ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0527.v1
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:59:30 CET)
Air polution level measurement sometime needs tricky instrumentation, costly, and use chemical reagent that could bad impact to environment, it also time consuming for analysis. In other hand, air polution level measurement, include nitrogen dioxide (NO2) needs accuracy, rapid and environment friendly for its analysis and measurement. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) develop as spectrum measurements both UV and visible, transmitted by specific canal using absorption Lambert Beer’s Law principal. On this basic method, NO2 measurement needs light source with 330 – 500 nm wavelength, it is possible to use cheap blue-LED for this measurement. This research intends to calibrate prototype instrumentation for measuring NO2 by DOAS based using Blue-LED (375 nm) passed in continual gas container. NO2 emission simulated in laboratory scale by reacting copper (Cu) with nitric acid (HNO3) result NO2 gas formation. Blue-LED spectrum analysed by compact CCD Spectrometer for its absorbance spectrum, then calibrated with NO2 measurement using USEPA Method 7B standard that is commonly used in testing laboratory as standard method for NO2 measurement. It has good corelation between spectrum absorbance in CCD Spectrometer to USEPA Method 7B with more than 95% linierity. As rapidity of this measurement and shown good accuracy, more development for this method could carry fast, accurate, cheap, also environmentally friendly method for NO2 measurement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0178.v1
Online: 17 January 2020 (04:44:20 CET)
The current study investigated the impacts of light quality and different levels of fertility on mineral nutrient concentrations in shoot and root tissues of Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra). ‘Green Lance’ Chinese kale were grown under: 1) fluorescent/incandescent light; 2) 10% blue (447 ± 5 nm) / 90% red (627 ± 5 nm) LED light; 3) 20% blue / 80% red LED light; and 4) 40% blue / 60% red LED light as sole-source lighting at two different levels of fertility. All plants were harvested 30 d after seeding, and shoot and root tissues were analyzed for mineral nutrients. Lighting and fertility interacted to influence kale shoot and root mineral nutrient concentrations. Results indicate sole-source LED lighting used in production can impact mineral nutritional values of baby leafy greens now popular for the packaged market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0357.v1
Online: 19 August 2022 (05:44:02 CEST)
Due to the prospective local and international markets, the neon tetra fish breeding industry has its own allure for fish lovers and as a side business. The goal of the study was to analyze the opportunities and difficulties associated with neon tetra fish farming in order to build a "Blue Economy" policy. The Depok City Food Security and Fisheries Service (DKP3) program was implemented with the help of key informants who were chosen based on the following criteria: 1) DKP3 Officials, such as the Board of Trustees of the Fish Farming Group (POKDAKAN), 2) Researchers from the BRBIH (Ornamental Fish Farming Research Center), 3) Practitioners/Extension Workers, and 4) POKDAKAN.The study's conclusions state that the relevant Dinas must support local policies based on natural identification that are strengthened at the national level, that routine human resource training needs to be improved, that technology needs to be taken into account in collaboration with the private sector, and that post-harvest and market access are essential for industry. The SWOT analysis's findings, which are in quadrant 1, show that the firm is in a position for rather aggressive expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0146.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: cattle; Belgian Blue; beef; colostrum; selenium
Online: 11 October 2022 (07:23:19 CEST)
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for the health and immunity of cattle. Double-muscled Belgian Blue cows are well known to be prone to nutritional deficiencies. Colostrum Se level is also a key factor to promote immunoglobulin intake in young calves. The main objectives of this study were to assess (1) the plasma and colostrum Se statuses of properly-supplemented Belgian-Blue cows on commercial farms and (2) the relationship between Se concentrations in plasma and colostrum. Secondary objectives were to assess relationships between plasma or colostrum Se concentrations and dietary Se supplementation as well as blood biomarkers. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 49 Belgian Blue cows on 5 commercial farms in Belgium. They received 5 different rations with Se supplementation ranging from 0.5 to 2 ppm including 20% to 83% of organic form. Results showed that average Se concentration was 90 +- 15 µg/L in plasma and 79 +- 26 µg/L in colostrum, consistent with previous studies on well-supplemented cows. No relationship was observed between Se concentrations in plasma and colostrum, suggesting that colostrum Se testing would be a complementary indicator for improving calf Se supplementation. Relationships between plasma or colostrum Se and dietary Se or blood biomarkers emphasized the complexity of Se metabolism in observational studies under field conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0332.v1
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:13:12 CET)
In recent years, photobiomodulation (PBM) has been recognized as a physical therapy in wound management. Despite several published research papers, the mechanism underlying photobiomodulation is still not completely understood. The investigation about application of blue light to improve wound healing is a relatively new research area. Tests in selected patients evidenced a stimulation of the healing process in superficial and chronic wounds treated with a blue LED light emitting at 420 nm; a study in animal model pointed out a faster healing process in superficial wound, with an important role of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Here we present a study aiming at evidencing the effects of blue light on the proliferation and metabolism in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Different light doses were used to treat the cells, evidencing inhibitory and stimulatory effects. Electrophysiology was used to investigate the effects on membrane currents, while Raman spectroscopy revealed the mitochondrial Cytochrome C (Cyt C) oxidase dependence on blue light irradiation. In conclusion, we observed that the blue LED light can be used to modulate the activity of human fibroblasts, and the effects in wound healing are particularly evident when studying the fibroblasts and keratinocytes co-cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0098.v1
Online: 6 August 2018 (06:25:05 CEST)
In this paper the application of recycled Li-ion batteries spent cathode (LIB-SC) combined with NaHCO3/H2O2 system is presented for the first time in the literature as an alternative for degradation of potentially toxic organic molecules. The model pollutant choice was methylene blue molecule. The spent cathode composition corresponds to LiCoO2, which was proved by the XRD and EDX. Regarding the decolorization of methylene blue solution, the addition of NaHCO3 in comparison with only H2O2 reduces the complete decolorization time in 96%. This reduction occurs because the radical CO3 is more stable than OH. In this way, the application the system proposed in this article is aimed at solving two major global problems: the disposal of cell phone batteries and the pollution of liquid effluents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0739.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Periodic banding; Prussian blue analogues; Electrochemical system
Online: 30 March 2021 (13:13:10 CEST)
We propose a novel electrochemical system to form precipitation patterns of Cu-Fe-based Prussian blue analogues (Cu-Fe PBA) in agarose gels, using an applied voltage to produce reactant ions. The spatiotemporal evolution, spatial distribution, and crystallite morphologies of the precipitates were investigated by visual inspection, Fe Kα intensity distribution measurements, and optical and scanning electron microscope observations. The precipitation patterns and their evolution depended on the applied voltage. Multicolored periodic precipitation bands were stochastically formed under cyclic alternating voltage (4 V for 1 h and then 1 V for 4 h per cycle). The distances between adjacent bands were randomly distributed (0.30 ± 0.25 mm). The sizes and shapes of the crystallites generated in the gel were position-dependent. Almost cubic but fairly irregular crystallites (0.1–0.8 μm) were formed in the periodic bands, whereas definitely cube-shaped crystallites (1–3 μm) appeared close to the anode. These cube-like reddish-brown crystallites were assigned to Cu-FeII PBA. In some periodic bands, plate-like blue crystallites (assigned to Cu(OH)2) were also present. Future issues for applications of the observed periodic banding were discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0002.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanoparticles; spectral blue shift; amalgam; water quality
Online: 1 April 2019 (08:21:19 CEST)
The emission of mercury (II) from coal combustion and other industrial processes continues to be a concern and have local impact on water resources. The detection of these ions in water with sensitive but rapid testing methods is desirable for environmental screening and fieldwork. Nanoparticles of various chemistries have shown promise for this purpose, as they can be used in simple colorimetric analyses. Silver nanoprisms were chemically synthesized resulting in a blue reagent solution, that transitioned towards yellow and colorless solutions when exposed to Hg2+ ions at various concentrations. A rapid galvanic reduction of Hg2+ onto the nanoprism surfaces is apparently responsible for a change in shape towards spherical nanoparticles, leading to the change in color. There were no interferences by other metal ions in solution, and pH had minimal effect in the range of 6.5 to 9.8. The silver nanoprism reagent provided a detection limit of approximately 0.5 µM (100 µg/L) for mercury (II), which compares favorably with other nanoparticle-based techniques. Further optimization may reduce this detection limit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0112.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: adsorption; magadiite; cationic clay; methylene blue; remediation
Online: 15 May 2017 (12:14:05 CEST)
The removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from water was investigated using synthetic nano-clay magadiite (SNCM). SNCM was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment under autogenous pressure. A rosette-shaped single mesoporous magadiite phase with 16.63 nm average crystallite size and 33 m2.g-1 BET-surface area was recorded. The adsorption results indicated the pronounced affinity of the SNCM to the MB dye molecules which reached adsorption uptake of 20.0 mg MB dye/g of SNCM. The elimination of MB dye by the SNCM was kinetically and thermodynamically considered; a pseudo second order kinetic model was attained, and a spontaneous, chemical, and exothermic in nature was verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0367.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ultrasound; blue light; Biofilm; Propionibacterium acnes; bacteria; antibacterial
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:11:32 CET)
Abstract: Bacterial biofilms are highly resistant to antibiotics and have been implicated in the etiology of 60-80% of chronic microbial infections. We tested a novel combination of low intensity ultrasound and blue light against biofilm and planktonic bacteria. A laboratory prototype was built which produced both energies uniformly and coincidently from a single treatment head, impinging upon a 4.45 cm^2 target. To demonstrate proof of concept, Propionibacterium acnes biofilm was cultured on Millicell hanging inserts in 6-well plates. Hanging inserts with biofilm were treated in a custom exposure chamber designed to minimize unwanted ultrasound reflections. Coincident delivery of both energies demonstrated synergy over either alone, killing both stationary planktonic and biofilm cultures of P. acnes. Biofilm killing was dose dependent on exposure time (i.e. energy delivered). P. acnes biofilms were significantly reduced by the dual energy treatment (p<0.0001), with a >1 log10 reduction after a 5 min (9 J/cm^2) and >3 log10 reduction after a 30 min (54 J/cm^2) treatment (p<0.05). Mammalian cells were found unaffected by the treatment. Both the light and the ultrasound energies are at levels previously cleared by the FDA. Therefore, this combination treatment could be used as a safe, efficacious method to treat biofilm related syndromes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0037.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Biomineralization; Finnish blue mussel; Interfacial matrix protein; Chitin
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:56:20 CET)
Studying various marine biomineralized ultrastructures reveals the appearance of common architectural designs and building blocks in materials with fascinating mechanical properties that match perfectly to their biological tasks. Advanced mechanical properties of biological materials are attributed to evolutionary optimized molecular architectures and structural hierarchy. One example which has not yet been structurally investigated in great detail is the shell of Mytilus edulis L. (Finnish blue mussel) found in the archipelago of SW-Finland. Through a combination of various state-of-the-art techniques such as high-resolution electron microscopy imaging, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and protein analysis, both the inorganic mineralized components as well as the organic-rich matrix were extensively characterized. We found very similar ultra-architecture across the shell of M. edulis L. as compared to the widely studied and closely related M. edulis. However, we also found interesting differences, for instance in the thickness and degree of orientation of the mineralized layers indicating dissimilar properties and related alterations in the biomineralization processes. Our results show that the shell of M. edulis L. has a gradient of mechanical properties, with the increase in the stiffness and the hardness from anterior to the posterior region of the shell. The shell is made from distinct and recognizable mineralized layers each varying in thickness and microstructural features. At posterior regions of the shell, moving from dorsal to ventral side, these layers are an oblique prismatic layer, a prismatic layer and a nacreous layer, in which the oblique prismatic layer is found to be the main and thickest mineralized layer of the shell. Probing the calcified rods in the oblique prismatic layer using high resolution SEM imaging revealed opening of channels with a diameters of 40-50 nm and lengths up to a micrometer extending through the rods. The chitin and protein have been found to be the main component of the organic-rich interfacial matrix as expected. Protein analysis showed two abundant proteins with sizes around 100 kD and 45 kD which likely not only regulates biomineralization and adhesion of the crystals but also governing the intrinsic-extrinsic toughening in the shell. Overall, this detailed analysis provides new structural insights into biomineralization of marine shells in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: blue honeysuckle berry; polyphenols; flavonoids; lipid accumulation; lipogenesis
Online: 25 January 2021 (11:14:20 CET)
Polyphenols have been shown to possess outstanding anti-obesity properties. In this study, the effect of blue honeysuckle berry extract (BHBE) with high polyphenol content on lipid accumulation in adipocytes and the underlying mechanism were investigated for the first time. Composition analysis demonstrated that flavonoids (mainly flavonols and anthocyanins) were the primary polyphenols in BHBE, which contributed to its biological functions. The results of Oil Red O staining combined with triglyceride (TG) content determination showed that BHBE exhibited an obvious inhibitory effect on intracellular lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. BHBE also reduced the protein level of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and increased the phosphorylation level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), indicating that lipogenesis was suppressed by BHBE treatment. Moreover, BHBE was found to significantly promote the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and further reduce the expression of key transcription factors (PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1c) that regulate lipogenesis. In addition, the expression of beige adipocyte markers (Tmem26 and Cd137) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was increased in BHBE-treated adipocytes. In summary, we consider that BHBE inhibits lipid accumulation in adipocytes by suppressing lipogenesis as well as by promoting beiging of adipocytes. These results support blue honeysuckle berry as a candidate functional food against obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0402.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: methylene blue; water treatment; magnetic nanomaterials; cryogel; nanocomposites
Online: 20 September 2018 (06:33:48 CEST)
Inorganic nanoparticles based on magnetite improve the mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties of microporous cryogel polymer composites. Here we report the synthesis of microporous cryogel based on the crosslinked sodium vinyl sulfonate (Na-VS) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt (Na-AMPS). The magnetite nanoparticles were inserted into Na-VS/Na-AMPS cryogel either during its crosslinking polymerization or by in-situ technique after its crosslinking. The morphology, particle sizes, thermal stability and magnetite contents of Na-VS/Na-AMPS cryogel and its magnetite composites were investigated. The prepared Na-VS/Na-AMPS cryogel and its magnetite composites were used as adsorbents for methylene blue (MB) cationic dye using optimum conditions. The magnetite Na-VS/Na-AMPS cryogel composite prepared by in-situ technique achieved the best adsorption MB removal capacity for 7 cycles among the other adsorbents via chemical adsorption mechanism at room temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Ag/MgAl2O4; characterization; activity; Photocatalytic degradation; Methylene blue
Online: 10 March 2017 (10:37:46 CET)
In the present work report, the MgAl2O4and the Ag/MgAl2O4 samples were successfully synthesized by the modified hydrothermal and the isovolumetric impregnation methods, respectively. The structural properties of the prepared samples were systematically characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, DRS, XPS and et al techniques. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by the Ag/MgAl2O4 and MgAl2O4 samples was comparatively studied under UV lamp irradiation. The results revealed that the prepared Ag/MgAl2O4 (pH=6) samples were the most active among the samples in photocatalytic of methylene blue. Under UV lamp irradiation, the Ag/MgAl2O4 (pH=6) photodegradation of methylene blue reached to 89.6% within 120 min. And the Ag/MgAl2O4 (pH=6) complex photocatalysts displayed a high photochemical stability under repeated irradiation. Repeated irradiate the Ag/MgAl2O4 (pH=6) compound, which indicated it had a high photochemical stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0049.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: General linear model; adding-up restrictions; estimability; OLSE; BLUE
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:05:37 CEST)
In this note, we provide some effective treatments of a general linear model with adding-up restrictions via algebraic operations of given vectors and matrices in the model, including analytic expressions of the well-known ordinary least-squares estimator (OLSE) and the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) of the unknown parameters in the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0621.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: climate change; stream flow; SWAT; Gumara watershed; Blue Nile
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:26:24 CEST)
Climate change plays a pivotal role in the hydrology of tributaries in the upper Blue Nile basin. This study was designed to reveal the extent to which climate change impacts on stream flow of the Gumara watershed under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) climate change scenario. The study considered the RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios using the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). The Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) was used for calibration and projection of future climatic data of the study area. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used for simulation of the future stream flow of the watershed. Result showed that the average temperature will be increasing by 0.84oC, 2.6oC and 4.1oC in the end of this century under RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively. The change in monthly rainfall amount showed a fluctuating trend in all scenarios but the overall annual rainfall amount is projected to increase by 8.6%, 5.2% and 7.3% in RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 respectively. Overall, this study revealed that, due to climate change, the stream flow of the watershed is found to be increasing by 4.06%, 3.26%, and 3.67% under RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0036.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: photocatalyst; flower-like SnS2; nanocomposites; visible light; methylene blue
Online: 3 April 2018 (10:53:52 CEST)
Semiconductor materials have been shown to have better photocatalytic behavior and can be utilized for the photodegradation of organic pollutants. In this work, three-dimensional flower-like SnS2 were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Core-shell structured SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were then deposited on the top of the SnS2 flowers. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic behavior of the SnS2-SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites was observed by observing the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results show an effective enhancement of photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MB especially for the 15 wt. % SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites on SnS2 flowers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0250.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Cholesteric Blue Phase III; nonlinear viscoelasticity; disclination network; fracture
Online: 29 March 2018 (12:00:13 CEST)
Nonlinear rheological properties of chiral crystal cholesteryl oleyl carbonate (COC) in blue phase III are investigated under different shear deformations; large amplitude oscillatory shear, step shear deformation, and continuous shear flow. Rheology of the liquid crystal is significantly affected by structural rearrangement of defects under shear flow. One of the examples on the defect-mediated rheology is the blue phase rheology. Blue phase is characterized by three dimensional network structure of the disclination lines. It has been numerically studied that the rheological behavior of the blue phase is dominated by destruction and creation of the disclination networks. In this study, we find that the nonlinear viscoelasticity of BPIII is characterized by the fracture of the disclination networks. Depending on the degree of the fracture, the nonlinear viscoelasticity is divided into two regimes; the weak nonlinear regime where the disclination network locally fractures but still show elastic response, and the strong nonlinear regime where the shear deformation breaks up the networks, which results in a loss of the elasticity. Continuous shear deformation reveals that a series of the fracture process delays with shear rate. The shear rate dependence suggests that force balance between the elastic force acting on the disclination lines and the viscous force determines the fracture behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0100.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: toxin release; blue-green algae; tetracycline antibiotics; environmental toxicology
Online: 23 January 2017 (09:42:15 CET)
The global usage of veterinary antibiotics is significant. These antibiotics can be released into the aquatic environment and exert toxic effects on non-target organisms. To explore the physiological effects of tetracycline antibiotics on aquatic life, the growth characteristics of and toxin release from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) were studied. Results showed that the toxicity order of the three target antibiotics was TC (tetracycline) > CTC (chlortetracycline hydrochloride) > OTC (oxytetracycline) in terms of inhibition occurrence time and the EC10 and EC25 values. Further, the target antibiotics regulated the production of MC-LR (microcystin-LR) to different degrees. CTC destroyed the M. aeruginosa cells and resulted in a decreased MC-LR release but stimulated the ability to synthesise MC-LR. OTC had a relatively weaker toxicity compared with CTC, while TC was the most toxic among the three antibiotics. Therefore, TC is friendly to the aquatic environment because it simultaneously reduced the intracellular and extracellular MC-LR content. These results aid our understanding of the effects of tetracycline antibiotics on Microcystis aeruginosa, which is important for environmental evaluation and protection. These results are also helpful for guiding the application of veterinary antibiotics in agricultural settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0128.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: graphene oxide; polyaniline; nanocomposites; adsorbent; methylene blue; methyl orange
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:29:12 CEST)
The present investigation highlights the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) coated graphene oxide doped with SrTiO3 nanocube nanocomposites through facile in-situ oxidative polymerization method for the efficient removal of carcinogenic dyes, namely, the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and the anionic dye methyl orange (MO). The synthesised nanocomposites were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption efficiencies of graphene oxide (GO), PANI homopolymer and SrTiO3 nanocubes-doped nanocomposites were assessed by monitoring the adsorption of methylene blue and methyl orange dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorption efficiency of nanocomposites doped with SrTiO3 nanocubes were found to be of higher magnitude as compared with undoped nanocomposite. Moreover, the nanocomposite with 2 wt% SrTiO3 with respect to graphene oxide demonstrated excellent adsorption behaviour with 99% and 91% removal of MB and MO respectively, in a very short duration of time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0562.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: adsorption; graphene oxide; methylene blue; pharmaceuticals; kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:27:52 CEST)
The remarkable adsorption capacity of graphene derived materials has prompted their examination in composite materials suitable for deployment in treatment of contaminated waters. In this study, crosslinked calcium alginate – graphene oxide beads were prepared and activated by exposure to pH 4 by using 0.1M HCl. The activated beads were investigated as novel adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants (Methylene Blue dye and the pharmaceuticals Famotidine and Diclofenac) with a range of physicochemical properties. Effects of initial pollutant concentration, temperature, pH and adsorbent dose were investigated and kinetic models were examined for fit to the data. Maximum adsorption capacities qmax obtained were 1334, 35.50 and 36.35 mg g-1 for the uptake of Methylene blue, Famotidine and Diclofenac respectively. The equilibrium adsorption had an alignment with Langmuir isotherms while the kinetics were most accurately modelled using a pseudo- first –order and second order models according to the regression analysis. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG◦, ΔH◦ and ΔS◦ were calculated and the adsorption process was determined to be exothermic and spontaneous.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0128.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; bioemulsifier; cassava wastewater; removal pollutant; methylene blue dye.
Online: 7 September 2018 (10:55:52 CEST)
In this work was investigated the potential of Bacillus subtilis UCP 0146 in the bioconversion of the medium containing 100% of cassava flour wastewater to obtain bioemulsifier. The evaluation of the production was carried out by the emulsification index (IE24) and surface tension (TS). The ionic charge, stability (temperature, salinity and pH measured by IE24 and viscosity), ability to remove and disperse oil and textile dye were investigated. B.subtilis produced an anionic bioemulsifier in the medium containing 100% of cassava wastewater in condition 4 of the factorial design (9% of the inoculum, at 35 °C and agitation of 100 rpm) with surface tension of 39mN/m, IE24 of 95.2 % and yield 2.69 g.L-1. Stability at different pH (2-8), temperatures (0-120ºC) and NaCl, dispersed (55.83 cm2-ODA) and reduced the viscosity of the burned engine oil (90.5 cP) , removed 94.4% petroleum and demonstrated efficiency in methylene blue removal (62.2%). The bioemulsifier and its synthesis from bacteria and also emphases on the role of surfactants in oil remediation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0583.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: photocatalysis; heterojunction; two dimensional semiconductor; ZnO; V2O5; methylene blue degradation
Online: 30 July 2018 (10:46:33 CEST)
In this work, we report the fabrication of the new heterojunction of two 2D hybrid layered semiconductors, ZnO(stearic acid)/V2O5(hexadecylamine), and its behavior in the degradation of aqueous methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The optimal photocatalyst efficiency, reached at a ZnO(stearic acid)/ V2O5(hexadecylamine) ratio of 1:0.25, results to be about six times higher than that of pristine zinc oxide. Reusability test shows that after three photocatalysis cycles no significant changes in neither the dye degradation efficiency loss nor photocatalyst structure occur. Visible light photocatalytic performance observed indicates there is synergetic effect between both 2D nanocomposites used in the heterojunction. The visible light absorption enhancement promoted by the narrower bandgap V2O5 based components; an increased photo generated charge separation favored by extensive interface area; and abundance of hydrophobic sites for dye adsorption appear as probable causes of the improved photocatalytic efficiency in this hybrid semiconductors heterojunction. Estimated band-edge positions for both conduction and valence band of semiconductors together with experiments using specific radical scavengers allow a plausible photodegradation mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0428.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ag nanoparticle; localized surface plasmon resonance; color; red-shift; blue-shift
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:52:47 CET)
Fresh Ag nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed on a transparent SiO2 exhibit an intense optical extinction band originating in localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in visible range. The intensity of LSPR band weakened when the Ag NPs was stored in ambient air for two weeks. The rate of the weakening and the LSPR wavelength shift, corresponding to visual chromatic changes, strongly depended on the environment in which Ag NPs were set. The origin of a chromatic change was discussed along with both compositional and morphological changes. In one case, bluish coloring followed by a prompt discoloring was observed for Ag NPs placed near the ventilation fan in our laboratory, resulted from adsorption of large amounts of S and Cl on Ag NP surfaces as well as particle coarsening. Such color changes deduce the presence of significant amounts of S and Cl in the environment. In other case, a remarkably blue-shift of LSPR band was observed for the Ag NPs stored in the desiccator made of stainless steel, originated in the formation of CN and/or HCN compounds and surface roughening. Their color changed from maroon to reddish, suggesting that such molecules were present inside the desiccator.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: political borders; ecosystem edges; green infrastructure, blue infrastructure; opportunities; threats; sustainability.
Online: 9 December 2020 (13:40:19 CET)
Cities are small on earth’s surface but they are the most attractive places for people to live and work; cities are developing quickly, thus it’s important to keep it a better quality place to live as it has the major of the economic activities and more job opportunities and other social and economic advantages to be a more green and sustainable place. Seeking to achieve sustainable use of ecosystems and conserve natural resources in the city of Prague; integrating ecological sustainability goals, the political borders as a reflection of urban development in the city, and ecosystems edges in blue and green functions impact the city development, and present opportunities to create strategies for green and blue infrastructure and clarifying threats could slow down the process to achieve the sustainability and greenery application. Also checking possible urban areas for development like brownfields and clarifying their relationship with political borders and ecosystems to find possible areas to add for sustainable green use, which will create better places for people to live and raise the value of life as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Metal-halide lamp, quartz-halogen lamp, blue LED, TFT-LCD, spectrum
Online: 10 September 2018 (14:20:19 CEST)
Light sources tend to affect images captured in any automatic optical inspection (AOI) system. In this study, the effectiveness of metal-halide lamps, quartz-halogen lamps, and LEDs as the light sources in AOI systems for the detection of the 3rd and 4th layers electrodes of thin-film-transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs) is examined experimentally. The results show that the performance of LEDs is generally comparable or better than that of metal-halide and quartz-halogen lamps. The best optical performance is by the blue LED due to its spectrum compatibility with the time-delay-integration charged-coupled device (TDI CCD) sensor and its better spatial resolution. The images revealed by the blue LED are sharper and more distinctive. Since current LEDs are more energy efficient and environmentally friendly, using LEDs as the light source for AOI is very beneficial. As the blue LED performs the best, it should be adopted for AOI using TDI CCD sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Circular Waterways; Outdoor recreation facilities; fluid landscape paradise; Blue-Green Infra-structure
Online: 8 September 2022 (05:44:43 CEST)
Rajshahi, blessed by the geographical advantage provided by the river Padma, is a beautiful and one of the cleanest cities in Bangladesh. It presents a spectacular image and stunning sight to its residents. But Rapid urbanization created immense pressure on the infrastructures and cityscape by rescinding most of the natural assets and scenic beauty it possessed historically. The growing pressure of population influx accompanied by unplanned urbanization threatens the survival of its waterbodies, wetlands, and greeneries, which many other contemporary cities strive to achieve with hard-hearted planning measures. Moreover, the city suffers from inadequate provision of quality outdoor recreational facilities. Yet because of the verdant resources, it still can set an example of becoming green and fluid landscape. There are scopes to connect the city people to the urban landscape and blue-green infrastructures by applying proper planning and urban design techniques. For example, it can explore the potential and scope of a water-based transportation system to create outdoor recreation space for city dwellers as well as a transport mode in the city. This SECTION discusses the prospects and potential of enhancing recreational aspects of Circular Inland Waterways. It also analyzes the benefits of a network of waterways well-connected and integrated with the existing conventional transportation system to reduce pressure on land transport and promote a sustainable system. This research was conducted in two phases each involving a distinct approach. The first one was a macroscopic approach to probe the potential of the water transport system in Rajshahi city. The required data on traffic volume, traffic growth rate, roads and existing waterbodies were collected, and GIS and Remote Sensing tools were used to find the scope of waterway transport around Rajshahi City. In the second approach, a detailed design was proposed for a potential circular waterway network in the city. Results indicate that there is a huge prospect for introducing a circular waterway transport system around Rajshahi city to create a place of fluid landscape and minimize the pressure on the existing land transportation system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0093.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: spent coffee grounds; polyphenols; extraction; subcritical fluid; activated carbon; methylene blue; adsorption.
Online: 20 September 2019 (10:23:51 CEST)
A valorization process of spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Thus, a two-stage process, a stage of extraction of the polyphenols and a stage of obtaining activated carbon (AC) by a carbonization process, was performed. The extraction was carried out with a hydro-alcoholic solution in a pressure reactor, modifying time and temperature. To optimize the extraction of polyphenols, a two-level factorial design with three replications at the central values was used. The best results were obtained by performing the extraction at 80 °C during 30 min, using a mixture of EtOH:H2O 1:1 (v/v) as extraction solution. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant compounds in the analyzed extracts, ranging from 0.09 to 4.8 mg∙g-1 and 0.06 to 9.7 mg∙g-1, respectively. The precursor obtained in the extraction stage were transformed into AC. An experimental design was realized in order to analyze the influence of different variables in the AC obtained process (reaction time and amount of potassium hydroxide used). Actived carbons with BET specific surface (SBET) comprised between 1600 m2∙g-1 and 2330 m2∙g-1 had a microporous surface. Under the optimum conditions, the obtained AC presented a maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue (qm) between 411 mg∙g-1 and 813 mg∙g-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: blue-green infrastracture; nature-based solutions; urban green spaces; invasive trees; trampling
Online: 11 August 2019 (11:24:47 CEST)
Public access to high quality green environments has become a key issue for city managers and a matter of environmental justice. Remnants of natural ecosystems allow citizens a direct contact with nature, but conversely the presence of people contributes further to the existing disturbances. Urban pressures on ecosystem remnants may act to favour the expansion of some invasive species in cities. Whilst the negative impacts of invasive species on ecosystem function is well documented little is known how invasive species influence the use of green spaces by people. Here, we examined one of the few remnants of urban riparian forests in Europe, the Vistula river valley in Warsaw which has recently become an attractive recreation site. Despite their high ecological value, the poplar and willow forests have been increasingly taken over by the invasive tree species Acer negundo. We examined the status of the invasion process and the relationship between recreational ecosystem services and the characteristics of the tree stands – tree species, tree density and age and NDVI values. We found the willow forest to be more susceptible to invasion by A. negundo than the poplar forest, which was revealed in significantly higher share of the maple individuals and their greater volume per unit area. Presence of A. negundo affected biodiversity resulting in decreased undergrowth density and number of species. The use intensity by the public, assessed on the basis of trampling intensity and the density of existing informal tracks, were negatively correlated to the presence of A. negundo. This study highlights the need to integrate invasive species management into green infrastructure planning and management.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Dunaliella salina; microalgae; red LED; blue LED; growth; carotenoids; plastoquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase; photosynthesis
Online: 19 April 2019 (09:47:41 CEST)
The halotolerant photoautotrophic marine microalga Dunaliella salina is one of the richest sources of natural carotenoids. Here we investigated the effects of high intensity blue, red and white light from light emitting diodes (LED) on the production of carotenoids by strains of D. salina under nutrient sufficiency and strict temperature control favouring growth. Growth in high intensity red light was associated with carotenoid accumulation and a high rate of oxygen uptake. On transfer to blue light, a massive drop in carotenoid content was recorded along with very high rates of photo-oxidation. In high intensity blue light, growth was maintained at the same rate as in red or white light, but without carotenoid accumulation; transfer to red light stimulated a small increase in carotenoid content. The data support chlorophyll absorption of red light photons to reduce plastoquinone in photosystem II, coupled to phytoene desaturation by plastoquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase, with oxygen as electron acceptor. Partitioning of electrons between photosynthesis and carotenoid biosynthesis would depend on both red photon flux intensity and phytoene synthase upregulation by the red light photoreceptor, phytochrome. Red light control of carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation reduces the rate of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as increases the pool size of anti-oxidant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0236.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: organic lead-free perovskites; piezoelectric crystals; nanofiber composites; electrospinning; blue luminescence; functional organic materials
Online: 17 October 2022 (11:51:08 CEST)
Lead-free ferroelectric perovskite N-methyl-N'-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octonium)–ammonium triio-dide, MDABCO-NH4I3, nanocrystals are embedded in three different polymer fibers fabricated by the electrospinning technique. The nanofibers, which are very flexible and have a high Young modulus, behave as active piezoelectric energy harvesting sources that produce a piezoelectric voltage coefficient up to geff = 3.6 VmN-1 and show a blue intense luminescence band at 325 nm. In this work, the pyroelectric coefficient is reported for the MDABCO-NH4I3 perovskite inserted in electrospun fibers. At the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition, the embedded nanocrystals display a pyroelectric coefficient as high as 194×10-6 Cm-2k-1, within the same order of magnitude as that reported for the state-of-the-art bulk ferroelectric triglycine sulfate (TGS). The perovskite nanocrystals embedded into the polymer fibers remain stable, and no degradation is caused by oxidation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0239.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: marble black crust; carbon nano particles; soluble dust; blue-green algae (cyanophyceae); humic substances
Online: 24 June 2019 (09:22:15 CEST)
The science on the anthropogenic airborne aerosols impacting upon the World Heritage marble monument, the Taj Mahal, at Agra has been studied in the light of modern physico-chemical approaches. The study is an effort to understand yet unrecognized airborne species which were found on the surface of the Taj Mahal monument. These species have been analyzed in the light of current analytical methods to impart characterization features and their possible impacts on the surface of the marble. Chemical constituents of these substrates which were incorporated over the top surface of the monument have been identified. Interestingly, the carbon particulates which were thought in the micro level, popularly called “particulate matters” has now been identified even in the nano domain entity, which are chemically more reactive, have been found on the surface of the monument. Because of their high chemical activity these nano carbons do play newer chemistry in the presence of air and sunlight generating several reactive oxygen species (ROS).These ROS are capable to respond to complicated chemical reactions on the surface of the marble in association with deposited cyanophyceae and other deposits of plant origin causing rapid degradation. This study provides the nature of onslaught borne out by such monument exposed under the prevalent smoggy environmental scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0157.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; sustainability; ecosystem-based approach; blue economy; coral reef; coastal systems; landscape; seascape
Online: 6 November 2019 (08:49:04 CET)
The Sustainable Development Goals, while complex at first sight, express a simple narrative about the relationships between people and nature. This paper illustrates this in the context of a coral reef land or seascape supporting coastal people. Coral reefs, their health described by measures of coral and fish diversity and abundance, provide key services and benefits to people. These services directly support 10s of millions of jobs in multiple economic sectors in coastal and distant states, protect and harbor communities and cities across tropical coastlines, sustain use of living and non-living resources, provide transport infrastructure and valuable natural products, and in future may provide energy solutions. Through these multiple benefits, coral reefs contribute to reducing hunger and poverty, thus improving health, and potentially strengthening gender and social equality. However, access and use result in pressures that may drive decline in coral reef health. Broader land and seascape factors also affect reef health and therefore delivery of benefits, including land-use change and altered freshwater flows, as well as climate change. Managing this complex system requires appropriate awareness and knowledge, governance mechanisms and investments by stakeholders. This ‘SDG narrative’ can be used from local to global levels, motivating actions and policy at and across these scales to sustain ecosystem function and use, for the oceans what is also increasingly called a blue economy.
OPINION | doi:10.3390/sci2030057
Subject: Keywords: blue carbon; carbon; carbon stock; carbon sequestration; climate change; CO<sub>2</sub> emissions; mangrove; mitigation
Online: 23 July 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Mangrove forests store and sequester large area-specific quantities of blue carbon (Corg). Except for tundra and peatlands, mangroves store more Corg per unit area than any other ecosystem. Mean mangrove Corg stock is 738.9 Mg Corg ha−1 and mean global stock is 6.17 Pg Corg, which equates to only 0.4–7% of terrestrial ecosystem Corg stocks but 17% of total tropical marine Corg stocks. Seagrasses sequester more Corg per unit area than mangroves (179.6 g Corg m−2·a−1) but twice the Corg sequestered by mangroves globally (15 Tg Corg a−1). Mangroves sequester only 4% (range 1.3–8%) of Corg sequestered by terrestrial ecosystems, indicating that mangroves are a minor contributor to global C storage and sequestration. CO2 emissions from mangrove losses equate to 0.036 Pg CO2-equivalents a−1 based on rates of C sequestration but 0.088 Pg CO2-equivalents a−1 based on complete destruction for conversion to aquaculture and agriculture. Mangrove CO2 emissions account for only 0.2% of total global CO2 emissions but 18% of CO2 emissions from the tropical coastal ocean. Despite significant data limitations, the role of mangrove ecosystems in climate change mitigation is globally insignificant but may be more significant and effective at the national and regional scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Targeted drug delivery, VX2 tumor, breast cancer, cryoablation, cryo-assisted injection, cryo-assisted resection, blue dye, epirubicin.
Online: 30 May 2019 (13:44:41 CEST)
Background: We assess locoregional drug targeting effectiveness of intraoperative (IO) cryoprobe-assisted injection of blue dye (BD) and cytotoxic-tracer mixture (TTM), in VX2 tumor model, and its translational value to cryo-assisted breast tumor surgery with BD alone. Methods: Under computed tomography (CT) guidance, we injected two ml TTM in five aliquots in the margin of 16 frozen or normothermic VX2 tumors. We evaluated the IO and post-operative drug targeting and therapeutic efficacy in tumor-host interface (T-HI) by CT, gross examination, and histopathology. In twenty-six T1 to T4 primary breast cancer (BRCA) we performed ultrasound-guided (US) cryoprobe-assisted tumor freezing, BD guided lymphatic mapping, and surgery. We evaluated, IO and in freshly resected specimen, BD distribution pattern in T-HI, lymph node(s), breast parenchyma, and resection cavity. Results: Fluids-impervious frozen VX2 or breast tumor transported drug(s) an arc-like pattern at T-HI regardless of freeze dose, number of freeze-thaw cycles, drug dose fractionation, tumor characteristics or dimensions. During melting, TTM spread within fifty percent VX2 tumor mirrored that of T-HI; it was massive in normothermia. In VX2 twenty percent focal margin necrosis at pathology coincided with CT gap; in both studies, BD dose-staining spread in T-HI and tumor was linear. Eighty-four patients had one to twelve stained axillary lymph nodes; sixty-nine percent and all respectively, had another quadrant and resection cavity stained. Conclusion: Intraoperative freezing-assisted drug delivery and targeting techniques during cryoablation of VX2 tumor translate successfully to locoregional BD targeting, lymphatic mapping during cryo-assisted surgery of breast cancer.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0220.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: aging; bioactive molecules; blue biotechnology; cancer; cell culture; COST Action; Europe; marine/aquatic invertebrates; regeneration; stem cells
Online: 24 January 2018 (04:14:56 CET)
The “stem cells” discipline represents one of the most dynamic areas in biomedicine. While adult marine/aquatic invertebrate stem cell (MISC) biology is of prime research and medical interest, studies on stem cells from organisms outside the classical vertebrate (e.g., human, mouse, zebrafish) and invertebrate (e.g., Drosophila, Caenorhabditis) models have not been pursued vigorously. Marine/aquatic invertebrates constitute the largest biodiversity and the widest phylogenetic radiation on Earth, from morphologically simple organisms (e.g. sponges, cnidarians), to the more complex mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and protochordates. These organisms illustrate a kaleidoscope of MISC-types that participate in the production of a large number of novel bioactive-molecules, many of which are of significant potential interest for human health. MISCs further participate in aging and regeneration phenomena, including whole-body regeneration. For years, the European MISC-community has been highly fragmented and scarce ties were established with biomedical industries in attempts to harness MISCs for human welfare. Thus, it is important to: i) consolidate the fragmented European community working on MISCs; ii) promote and coordinate European research on MISC biology; iii) stimulate young researchers to embark on research in MISC-biology; iv) develop, validate, and network novel MISC tools and methodologies; v) establish the MISC discipline as a forefront interest of biomedical disciplines, including nanobiomedicine; vi) establish collaborations with industries to exploit MISCs as sources of bioactive molecules. In order to fill the recognised gaps, the EC-COST Action 16203 “MARISTEM”, has recently been launched. At its initial stage the consortium unites 26 scientists from EC countries, Cooperating countries and Near Neighbor Countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0181.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: aluminum ion; blue color development; 5-O-caffeoylquicnic acid; 3-O-glucosyldelphinidin; Hydrangea macrophylla; ESI-mass; metal complex
Online: 11 May 2018 (10:15:49 CEST)
The blue sepal color of hydrangea is due to a metal complex anthocyanin composed of 3-O-glucosyldelphinidin (1) and an aluminum ion with the co-pigments 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (2) and/or 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3). The three components, namely, anthocyanin, Al3+ and 5-O-acylquinic acids, are essential for blue color development, but the complex is unstable and only exists in aqueous solution. Furthermore, the complex did not give analyzable NMR spectra or crystals. Therefore, many trials to determine the detailed chemical structure of the hydrangea-blue complex have failed to date. Instead, via experiments mixing 1, Al3+ and 2 or 3 in a buffered solution at pH 4.0, we obtained the same blue solution derived from the sepals. However, the ratio was not stoichiometric but fluctuated. To determine the composition of the complex, we tried direct observation of the molecular ion of the complex using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. In a very low-concentration buffer solution (2.0 mM) at pH 4.0, we reproduced the hydrangea-blue color by mixing 1, 2 and Al3+ in ratios of 1:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:3:1. All solution gave the same molecular ion peak at m/z = 843, indicating that the blue solution has a ratio of 1:1:1 for the complex. By using 3, the observed mass number was m/z = 827 and the ratio of 1, 3 and Al3+ was also 1:1:1. A mixture of 1, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4) and Al3+ did not give any blue color but instead was purple, and the intensity of the molecular ion peak at m/z = 843 was very low. These results strongly indicate that the hydrangea blue-complex is composed of a ratio of 1:1:1 for 1, Al3+ and 2 or 3.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: 9-cis β-carotene; all-trans β-carotene; Dunaliella salina; red LED; blue LED; growth; light intensity; carotenoids; isomerisation
Online: 17 May 2019 (08:25:02 CEST)
Dunaliella salina is a rich source of 9-cis β-carotene, which has been identified as important in the treatment of retinal dystrophies and other diseases. We previously showed that chlorophyll absorption of red light photons in D. salina is coupled to oxygen reduction and phytoene desaturation and increases the pool size of β-carotene . Here we show for the first time that growth under red light also controls conversion of extant all-trans β-carotene to 9-cis β-carotene by β-carotene isomerases. Cells illuminated with red light from a light emitting diode (LED) during cultivation contained a higher 9-cis β-carotene content compared to cells illuminated with white or blue LED light. The 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene ratio in red light treated cultures reached >2.5:1 within 48 hours and was independent of light intensity. Illumination using red light filters that eliminated blue wavelength light also increased the 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene ratio. With norflurazon, a phytoene desaturase inhibitor which blocked downstream biosynthesis of β-carotene, extant all-trans β-carotene was converted to 9-cis β-carotene during growth with red light and the 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene ratio was ~2:1. With blue light under the same conditions, 9-cis β-carotene was likely destroyed at a greater rate than all-trans β-carotene (9-cis/all-trans ratio 0.5:1). Red light perception by the red light photoreceptor, phytochrome, may increase the pool size of anti-oxidant, specifically 9-cis β-carotene, both by upregulating phytoene synthase to increase the rate of biosynthesis of β-carotene and to reduce the rate of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and by upregulating β-carotene isomerases to convert extant all-trans β-carotene to 9-cis β-carotene.