ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0012.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: neutrosophic set; interval bipolar neutrosophic set; multi-attribute decision making; distance measures; similarity measures
Online: 2 April 2018 (08:47:02 CEST)
The paper investigates some similarity measures in interval bipolar neutrosophic environment for multi-attribute decision making problems. At first, we define Hamming and Euclidean distances measures between interval bipolar neutrosophic sets and establish their basic properties. We also propose two similarity measures based on the Hamming and Euclidean distance functions. Using maximum and minimum operators, we define new similarity measures and prove their basic properties. Using the proposed similarity measures, we propose a novel multi attribute decision making strategy in interval bipolar neutrosophic set environment. Lastly, we solve an illustrative example of multi attribute decision making and present comparison analysis to show the feasibility, applicability and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0065.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: neutrosophic set; bipolar neutrosophic set; interval bipolar neutrosophic set; multi-attribute decision making; cross entropy measure
Online: 8 January 2018 (11:04:02 CET)
Bipolar neutrosophic set is an important extension of bipolar fuzzy set. This set is a hybridization of bipolar fuzzy set and neutrosophic set. Every element of a bipolar neutrosophic set consists of three independent positive membership functions and three independent negative membership functions. In this paper, we develop cross entropy measures of bipolar neutrosophic sets and prove its properties. We also define cross entropy measures of interval bipolar neutrosophic sets and prove its properties. Thereafter, we develop two novel multi-attribute decision making methods based on the proposed cross entropy measures. In the decision making framework, we calculate the weighted cross entropy measures between each alternative and the ideal alternative to rank the alternatives and choose the best one. We solve two illustrative examples of multi-attribute decision making problems and compare the obtained result with the results of other existing methods to show the applicability and effectiveness of the developed method. In the end, the main conclusion and future scope of research are summarized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0473.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: bipolar logic; bipolar transistor; thermal stability; bipolar inverter; PD-SOI, FD-SOI
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:46:24 CET)
Logic gates made of pairs of NPN and PNP bipolar transistors, similar to CMOS logic gates, have been proposed and patented long ago but did not find any practical application until now. Other bipolar technologies (TTL, TTL-S, ECL), once the technologies of choice for digital systems, were abandoned and superseded by CMOS. In this paper it is shown that now, when truly com-plementary pairs of bipolar transistors can be made, properly biased bipolar gates similar to CMOS gates are feasible, can be thermally stable and find practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: bipolar depression; inflammation; neuroimmunomodulation; cytokines; psychoneuroimmunology; staging
Online: 11 March 2020 (10:45:16 CET)
There is now evidence that, based on cytokine profiles, bipolar disorder (BD) is accompanied by simultaneous activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS), and that both components may be associated with the staging of illness. Nevertheless, no BD studies have evaluated the IRS/CIRS ratio using CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules expressed by peripheral blood activated T effector (Teff) and T regulatory (Treg) subpopulations. This study examined T cell subsets both before and after ex vivo anti CD3/CD28 stimulation using flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 25 euthymic BD patients and 21 healthy controls as well as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific IgG antibodies. BD is associated with a significantly lowered frequency of baseline (unstimulated) CD3+CD8+CD71+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3 and increased CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ frequencies and with lowered stimulated frequencies of CD3+CD8+CD71+, CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+GARP cells and, consequently, by an increased stimulated Teff/Treg ratio. Moreover, the number of manic, but not hypomanic or depressive episodes, is significantly and negatively associated with the stimulated proportions of CD3+CD4+CD154+, and CD69+ and CD71+ expression on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while duration of illness (≥ 10 years) is accompanied by a depleted frequency of stimulated CD152+ Treg, and CD154+ and CD71+ CD4+ T cells. BD and anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IgG levels significantly interact to decrease the expression of CD4+CD25+FOXP+GARP T phenotypes. In conclusion, BD is characterized by deficits in immune-regulatory functions while the staging of illness is characterized by additional impairments is Teff and Treg activation. HCMV seropositivity may contribute to an immune-risk phenotype associated with BD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: HPA axis, Bipolar II disorder, perturbation, cortisol
Online: 23 July 2018 (11:28:30 CEST)
Using analytic approach we study the effect of HPA axis secretions to the emotional variation of bipolar II disorder patient. Modified Duffing – Van der Pol oscillator was used to model the emotional variation, that was solved analytically using multiple scale perturbation to obtain an asymptotic solution. The solution was graphed to understand the effect of the variation of the cortisol to the oscillator. It was observed that the increase or decrease of the HPA hormone from the basal level in the body system, affects the mood variation of bipolar II disorder patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: bipolar disorders; metacognition; cognitive complaints; cognition; antipsychotic; impulsivity
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:03:23 CEST)
The determinants of metacognition are still poorly understood in bipolar disorders (BD). We aimed to examine the clinical determinants of metacognition, defined as the agreement between objective and subjective cognition in individuals with BD. The participants consisted of 281 patients with BD who underwent an extensive neuropsychological battery and clinical evaluation. To assess subjective cognition, participants provided a general rating of their estimated cognitive difficulties. Clinical characteristics of BD were also recorded, along with medication. We studied the potential moderation of the association between cognitive complaints and global objective cognitive performance by several clinical variables with ordinal logistic regressions. Depression and impulsivity were associated with greater cognitive complaints. The only variable that moderated the relationship between objective and subjective cognition in the global model was the prescription of antipsychotics. Patients taking antipsychotics had a poorer association between cognitive complaints and objective neuropsychological performance. This result suggests a role for dopamine in the modulation of metacognitive performance, and calls for the systematic control of antipsychotic medication in future studies documenting metacognitive deficits in severe and persistent mental disorders. Depression and impulsivity should be investigated as potential therapeutic targets for individuals with BD and cognitive complaints, before proposing an extensive neuropsychological evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cognition; visual memory; reaction time; alcohol; Bipolar disorder
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:37:43 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to explore the association of cognition with hazardous drinking and alcohol related disorder in persons with bipolar disorder (BD). The study population included 1,268 persons from Finland with bipolar disorder. Alcohol use was assessed through hazardous drinking and alcohol related disorder including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Hazardous drinking was screened with the AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption) screening tool. Alcohol related disorder diagnoses were obtained from the national registrar data. Participants performed two computerized tasks from the Cambridge automated neuropsychological test battery (CANTAB) on tablet computer: the 5-choice serial reaction time task, or, reaction time (RT) test and the Paired Associative Learning (PAL) test. Association between RT-test and alcohol use was analyzed with log-linear regression, and eβ with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. PAL first trial memory score was analyzed with linear regression, and β with 95% CI are reported. PAL total errors adjusted was analyzed with logistic regression and odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI are reported. After adjustment for age, education and housing status, hazardous drinking was associated with lower median and less variable RT in females while AUD was associated with a poorer PAL test performance in terms of the total errors adjusted scores in females. Our findings of positive associations between alcohol use and cognition in persons with bipolar disorder are unique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: auditory-visual speech perception; bipolar disorder; speech perception
Online: 6 July 2018 (05:21:19 CEST)
The focus of this study was to investigate how individuals with bipolar disorder integrate auditory and visual speech information compared to non-disordered individuals and whether there were any differences in auditory and visual speech integration in the manic and depressive episodes in bipolar disorder patients. It was hypothesized that bipolar groups’ auditory-visual speech integration would be less robust than the control group. Further, it was predicted that those in the manic phase of bipolar disorder would integrate visual speech information more than their depressive phase counterparts. To examine these, the McGurk effect paradigm was used with typical auditory-visual speech (AV) as well as auditory-only (AO) speech perception on visual-only (VO) stimuli. Results. Results showed that the disordered and non-disordered groups did not differ on auditory-visual speech (AV) integration and auditory-only (AO) speech perception but on visual-only (VO) stimuli. The results are interpreted to pave the way for further research whereby both behavioural and physiological data are collected simultaneously. This will allow us understand the full dynamics of how, actually, the auditory and visual (relatively impoverished in bipolar disorder) speech information are integrated in people with bipolar disorder.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0692.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Huntington disease; CAG; HTT gene; bipolar disorder; intermediate allele
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:33:15 CEST)
Background and objectives: Huntington disease (HD) is characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric manifestations and is caused by an expansion of CAG repeats over 35 triplets on the huntingtin (HTT) gene. However, expansions in the range 27-35 repeats (intermediate allele) can be associated with pathological phenotypes. The onset of HD is conventionally defined by the onset of motor symptoms, but psychiatric disturbances can precede the motor phase by up to twenty years. The aims of the present study are to identify HD patients in the pre-motor phase of the disease among patients diagnosed with bipolar disorders and to evaluate any differences between bipolar patients carrying normal HTT allele and patients with expanded HTT gene. Methods: We assessed the HTT genotype in an Italian cohort of 69 patients affected by bipolar disorder type 1 and type 2. Results: No patient was found to be a carrier of the pathological HTT allele, but 10% of bipolar subjects carried an intermediate allele. Carriers of the intermediate allele were older at onset of psychiatric symptoms than non-carriers. Conclusion: The pathological HTT gene was not associated with bipolar disorder, while we found a higher frequency of the intermediate allele among the bipolar population with respect to healthy controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1086.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: bipolar risk; hippocampal subfields; amygdala nuclei; MRI; machine learning
Online: 28 April 2023 (03:03:44 CEST)
The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) remains mostly unclear. Yet, a valid biomarker is necessary to improve early detection of this serious disorder. Patients with manifest BD display reduced volumes of the hippocampal subfields and amygdala nuclei. In this pre-registered analysis, we used structural MRI (N=271, 7 sites), to compare volumes of hippocampus, amygdala, and their subfields/nuclei between help-seeking subjects divided in risk groups for BD as estimated by BPSS-P, BARS and EPIbipolar. We performed between-group comparisons using linear mixed effects models for all three risk assessment tools. Additionally, we aimed to differentiate the risk groups using linear support vector machine. We found no significant volume differences between the risk groups for all limbic structures during the main analysis. However, the SVM could still classify subjects at risk according to BPSS-P criteria with a balanced accuracy of 66.90% (95% CI 59.2– 74.6) for 10-fold cross-validation and 61.9% (95% CI 52.0– 71.9) for leave-one-site-out. Structural altera-tions of hippocampus and amygdala may not be as pronounced in young people at risk, nonetheless, ma-chine learning can predict estimated risk for BD above chance. This suggests that neural changes may not merely be a consequence of BD and may have prognostic clinical value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0096.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: bipolar membrane; mathematical modelling; water dissociation; water-splitting kinetics
Online: 6 December 2022 (09:39:51 CET)
A model is proposed that describes the transfer of ions and the process of water dissociation in a system with a bipolar membrane and adjacent diffusion layers. The model considers the transfer of four types of ions: the cation and anion of salt and the products of water dissociation – hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. To describe the process of water dissociation, a model for accelerating the dissociation reaction with the participation of ionogenic groups of the membrane is adopted. The boundary value problem is solved numerically using COMSOL® Multiphysics 5.5 software. An analysis of the results of a numerical experiment shows that, at least in a symmetric electromembrane system, there is a kinetic limitation of the water dissociation process, apparently associated with the occurrence of water recombination reaction at the of the bipolar region. An interpretation of the entropy factor (β) is given as a characteristic length which shows the possibility of an ion that appeared as a result of the water dissociation reaction to be removed from the reaction zone without participating in recombination reactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0169.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Schizophrenia; bipolar; psychosis; depression; polygenic risk score; diagnosis; RDoC
Online: 27 October 2017 (11:58:11 CEST)
In current diagnostic systems, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are still conceptualized as distinct categorical entities. Recently, both clinical and genetic evidence have challenged this Kraepelinian dichotomy. There are only few longitudinal studies addressing the potential overlaps between these conditions. Here, we present design and first results of the PsyCourse study, an ongoing transdiagnostic study of the affective-to-psychotic continuum that combines longitudinal deep phenotyping and dimensional assessment of psychopathology with an extensive collection of biomaterial. Within the DSM-IV framework, we compare two broad diagnostic groups: one consisting of predominantly affective and one of predominantly psychotic disorders. Depressive, manic, and psychotic symptoms as well as global functioning over time were analyzed. Furthermore, we explore the effects of polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia on diagnostic group membership and address their effects on non-participation in follow-up visits. While phenotypic results show differences in both current psychotic and manic symptoms, depressive symptoms did not vary between both groups. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia significantly explained part of the variability of the diagnostic group. Furthermore, there was a trend that a higher polygenic loading for schizophrenia was associated with attrition. Because of its unique properties, the PsyCourse study presents a prime resource for the interrogation of complex genotype-phenotype relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: childhood trauma; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; sex difference; age
Online: 31 May 2022 (03:39:57 CEST)
Background. We investigated, for the first time, whether there are any sex differences in retrospective self-reported childhood maltreatment (CM) in Italian adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Furthermore, the potential impacts of patients’ age on the CM self-report was investigated. Methods. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used the data documented in the electronic medical records of patients who were hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. The CM was assessed using the 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which evaluates emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect. The linear and logistic regression models were used (α = 0.01). Results. Three hundred thirty five patients with MDD (255 women and 80 men) and 168 with BD (97 women and 71 men) were included. In both samples, considerable CM rates were identified, but no statistically significant sex differences were detected in the variety of CTQ-based CM aspects. There was a significant association, with no sex differences, between the increasing patients’ age and a decreasing burden of CM. Conclusion. Both women and men with MDD or BD experienced a similar and considerable CM burden. Our findings support the routine CM assessment in psychiatric clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: staging, affective disorders, major depression, bipolar disorder, oxidative, neuro-immune
Online: 7 December 2018 (13:56:04 CET)
Although, staging models gained momentum to stage define affective disorders, no attempts were made to construct mathematical staging models using clinical and biomarker data in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder.The aims of this study were to use clinical and biomarker data to construct statistically-derived staging models, which are associated with early lifetime traumata (ELTs), affective phenomenology and biomarkers.In the current study, 172 subjects participated, 105 with affective disorders (both bipolar and unipolar) and 67 controls. Staging scores were computed by extracting latent vectors (LVs) from clinical data including ELTs, recurring flare ups and suicidal behaviors, outcome data such as disabilities and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), and paraoxonase (PON)1 actvities and nitro-oxidative stress biomarkers.Recurrence of episodes and suicidal behaviors could reliably be combined into a LV with adequate composite reliability (the “recurrence LV”), which was associated with female sex, the combined effects of multiple ELTs, disabilities, HR-QoL and impairments in cognitive tests. All those factors could be combined into a reliable “ELT-staging LV” which was significantly associated with nitro-oxidative stress biomarkers. A reliable LV could be extracted from serum PON1 activities, recurrent flare ups, disabilities and HR-QoL.Our ELT-staging index scores the severity of a relevant affective dimension, shared by both major depression and bipolar disorder, namely the trajectory from ELTs, a relapsing course and suicidal behaviors to progressive disabilities. Patients were classified into three stages, namely an early stage; a relapse-regression stage; and a suicidal-regression stage. Lowered lipid-associated antioxidant defenses may be a drug target to prevent the transition from the early to the later regression stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; preganglionic retinal elements; photoreceptors; bipolar cells; multifocal electroretinogram; neurodegeneration
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:52:34 CEST)
The involvement of macular function in its preganglionic elements, during the neurodegenerative process of multiple sclerosis (MS), is controversial. In this case-control observational and retrospective study, we assessed multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) responses from 41 healthy Controls, 41 relapsing-remitting MS patients without optic neuritis (ON) (MS-noON Group), 47 MS patients with ON: 27 with full recovery of high-contrast best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (MS-ON-G Group) and 20 with poor recovery of BCVA (MS-ON-P Group). MfERG N1 and P1 implicit times (ITs), and N1-P1 response amplitude densities (RADs) were measured from concentric rings (R) with increasing foveal eccentricity: 0-5° (R1), 5-10° (R2), 10-15° (R3), 15-20° (R4), 20- 25° (R5), and from retinal sectors [superior, nasal, inferior and temporal] between 0-15° and 0- 25°. In MS-ON-P Group, mean mfERG RADs detected from R1 (0-5°) and from the central nasal quadrant (0-15°) were significantly reduced (p<0.01) with respect to those of Control, MS-noON and MS-ON-G Groups. No other significant differences between Groups for any mfERG parameters were found. Our results suggest that in MS, exclusively after ON with poor recovery of BCVA, the neurodegenerative process can induce dysfunctional mechanisms involving photoreceptors and bipolar cells of the fovea and of the more central nasal macular area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression, bipolar disorder, oxidative and nitrosative stress, neuro-immune, inflammation, cytokines
Online: 8 March 2019 (09:13:40 CET)
Objective: Major depression (MDD) and a lifetime history of MDD are characterized by increased nitrosylation, while bipolar disorder type 1 (BP1), but not BP2, is accompanied by highly increased levels of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) production. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether nitrosylation is involved in BP and whether there are differences in nitrosylation between BP1 and BP2.Methods: Serum IgM antibodies directed against nitroso (NO)-adducts were examined in MDD, BP1, BP2 and healthy controls, namely IgM responses to NO-cysteine, NO-tryptophan (NOW), NO-arginine and NO-albumin (SBA) in association with IgA/IgM responses to Gram-negative bacteria, IgG responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and serum peroxides.Results: Serum IgM levels against NO adducts were significantly higher in BP1 and MDD as compared with healthy controls, whereas BP2 patients occupied an intermediate position. IgM responses to NO-albumin were significantly higher in BP1 and MDD than in BP2 patients. There were highly significant associations between the IgM responses to NO-adducts and IgG responses to oxLDL and IgA/IgM responses to Gram-negative bacteria.Conclusions: BP1 and MDD are characterized by an upregulation of the nitrosylome (the proteome of nitrosylated proteins), and increased IgM responses to nitrosylated conjugates. Increased nitrosylation may be driven by increased bacterial translocation and is associated with lipid peroxidation processes. Innate like (B1 and marginal zone) B cells and increased nitrosylation may play a key role in the major affective disorders through activation of immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathways, cardiovascular comorbidity and impairments in antioxidant defenses, neuro-glial interactions, synaptic plasticity, neuroprotection, neurogenesis, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0253.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: compact cloud discharges; narrow bipolar pulses; propagation effects; finitely conducting ground
Online: 19 April 2018 (11:39:20 CEST)
Propagation effects on the Narrow Bipolar Pulses (NBPs) or the radiation fields generated by compact cloud discharges as they propagate over finitely conducting ground are presented. The results are obtained using a sample of NBPs recorded with high time resolution from close thunderstorms in Sri Lanka. The results show that the peak amplitude and the temporal features such as the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), zero crossing time and the time derivative of NBPs can be significantly distorted by propagation effects. For this reason the study of peak amplitudes and temporal features of NBPs and the remote sensing of current parameters of compact cloud discharges should be conducted using NBPs recorded under conditions where the propagation effects are minimal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0208.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT); thermal network; parameter identification; junction temperature
Online: 23 January 2018 (02:34:06 CET)
This paper proposes a novel method for optimizing the Cauer-type thermal network model considering both the temperature influence on the extraction of parameters and the errors caused by the physical structure. In terms of prediction of the transient junction temperature and the steady-state junction temperature, the parameters of conventional Cauer-type are modified, and the general method for estimating junction temperature is studied by using the adaptive thermal network model. The results show that junction temperature estimated by adaptive Cauer-type thermal network model is more accurate than that of the conventional model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0199.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Music Keywords: auditory arts; psychiatry; heavy metal music; mental disorder; bipolar; education; awareness
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:45:03 CEST)
1) Background: Bipolar or manic-depressive disorder is a malign mental disease that frequently faces social stigma. Educational and thinking models are needed to increase people’s awareness and understanding of the disorder. The arts have potential to achieve this goal. 2) Methods: This paper builds on the recent use of heavy metal music as a thinking and education model. It emphasizes the artistic component of heavy metal and its potential to characterize the symptomatology during the episodes of (hypo)mania and depression and the recurrence of these episodes. Heavy metal music has diversified into subgenres that become allegorical to both the symptoms of episodes and the recurrence of bipolar cycles. 3) Results: Examples of songs are given that mirror distinct facets of the disorder. 4) Conclusion: Although the links drawn between art (music) and science (psychiatry) are inherently subjective, such connections might be used to trigger a learning process, facilitate judgment and decision-making, and induce affective reactions and memory formation in the listener. The approach may facilitate collaborative efforts and serve healthcare professionals and educators as a communication tool to aid the public’s comprehension of the disease and an associated social paradox: On one hand, bipolar disorder incurs substantial costs to society. On the other hand, it benefits from the creative artistic and scientific endeavors of bipolar individuals from which cultural and political gains may ensue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1706.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Ion current rectification; Multi-layer; Bipolar ionic diode; Nanochannel network membrane; Nanoparticle
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:07:26 CEST)
Ion current rectification (ICR) is the ratio of ion current by forward bias to by backward bias and is a critical indicator of diode performance. In previous studies, many attempts have been continued to improve the performance of this ICR, but there is the intrinsic problem for geometric changes that induce ionic rectification due to their fabrication problem. Additionally, the high ICR could be achieved in the narrow salt concentration range only. Here, we propose a multi-layered bipolar ionic diode based on an asymmetric nanochannel network membrane (NCNM), which is realized by soft lithography and self-assembly of homogenous-sized nanoparticles. Owing to the freely changeable geometry based on soft lithography, the ICR performance can be explored according to the variation of microchannel shape. Interestingly, very stable ICR performance can be achieved using the multi-layered 3D configuration for the bipolar diode in a broad range of salt concentrations (0.1mM ~ 100 mM). This demonstrates the promising potential of multi-layered NCNM for applications in highly concentrated electrolytes, such as biosensors, desalination, or energy harvesting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Major depression; Bipolar disorder; Metabolic syndrome; oxidative and nitrosative stress, antioxidants; biomarkers.
Online: 18 March 2021 (15:56:56 CET)
Background: There is a strong comorbidity between mood disorders and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and nitro-oxidative stress toxicity (NOSTOX) partially underpin this comorbidity.Aims: To examine the associations of RONS/NOSTOX biomarkers with MetS after adjusting for the significant effects of mood disorders (major depression, and bipolar type 1 and 2), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), tobacco use disorder (TUD), and male sex.Methods: The study included subjects with (n=65) and without (n=107) MetS and measured levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), malondialdehyde (MDA), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and computed z unit-weighted composite scores which reflect RONS/NOSTOX. The study included 105 patients with mood disorders, 46 with GAD, and 95 with TUD.Results: MetS was associated with increased levels of MDA and AOPP, independently from mood disorders, TUD, sex and GAD. Atherogenicity and insulin resistance (IR) were significantly associated with a NOSTOX composite score. Mood disorders, TUD, GAD, male sex and MetS independently contribute to increased RONS/NOSTOX. The RONS/NOSTOX profile of MetS was different from that of GAD, which showed increased SOD1 and NOx levels. TUD was accompanied by increased SOD1, LOOH and MDA, and male sex by increased LOOH and AOPP.Conclusions: MetS is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation with aldehyde formation and chlorinative stress, and atherogenicity and IR are strongly mediated by RONS/NOSTOX. Partially shared RONS/NOSTOX pathways underpin the comorbidity of MetS with mood disorders, GAD, and TUD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0724.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: clozapine; schizophrenia; early-onset; pregnancy; bipolar affective disorder; agranulocytosis; COVID-19; pharmacogenetic
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:48:29 CET)
Background: Clozapine (CLZ) use is precarious due to its neurological, cardiovascular, and hematological side effects; however, it is the gold standard in therapy-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) in adults and is underused. Objective: to examine the most recent CLZ data on (a) side effects concerning (b) recent pharmacological mechanisms, (c) therapy benefits, and (d) the particularities of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data sources: a search was performed in two databases (PubMed and Web of Science) using the specific keywords "clozapine" and "schizophrenia," "side effects," "agranulocytosis," "TRS," or "bipolar affective disorder (BAF)" for the last ten years. Study eligibility criteria: clinical trials on adults with acute symptoms of schizophrenia or related disorders. Results: We selected 37 studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and clinical case series (CCS), centered on six main topics in the search area: (a) CLZ in schizophrenia, (b) CLZ in bipolar disorder, (c) side effects during the clozapine therapy, (d) CLZ in pregnancy, (e) CLZ in early-onset schizophrenia, and (f) CLZ therapy and COVID-19 infection. Limitations: We considered RCTs and CCS from two databases, limited to the search topics. Conclusions and implications of key findings: (a) Clozapine doses should be personalized for each patient based on pharmacogenetics testing when available; the genetic vulnerability postulates predictors of adverse reactions' severity; patients with a lower genetic risk could have less frequent hematological monitoring; (b) CLZ-associated risk of pulmonary embolism imposes prophylactic measures for venous thromboembolism; (c) convulsive episodes are not an indication for stopping treatment; the plasma concentration of clozapine is a better side effect predictor than the dosage; (d) COVID-19 infection may enhance clozapine toxicity, generating an increased risk of pneumonia. Therapy must be continued with proper monitoring of the white blood count, and the clozapine dose decreased by half until three days after the fever breaks; psychiatrists and healthcare providers must act together. Background: Clozapine (CLZ) use is precarious due to its neurological, cardiovascular, and hematological side effects; however, it is the gold standard in therapy-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) in adults and is underused. Objective: to examine the most recent CLZ data on (a) side effects concerning (b) recent pharmacological mechanisms, (c) therapy benefits, and (d) the particularities of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data sources: a search was performed in two databases (PubMed and Web of Science) using the specific keywords "clozapine" and "schizophrenia," "side effects," "agranulocytosis," "TRS," or "bipolar affective disorder (BAF)" for the last ten years. Study eligibility criteria: clinical trials on adults with acute symptoms of schizophrenia or related disorders. Results: We selected 37 studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and clinical case series (CCS), centered on six main topics in the search area: (a) CLZ in schizophrenia, (b) CLZ in bipolar disorder, (c) side effects during the clozapine therapy, (d) CLZ in pregnancy, (e) CLZ in early-onset schizophrenia, and (f) CLZ therapy and COVID-19 infection. Limitations: We considered RCTs and CCS from two databases, limited to the search topics. Conclusions and implications of key findings: (a) Clozapine doses should be personalized for each patient based on pharmacogenetics testing when available; the genetic vulnerability postulates predictors of adverse reactions' severity; patients with a lower genetic risk could have less frequent hematological monitoring; (b) CLZ-associated risk of pulmonary embolism imposes prophylactic measures for venous thromboembolism; (c) convulsive episodes are not an indication for stopping treatment; the plasma concentration of clozapine is a better side effect predictor than the dosage; (d) COVID-19 infection may enhance clozapine toxicity, generating an increased risk of pneumonia. Therapy must be continued with proper monitoring of the white blood count, and the clozapine dose decreased by half until three days after the fever breaks; psychiatrists and healthcare providers must act together.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: connectome; dynamic functional connectivity; dynamic brain network; schizophrenia; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder
Online: 7 February 2023 (07:23:31 CET)
Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and multilayer dynamic network model, the quantified temporal stability of brain network has shown potentials in predicting altered brain functions. The present review focuses on summarizing current knowledge on the commonly-used measures of brain network’s temporal stability and the clinical research progress on them. There are a variety of widely used measures of temporal stability such as the variance/standard deviation of dynamic functional connectivity strengths, the temporal variability, the flexibility (switching rate), and the temporal clustering coefficient, while there is no consensus to date that which measure is the best. The temporal stability of human brain networks may be associated with several factors such as sex, age, cognitive functions, head motion, and data preprocessing/analyzing strategies, which should be considered in the clinical studies. Multiple common psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder have been found to be related to altered temporal stability, especially during the resting state; generally, both excessively decreased and increased temporal stabilities were thought to reflect disease-related brain dysfunctions. However, the measures of temporal stability are still far from applications in clinical diagnoses for neuropsychiatric diseases partly because of the divergent results, and further studies are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0146.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: bipolar fuzzy set; decision making problem; non-classical logic; scholasticism; transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:38:04 CET)
Instead of the conventional 0 and 1 values, bipolar reasoning uses -1, 0, +1 to describe double-sided judgements in which neutral elements are halfway between positive and negative evaluations (e.g., “uncertain” lies between “impossible” and “totally sure”). We discuss the state-of-the-art in bipolar logics and recall two medieval forerunners, i.e., William of Ockham and Nicholas of Autrecourt, who embodied a bipolar mode of thought that is eminently modern. Starting from the trivial observation that “once a wheat sheaf is sealed and tied up, the packed down straws display the same orientation”, we work up a new theory of the bipolar nature of networks, suggesting that orthodromic (i.e., feedforward, bottom-up) projections might be functionally coupled with antidromic (i.e., feedback, top-down) projections via the mathematical apparatus of presheaves/globular sets. When an entrained oscillation such as a neuronal spike propagates from A to B, changes in B might lead to changes in A, providing unexpected antidromic effects. Our account points towards the methodological feasibility of novel neural networks in which message feedback is guaranteed by backpropagation mechanisms endowed in the same feedforward circuits. Bottom-up/top-down transmission at various coarse-grained network levels provides fresh insights in far-flung scientific fields such as object persistence, memory reinforcement, visual recognition, Bayesian inferential circuits and multidimensional activity of the brain. Implying that axonal stimulation by external sources might backpropagate and modify neuronal electric oscillations, our theory also suggests testable previsions concerning the optimal location of transcranial magnetic stimulation’s coils in patients affected by drug-resistant epilepsy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; bipolar disorder; gut; bacterial translocation; LPS; oxidative stress; neuro-immune; immunology; psychiatry
Online: 26 July 2019 (00:38:09 CEST)
Major depression (MDD) is accompanied by higher serum IgM/IgA responses to LPS of Gram-negative bacteria, suggesting increased bacterial translocation and gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis may occur in bipolar disorder (BD) and there are differences between MDD and BD type 1 (BP1) and -2 (BP2) in nitro-oxidative stress biomarkers associated with leaky gut. This study examines serum IgM/IgA responses directed to LPS of 6 Gram-negative bacteria in 29 BP1, 37 BP2, 44 MDD and 30 healthy individuals. MDD plus BD was best discriminated from controls by increased IgM/IgA responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. BP1 patients showed higher IgM responses to Morganella morganii as compared with MDD and BP2 patients. Patients with melancholia showed higher IgA responses to Citrobacter koseri as compared to controls and non-melancholic depression. The total score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was significantly associated with IgA responses, especially C. koseri. IgG responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein were significantly associated with signs of increased bacterial translocation. In conclusion, not only MDD but also BP1 and BP2 are accompanied by an immune response due to the increased load of plasma LPS of gut commensal bacteria while these aberrations in the gut-brain axis are most pronounced in BP1 and patients with melancholic features. Activated oxidative stress pathways and autoimmune responses to oxidative specific epitopes in mood disorders may be driven by a breakdown in gut paracellular, transcellular and/or vascular pathways. If replicated, drugs that protect the integrity of the gut barrier may offer novel therapeutic opportunities for BP1 and MDD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, structural MRI, grey matter volume, voxel-based morphometry
Online: 8 February 2019 (09:30:12 CET)
Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine whether and to what extent mood disorders, comprising major depression and bipolar disorder, are accompanied by structural changes in the brain as measured using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: We have performed a VBM study using a 3Т MRI system (GE Discovery 750w) in patients with mood disorders (n=50), namely 39 with major depression and 11 with bipolar disorder, compared to 42 age, sex and education matched healthy controls. Results: Our results show that depression was associated with significant decreases in grey matter (GM) volume restricted to regions located in medial frontal and anterior cingulate cortex on the left side and middle frontal gyrus, medial orbital gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus (triangular and orbital parts), and middle temporal gyrus (extending to the superior temporal gyrus) on the right side. When the patient group was separated into bipolar disorder and major depression the reductions remained significant only for the patients with major depressive disorder. Conclusions: Using VBM the present study was able to replicate decreases in GM volume restricted to frontal and temporal regions in patients with mood disorders mainly major depression, as compared with healthy controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0206.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mexican Amerindian, Dual diagnosis, polygenic risk scores, psychiatric diseases, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance use disorder
Online: 12 September 2018 (01:20:54 CEST)
In order to summarized the polygenic background of psychiatric diseases, polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been developed. Recently, PRS have been use to predict patients with higher comorbidities in psychiatric diseases, like dual diagnosis. PRS are principally derived in analysis of Caucasian and Asian populations, we are not aware of how this PRS could be applied in populations with high admixture. In order to explored this, the present work has the aim to analyzed if previous calculated PRS for psychiatric diseases could predict dual diagnosis in Mexican population, and also, if PRS calculation could be influenced by Mexican Amerindian (MA) global ancestry. We performed PRS calculation, using PRSice, with summary genome-wide association statistics previously published for psychiatric diseases, and also, performed Nagelkerke correlation test in order to established if PRS are correlated with dual diagnosis. We found that dual diagnosis could be predicted by major depressive disorder polygenic risk score. Nevertheless, schizophrenia polygenic risk score is highly correlated with global MA ancestry, independently of the schizophrenia diagnosis. Our results reinforced the notion that PRS calculation could be deviated by the MA global ancestry, nevertheless analysis on larger sample sizes are required in order to clarified this issue.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0800.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; multiple sclerosis; depressive disorder; anxiety disorder; bipolar disorder; electric stimulation; translational research
Online: 12 October 2023 (08:38:27 CEST)
Revealing the underlying pathomechanisms of neurological and psychiatric disorders, searching for new biomarkers, and developing novel therapeutics all require translational research. In vivo and in vitro disease models have been instrumental in casting light on complex polygenic, multifactorial, and heterogeneous disease mechanisms. In the most recent years, advanced preclinical models have revealed the intriguing interaction of sex/gender and aging with the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of psychiatric and neurological diseases. However, despite these advancements, there is still a great deal of work to be done to fully comprehend the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and to develop treatments that can significantly improve the lives of those who suffer from them. The current challenge in the field of neurological and psychiatric diseases is to develop disease-modifying, effective treatments for these complex and long-lasting debilitating conditions with a high burden of disease.The first edition of the research topic ‘Emerging Translational Research in Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases: From In Vitro to In Vivo Models’ reinforces translational research playing a critical role in bridging the gap between basic research and clinical applications. Also, it provides a platform for researchers to share their findings and advancements in translational research in this field. This new collection gathers 25 papers offering insights into the latest advancements in translational research and potential new avenues for treatments. These papers cover various topics, including the development of new preclinical models, the use of in vitro and in vivo methods, and the application of qualitative and quantitative research methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: bipolar disorder; vitamin D metabolism; functional vitamin D deficiency; 25(OH)D; 24,25(OH)2D; VMR
Online: 2 October 2023 (03:58:38 CEST)
Vitamin D status may impact acute affective symptomatology and the severity of symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Therefore, this cross-sectional study analyzed 25(OH)D, 24,25(OH)2D, and the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR) in BD and correlated the results with clinical affective symptomatology and functionality. The inactive precursor 25(OH)D and its principal catabolite 24,25(OH)2D were measured simultaneously with a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method in 170 BD outpatients and 138 healthy controls. VMR was calculated as follows: VMR=100*(24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D). The psychometric assessment enclosed: Beck Depression Inventory-II, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and number of suicide attempts. We did not find a significant difference between patients and controls in the concentrations of 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D. Additionally, the VMR was comparable in both groups. The calculations for the clinical parameters showed a negative correlation between the Young Mania Rating Scale and 24,25(OH)2D (r = -.154, p = .040). Based on the small effect size and the predominantly euthymic sample, further exploitation in individuals with manic symptoms would be needed to confirm this association. In addition, long-term clinical markers, and an assessment in different phases of the disease may provide available additional insights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0677.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: bipolar disorder; knowledge distillation; kernel density estimation; Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC); decision tree; artificial neural network
Online: 9 August 2023 (05:38:28 CEST)
Bipolar disorder is a severe mood disorder and is one of the top 20 reasons of disability in the world. It causes a huge burden on society. In this study, the prediction models of bipolar disorder were constructed based on the concept of knowledge distillation. The input data consisted of patients of bipolar disorder and matched controls, all of which were selected from the open database MIMIC. The method of kernel density estimation (KDE) was exploited to generate probability density functions (PDF) which identify distributions of input data. The PDF values referred to as the soft labels were combined with the input data to construct the prediction models of bipolar disorder using decision tree and artificial neural network respectively. According to the evaluation results, indicators for identifying positive samples of bipolar disorder were improved. Meanwhile, the indicators for identifying negative samples have also been advanced. In addition, the branching attributes selected by the decision trees can be mapped back to specific disease diagnoses, which are all associated with bipolar disorder. In conclusion, using KDE to generate the soft label information of the input data can make knowledge distillation work and has improved the performances of prediction models for bipolar disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0938.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; infectious diseases; upper respiratory infections; lower respiratory infections; lung-brain axis; gut-brain axis
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:23:28 CEST)
Mood disorders are among the commonest mental disorders worldwide. Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that there are close links between infectious diseases and mood disorders, but the strength and direction of these association remain largely unknown. Theoretical models have attempted to explain this link based on evolutionary or immune-related factors, but these have not been empirically verified. The current study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the incidence of infectious diseases and mood disorders, while correcting for climate and economic factors, based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Studies, 1990-2019. It was found that major depressive disorder was positively associated with lower respiratory infections, while bipolar disorder was positively associated with upper respiratory infections and negatively associated with enteric and tropical infections, both cross-sectionally and over a period of thirty years. These results suggest that a complex, bidirectional relationship exists between these disorders. This relationship may be mediated through the immune system as well as through the gut-brain and lung-brain axes. Understanding the mechanisms that link these groups of disorders could lead to advances in the prevention and treatment of both.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0848.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: ON-Bipolar cells; optogenetic gene therapy; Kv1.3 channel; Psora-4; retinal degeneration; vision restoration; Opto-mGluR6; patch clamp; multi-electrode array recordings.
Online: 11 May 2023 (11:34:36 CEST)
Loss of photoreceptors in retinal degenerative diseases also impacts the inner retina: bipolar cell dendrites retract, neurons rewire and protein expression changes. ON-bipolar cells represent an attractive target for optogenetic vision restoration. However, above-described maladaptations may negatively impact the quality of restored vision. To investigate this question, we employed human post-mortem retinas and transgenic rd1_Opto-mGluR6 mice expressing the optogenetic construct Opto-mGluR6 in ON-bipolar cells and carrying the retinal degeneration rd1 mutation. We found significant changes in delayed rectifier potassium channel expression in ON-bipolar cells of degenerative retinas. In particular, we found an increase in Kv1.3 expression already in early stages of degeneration. Immunohistochemistry localized Kv1.3 channels specifically to OBC axons. In whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, ON-bipolar cells in the degenerated murine retina were less responsive, which could be reversed by application of the specific Kv1.3 antagonist Psora-4. Notably, Kv1.3 block significantly increased the amplitude and kinetics of Opto-mGluR6-mediated light responses in ON-bipolar cells of the blind retina and increased the signal-to-noise ratio of light-triggered responses in retinal ganglion cells. We propose that reduction of Kv1.3 activity in the degenerated retina, either by pharmacological block or by KCNA3 gene silencing, could improve the quality of restored vision.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0375.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: bipolar mitotic spindle; fission yeast; kinesin; kinetochore; microtubule dynamics; microtubule polymerase; microtubule–associated proteins (MAPs); spindle pole body (SPB); sister chromatid cohesion
Online: 21 April 2020 (05:58:17 CEST)
The bipolar mitotic spindle drives accurate chromosome segregation by capturing the kinetochore and pulling each set of sister chromatids to the opposite poles. In this review, we describe recent findings on the multiple pathways leading to bipolar spindle formation in fission yeast and discuss these results from a broader perspective. Roles of four mitotic kinesins (Kinesin-5, Kinesin-6, Kinesin-12 and Kinesin-14) in spindle assembly are depicted, and how a group of microtubule-associated proteins, sister chromatid cohesion and the kinetochore collaborates with these motors is shown. We have paid special attention to the molecular pathways that render otherwise essential Kinesin-5 to become non-essential: how cells build bipolar mitotic spindles without the need for Kinesin-5 and where the alternate forces come from are considered. We highlight the force balance for bipolar spindle assembly and explain how outward and inward forces are generated by various ways, in which the proper fine-tuning of microtubule dynamics plays a crucial role. Overall, these new pathways have illuminated remarkable plasticity and adaptability of spindle mechanics. Kinesin molecules are regarded as prospective targets for cancer chemotherapy and many specific inhibitors have been developed. However, several hurdles have arisen against their clinical implementation. This review provides insight into possible strategies to overcome these challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chronic inflammation; low grade inflammation; immune tolerance; inflammatory factor; kynurenine; kynurenic acid; depression; bipolar disorder; substance use disorder; post-traumatic stress disorder; schizophrenia; autism spectrum disorder
Online: 14 June 2021 (10:06:50 CEST)
The tryptophan (TRP)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic pathway is a main player of TRP metabolism through which more than 95% of TRP is catabolized. The pathway is activated by acute and chronic immune responses leading to a wide range of illnesses including cancer, immune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. The TRP-KYN pathway synthesizes multifarious metabolites including oxidants, antioxidants, neurotoxins, neuroprotectants, and immunomodulators. The immunomodulators are known to facilitate the immune system towards a tolerogenic state, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation (LGI) that is commonly present in obesity, poor nutrition, exposer to chemicals or allergens, prodromal stage of various illnesses, and chronic diseases. KYN, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, and cinnabarinic acid are aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands that serve as immunomodulators. Furthermore, TRP-KYN pathway enzymes are known to be activated by the stress hormone cortisol and inflammatory cytokines, and genotypic variants were observed to contribute to inflammation and thus various diseases. The tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, the indoleamine 2, 3-oxygenases, and the kynurenine-3-monooxygenase are main enzymes in the pathway. This review article discusses the TRP-KYN pathway with special emphasis on its interaction with the immune system and the tolerogenic shift towards chronic LGI and overviews the major symptoms, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and toxic and protective KYNs to explore the linkage between chronic LGI, KYNs, and major psychiatric, including depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, substance use disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: voltage-gated calcium channels; major depressive disorder; autism spectrum disorder; schizophrenia; bipolar disorder; attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder; anxiety; calcium channel modulators; psychiatric disorders; auxiliary subunits; genetic risk variations
Online: 20 June 2019 (04:16:52 CEST)
Psychiatric disorders are mental, behavioral or emotional disorders. These conditions are prevalent, one in four adults suffer from any type of psychiatric disorders world-wide. It has always been observed that psychiatric disorders have a genetic component, however new methods to sequence full genomes of large cohorts have identified with high precision genetic risk loci for these conditions. Psychiatric disorders include, but are not limited to, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Several risk loci for psychiatric disorders fall within genes that encode for voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs). Calcium entering through CaVs is key for multiple neuronal processes. In this review, we will summarize recent findings that link CaVs and their auxiliary subunits to psychiatric disorders. First, we will provide a general overview of CaVs structure, classification, function, expression and pharmacology. Next, we will summarize tools and databases to study risk loci associated with psychiatric disorders. We will examine functional studies of risk variations in CaV genes when available. We will review pharmacological evidence of the use of CaV modulators to treat psychiatric disorders. Our review will be of interest for those studying pathophysiological aspects of CaVs.