ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0525.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: new species; Biogeography; Mediterranean; Red List; Bioacoustics
Online: 30 August 2022 (14:38:12 CEST)
In late April 2022, during the hearing of the audio files from an unsupervised bioacoustic assessment of the shearwater populations (Aves, Procellariiformes) on the coast of Pantelleria island (Italy, Sicily), a cricket song of unknown attribution was heard. The first bioacoustic analyses, including FFT-based spectrograms and sound pressure envelopes, confirmed that it could not be attributed to the known sound of any Italian nor Mediterranean species of cricket. In the ensuing weeks, field research made on purpose in the original station and in further localities in the southern coast of Pantelleria provided photographs, living specimens and further audio records. As soon as the photos were shared among the authors, it became clear that the species belonged to the genus Acheta. Further bioacoustic analyses and morphological comparison with type specimens of Mediterranean and North-African congenerics in relevant collections and in the scientific literature were conducted: they confirmed that the findings could only be attributed to a still undescribed species, that escaped detection due to its impervious and unfrequented habitat. Acheta pantescus n. sp. is apparently restricted to the effusive coastal cliffs of the island of Pantelleria, a habitat whose scant extension and vulnerability require environmental protection actions such as the inclusion in a special Red List by the IUCN Italian Committee.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1625.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: biogeography-based optimization; constrained optimization; mean-variance model
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:34:58 CEST)
Portfolio optimization is a mathematical formulation whose objective is to maximize returns while minimizing risks. A lot of improvement in the model has been made, including adding practical constraints. With the growing of shares trading, the problem becomes dimensionally very large. In this paper, we propose the usage of modified Biogeography-Based Optimization to solve the large scale constrained portfolio optimization. Results indicate the effectiveness of the method used.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0608.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Biogeography; Ecology; Environmental samples; Micro-organisms; Soil biodiversity
Online: 25 July 2020 (11:54:02 CEST)
The Neotropical region is one of the most diverse regions of the globe in terms of macro-organismic species. Regarding the microbial world, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography patterns of micro-organisms in the Neotropics. In this context, the study of several microbial taxonomic groups is still missing and/or incomplete, such as the protists. Our goal here was to summarize the available information of Neotropical protists, focusing on molecular data from environmental continental samples, to explore what these data evidence on their ecology and biogeography. For this, we reviewed the findings from all articles that focused on or included the terrestrial protists using metabarcoding approach and identified the gaps and future perspectives in this research field. We found that Neotropical protists diversity patterns seem to be, at least in part, congruent with that of macro-organisms and, different than plants and bacteria, just weakly explained by environmental variables. We argue that studies with standardized protocols including different biomes are necessary to fully characterize the ecology and biogeography on Neotropical protists. Furthermore, dismember evolutionary lineages and functional guilds of protists are important to better understand the relationship between diversity, dispersal abilities and functionality of particular taxa of protists in their habitats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0725.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: decapod; crustacean; macrozoobenthos; biogeography; checklist; environmental monitoring; Mediterranean Sea
Online: 12 September 2023 (08:46:26 CEST)
Decapod crustaceans are important components of the fauna of soft bottom habitats. In this work, biogeographical updates of decapod crustaceans are provided through the analysis of a large soft bottom benthic macroinvertebrates data set of the central Mediterranean Sea. Decapod crustacean assemblages were collected in the last twenty years by a Van Veen grab on 42 study sites located along the Italian coasts at depths ranging from the surface up to 120 meters. Spatial distribution of the crustaceans examined, which include 123 species belonging to 40 families, has been investi-gated according to the biogeographical zones identified in the Italian Seas. Spatial distribution of 39 species has been updating, comparing the ISPRA decapod crustacean dataset with the most recent Italian checklists. For the species updated, number of specimens and environmental data, such as bathymetric range and habitat details, are provided for each site investigated. Data are discussed and compared with the existing literature, also referring to what is reported in the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), with the aims to contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity of the marine species provide useful data to assist the insiders to update checklists and registers at national and global scale and information on species ecology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0463.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: taxonomy; biogeography; evolution; domestication; dispersal; pollen; archaeology; hemp; drugs
Online: 2 December 2021 (08:55:17 CET)
Cannabis is among the oldest human domesticates and has been subjected to intensive artificial (human-mediated) selection throughout history to create a wide array of varieties and biotypes for diverse uses, including fibre, food, biofuel, medicine and drugs. This paper briefly reviews the available literature on the taxonomy, evolutionary origin and domestication of this plant, as well as its worldwide dispersal, in both its wild and cultivated forms. Emphasis is placed on Europe and especially on the Iberian Peninsula. Today, it is accepted that Cannabis is a monospecific genus with two subspecies, C. sativa subsp. sativa and C. sativa subsp. indica, originating in Europe and Asia, respectively, by allopatric differentiation after geographic isolation fostered by Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Palynological and phylogeographic evidence situates the Cannabis ancestor on the NE Tibetan Plateau during the mid-Oligocene. The timing and place of domestication is still a matter of debate between contrasting views that defend single or multiple Neolithic domestication centres situated in different parts of the Eurasian supercontinent, notably central/southeastern China and the Caucasus region. Recent meta-analyses have suggested that wild Cannabis may have already been spread across Europe in the Pleistocene, and its domestication could have occurred during the European Copper/Bronze ages. According to the available reviews and meta-analyses, pre-anthropic dispersal of Cannabis into the Iberian Peninsula seems to have occurred only in postglacial times, and the earlier signs of cultivation date to the Early Medieval Ages. However, the palynological and archaeological evidence used to date is insufficient for a sound assessment, and the development of thorough Iberian databases to address further meta-analysis is essential for more robust conclusions. Some clues are provided for these achievements to be fulfilled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0232.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Kuwait; Arabian Gulf; Remote Sensing; ChlorophyII-a; Marine Biogeography
Online: 9 July 2021 (15:49:04 CEST)
The concentration of chlorophyll-a (chlor-a) is an important indicator of marine water quality, as it is considered an indicator of the phytoplankton density in a specific area. Remote sensing techniques have been developed to measure the near-surface concentration of chlor-a in water across the correlation between spectral bands and in situ data. This algorithm applies to sensors of varying spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions. However, in this study, chlor-a level 2 and 3 products of SNPP – VIIRS spectrometer (Equation OC3) of NASA OceanColor suite was relied upon to study the spatial and temporal distribution of chlor-a concentration in the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf) and the State of Kuwait’s water (located to the north-eastern part of the Arabian Gulf) from 2012 to 2019. Ground truthing points (n = 192) matched to the level 2 products have been used to build an empirical model and cross-validate it. The correlation was positive where was 0.79 and the validation RMSE was = ± 0.64 mg/m-3. The derived algorithm was then applied to chlor-a level 3 seasonal products. Additionally, the chlor-a concentration values of Kuwaiti waters have been enhanced using the IDW algorithm to increase the spatial resolution, as it is considered as a small area compared to the spatial resolution of level 3 chlor-a products. The model derived from IDW was tested using the Mann Whitney test (Sig = 0.948 p > 0.01). However, the result showed that the chlor-a concentration is higher in Kuwait Bay compared to Kuwaiti water, and it is higher in Kuwaiti water compared to the Arabian Gulf. The coasts have higher concentrations too, when compared to the open water. Generally, the chlor-a increases in winter and makes a semi-regular cycle during the years of study; this cycle is more regular in the Gulf’s waters than in Kuwait’s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0929.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biogeography; climate change; ecological niche modeling; geographic range; relict plant
Online: 11 August 2023 (12:08:10 CEST)
The high-mountain and arctic plants are considered especially sensitive to the climate changes because of close adaptations to the cold environment. Kalmia procumbens, the typical arctic-alpine species reaches southernmost European localities in the Pyrenees and Carpathians. The aim of the study was the assessment and comparison of K. procumbens current potential niche areas in the Pyrenees and Carpathians and their possible reduction due to climate change, depending on the scenario. Realized niches of K. procumbens in the Pyrenees are compact while in the Carpathians dispersed. In both mountain chains, the species occurs in the alpine and subalpine vegetation belts, going down to elevations of about 1500-1600 m, while the most elevated localities in the Pyrenees are at ca 3000 m, about 500 m higher than in the Carpathians. The localities of K. procumbens in the Carpathians have a more continental climate than in the Pyrenees, with lower precipitation and temperatures but higher seasonality of temperature and of precipitation. The species covered a larger area of geographic distribution during Last Glacial, and reduced area during mid Holocene. Due to the climate warming, the strong reduction of potential area of occurrence to 2100 is expected in the Carpathians and moderate reduction in in the Pyrenees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Watershed; biogeographic patterns; microbial biogeography; biodiversity; spatial distribution; research unit
Online: 20 October 2021 (09:34:27 CEST)
Biogeography research is flawed by the poor understanding of microbial distributions due to the lack of a systematic research framework, especially regarding appropriate study units. By combining pure culture and molecular methods, we studied the biogeographic patterns of nematode-trapping fungi by collecting and analysing 2,250 specimens from 228 sites in Yunnan Province, China. We found typical watershed patterns at the species and genetic levels of nematode-trapping fungi. The results showed that microbial biogeography could be better understood by 1) using watersheds as research units, 2) removing the coverup of widespread species, and 3) applying good sampling efforts and strategies. We suggest that watersheds could help unify the understanding of the biogeographic patterns of animals, plants, and microbes and may also help account for the historical and contemporary factors driving species distributions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy-efficient building; heating load; neural computing; biogeography-based optimization
Online: 12 January 2021 (14:46:29 CET)
: The significance of heating load (HL) accurate approximation is the primary motivation of this research to distinguish the most efficient predictive model among several neural-metaheuristic models. The proposed models are through synthesizing multi-layer perceptron network (MLP) with ant lion optimization (ALO), biogeography-based optimization (BBO), dragonfly algorithm (DA), evolutionary strategy (ES), invasive weed optimization (IWO), and league champion optimization (LCA) hybrid algorithms. Each ensemble is optimized in terms of the operating population. Accordingly, the ALO-MLP, BBO-MLP, DA-MLP, ES-MLP, IWO-MLP, and LCA-MLP presented their best performance for population sizes of 350, 400, 200, 500, 50, and 300, respectively. The comparison was carried out by implementing a ranking system. Based on the obtained overall scores (OSs), the BBO (OS = 36) featured as the most capable optimization technique, followed by ALO (OS = 27) and ES (OS = 20). Due to the efficient performance of these algorithms, the corresponding MLPs can be promising substitutes for traditional methods used for HL analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0496.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Montiaceae, taxonomy, phylogeny, biogeography, evolution, Calandrinia, Cistanthe, Lewisiopsis, Philippiamra, Rumicastrum
Online: 8 October 2018 (14:02:59 CEST)
Montiaceae (Portulacineae) comprise a clade of at least 270 species primarily of western America and Australia. This work uses existing phylogenetic metadata to elaborate a new cladistic taxonomic synthesis, and clarifies morphological circumscriptions of several poorly known species. A total of 21 taxa are validated, seven new and 14 necessary nomenclatural recombinations). Hypotheses of Montiaceae historical biogeography and phenotypic evolution are evaluated in light of recent metadata.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: BRDF; biogeography-based optimization algorithm; Firefly algorithm; hybrid BBO-Firefly algorithm
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:23:27 CEST)
We designed a bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) measurement system to research the characteristics of space target materials. This system measures the BRDF data of an aluminum plate and gold foil. A hybrid biogeography-based optimization-firefly (BBO-Firefly) algorithm was proposed to optimize the five-parameter BRDF model. To check the performance of the hybrid BBO-Firefly algorithm, we set up a contrast experiment to optimize the BRDF parameters using the BBO algorithm, Firefly algorithm, and hybrid BBO-Firefly algorithm. The experimental results prove that the hybrid BBO-Firefly algorithm surpasses the BBO algorithm and Firefly algorithm in convergence speed and precision in the same situation and has a better optimization effect. Finally, we substitute the optimization results of the hybrid BPO-Firefly algorithm into the BRDF model to analyze the reflection characteristics of an aluminum plate and gold foil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0550.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: South Brazilian Bight; biogeography; heatwaves; global warming; range-shifts; alien species
Online: 29 December 2022 (02:39:57 CET)
Patches of Diopatra species from Brazilian sandy beaches were followed for ca. 50 years. Data were accessed from papers, gray literature, images and collections to verify time changes in the South Brazilian Bight (SBB) from 1974-2021. We modeled maximum density over time at 15 beaches, observing very high densities (> 100 ind.m-2) in 1974 followed by a decrease (~ 10 ind.m-2) of three species of Diopatra until 1995 and a strong decline (1996-2002) when populations were almost regionally extinct (0-1 ind. m-2). A slight recovery (3-4 ind.m-2) occurred after 2006 for a single species, D. marinae, associated with warmer northern waters, suggesting a range shift. This pattern was associated with a) heatwaves linked to an El-Niño event (1988) and gradual SST surface warming of ca. 1 oC since 1974. The usage of Diopatra spp. as fishing bait could also be associated with such a reduction. After 2016, D. neapolitana, a likely alien species, was established in the SBB in high densities. Projections based on Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) suggest a potential of invasion in the same range of the known species of D. cuprea complex along the Brazilian coast despite that there are no signs of competition between both species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0094.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: user intent recognition; transfemoral prosthesis; multi-objective optimization; biogeography-based optimization
Online: 16 November 2018 (11:27:10 CET)
One control challenge in prosthetic legs is seamless transition from one gait mode to another. User intent recognition (UIR) is a high-level controller that tells a low-level controller to switch to the identified activity mode, depending on the user’s intent and environment. We propose a new framework to design an optimal UIR system with simultaneous maximum performance and parsimony for gait mode recognition. We use multi-objective optimization (MOO) to find an optimal feature subset that creates a trade-off between these two conflicting objectives. The main contribution of this paper is two-fold: (1) a new gradient-based multi-objective feature selection (GMOFS) method for optimal UIR design; and (2) the application of advanced evolutionary MOO methods for UIR. GMOFS is an embedded method that simultaneously performs feature selection and classification by incorporating an elastic net in multilayer perceptron neural network training. Experimental data are collected from six subjects, including three able-bodied subjects and three transfemoral amputees. We implement GMOFS and four variants of multi-objective biogeography-based optimization (MOBBO) for optimal feature subset selection, and we compare their performances using normalized hypervolume and relative coverage. GMOFS demonstrates competitive performance compared to the four MOBBO methods. We achieve a mean classification accuracy of 97.14% ± 1.51% and 98.45% ± 1.22% with the optimal selected subset for able-bodied and amputee subjects, respectively, while using only 23% of the available features. Results thus indicate the potential of advanced optimization methods to simultaneously achieve accurate, reliable, and compact UIR for locomotion mode detection of lower-limb amputees with prostheses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0043.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: mitogenome; biogeography; intraspecific variation; Caucasian lynx; Balkan lynx; Himalayan lynx; Anatolian refugium
Online: 2 July 2021 (09:27:04 CEST)
Phylogenetic and phylogeographic assessments of species should ideally include individuals of all known populations. However, this is difficult for species with large distribution areas. Previous molecular studies of the wide-ranging Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx focused mainly on its northern Palearctic populations, with the consequence that the reconstruction of this species’ evolutionary history did not include genetic variation present in its southern Palearctic distribution. We sampled a previously not considered Asian subspecies (L. l. dinniki), added published data from another Asian subspecies (L. l. isabellinus), and reassessed the Eurasian lynx mtDNA phylogeny along with previously published data from northern Palearctic populations. Our mitogenome-based analyses revealed that the subspecies L. l. isabellinus harbours the most basal matriline, consistent with the origin of Lynx lynx in this subspecies’ current range. L. l. dinniki harbours the second-most basal matriline, which is related to, and may be the source of, the mtDNA diversity of the critically endangered Balkan lynx L. l. balcanicus. Our results suggest that the Anatolian peninsula was a glacial refugium for Eurasian lynx, with previously unconsidered implications for the colonization of Europe by this species. Genetic variation present in southern Palearctic populations of Lynx lynx is clearly important for elucidating the evolutionary history of this species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: biodiversity; insolation, biogeography; lidar; point-cloud; multi-spectral imagery; spatial prediction model; forest canopy
Online: 3 August 2021 (13:05:43 CEST)
Incident solar radiation (insolation) passing through the forest canopy to the ground surface is either absorbed or scattered. This phenomenon, known as radiation attenuation, is measured using the extinction coefficient (K). The amount of radiation at the ground surface of a given site is effectively controlled by the canopy’s surface and structure, determining its suitability for plant species.Menhinick’s and Simpson biodiversity indexes were selected as spatially explicit response variables for the regression equation using canopy structure metrics as predictors. Independent variables include modeled area solar radiation, LiDAR derived canopy height, effective leaf area index data derived from multi-spectral imagery, and canopy strata metrics derived from LiDAR point-cloud data. The results support the hypothesis that, 1.) canopy surface and strata variability may be associated with understory species diversity due to habitat partitioning and radiation attenuation, and that, 2.) such a model can predict both this relationship and biodiversity clustering.The study data yielded significant correlations between predictor and response variables and was used to produce a multiple-linear model comprising canopy relief, texture of heights, and vegetation density to predict understory plant diversity. When analyzed for spatial autocorrelation, the predicted biodiversity data exhibited non-random spatial continuity.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0178.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biodiversity; biogeography; competitive exclusion; ecological niche model; molecular taxonomic identification; PCR-RFLP; Reticulitermes; saproxylic; species richness
Online: 17 January 2019 (03:55:36 CET)
In both managed and unmanaged forests, termites are functionally important members of the dead-wood-associated (saproxylic) insect community. However, little is known about regional-scale environmental drivers of geographic distributions of termite species, and how these environmental factors impact co-occurrence among congeneric species. Here we focus on the southern Appalachian Mountains—a well-known center of endemism for forest biota—and use Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to examine the distributions of three species of Reticulitermes termites (i.e., R. flavipes, R. virginicus, and R. malletei). To overcome deficiencies in public databases, ENMs were underpinned by field-collected high-resolution occurrence records coupled with molecular taxonomic species identification. Spatial overlap among areas of predicted occurrence of each species was mapped, and aspects of niche similarity were quantified. We also identified environmental factors that most strongly contribute to among-species differences in occupancy. Overall, we found that R. flavipes and R. virginicus showed significant niche divergence, which was primarily driven by dry-season precipitation. Also, all three species were most likely to co-occur in the mid-latitudes of the study area (i.e., northern Alabama and Georgia, eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina), which is an area of considerable topographic complexity. This work provides important baseline information for follow-up studies of local-scale drivers of these species’ distributions. It also identifies specific geographic areas where future assessments of the frequency of true syntopy vs. micro-allopatry, and associated interspecific competitive interactions, should be focused.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Curculionidae; Cossoninae; Rhyncolini; Rhyncolina; taxonomy; new species; mature larva; morphology; host plant; Cape Verde; biogeography; microclimate; species competition
Online: 29 March 2018 (14:53:47 CEST)
The genus Aphanommata in the Old World is reviewed. Aphanommata kuscheli sp. nov. from São Nicolau and A. strakai sp. nov. from Fogo (both Cape Verde islands) are described. Aphanommata euphorbiarum (Wollaston, 1867) from Santo Antão in the Cape Verde islands is redescribed and its lectotype is designated. All three Aphanommata species from the Cape Verde islands as well as A. filum (Mulsant & Rey, 1859) from Old World are diagnosed, illustrated, and keyed. Mature larva of A. kuscheli sp. nov. is described, larval morphology is discussed and the current state of knowledge about immature stages of Cossoninae is summarized. Vertical and inter-insular distributional pattern of Cape Verde Aphanommata and Pselactus is reviewed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Mediterranean flora; endemic plants; IUCN assessments; island biogeography; plant conservation; Tyrrhenian islands; biological forms; plant evolution and distribution; plant diversity
Online: 4 February 2022 (12:06:51 CET)
The vascular flora of Sardinia has been investigated for more than 250 years, with particular attention to the endemic component, due to their phylogeographic and conservation interest. However, continuous changes in the floristic composition through natural processes, anthropogenic drivers or modified taxonomical attributions require constant updating. We checked all available literature, web sources, field and unpublished data from authors and acknowledged external experts to compile an updated checklist of vascular plants endemic to Sardinia. Life and chorological forms, and the conservation status of the updated taxa list were reported. Sardinia hosts 340 taxa (15% of the total native flora) endemic to the Tyrrhenian islands and other limited continental territories; 195 of these are exclusive to Sardinia. Asteraceae (50 taxa) and Plumbaginaceae (42 taxa) are the most representative families, while the most frequent life forms are hemicryptophytes (118 taxa) and chamaephytes (105 taxa). The global conservation status, available for 200 taxa, indicates that most endemics are under the ‘Critically Endangered’ (25 taxa), ‘Endangered’ (31 taxa) or ‘Least Concern’ (90 taxa) IUCN categories. This research provides an updated basis for future biosystematics, taxonomic, biogeographical and ecological studies, and for supporting more integrated and efficient policy tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0125.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Parkinson’s disease (PD); Biomedical voice measurements; Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP); Biogeography-based Optimization (BBO); Medical diagnosis. Bio-inspired computation
Online: 10 May 2019 (13:56:59 CEST)
In recent years, Parkinson's Disease (PD) as a progressive syndrome of the nervous system has become highly prevalent worldwide. In this study, a novel hybrid technique established by integrating a Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP) with the Biogeography-based Optimization (BBO) to classify PD based on a series of biomedical voice measurements. BBO is employed to determine the optimal MLP parameters and boost prediction accuracy. The inputs comprised of 22 biomedical voice measurements. The proposed approach detects two PD statuses: 0– disease status and 1– reasonable control status. The performance of proposed methods compared with PSO, GA, ACO and ES method. The outcomes affirm that the MLP-BBO model exhibits higher precision and suitability for PD detection. The proposed diagnosis system as a type of speech algorithm detects early Parkinson’s symptoms, and consequently, it served as a promising new robust tool with excellent PD diagnosis performance.