ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0570.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: bit and qubit, classical and quantum information, epoché, physical and mathematical transcendentalism, qubit space (qubit Hilbert space), separable complex Hilbert space, the totality, transcendental time
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:12:11 CEST)
Information can be considered as the most fundamental, philosophical, physical and mathematical concept originating from the totality by means of physical and mathematical transcendentalism (the counterpart of philosophical transcendentalism). Classical and quantum information, particularly by their units, bit and qubit, correspond and unify the finite and infinite. As classical information is relevant to finite series and sets, as quantum information, to infinite ones. A fundamental joint relativity of the finite and infinite, of the external and internal is to be investigated. The corresponding invariance is able to define physical action and its quantity only on the basis of information and especially: on the relativity of classical and quantum information. The concept of transcendental time, an epoché in relation to the direction of time arrow can be defined. Its correlate is that information invariant to the finite and infinite, therefore unifying both classical and quantum information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Large intelligent surfaces; 6G; bit error probability; Nakagami fading; Von Mises distribution
Online: 11 August 2021 (10:52:46 CEST)
In this work, we derive the spectral efficiency, secrecy outage probability, and bit error rate of a communication system assisted by a large intelligent surface (LIS). We consider a single-antenna user and an array of antennas at the transmitter side and the possibility of a direct link between transmitter and receiver. Additionally, there is a single-antenna eavesdropper with a direct link to the transmitter, which is modeled as a Nakagami-m distributed fading coefficient. The channels from transmitter to the LIS and from the LIS to the user may or may not have the line-of-sight (LoS) and are modeled by the Nakagami- m distribution. Moreover, we assume that the LIS elements perform non-ideal phase cancellation leading to a residual phase error that assumes a Von Mises distribution. We show that the resulting channel can be accurately approximated by a Gamma distribution whose parameters are analytically estimated using the moments of the equivalent signal-to-noise ratio. We also provide an upper bound for the error probability for M-QAM modulations. With the derived formulas, we analyze the effect of the strength of the LoS link by varying the Nakagami parameter, m.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0434.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: VLC; DIPPM; SC-L-PPM; M-VPPM; BER; bit rate; power distribution
Online: 30 May 2018 (05:56:00 CEST)
Visible Light Communication (VLC) uses an intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IM/DD) scheme to transmit data. The light source utilized in VLC structures is constantly switched on and off rapidly, resulting in flickering. Furthermore, most of illumination systems exclude dimming support to permit customers to dim the light source to the desired stage. Therefore, the modulation scheme for information transmission in VLC should consist of flicker mitigation and dimming manage abilities. Double inverse pulse position modulation (DIPPM), sub-carrier pulse position modulation (SC-L-PPM), and M-ary variable pulse position modulation (M-VPPM) are recommended for minimizing the flicker issues and supporting an excessive degree of dimming for VLC systems. In this paper, a comparison is introduced between DIPPM, SC-L-PPM, and M-VPPM according to error performance and bit rate. In addition, a simulation is carried out to measure the optical power distribution for a LED lamp in an indoor room topology for each modulation technique. The obtained results indicated that SC-L-PPM is the best choice regarding the bit error rate (BER) and optical power distribution compared to the other two schemes. A 10-6 BER is achieved with a very low power requirement at L=8, while a remarkable power distribution of 1.5 to 6.5 dBm is observed from 3×5×5 m3 room corners to the center, respectively. According to the bit rate, it is noticed that, M-VPPM is the most efficient one compared to the two other schemes. It achieves 2.3×107 bps at signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 22 dB and M=8.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0522.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: composite; piezoelectric sensor; thick film; sol-gel PMOD deposition; infiltration; PZT/PZT; PZT/BiT; characterization; structural health monitoring; aerospace structure
Online: 23 October 2018 (06:25:30 CEST)
The composition of fine-ground lead zirconate-titanate powder Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3, suspended in PZT and bismuth titanate (BiT) solutions, is deposited on the curved surface of IN718 and IN738 nickel-based supper alloy substrates up to 100 µm thickness. Photochemical metal organic and infiltration techniques are implemented to produce smooth, semi-dense, and crack-free random orientated thick piezoelectric films as piezo-sensors, free of any dopants or thickening polymers. Every single layer of the deposited films is heated at 200 °C with 10 wt.% excess PbO, irradiated by UV lamp (365 nm, 6 watt) for 10 minutes, pyrolyzed at 400 °C, and subsequently annealed at 700 °C for one hour. This process is repeated successively until reaching the desired thickness. Au and Pt thin films are deposited as the bottom and top electrodes using evaporation and sputtering methods, respectively. PZT/PZT and PZT/BiT composite films are then characterized and compared to similar PZT and BiT thick films deposited on the similar substrates. The effect of composition and deposition process is also investigated on the crystalline phase development and microstructure morphology as well as dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of piezo-films. The maximum remnant polarization of Pr = 22.37 ± 0.01, 30.01 ± 0.01 µC/cm2, the permittivity of εr = 298 ± 3, 566 ± 5 and piezoelectric charge coefficient of d33 = 126, 148 m/V were measured versus the minimum coercive field of Ec = 50, 20 kV/cm for the PZT/PZT and PZT/Bit thick films, respectively. The thick film piezo-sensors are developed to be potentially used at frequency bandwidth of 1–5 MHz for rotary structural health monitoring and also in other industrial or medical applications as a transceiver.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bit-serial; Low Power; Variable Accuracy Computing; FFT; Energy Harvesting; VLSI; Hardware Design
Online: 14 June 2018 (16:22:15 CEST)
In this paper, a new approach is proposed for designing ultra-low-power FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) system suitable for use in energy harvesting powered sensors. Bit-serial architecture is adopted to reduce the power consumption of butterfly operation. Simulation results show that, compared with state-of-the-art bit-serial and conventional parallel processors, the proposed technique is superior in terms of silicon area, power consumption, dynamic energy use due to variable precision arithmetic. A sample design of a 64-point FFT shows that the implementation can save about 40% area and 36% leakage power compared with a conventional parallel counterpart, accordingly achieving significant power benefits at a low sample rate and low voltage domain. The dynamic variation of the arithmetic precision can be achieved through a simple modification of the controller with hardware area overhead of 10% gate count.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0176.v1
Subject: Keywords: Video Steganography, Least Significant Bit (LSB) Coding, Double key Encryption, Decryption, Password Verification, Signature Verification
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:21:29 CEST)
In today’s digital media data communication over the internet increasing day by day. Therefore the data security becomes the most important issue over the internet. With the increase of data transmission, the number of intruders also increases. That’s the reason it is needed to transmit the data over the internet very securely. Steganography is a popular method in this field. This method hides the secret data with a cover medium in a way so that the intruders cannot predict the existence of the data. Here a steganography method is proposed which uses a video file as a cover medium. This method has five main steps. First, convert the video file into video frames. Then a particular frame is selected for embedded the secret data. Second, the Least Significant Bit (LSB) Coding technique is used with the double key security technique. Third, an 8 characters password verification process. Fourth, reverse the encrypted video. Fifth, signature verification process to verify the encryption and decryption process. These five steps are followed by both the encrypting and decrypting processes.