REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wheat; biofortification; QTLs; protein; minerals
Online: 9 August 2019 (12:54:32 CEST)
Wheat is the essential constituent of cereal-based diets and one of the most significant sources of calories. However, there is an inherently low bioavailability of proteins, mineral, and vitamins in modern wheat grains. Biofortification has earned recognition as an outstanding approach, at the same time as a cure for world hunger. The developments in the identifications of quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and understanding of the physiological and molecular basis of QTLs controlling the biofortification traits in wheat has revealed new horizons for the improvement of modern wheat varieties. Within this review, we have compiled the information from the studies carried out in wheat using QTL mapping methodologies that is among the best methods for biofortification traits. We hope this review will serve as an essential reference for the QTLs identified for the several important biofortification traits in wheat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0283.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Wheat; Biofortification; Iron; Zinc; Rht genes
Online: 13 May 2021 (11:20:29 CEST)
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) being a staple food crop is an important nutritional source providing protein and minerals. It is important to fortify staple cereals like wheat with essential minerals to overcome the problems associated with malnutrition. The experiment was designed to evaluate the status of 11 micronutrients including grain iron (GFe) and zinc (GZn) in 62 wheat cultivars released between 1911 and 2016 in Pakistan. Field trials were conducted over two years and GFe and GZn were quantified by both inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer (EDXRF). The GZn ranged from 18.4 to 40.8 mg/kg by ED-XRF and 23.7 to 38.8 mg/kg by ICP-OES. Similarly, GFe ranged from 24.8 to 44.1 mg/kg by ICP-OES and 26.8 to 36.6 mg/kg by EDEXR. The coefficient of correlation was higher for GZn (r=0.90), compared to GFe (r=0.68). Modern cultivars like Zincol-16 and AAS-2011 showed higher GFe and GZn along with improved yield components. Old wheat cultivars WL-711, C-518 and Pothowar-70 released before 1970 also exhibited higher value of GFe and GZn, however their agronomic performance was poor. Multivariate analysis using ten micronutrients (Al, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P) along with agronomic traits, and genome-wide SNP markers identified the potential cultivar with improved yield, biofortification trait and wider genetic diversity. Genetic gain analysis identified significant increase in grain yield (0.4% year-1), while there was negative gain for GFe (-0.11% year-1) and GZn (-0.15% year-1) over the span of 100 years. The Green Revolution Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 genes had strong association with plant height, and grain yield (GY), while semi-dwarfing alleles had negative effect on GFe and GZn contents. This study provided a valuable insight into biofortification status of wheat cultivars deployed historically in Pakistan and is a valuable source to initiate a breeding strategy for simultaneous improvement in wheat phenology and biofortification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1575.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biofortification; chickpea; iron deficiency; Fe-EDDHA; fertilization
Online: 25 October 2023 (05:16:01 CEST)
Iron (Fe) deficiency specifically is the most common nutritional disorder due to insufficient absorbable Fe. Biofortification is a process of enriching the nutrient content of staple crops and is considered as a sustainable and cost-effective strategy to address micronutrient deficiency problems especially in the less developed countries. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a staple food in many developing countries worldwide and is an excellent source of micronutrients. Biofortification of chickpea is a possible solution to address Fe deficiency problem. Chickpea biofortification experiment was conducted under field conditions to evaluate the effects of different doses of Fe fertilizer (0 kg ha-1,10 kg ha-1 and 30 kg ha-1 of Fe-EDDHA) on Fe content in seeds of 18 chickpea cultivars. The experiment was designed as a factorial combination of 18 chickpea cultivars and 3 different doses in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications at two locations in Saskatchewan in 2015 and 2016. Fe concentration in seeds across 18 different chickpea cultivars increased with Fe fertilization. Fe concentration in X05TH20-2 and CDC Frontier cultivars increased from 57 ppm to 59 ppm and 56 ppm to 58 ppm, respectively, after adding Fe fertilizer in both location in 2015 and 2016.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: biofortification; discrete choice; fruits; health claims; micronutrients
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:34:41 CET)
Selenium and iodine are essential micronutrients for humans. They are often deficient in food supply due to low phytoavailable concentrations in soil. Agronomic biofortification of food crops is one approach to overcome micronutrient malnutrition. This study focused on German consumers’ willingness to purchase selenium- and/or iodine-biofortified apples. For this purpose, an online survey was carried out. In this context, consumers were asked to choose their most preferred apple product from a set card of product alternatives (Discrete Choice Experiment). The multinomial logit model results demonstrated that German consumers’ have a preference in particular for iodine-biofortified apples. Furthermore, apple choice was mainly influenced by price, health claims, and plastic-free packaging material. Viewed individually, selenium did not exert an effect on product choice whereas positive interactions between both micronutrients exist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biofortification, Pearl millet, Malnutrition, Iron, Zinc, Market.
Online: 7 March 2019 (12:08:24 CET)
Pearl millet is an important food crop in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of Africa and Asia. These regions are home to millions of poor smallholder’s households living in harsh agro ecology and reported higher prevalence of malnutrition. Such poor households have few options in terms of food crops, besides the limited markets. Indeed, pearl millet is one of the food crops they continue to grow for their food and nutritional security. Pearl millet is important sources of dietary carbohydrates, energy, protein, and important minerals such as calcium, iron and zinc. Considering inherent high nutritional values and climate resilient nature (drought and heat), demand for pearl millet as food, beside valued for its Stover as a source of livestock fodder, is projected to grow strongly in Asia (India) and Africa (West and Central Africa). Iron (cause anemia) and zinc (cause stunting) deficiencies are widespread and serious public health problems worldwide, including India and Africa. Biofortification is a cost-effective and sustainable agricultural strategy to address this problem. Research on pearl millet has shown that large genetic variability (30-140 mg/kg Fe and 20-90 mg/kg Zn) available in this crop can be effectively utilized to develop high-yielding cultivars with high iron and zinc densities. Both Open –pollinated varieties (Dhanshakti and Chakti) and hybrids (ICMH 1202, ICMH 1203 and ICMH 1301) of pearl millet with high grain yield (>3.5 tons/ha in hybrids) and high levels of iron (70-75 mg/kg) and zinc (35-40 mg/kg) densities have been developed and released. Currently, India growing >70,000 ha of biofortified pearl millet, besides more pipeline hybrids and varieties are under various stage of testing at the national (India) and international (west Africa) trials for possible release. Genomic tools will be an integral part of breeding program particularly for nutritional traits to use diagnostic markers and genomic selection. Clinical studies showed that 200g grains from biofortified cultivar would provide bioavailable Fe to meet full recommended daily allowance (RDA) in children, adult men and 80% of the RDA in women. Till today, no markets to promote biofortified cultivars/grains/products as no incentive price and such products aims to address food and nutritional security challenges simultaneously. The demand is likely to increase only after investment and integration into modern public distribution system, nutritional intervention schemes, private seed and food companies with strong mainstreaming nutritional policies. In the non-traditional regions, this will contribute to livestock and poultry feed industry as spill-over benefits to improve nutrition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0907.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agronomic biofortification; dietary intake; effectiveness; fertilizers; micronutrient deficiencies
Online: 13 July 2023 (09:40:50 CEST)
Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs), also known as hidden hunger, affects more than a quarter of the global population. Agronomic biofortification helps to increase concentration of a target mineral in food crops and improve human mineral dietary intake. It is a means of providing nutrient dense foods to a larger population especially among rural resource poor settings, providing that they have access to mineral fertilizers. However, the feasibility of agronomic biofortification in combating hidden hunger depends on several factors besides fertilizer access, including crop type, genotype, climate, soils, and soil mineral interactions. Consideration of its effectiveness to increasing human mineral intakes to daily requirements and improvement to human health and the cost effectiveness the program is also important. In this paper we reviewed available literature regarding the potential effectiveness and challenges of agronomic biofortification to improve crop micronutrient concentrations and reduce hidden hunger.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Agronomic biofortification; finger millet; genotype; mineral fertilizer; yield
Online: 3 May 2023 (13:00:18 CEST)
The present study aimed to investigate influence of genotypic differences to zinc and iron agronomic biofortification responses among yield of finger millet. A field experiment was conducted over two seasons in farmers’ fields in Ethiopia (2019, 2020). The experimental design had 15 treatment combinations comprising 3 finger millet varieties and application of different combinations of zinc and iron mineral fertilizers. 5 soil-applied fertilizer treatments (20 kg h-1 FeSO4 + 25 kg h-1 ZnSO4 + NPKS, 25 kg h-1 ZnSO4 + NPKS, 20 kg h-1 FeSO4 + NPKS, NPKS, and 30% NPKS), at 2 locations (Gojjam and Arsi Negelle, Ethiopia), and two 2 slope positions (Foot and hill), replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. Grain yield and biomass were evaluated on plot basis. Plant height, total and productive tiller number, finger length of the longest spike and number of fingers per main ear were measured at maturity stage. The combined soil application of FeSO47H2O and ZnSO47H2O increased yield to Meba variety by 51.6%. Also, ZnSO47H2O fertilizer application increased yield to Urji variety by 27.6%. About 18.3% of yield enhancement of Diga-01 variety was achieved due to the FeSO47H2O fertilizers application. The findings of the present study suggests that the influence of Zn and Fe agronomic biofortification on yield of finger millet could be affected by genotype differences and environmental conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0158.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: QTLs; biofortification; malnutrition; hidden hunger; marker-assisted breeding
Online: 12 December 2019 (03:52:07 CET)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) supplies nourishment to about half of the population of the world's inhabitants. Of them, more than 2 billion people suffer from "hidden hunger" in which they are unable to meet the recommended nutrients or micronutrients from their daily dietary intake. Bio-fortification refers to developing micronutrient-rich diet foods using traditional breeding methods and modern biotechnology, a promising approach to nutrition enrichment as part of an integrated strategy for food systems. To improve the profile of rice grain for the biofortification related traits, understanding the genetics of important biofortification traits is required. Moreover, these attributes are quantitative in nature and are influenced by several genes and environmental variables. In the course of past decades, several endeavours such, as finding the important quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for improving the nutrient profile of rice seeds were successfully undertaken. In this review, we have presented the information regarding the QTLs identified for the biofortification traits in the rice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: maize; global nutrition; macronutrients; biofortification; genetic modification; maize processing
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:15:15 CEST)
This chapter explores the pivotal role of maize (Zea mays L.) in global nutrition, emphasizing its status as a staple food worldwide. It discusses maize's complex nutritional profile, including macronutrients, micronutrients, and dietary fiber. The chapter also covers biofortification efforts to enhance maize with essential nutrients, addresses nutritional concerns related to maize-centric diets, and explores genetic modification and agronomic strategies to boost nutrient-rich maize yields. Additionally, it delves into maize processing traditions, nutrient retention techniques, and the importance of promoting nutrient-rich maize varieties. The chapter outlines post-harvest strategies to combat nutrient loss and prevent contamination while emphasizing the significance of consumer education and diverse diets. Case studies illustrate the impact of improved maize nutrition and provide replicable strategies. The chapter concludes by considering emerging research and technology, identifying challenges, and proposing solutions to enhance maize's nutritional value in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0649.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wheat; micronutrient; macronutrient; source-sink regulation; biofortification; phytate; bioavailability
Online: 25 March 2021 (17:17:10 CET)
In order to better understand the source-sink flow and relationships of Zinc (Zn) and other nutrients in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants for biofortification and improving grain nutritional quality, effects of reducing photoassimilate source (through the flag leaf removal and spike shading) or sink (through 50% spikelets removal) in the field on accumulation of Zn and other nutrients in wheat grains of two cultivars (Jimai 22 and Jimai 44) were investigated under two soil Zn application levels. The single panicle weight (SPW), kernel number per spike (KNPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW), total grain weight (TGW), concentrations and yields of various nutrient elements (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, N, P, K, Ca and Mg), phytate phosphorus (phytate-P), phytic acid (PA) and phytohormones (ABA: abscisic acid, and the ethylene precursor ACC: 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid), and C/N ratios were determined. Soil Zn application significantly increased concentrations of grain Zn, N and K. Cultivars showing higher grain yields had lower grain protein and micronutrient nutritional quality. SPW, KNPS, TKW (with an exception of TKW in half spikelets removal), TGW, and nutrient yields in wheat grains were most severely reduced by half spiklets removal, secondly by spike shading, and slightly by flag leaf removal. Grain concentrations of Zn, N and Mg consistently showed negative correlations with SPW, KNPS and TGW, but positively with TKW. There were general positive correlations among grain concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, N and Mg, and bioavailability of Zn and Fe (estimated by molar ratios of PA/Zn, PA × Ca/Zn, PA/Fe, or PA × Ca/Fe). Although concentrations of Zn and Fe were increased and Ca was decreased in treatments of half spikelets removal and spike shading, the simultaneously increased PA limited the increase in bioavailability of Zn and Fe. In general, different nutrient elements interact with each other and are affected to different degrees by source-sink manipulations. Elevated endogenous ABA levels and ABA/ACC ratios were associated with increased TKW and grain-filling of Zn, Mn, Ca and Mg, and inhibited K in wheat grains. However, effects of ACC were diametrically opposite. These results provide basis for wheat grain biofortification to alleviate human malnutrition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: abiotic stress; biotic stress; biofortification; breeding; French bean; QTLs
Online: 3 June 2020 (09:43:01 CEST)
French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) a member of family Leguminosae is a useful source of protein (∼22%), minerals (folate), vitamins and fibre. Abiotic and biotic stresses are the constraints to high yield and production of French bean. Varieties reluctant to diseases as well as abiotic stresses is among the top breeding objectives for the French bean. Mendelian ratios could know the genetically reliable forms of resistance, whereas it's more robust to understand the intricate kinds, often referred to as quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here, we review and compile the information from the studies related to the identification of QTLs for critical biofortification traits, biotic and abiotic stresses in French bean. Successful map-based cloning requires QTLs represent single genes which could be isolated in near-isogenic lines, and also the genotypes could be unambiguously inferred by progeny testing. Overall, this information will be useful for directing the French bean breeders to select a suitable method for the inheritance evaluation of quantitative traits and determining the novel genes in germplasm resources to ensure that much more potential of genetic information may be uncovered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0272.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: durum wheat; β-carotene; TILLING; biofortification; vitamin A deficiency
Online: 24 October 2019 (05:28:00 CEST)
Macro and micronutrients, essential for the maintenance of human metabolism, are daily assimilated through the diet. Wheat and other major cereals are a good source of nutrients, such as carbohydrates and proteins, but cannot supply enough amounts of essential micronutrients which includes provitamin A. As vitamin A deficiency (VAD) lead to several serious diseases spread worldwide, the biofortification of a major staple crop, such as wheat, represents an effective way to preserve human health in developing countries. In the present work, a key enzyme involved in the branch of carotenoids pathway producing β-carotene, lycopene epsilon cyclase, has been targeted by a TILLING approach in a “Block strategy” perspective. The null mutant genotype showed a strong reduction in the expression of lcyE gene and also interesting pleiotropic effects on an enzyme (β-ring hydroxylase) acting downstream in the pathway. Biochemical profiling of carotenoids in the wheat mutant lines showed an increase of roughly 75% in β-carotene in the grains of the complete mutant line vs. the control. In conclusions, here we describe the production and the characterization of a new wheat line biofortified in provitamin A obtained through a non-transgenic approach also shading new light on the molecular mechanism governing carotenoids biosynthesis in durum wheat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1271.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biofortification; Supplementary blue light; Growth; Health-preserving compounds; Trigonelline; Micronutrients
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:24:48 CEST)
Simultaneous biofortification of vegetable crops with selenium and iodine is necessary in areas where there is a lack of these two elements. The main reason for lack of selenium and iodine in humans is inadequate intake of these two elements from vegetable crops. Biofortification through various agricultural methods including artificial lighting is a pragmatic way of increasing the concentration of these elements in plants. This research was conducted as a three-factor factorial experiment arranged as completely randomized pots replicated thrice in the greenhouse during year 2022. Three levels of sodium selenate fertilizer (S1: 0, S2: 2, S3: 4 mg/l), three levels of potassium iodate (I1: 0, I2: 2, I3: 4 mg/L) and two additional blue light radiation levels (L1: radiation and L2: no blue light radiation) were applied and data was measured at two growth stages namely 40 and 80-days. The results showed that the highest (11.44 g) and the lowest (9.55 g) shoot dry weight values at the 40-day-stage were observed in the supplementary blue light and sunlight (control), respectively. Moreover,, under complementary blue light conditions, the highest and the lowest (5.85 and 3.38 mg/g leaf fresh weight) of leaf chlorophyll value at the 40-day-stage were recorded at sodium selenate 4 and 0 mg/l, respectively. The highest and the lowest (5.24 and 4.76 mg/g) fresh weight of leaf anthocyanin at the 40-day-growth stage were related to supplementary blue light and sunlight treatment (control), respectively. Under the supplementary blue light and 0 mg/l of selenium , the highest and the lowest value of shoot trigonelline (102.56 and 72.14 mg/100 g fresh weight) were obtained at 4 and 2 mg/L of iodine, respectively. Furthermore, in the same treatment, the highest and the lowest of seed trigonelline amounts (0.99 and 0.74 mg/g dry weight) corresponded with 4 and 0 mg/l of iodine, respectively.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0633.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Biofortification; Agro-biodiversity; HarvestPlus; Hidden Hunger; Orphan Crops; Wild edibles
Online: 28 July 2021 (16:18:29 CEST)
Biofortification refers to the increase in the amount of essential vitamins or provitamins or minerals in crops to improve the nutritional status of the people, which is largely intended to alleviate the problem of micronutrient malnutrition. I argue that biofortification may not be an effective weapon to fight against the hidden hunger since it demonstrates limited capacity on nutritional enhancement and can negatively impact the socio-economic fabric of the society in many different ways. Finally, I suggest a couple of alternatives that might meet the challenge more efficiently than biofortified crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0590.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biofortification; antioxidants; soilless culture; nutraceutical quality; enzymatic activity; plant resistance
Online: 25 October 2018 (05:22:51 CEST)
Selenium (Se) is an essential element of the human diet. Therefore, it is necessary to implement Se in agricultural fertilization, although it is not considered as an essential element for plants, Se provides benefits at the level of redox metabolism, increasing the resistance of plants to various stress factors. The increase of the availability of selenium with the use of biopolymer complexes was sought in Great Lakes lettuce grown in substrate pots treated with SeO2 (5 mg L Se), Cs-PAA + Se (5 mg L Se), and Cs-PAA. The redox metabolism was modified by increasing the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase. The use of Cs-PAA + Se biopolymer complexes increase selenium up to 24 mg/Kg dry weight (DW) in plant tissues.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Genome selection; Rice breeding; Genetic analysis; Omics assisted markers; Nutritional quality; Genomics and pangenomics; Biofortification
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:53:16 CEST)
The primary considerations while producing rice (Oryza sativa L.) include improving its nutritional quality and production. To tackle widespread hunger globally, better nutritional, high-yielding rice cultivars need to be developed. The conventional ways are to increase the production of rice and add balanced nutrients in the daily diet to fulfill the need of yield and nutrient quality. This article focuses on nutritional strategies for rice and illustrates the availability of omics technologies. Current advancements providing many methodologies and approaches for exploring genetic resources and for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in trait formation have been highlighted. Studying the genetic influences of various characteristics has been proven to expedite crop breeding processes. In this perspective, genome-wide association research, genome selection (GS), and QTL mapping are all genetic analysis that helps in increasing the nutritional content of rice. Implementation of several omic techniques are effective approaches to enhance and regulate the nutritional quality of rice cultivars. Advancements in different types of omics including genomics and pangenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, nutrigenomics, and proteomics are also relevant to rice development initiatives. This review article compiles genes, locus, mutants and all omic approaches for rice enhancement. This knowledge will be very useful for now and for the future regarding rice studies.