (Meles meles). These data are informative for investigating clusters of infection and understanding the scale at which interspecific transmission may occur. We utilised a comprehensive dataset of routinely sampled isolates from infected cattle and from badgers killed in road-traffic accidents to investigate the spatial co-location of MLVA types in, and between, the badger and cattle populations. Furthermore, we investigate the hypothesis that the farming enterprise type might explain some variation in this relationship. MLVA types were spatially co-localised in cattle and RTA badger hosts, indicative of a shared epidemic. Dairy herds were more likely to have at least one MLVA type in common with nearby RTA badgers, compared to non-dairy herd types. Marginally more MLVA spatial clustering was observed in non-dairy herds, which may be a consequence relatively more between-herd movements. For the cattle population, local transmission mechanisms such as infection from contiguous herds, infectious wildlife and short-range between-herd cattle movements appear primarily to drive the epidemic: there appears to be a more limited role for long-range movements. Animal management practices are likely the driving force behind this observation, as beef rearing is associated with elevated numbers of animal movements compared to dairy herds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0037.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Bos taurus; skin; bovine dermcidin; RT-PCR; antimicrobial activity
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:35:59 CEST)
Description of a novel bovine antimicrobial peptide and its antimicrobial spectrum. RNA isolation and RT-PCR were done from various tissues. DCD peptide was synthesized, and antimicrobial activity was analyzed. Bovine dermcidin gene contains five exons intermittent by 4 introns. Bovine DCD-mRNA was 398 bp with ORF 336 bp. Bovine DCD was expressed in skin and blood. Analysis of the amino acid compositions revealed that cysteine was repeated 6 times indicating the presence of 3 disulfide bonds that play role in the peptide stability. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus bovis, and Enterococcus faecalis were affected by Bovine DCD peptide. Highest antimicrobial effect was at 50 and 100 µg/ml. The effect on Escherichia coli and Candida albicans was slightly low. In all bacteria, Bovine DCD peptide activity did not affect by varying pH values, but in Staphylococcus aureus, the activity was affected greatly at pH 4.5 and 5.5. The optimum salt concentrations were 100 and 50 mM NaCl with all bacterial strains and E. coli, respectively. In case of C. albicans, the antimicrobial activity of Bovine DCD peptide decreased with increasing the pH value regardless the NaCl concentration. The pH 6.5 of the sweat buffer was the optimum for the Bovine DCD peptide activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0177.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Bovine cutaneous papilloma, Iraq, Immunohistochemical (IHC), hyperkeratosis, p53 marker.
Online: 19 February 2019 (11:04:23 CET)
Background: Papillomaviruses (PVs) are double-stranded DNA viruses and are more common in skin of ruminants in Iraq. A P53 (tumor suppressor protein) reveals an essential role in cell cycle control. This study aimed to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of naturally occurring cutaneous ruminant’s papillomatosis. Methods: Samples were collected from totally, 10 animals (3 cattle, 3 goats and 4 sheep) with multiple papillomatosis lesions. Results: Clinically, exophytic multiple, cauliflower-like growths (warts) of varying sizes (0.5-11 cm) were found in different areas of the animal’s bodies. Histopathological features were various degrees of koilocytosis, ortho and parakeratotic, hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis in granular layer and acanthosis. Immunohistochemical (IHC) investigations revealed some nuclei in the granular and basal layers of the epidermis with intense positivity for papillomavirus antigen. All tumor samples were positive for p53 expression that appeared as a strong cytoplasmic and perinuclear staining mainly in the basal and parabasal layers. Conclusion: this study described the papillomavirus lesions in bovine, ovine and caprine, that located in different anatomical areas with minor variations in histopathological features. The tumor samples showed positive results for PV antigen and P53 expression that considered as the useful markers in the diagnosis of cutaneous papilloma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Appeasing Pheromone; Bovine; Respiratory Infections; Immune Response; Average Daily Gain
Online: 3 May 2021 (09:15:45 CEST)
Bovine respiratory disease is still a major concern in feedlots and has major economic impact. Another consequence of respiratory infections is the use of antimicrobial molecules to control bacterial pathogens. This can participate to the emergence and shedding of antimicrobial re-sistance that can threaten animal as well as human health. Appeasing pheromones with their capacity to reduce stress and thus their ability to preserve the functions of the immune system have been proposed to reduce the use of antimicrobial substances. In the current report we as-sessed the effect of appeasing pheromone administration on bovine health and performance during the fattening period. Zootechnical and health parameters as well as whole blood immune transcript expressions were measured over weeks in young bulls to determine the effect of the pheromone. We observed a reduction of clinical signs at day 30 in young bulls who received the pheromone and a higher expression of interleukin 8 transcripts in this group than in the control group. Our results are in line with previous reports in bovine and other mammals and ask for further studies to shed more light on the beneficial impact of appeasing pheromones and to de-cipher their exact mechanisms of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; nucleocapsid; Bovine herpesvirus type 4; IFNAR-/- mice; lethal dose
Online: 31 January 2019 (05:26:35 CET)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is the causative agent of a tick-borne infection with significant mortality rate of up to 40% in the endemic areas, with evidence for geographical expansion. Lacking effective therapeutics and control measures, the development of protective CCHFV vaccine remains a crucial public health task. This manuscript describes, for the first time, a Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) based viral vector (BoHV4-∆TK-CCHFV-N) and its immunogenicity and protection potential in BALB/c and IFNAR-/- mice models in comparison with Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5-N) and pCDNA3.1 myc/His A (pCD-N1), two widely used vaccine platforms. All constructs expressing viral nucleocapsid (N) protein successfully elicited cytokine and total/specific antibody responses in BALB/c mice. BoHV4-∆TK-CCHFV-N and Ad5-N constructs further produced 100% protection in IFNAR-/- mice during CCHFV Ank-2 strain lethal challenge. Despite elevated specific antibody responses in both animal models, the produced antibodies were unable to neutralize the virus in vitro. A comparison of delivery platforms was not possible, due to similar protection rates in IFNAR-/- mice. In conclusion, vector-based CCHFV N protein expression proved to constitute an effective approach for the vaccine development pipeline and BoHV-4 emerged as a strong alternative to previously-used virus vectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0482.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: African buffaloes; bovine tuberculosis; cfp-10; esat-6; hsp65; nontuberculous mycobacteria; rpoB; Syncerus caffer
Online: 29 August 2022 (09:48:58 CEST)
Diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) may be confounded by immunological cross-reactivity to Mycobacterium bovis antigens when animals are sensitised by certain nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate NTM species diversity in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) respiratory secretions and tissue samples, using a combination of novel molecular tools. Oronasal swabs were collected opportunistically from 120 immobilised buffaloes in historically bTB-free herds. In addition, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; n=10) and tissue samples (n=19) were obtained during post-mortem examination. Mycobacterial species were identified directly from oronasal swab samples using the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra qPCR (14/120 positive) and GenoType CMdirect (104/120 positive). In addition, all samples underwent mycobacterial culture, and PCRs targeting hsp65 and rpoB were performed. Overall, 55 NTM species were identified in 36 mycobacterial culture-positive swab samples with presence of esat-6 or cfp-10 detected in 20 of 36 isolates. The predominant species were M. avium complex and M. komanii. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were also isolated from 6 of 10 culture-positive BALF and 4 of 19 culture-positive tissue samples. Our findings demonstrate that there is a high diversity of NTMs present in buffaloes, and further investigation should determine their role in confounding bTB diagnosis in this species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0065.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; VSV replicon; PDC-109; Bovine seminal plasma; Fn-type 2 proteins
Online: 5 July 2022 (07:49:32 CEST)
Mammalian seminal plasma contains a multitude of bioactive components, including lipids, glucose, mineral elements, metabolites, proteins, cytokines and growth factors, with various functions during insemination and fertilization. The seminal plasma protein PDC-109 is one of the major soluble components of the bovine ejaculate and is crucially important for sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. A hitherto underappreciated function of seminal plasma is its anti-microbial and anti-viral activity, which may limit sexual transmission of infectious diseases during intercourse. We have recently discovered that PDC-109 inhibits the membrane fusion activity of influenza virus particles and significantly impairs viral infections at micromolar concentrations. Here we investigated whether the antiviral activity of PDC-109 is restricted to Influenza or if other mammalian viruses are similarly affected. We focused on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), thoroughly assessing PDC-109 inhibition with SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S)-pseudotyped reporter virus particles, but also live-virus infections. Consistent with our previous publications we found significant virus inhibition, albeit accompanied by substantial cytotoxicity. Using time-of-addition experiments however, we discovered treatment regimen that enable virus suppression without affecting cell viability. We furthermore demonstrated that PDC-109 is also able to impair infections mediated by the VSV glycoprotein (VSVg) thus indicating a broad pan-antiviral activity against multiple virus species and families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0325.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Farm fragmentation; bTB; bovine tuberculosis; Northern Ireland; local spread; neighbourhood; matched case-control; conacre
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:08:45 CET)
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a challenging endemic pathogen of cattle in many parts of the globe. Spatial clustering of Mycoacterium bovis molecular types in cattle suggests that local factors are the primary drivers of spread. Northern Ireland’s agricultural landscape is comprised of highly fragmented farms, distributed across spatially discontinuous land parcels, and these highly fragmented farming structures are thought to facilitate localised spread. We conducted a matched case control study to quantify the risks of bTB breakdown with farm area, farm fragmentation, fragment dispersal, and contact with neighbouring herds. Whilst our results show small but significant increases in breakdown risk associated with each of farm fragmentation, farm area, fragment dispersal, and contact with neighbouring herds, these relationships were strongly confounded with the number of contiguous neighbours with bTB. Our key finding was that every infected neighbour led to an increase in the odds of breakdown by 40% to 50%, and that highly fragmented farms were almost twice as likely to have a bTB positive neighbour compared to non-fragmented farms. Our results suggest that after controlling for herd size, herd type, spatial and temporal factors, farm fragmentation increasingly exposes herds to infection originating from first order spatial neighbours. Given NI’s particularly fragmented landscape, and reliance on short-term leases, our data supports the hypothesis that between-herd contiguous spread is a particularly important component of NI’s bTB disease system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0185.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Trueperella pyogenes; bovine endometrial epithelial cells; inflammasome; tight junction; apoptosis; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1
Online: 8 October 2020 (22:07:15 CEST)
Trueperella pyogenes is a common opportunistic pathogen which is one of the main causes of postpartum endometritis in dairy cows. As a substitute for antibiotics, the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 has been used in a wide range of clinical treatments. Our experiments were designed to establish a model of anti-damage which LGR-1 was used to protect bovine endometrial epithelial cells (BEECs) from inflammatory damage and cell destruction caused by T. pyogenes. Increased expression of NLRP3 inflammasomes and cytokines was observed following T. pyogenes challenge, but this increase was relieved by LGR-1 pretreatment. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses revealed that T. pyogenes infection also results in the damage of tight junction proteins in BEECs. The expression levels of Claudin-1, Occludin, and ZO-1 were decreased in cells only infected with T. pyogenes but not in cells pretreated with LGR-1. Moreover, the detection of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and apoptotic proteins BAX, cytochrome c, as well as the activating effector caspase-3 revealed that T. pyogenes induced apoptosis of BEECs, which was also confirmed by DAPI staining to observe the morphological changes of the nuclei of cell apoptosis and by TUNEL staining to locate the cells undergoing apoptosis. Our data indicate that LGR-1 ameliorates the T. pyogenes–induced barrier dysfunction of BEECs and pre-application of LGR-1 could be an effective strategy for controlling T. pyogenes infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0634.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: bovine TB; risk factors; disease control; animal health policy; veterinary epidemiology; evidence-based policy
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:25:31 CEST)
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks, caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection, are a costly animal health challenge. Understanding factors associated with the duration of outbreaks, known as breakdowns, could lead to better disease management policy development. We undertook a retrospective observational study (2012-2018) and employed Finite Mixture Models (FMM) to model the outcome parameter, and to investigate how factors were associated with duration for differing subpopulations identified. In addition to traditional risk factors (e.g. herd size, bTB history), we also explored farm geographic area, parcels/farm fragmentation, metrics of intensity via nitrogen loading, and whether herds were designated controlled beef finishing units (CBFU) as potential risk factors for increased duration. The final model fitted log-normal distributions, with two latent classes (k) which partitioned the population into a subpopulation around the central tendency of the distribution, and a second around the tails of the distribution. The latter subpopulation included longer breakdowns of policy interest. Increasing duration was positively associated with recent (<3 yrs) TB history and the number of reactors disclosed, (log) herd size, beef herd-type relative to other herd types, number of land parcels, area, and being designated a controlled finishing unit (“feedlot”), and having high annual inward cattle movements within the “tails” subpopulation. Breakdown length was negatively associated with year of commencement of breakdown (i.e. a decreasing trend) and non-significantly with the organic nitrogen produced on the farm (N kg/hectare), a measure of stocking density. The latter finding may be due to confounding effects with herd size and area. Most variables contributed only moderately to explaining variation in breakdown duration, that is, they had moderate size effects on duration. Herd-size and CBFU had greater effect sizes on the outcome. The findings contribute to evidence-based policy formation in Ireland.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: bovine colostrum; bacteria; pathogens; probiotic bacteria; cost-effective processing; heat treatment; pasteurization; contamination control; immunoglobulins; enzymes
Online: 17 September 2021 (11:51:18 CEST)
The main purpose of bovine colostrum, being the milk secreted by a cow after giving birth, is to transfer passive immunity to the calf. The calves have an immature immune system as they lack immunoglobulins (Igs). Subsequently, the supply of good quality bovine colostrum is required. The quality of colostrum is classified by low bacterial counts and adequate Ig concentrations. Bacterial contamination can contain a variety of human pathogens or high counts of spoilage bacteria, which becomes more challenging with emerging use of bovine colostrum as food and food supplements. There is also a growing risk for the spread of zoonotic diseases originating from bovines. For this reason, processing based on heat treatment or other feasible techniques are required. This review provides an overview of literature on the microbial quality of bovine colostrum and processing methods to improve its microbial quality and keep its nutritional values as food. The highlights of this review are: high quality colostrum is a valuable raw material in food products and supplements, the microbial safety of bovine colostrum is increased using appropriate processing-suitable effective heat treatment, which does not destroy the high nutrition value of colostrum, the heat treatment processes are cost-effective compared to other methods, and heat treatment can be performed in both small- and large-scale production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0088.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: structural mass spectrometry; protein structure; chemical cross-linking; disuccinimidyl glutarate; bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) glutarate; bovine serum albumin
Online: 7 February 2020 (02:54:08 CET)
The combination of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry is currently a progressive technology for deriving structural information of proteins and protein complexes. In addition, chemical cross-linking is a powerful tool for stabilizing macromolecular complexes for single particle cryo-electron microscopy. Broad pallets of cross-linking chemistry, currently available for the majority of cross-linking experiments, still rely on the amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide esters targeting mainly N-termini and lysine side chains. These cross-linkers are divided into two groups: water soluble and water insoluble; and research teams prefer one or another speculating on the benefits of their choice. However, the effect of cross-linker polarity on the outcome of cross-linking reaction has never been studied. Herein, we use both polar (bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) glutarate) and non-polar (disuccinimidyl glutarate) cross-linkers and systematically investigated the impact of cross-linker hydrophobicity on resulting distance constraints, using bovine serum albumin as a model protein.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: periodontal regeneration; aggressive periodontitis; deproteinized bovine bone; enamel matrix derivatives (Emdogain®); guided tissue regeneration (GTR)
Online: 21 January 2019 (08:58:50 CET)
The aim of this article is to evaluate and compare, retrospectively, the efficacy of two regenerative periodontal procedures in patients suffering from aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed with AgP, suffering from multiple intra-bony defects (IBD); that were treated by one of two regenerative modalities of periodontal therapy randomly assigned to each patient: a. guided tissue regeneration (GTR) or b. an application of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) combined with DBX. The monitoring of the treated sites included recordings of probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and gingival recession. Pre-treatment and follow-up (up to 10 years from the surgery) recordings were analyzed statistically within and between groups. A significant reduction was shown at time on PD and CAL values, however, not between subject groups. CAL values decreased in all sites. At EMD group (44 sites) CAL gain was 1.92 mm (±1.68) from pre-treatment to follow-up (p<0.001) and at the GTR group (12 sites) CAL gain of 2.27 (±1.82) mm. In conclusion, 1-10 years observations have shown that surgical treatment of AgP patients by either GTR or by application of EMD/DBX results in similar successful clinical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0185.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: long non-coding RNA; bovine mammary gland; linseed/safflower oil; lipid metabolism; fatty acid synthesis; cis-regulation
Online: 9 October 2018 (10:53:39 CEST)
This study aimed to characterize the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in the bovine mammary gland and to infer their functions in dietary response to 5% linseed oil (LSO) or 5% safflower oil (SFO). Twelve cows (six per treatment) in mid lactation were fed a control diet for 28 days followed by a treatment period (control diet supplemented with 5% LSO or 5% SFO) of 28 days. Mammary gland biopsies were collected from each animal on day-14 (D-14, control period), D+7 (early treatment period) and D+28 (late treatment period) and were subjected to RNA-Sequencing and subsequent bioinformatics analyses. Functional enrichment of lncRNA was performed via potential cis regulated target genes located within 50 Kb flanking regions of lncRNAs and having expression correlation of >0.7 with mRNAs. A total of 4955 lncRNAs (325 known and 4630 novel) were identified which potentially cis targeted 59 and 494 genes in LSO and SFO treatments, respectively. Enrichments of cis target genes of lncRNAs indicated potential roles of lncRNAs in immune function, nucleic acid metabolism and cell membrane organization processes as well as involvement in Notch, cAMP and TGF-β signaling pathways. Thirty-two and 21 lncRNAs were differentially expressed (DE) in LSO and SFO treatments, respectively. Six genes (KCNF1, STARD13, BCL6, NXPE2, HHIPL2 and MMD) were identified as potential cis target genes of six DE lncRNAs. In conclusion, this study indicated potential roles for lncRNAs in mammary gland immune functions and development and provided potential candidate genes and pathways via which lncRNAs can function in diet responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0648.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1); Krüppel–like factor 15 (KLF15); infected cell protein 0 (ICP0); BoHV-1 ICP0 (bICP0)
Online: 26 May 2021 (15:10:59 CEST)
Expression of Krüppel–like factor 15 (KLF15), a stress induced transcription factor, is induced during bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) reactivation from latency, and KLF15 stimulates BoHV-1 replication. Transient transfection studies revealed KLF15 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) cooperatively transactivate the BoHV-1 immediate early transcription unit 1 (IEtu1), herpes sim-plex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), and ICP4 promoter. The IEtu1 promoter drives expression of bICP0 and bICP4, two key BoHV-1 transcriptional regulatory proteins. Based on these studies, we hypothesized infection is a stressful stimulus that increases KLF15 ex-pression and enhances productive infection. New studies demonstrated that silencing KLF15 impaired HSV-1 productive infection and KLF15 steady state protein levels were increased at late stages of productive infection. KLF15 was primarily localized to the nucleus following in-fection of cultured cells with HSV-1, but not BoHV-1. When cells were transfected with a KLF15 promoter construct and then infected with HSV-1, promoter activity was significantly increased. The ICP0 gene and to a lesser extent bICP0 transactivated the KLF15 promoter in the absence of other viral proteins. In contrast, BoHV-1 or HSV-1 encoded VP16 had no effect on KLF15 pro-moter activity. Collectively, these studies revealed HSV-1 and BoHV-1 productive infection in-creased KLF15 steady state protein levels, which correlated with increased virus production.