ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0570.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: bit and qubit, classical and quantum information, epoché, physical and mathematical transcendentalism, qubit space (qubit Hilbert space), separable complex Hilbert space, the totality, transcendental time
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:12:11 CEST)
Information can be considered as the most fundamental, philosophical, physical and mathematical concept originating from the totality by means of physical and mathematical transcendentalism (the counterpart of philosophical transcendentalism). Classical and quantum information, particularly by their units, bit and qubit, correspond and unify the finite and infinite. As classical information is relevant to finite series and sets, as quantum information, to infinite ones. A fundamental joint relativity of the finite and infinite, of the external and internal is to be investigated. The corresponding invariance is able to define physical action and its quantity only on the basis of information and especially: on the relativity of classical and quantum information. The concept of transcendental time, an epoché in relation to the direction of time arrow can be defined. Its correlate is that information invariant to the finite and infinite, therefore unifying both classical and quantum information.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1950.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: quantum entanglement; photon entanglement; Q-bit; dark energy; gravitaional decoherence
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:53:16 CEST)
By utilizing a generalized version of the Madelung quantum-hydrodynamic framework that incorporates noise, we derive a solution using the path integral method to investigate how a quantum superposition of states evolves over time. This exploration seeks to comprehend the process through which a stable quantum state ultimately emerges in the presence of fluctuations induced by the noisy gravitational background. The model defines the conditions that give rise to a limited range of interaction for the quantum potential, allowing for the existence of coarse-grained classical descriptions at a macroscopic level. The theory uncovers the smallest attainable level of uncertainty in an open quantum system and examines its consistency with the localized behavior observed in large-scale classical systems. The research delves into connections and similarities with decoherence theory and the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. Additionally, it assesses the potential consequences of wave function decay on the measurement of photon entanglement. To validate the proposed theory, an experiment involving entangled photons transmitted between detectors on the Moon and Mars is discussed. Finally, the findings of the theory are applied to the creation of larger Q-bits systems at elevated temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1725.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: equestrian sport; welfare; bit use; equine behavior; behavioral effects; horse satisfaction; horses; bits
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:59:33 CEST)
This study was conducted to investigate bit use in equestrian sports, focusing on welfare and performance as bit use has been subject of debate. The multi-faceted study combines a literature review, survey, and video analyses. Research on physiological and behavioral effects of bit use, discussing concerns and benefits, was evaluated. The survey involved 250 equestrians, gathering data on experiences, opinions, and practices regarding bit usage. Results demonstrate that different bits are used during competitions and that riders prioritize factors like horse satisfaction, consistent connection, and chewing behavior when riding at home, while show use focusses on factors like control. Video analyses showed high conformity between veterinary expert and show jumper, indicating reliability and validity. Pelham and loose ring bits were most used, while 3-ring and full cheek bits were associated with the most aversive movements, particularly opening of the mouth. Other defense movements included putting ears back, tail swishing, and head tilting. The study highlighted the need for understanding bit preferences in various settings and cautioned against generalizing bit usage based solely on show observations. It also emphasized the potential for developing new designs that prioritize horse comfort and responsiveness, to enhance communication and partnership between horses and riders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0944.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Deep mining; Drill bit structural parameters; Fidelity coring; Abaqus simulation and analysis
Online: 13 June 2023 (14:34:21 CEST)
Keywords: Deep mining; Drill bit structural parameters; Fidelity coring; Abaqus simulation and analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Large intelligent surfaces; 6G; bit error probability; Nakagami fading; Von Mises distribution
Online: 11 August 2021 (10:52:46 CEST)
In this work, we derive the spectral efficiency, secrecy outage probability, and bit error rate of a communication system assisted by a large intelligent surface (LIS). We consider a single-antenna user and an array of antennas at the transmitter side and the possibility of a direct link between transmitter and receiver. Additionally, there is a single-antenna eavesdropper with a direct link to the transmitter, which is modeled as a Nakagami-m distributed fading coefficient. The channels from transmitter to the LIS and from the LIS to the user may or may not have the line-of-sight (LoS) and are modeled by the Nakagami- m distribution. Moreover, we assume that the LIS elements perform non-ideal phase cancellation leading to a residual phase error that assumes a Von Mises distribution. We show that the resulting channel can be accurately approximated by a Gamma distribution whose parameters are analytically estimated using the moments of the equivalent signal-to-noise ratio. We also provide an upper bound for the error probability for M-QAM modulations. With the derived formulas, we analyze the effect of the strength of the LoS link by varying the Nakagami parameter, m.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0434.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: VLC; DIPPM; SC-L-PPM; M-VPPM; BER; bit rate; power distribution
Online: 30 May 2018 (05:56:00 CEST)
Visible Light Communication (VLC) uses an intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IM/DD) scheme to transmit data. The light source utilized in VLC structures is constantly switched on and off rapidly, resulting in flickering. Furthermore, most of illumination systems exclude dimming support to permit customers to dim the light source to the desired stage. Therefore, the modulation scheme for information transmission in VLC should consist of flicker mitigation and dimming manage abilities. Double inverse pulse position modulation (DIPPM), sub-carrier pulse position modulation (SC-L-PPM), and M-ary variable pulse position modulation (M-VPPM) are recommended for minimizing the flicker issues and supporting an excessive degree of dimming for VLC systems. In this paper, a comparison is introduced between DIPPM, SC-L-PPM, and M-VPPM according to error performance and bit rate. In addition, a simulation is carried out to measure the optical power distribution for a LED lamp in an indoor room topology for each modulation technique. The obtained results indicated that SC-L-PPM is the best choice regarding the bit error rate (BER) and optical power distribution compared to the other two schemes. A 10-6 BER is achieved with a very low power requirement at L=8, while a remarkable power distribution of 1.5 to 6.5 dBm is observed from 3×5×5 m3 room corners to the center, respectively. According to the bit rate, it is noticed that, M-VPPM is the most efficient one compared to the two other schemes. It achieves 2.3×107 bps at signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 22 dB and M=8.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1590.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: PDC bit; heterogeneous granite; mixed cloth teeth; Box-Behnken; finite element analysis
Online: 25 July 2023 (04:22:49 CEST)
The cutter structure and layout scheme of PDC (Polycrystalline Diamond Compact) bits are important factors in improving efficiency. To further improve the drilling efficiency of PDC bits, axe, triangular prism, and cylindrical PDC cutters were used as research objects. Based on the measured granite data, a finite element model of non-homogeneous granite was established and verified by uniaxial compression simulation. The rock-breaking process of different cutter combination schemes was compared using the finite element method, and the parameters in the best scheme were optimized using the Box-Behnken response surface method. The results show that the constructed model of non-homogeneous granite is consistent with the stress-strain relationship of real granite and is reliable. The axe PDC cutter is more aggressive than the other two cutters and is more suitable for the front row of the bit blade tooth arrangement, while the triangular prism cutter is the second most aggressive and is suitable for the rear row of tooth arrangement, and the best combination scheme is the front row of axe cutter and the rear row of triangular prism cutter arranged alternately with the axe cutter. The optimal transverse and longitudinal distances of the optimized triangular prism cutter from the front axe cutter are 10mm and 7mm, and the optimal transverse and longitudinal distances of the rear axe cutter from the front cutter are 10.06mm and 7mm. The drilling speed is more stable during drilling and the PDC bit with mixed tooth arrangement has 16.8% and 16.6% higher rate of penetration(ROP) compared with the bit with single axe cutter and triangular prism cutter, and the drilling speed is more stable during working, which can effectively improve the rock breaking efficiency of the PDC bit. The field application proves that the bit with mixed cutter arrangement is easier to break the complex formations, with more stable ROP and better efficiency. The study can provide theoretical support for the cutter layout of the PDC bit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0522.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: composite; piezoelectric sensor; thick film; sol-gel PMOD deposition; infiltration; PZT/PZT; PZT/BiT; characterization; structural health monitoring; aerospace structure
Online: 23 October 2018 (06:25:30 CEST)
The composition of fine-ground lead zirconate-titanate powder Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3, suspended in PZT and bismuth titanate (BiT) solutions, is deposited on the curved surface of IN718 and IN738 nickel-based supper alloy substrates up to 100 µm thickness. Photochemical metal organic and infiltration techniques are implemented to produce smooth, semi-dense, and crack-free random orientated thick piezoelectric films as piezo-sensors, free of any dopants or thickening polymers. Every single layer of the deposited films is heated at 200 °C with 10 wt.% excess PbO, irradiated by UV lamp (365 nm, 6 watt) for 10 minutes, pyrolyzed at 400 °C, and subsequently annealed at 700 °C for one hour. This process is repeated successively until reaching the desired thickness. Au and Pt thin films are deposited as the bottom and top electrodes using evaporation and sputtering methods, respectively. PZT/PZT and PZT/BiT composite films are then characterized and compared to similar PZT and BiT thick films deposited on the similar substrates. The effect of composition and deposition process is also investigated on the crystalline phase development and microstructure morphology as well as dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of piezo-films. The maximum remnant polarization of Pr = 22.37 ± 0.01, 30.01 ± 0.01 µC/cm2, the permittivity of εr = 298 ± 3, 566 ± 5 and piezoelectric charge coefficient of d33 = 126, 148 m/V were measured versus the minimum coercive field of Ec = 50, 20 kV/cm for the PZT/PZT and PZT/Bit thick films, respectively. The thick film piezo-sensors are developed to be potentially used at frequency bandwidth of 1–5 MHz for rotary structural health monitoring and also in other industrial or medical applications as a transceiver.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1945.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Display dynamics; hydraulic jetting; spinning multi-nozzle jet bit; high efficient rock breaking; dynamic rock-breaking drilling
Online: 28 June 2023 (04:42:56 CEST)
High-efficiency rock breaking by hydraulic jetting is the key to radial horizontal drilling technology. In order to improve the drilling efficiency of hydraulic jet rock breaking in radial horizontal wells, based on LS-Dyna display dynamics, a numerical simulation model of single nozzle jet rock breaking is established to analyze the influence of different nozzle parameters on rock breaking effect. Then, the numerical simulation model of the spin multi-nozzle jet bit is established, and the influence of different rotation speeds on the rock breaking effect of the jet bit is analyzed. Finally, the rock breaking drilling characteristics of the spin multi-nozzle jet bit and the conventional multi-nozzle jet bit are compared and analyzed. The results show that when the jet impacts the rock surface, the larger the inclination angle is, the larger the rock breaking width formed by the jet is. The smaller the dip angle, the greater the rock breaking depth. When the inclination angle is greater than 60 °, it is difficult to meet the needs of reaming. The width and depth of the nozzle gradually increase with the increase of the diameter. When the nozzle diameter is greater than 1.3mm, the growth rate of rock breaking depth begins to decrease. The optimum nozzle diameter is 1.3 mm. When v = 50m / s, the damage caused by the jet to the rock surface is very small, because the condition of rock fracture is not reached at this time. This shows that there is a critical value of the water jet impact velocity, and only when the velocity is reached, the rock will break. When the velocity is v = 150m / s, v = 200m / s, v = 250m / s, v = 300m / s, the rock breaks. At the same time, the higher the speed, the higher the degree of rock fracture, the greater the fracture depth, the greater the fracture area, the better the fracture effect. The tangential and radial velocity of the jet increases the shear and tensile failure rate of the sample, and improves the rock breaking efficiency of the jet, which has certain guiding significance for improving the rock breaking drilling efficiency of radial horizontal well drilling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bit-serial; Low Power; Variable Accuracy Computing; FFT; Energy Harvesting; VLSI; Hardware Design
Online: 14 June 2018 (16:22:15 CEST)
In this paper, a new approach is proposed for designing ultra-low-power FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) system suitable for use in energy harvesting powered sensors. Bit-serial architecture is adopted to reduce the power consumption of butterfly operation. Simulation results show that, compared with state-of-the-art bit-serial and conventional parallel processors, the proposed technique is superior in terms of silicon area, power consumption, dynamic energy use due to variable precision arithmetic. A sample design of a 64-point FFT shows that the implementation can save about 40% area and 36% leakage power compared with a conventional parallel counterpart, accordingly achieving significant power benefits at a low sample rate and low voltage domain. The dynamic variation of the arithmetic precision can be achieved through a simple modification of the controller with hardware area overhead of 10% gate count.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0176.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Video Steganography, Least Significant Bit (LSB) Coding, Double key Encryption, Decryption, Password Verification, Signature Verification
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:21:29 CEST)
In today’s digital media data communication over the internet increasing day by day. Therefore the data security becomes the most important issue over the internet. With the increase of data transmission, the number of intruders also increases. That’s the reason it is needed to transmit the data over the internet very securely. Steganography is a popular method in this field. This method hides the secret data with a cover medium in a way so that the intruders cannot predict the existence of the data. Here a steganography method is proposed which uses a video file as a cover medium. This method has five main steps. First, convert the video file into video frames. Then a particular frame is selected for embedded the secret data. Second, the Least Significant Bit (LSB) Coding technique is used with the double key security technique. Third, an 8 characters password verification process. Fourth, reverse the encrypted video. Fifth, signature verification process to verify the encryption and decryption process. These five steps are followed by both the encrypting and decrypting processes.