REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0424.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Cassava peels; valorisation; thermal; thermo-chemical; biochemical; biogas
Online: 28 October 2021 (07:27:14 CEST)
The large-scale processing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) generates significant quantities of solid wastes annually. Cassava peels (CP) account for 5 wt.% - 30 wt.% of wastes from the processing of cassava tubers. The poor disposal and management of CP pose risks to human health, safety and the environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and examine low cost, socially acceptable and environmentally friendly strategies to mitigate the immediate and long terms disposal and management challenges. Lack of such measures results in the accumulation of CP wastes, which are currently buried, combusted, or dumped in open fields. Therefore, this paper reviewed the potential routes for the biochemical, thermochemical, and plasma valorisation of CP. The literature reviewed revealed that biochemical technologies such as anaerobic digestion (AD) and fermentation are the most widely utilised approaches currently adopted for CP valorisation. AD produces biogas (methane 50-72 vol. % and carbon dioxide 25-45 vol. %), whereas fermentation yields bioethanol. However, the numerous challenges such as substrate-induced inhibition, associated with the biochemical processes hamper microbial degradation, methane formation, and process efficiency. Furthermore, the processes generate secondary wastes or digestate/sludge, which requires additional processing before disposal. Therefore, innovative thermal, thermochemical, and plasma technologies were proposed to valorise CP into syngas, biofuels, bioenergy, biochemicals, and fertilizers, among others. However, the waste products of fermentation cannot be effectively utilised as bio-fertilizers, whereas bioethanol causes corrosion in engines. Overall, the biochemical, thermal, thermochemical and plasma technologies can effectively valorise CP for effective net energy generation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0188.v1
Online: 9 August 2021 (10:09:30 CEST)
Taro is an important root vegetable and has several medicinal and therapeutic properties. The two major therapeutic ingredients are flavonoids and triterpenoids, which are of prime importance. Additionally, the plant has antibacterial, antiparasitic, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory properties. People often use it to treat a number of diseases by prescribing them as medications. Researchers from the pharmaceutical industry can thrive on C. esculenta by using whole-plant extracts. The identification of valuable terpenoids and therapeutics and their preparations are profusely dealt with in this article. Also, the new structural details of connective tissue are also studied as it helps researchers to investigate further uses of taro for humans, it is well known that xanthan can be obtained commercially as stabilizers, thickeners, binders, and more. It is essential to explore this plant for both medicinal and pharmaceutical properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0564.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: psychiatric disorders; neuroimaging; biochemical; pain; pain biomarkers
Online: 21 June 2021 (16:39:16 CEST)
According to the literature, patients with chronic pain and mental disorders constitute a huge, heterogeneous group. However, it is known that social and psychological processes closely affect the level and expression of chronic pain. In this paper, we present a review of the literature, define methods of identifying pain biomarkers and consider the possibility of using them to assess pain in mental disorders. Group researchers searched PubMed, Scope, and Cochrane databases for "pain biomarkers in mental disorders" between 2011 and 2021. for available databases for full-text, peer-reviewed studies and review publications using the following keywords: pain biomarkers, neuroimaging pain, pain metabolomics, pain and psychiatric disorders, pain electroencephalography (EEG), serum pain biomarkers, saliva biomarkers, and diagnosis pain. The search included full-text articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, and systematic reviews. Was used part of the PRISMA method to review the literature systematically. A literature search identified 283 studies based on the initially set inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the subsequent selection stages, 11 studies were selected for analysis. There are three main areas of the possible use of biomarkers for the clinical assessment of pain in psychiatric patients, neuroimaging, changes in metabolite levels in body fluids, and changes in gene expression. As a result of the review, individual pain mediators were distinguished that may be markers of pain in psychiatric patients. Some mediators indicate the specificity of pain and are of diagnostic importance. However, despite significant advances in research, most of the described biomarkers found in clinical trials assessing the severity and frequency of pain have no practical significance in psychiatric disorders. It is possible to diagnose pain based on neuroimaging using various methods, genetic methods, body fluids: blood and urine. Of the many, body fluid biomarkers are the most advanced. Discussion: Biomarker research is a dynamically developing field. The review has proposed new ways to diagnose pain by identifying pain biomarkers. Work presented pain diagnostics in psychiatric disorders based on biomarkers from various neuroimaging methods, blood and urine analysis. The possibility of new, effective techniques gives hope for the correct diagnosis of pain, especially in patients with mental disorders, which would allow for appropriate and adequate therapeutic therapies. In clinical practice is limited to a few methods. Assessment of pain biomarkers in body fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) seems to be the most practical and promising method of clinical application. Conclusions: There are new techniques that give hope for the correct diagnosis of pain, especially in patients with mental disorders, which will allow for their proper and adequate therapy. According to the literature, patients with chronic pain and mental disorders constitute a huge, heterogeneous group. However, it is known that social and psychological processes closely affect the level and expression of chronic pain.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0062.v1
Online: 13 March 2017 (08:38:03 CET)
Biochemical compositions of black carpenter ants (Camponotus pennsylvanicus) were analyzed using standard methods. The proximate composition (%) were as follows: crude protein (22.50), crude fibre (1.46), carbohydrate by difference (30.86) and energy (35.4Kcal). The predominant mineral was potassium and nickel was the least. The antinutritional properties (mgkg-1) ranged as follows: Oxalate (1.35), phytate (62.79), and tannins (0.72). The results suggested that the ant may be a good source of nutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis; Cucurbitaceae; subchronic; toxicity; biochemical; haematological
Online: 7 August 2017 (16:00:43 CEST)
Background: The leaf of Telfairia occidentalis Hook f. (Cucurbitaceae) is consumed in different parts of Nigeria because of the numerous nutritional and medicinal attributes ascribed to it. The sub-chronic toxicity of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis (TO) was investigated in this study. Methods: Rats in different groups were separately administered 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg TO p.o. for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for haematological and biochemical analysis. Vital organs were harvested and evaluated for in vivo antioxidants and histopathological changes. Results: Results showed no significant changes in the weight of vital organs except in respect of the testes of the group treated with 2000 mg/kg extract which showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in weight compared to the control group. There was a significant (p<0.01) increase in sperm motility and count of the group administered 80 mg/kg extract and a significant (p<0.001) reduction was observed at 2000 mg/kg. There were significant increases in the level of Hb and PCV at 80 and 2000 mg/kg of the extract. In respect of liver function parameters, a significant decrease in AST and ALT levels at doses of 400 and 2000 mg/kg relative to control was observed. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in the level of total cholesterol (400 mg/kg) and increase (p<0.05) in level of HDL (80-2000 mg/kg) compared to control was observed. There was also significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of MDA and significant (p<0.05) decrease in SOD level in the testes at 2000 mg/kg. Histopathological assessment of the testes revealed abnormality at this dose. These effects were reversed after 30 days of cessation of administration of TO. Conclusions: The findings showed that the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis is relatively non-toxic on acute and sub-chronic exposure, with potential to elicit anti-anaemic effect, reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, and enhance antioxidant status in the brain and liver. Although possibly beneficial at low dose, the extract could be harmful to the testes on prolonged oral exposure at high dose.
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:10:31 CEST)
The meniscus is a meniscus-shaped fibrocartilage tissue located between the femur and tibia，it is mainly composed of meniscus cells and related extracellular matrix.The synovial limbus area of the knee joint capsule near the meniscus is divided into red areas with rich blood vessels and white areas with less blood supply according to the distribution of blood vessels,there is a transition zone called the red and white zone between the two;Red zone has better self-repair ability,The injury in this area can be treated by conservative treatment or surgical suture;Once the white area of the meniscus is torn and involves the free edge area,It is often necessary to partially remove the damaged meniscus.When most of the entire meniscus is severely torn and involved,not only the course of the disease is very long, but it cannot be repaired by sutures,Often a subtotal or total meniscus resection is required,whether it is a partial meniscus resection, a subtotal meniscus resection or a complete resection.In the later period, it may cause quadriceps atrophy and osteoarthritis (OA）.OA is a refractory multi-system disease,involve the patient’s peripheral joints,it has high disability and teratogenicity, and is very harmful to human health.Chondrocyte pyrolysis, degradation, and inflammation play a vital role in the destruction of OA articular cartilage and chondrocyte apoptosis.Meniscus stem cells have strong proliferation and differentiation ability,has become one of the hot spots in the field of meniscus repair,this article studies the role of meniscal stem cells in the development of OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0069.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: DEHP; biochemical pathways; immobilization; MBR; bacterial community dynamics
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:00:48 CET)
A bacterial strain that could effectively degrade DEHP was isolated from the activated sludge and identified as Bacillus sp. by DNA sequencing. The biochemical degradation pathway of DEHP was further analyzed by GC-MS, and the results showed that DEHP was first decomposed into phthalates (DBP). Diuretic sylycol (DEP) was then generated, and phthalates (PA) were generated by a continuous de-ehelateization reaction. Phthalic acid (PA) was oxidized, dehydrogenated, and decarboxylated into protocatechins. Protocatechins enter the TCA cycle through orthotopic ring opening. To enhance DEHP degradation, sodium alginate and calcium chloride were used as embedding and cross-linking materials, and the strain was immobilized. The immobilization conditions were optimized via an orthogonal experiment, and the results showed that the optimal immobilization conditions were SA mass fraction of 4%, CaCl2 mass fraction of 5%, ratio of bacteria to SA of 1:1, and the crosslinking time of 6 hours. The immobilized bacteria agent was further applied to MBR systems. The results showed that the removal rate of DEHP (5mg/L) in the system by immobilized bacteria was 91.9%, which is significantly higher than that of free bacteria. The 3, 4-dioxygenase gene and microbial community dynamics were analyzed by q-PCR and Illumina Miseq sequencing. The q-PCR results showed that the number of copies of 3, 4-dioxygenase gene in the immobilized system was significantly higher than that of free bacteria. Illumina Miseq sequencing results showed that Micromonospora, Rhodococcus, Bacteroides and Pseudomonas were the dominant generas in the MBR system. The analysis of bacterial community structure indicated that immobilization technology had a positive impact on the system stability. The results implied that this immobilized technique had potential applications in DEHP wastewater treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0204.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass; laccases; peroxidases; green biochemical; acidophilic microbes
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:51:17 CEST)
The processing of fossil fuels is the major environmental issue today which should be lessen. Biomass is gaining much interest these days as an alternate to energy generation. Lignocellulosic biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) is abundant and has been used for a variety of purposes. Among them, the lignin polymer having phenyl-propanoid subunits linked together through C-C bonds or ether linkages, can produce numerous chemicals. It can be depolymerized by microbial activity together with certain enzymes (laccases and peroxidases). Both acetic acid and formic acid production by certain fungi contribute significantly to lignin depolymerization. Natural organic acids production by fungi has many key roles in nature that are strictly dependent upon organic acid producing fungus type. Fungal enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic is beneficial over other physiochemical processes. Laccases, the copper containing proteins oxidize a broad spectrum of inorganic as well as organic compounds but most specifically phenolic compounds by radical catalyzed mechanism. Similarly, lignin peroxidases (LiP), the heme containing proteins perform a vital part in oxidizing a wide variety of aromatic compounds with H2O2. Lignin depolymerization yields value-added compounds, the important ones are BTX (Benzene, Xylene and Toluene) and phenols as well as certain polymers like polyurethane and carbon fibers. Thus, this review will provide a concept that biological modifications of lignin using acidophilic microbes can generate certain value added and environment friendly chemicals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: diabetes; chronic wounds; smart wound dressing; biochemical sensor
Online: 28 May 2018 (10:22:39 CEST)
Given their severity and non-healing nature, diabetic chronic wounds are a significant concern to the 30.3 million Americans diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (2015). Peripheral arterial diseases, neuropathy, and infection contribute to the development of these wounds, which lead to an increased incidence of lower extremity amputations. Early recognition, debridement, offloading, and controlling infection are imperative for timely treatment. However, wound characterization and treatment are highly subjective and based largely on the experience of the treating clinician. Many wound dressings have been designed to address particular clinical presentations, but a prescriptive method is lacking for identifying the particular state of chronic, non-healing wounds. The authors suggest that recent developments in wound dressings and biosensing may allow for the quantitative, real-time representation of the wound environment, including exudate levels, pathogen concentrations, and tissue regeneration. Development of such sensing capability could enable more strategic, personalized care at the onset of ulceration and limit the infection leading to amputation. This review presents an overview of the pathophysiology of diabetic chronic wounds, a brief summary of biomaterial wound dressing treatment options, and biosensor development for biomarker sensing in the wound environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0006.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Neural network; Biochemical Oxygen demand; Biosensor; Microbial Fuel Cell
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:22:10 CET)
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is one of the most important factors to consider when evaluating water contamination. BOD5 is the amount of oxygen consumed in five days by microorganisms that oxidize biodegradable organic materials in an aerobic biochemical manner. The primary objective of this effort is to use microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to shorten the time required for BOD5 measurements. We created a regression artificial neural network (AI), and the predictions we obtained for BOD5 measurements were taken over 6 – 24 hours with an average error of just 7%. The outcomes demonstrated by our AI MFC/BES BOD5 sensor’s viability for use in real-world scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0324.v4
Subject: Keywords: Information; Quantum Physics; Biochemical Projection; Neural Interpretation; Consciousness; Reality
Online: 25 August 2021 (11:24:41 CEST)
How does the world around us work and what is real? This question has preoccupied humanity since its beginnings. From the 16th century onwards, it has been periodically necessary to revise the prevailing worldview. But things became very strange at the beginning of the 20th century with the advent of relativity theory and quantum physics. The current focus is on the role of information, there being a debate about whether this is ontological or epistemological. A theory has recently been formulated in which spacetime and gravity emerges from microscopic quantum information, more specifically from quantum entanglement via entanglement entropy. A latest theory describes the emergence of reality itself through first-person perspective experiences and algorithmic information theory. In quantum physics, perception and observation play a central role. Perception, interaction with the environment, requires an exchange of information. Via biochemical projection, information is given an interpretation that is necessary to make life and consciousness possible. The world around us is not at all what it seems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0312.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Arbutus unedo L; biochemical assessment; antioxidant capacity; phenolic compounds; Morocco
Online: 14 July 2020 (13:41:53 CEST)
There are not many exhaustive works emphasizing the amount of genetic diversity among the strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) genotypes in Morocco. This work aims to assess the biochemical composition of strawberry tree fruits, as well as to establish the variation of this composition among them. In this study, total phenols, total flavonoids, condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, total anthocyanins and free radical scavenging activity through ABTS were investigated in strawberry tree fruits. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative analyses of individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were carried out. Color parameters such as lightness (L*), Chroma (c*) and hue angle (h°) were also investigated. All studied variables showed highly significant differences among all samples with the exception of hydrolyzable tannins and chromatic coordinates. Total phenolics varied from 22.63 ± 1.74 to 39.06 ± 2.44 mg GAE/g dry wt, total flavonoids varied from 3.30 ± 0.60 to 8.62 ± 1.10 mg RE/g dry wt and total anthocyanins ranged between 0.12 ± 0.06 and 0.66 ± 0.15 mg cya-3-glu/100g dry wt. In addition, condensed and hydrolyzable tannins amounts were in the range of 10.41 ± 1.07 - 16.08 ± 1.50 mg TAE/g dry wt and 4.08 ± 2.43 - 6.34 ± 3.47 respectively. Moreover, the IC50 value (ABTS) ranged between 1.75 and 19.58 mg AAE/g dry wt. 17 phenolic compounds were detected in strawberry tree fruits. Gallocatechol and catechin were the most abundant phenolic compound. Matrix of correlations revealed signiﬁcant positive and negative correlations among variables particularly c*, a* and b*. Principal component analysis showed that the ﬁrst three components formed than 68% of the total inertia. The following variables gallic acid, protocatechuic, gallocatechin, gallic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid derivative II, L* and h* were the most involved in the total variance explained. Hierarchical clustering classified samples into one main cluster, with a single branch. The results highlight a high biochemical diversity within studied strawberry genotypes, which is probably more genetically related
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0014.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: thymidylate synthase (TYMS); dimer; octamer; biochemical reconstitution; overexpression and purification
Online: 2 April 2018 (09:37:29 CEST)
Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is an essential enzyme for the de novo synthesis of dTMP and has been a primary target for cancer chemotherapy. Although the physical structure of TYMS and the molecular mechanisms of TYMS catalyzing the conversion of dUMP to dTMP have been conducted thorough studies, oligomeric structure remains unclear. Here, we show that human TYMS not only exists in dimer but also octamer by intermolecular Cys43-disulfide formation. We optimize the expression condition of recombinant human TYMS using Escherichia coli system. Using HPLC-MS/MS, we show that purified TYMS has catalytic activity for producing dTMP. In the absence of reductant β-mercaptoethanol, SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed size of TYMS protein is about 35 KDa, 70 KDa, and 280 KDa. While the Cys43 was mutated to Gly, the band of ~280 KDa and the peak of octamer disappeared. Therefore, TYMS was determined to form octamer, dependent on the presence of Cys43-disulfide. By measuring Steady-State Parameters for monomer, dimer and octamer, we found the kcat of octamer is increased slightly than monomer. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that octamer in the active state might have a potential influence on the design of new drug targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0465.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: laboratory-acquired brucellosis; prevention; biosafety; cultures; identification; biochemical tests; MALDI-TOF; FISH; laboratory-acquired brucellosis; prevention; biosafety; cultures; identification; biochemical tests; MALDI-TOF; FISH
Online: 20 July 2020 (09:38:57 CEST)
Brucellosis is one of the most common etiologies of laboratory-acquired infections worldwide, and handling of living brucellae should be performed in a Class II biological safety cabinet. The low infecting dose, multiple portals of entry to the body, the great variety of potentially contaminated specimens, and the unspecific clinical manifestations of human infections facilitate the unintentional transmission of brucellae to laboratory personnel. Work accidents such as spillage of culture media cause only a small minority of exposures, whereas >80% of events result from unfamiliarity with the phenotypic features of the genus, misidentification of isolates, and unsafe laboratory practices such as aerosolization of bacteria and working on an open bench without protective goggles or gloves. Although the bacteriological diagnosis of brucellae by traditional methods is simple, the Gram stain and the biochemical profile of the organism, as determined by commercial kits, can be misleading, resulting in inadvertent exposure and contagion. The use of novel identification technologies is not hazard-free. The MALDI-TOF technology requires an initial bacterial inactivation step, while the instruments’ reference database may misidentify Brucella as belonging to other Gram-negative species. The rapid identification by the FISH method mistakes brucellar isolates for members of the closely related Ochrobactrum genus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Osteoporosis; anti-resorptive drugs; therapeutic adherence; bone mineral density; biochemical markers
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:42:15 CET)
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes RANKL, a cytokine able to interact with the RANK receptor on preosteoclasts and osteoclasts, decreasing their recruitment and differentiation, leading to a decreased bone resorption. The aim of this observational real-life study was to analyze adherence to denosumab therapy, its effectiveness in increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and in modulating biochemical skeletal markers upon previous treatments with bisphosphonates in a group of post-menopausal women affected by osteoporosis. Women were recruited in the specialized center from March 2012 to September 2019. Biochemical markers were recorded at baseline and every six months prior to subsequent drug injection. Dual X-ray Absorptiometry was requested at baseline and after 18/24 months. Comparing BMD at baseline and after denosumab therapy in naive patients and in those previously treated with bisphosphonates, a positive therapeutic effect was observed in both groups. The results of our real-life study demonstrate, as expected, that BMD values significantly increased upon denosumab treatment. Interestingly, denosumab showed an increased effectiveness in patients previously treated with bisphosphonates. Moreover, biochemical markers data indicate that osteoporotic patients, without other concomitant unstable health conditions, could be evaluated once a year, decreasing the number of specialistic center access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Solanum fruit juice; biochemical markers; chronic hepatitis C; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Online: 12 October 2018 (04:55:44 CEST)
Variations in liver metabolism as a result of hepatitis C virus have been established by numerous clinical trials. The use of antioxidants supplements has been reported to minimize the implication of this disease. In this regard, we examined the suitability of Solanum fruit juice, a natural source of vitamin C and citrus flavoniod as a precursor for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Forty adult patients who were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C and were under antiviral therapy were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 patients received their antiviral therapy with normal food and water and served as the control group while patients in group 2 were supplemented with Solanum fruit juice for eight consecutive weeks. Measurements for Anthropometric data, C reactive protein (CRP), atherogenic indices, biochemical parameters and activities of liver marker enzymes were recorded before and after eight weeks. No alterations were found in waist circumference, body mass and body fat following regular use of Solanum fruit juice. The serum levels of oxidative stress markers, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, CRP and atherogenic indices decreased in the Solanum fruit juice group when compared to the control group. Moreover, the activities of the liver marker enzyme AST decreased in those who had high levels before the intervention. These results underscore the benefits of Solanum fruit juice in the diet of patients with HCV as a result of decreased cholesterol in blood serum, decreased inflammation, and increase in antioxidant capacity as well as maintaining body mass index. This clinical trial is registered at Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (www.pactr.org) with unique identification number PACTR201802003092138.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0207.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Hematological parameters; biochemical parameters; reference ranges; sickle cell disease; Tanzania; steady-state.
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:54:23 CET)
Hematological and biochemical reference values in sickle cell disease (SCD) are crucial for patient management and evaluation of interventions. This study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, to establish laboratory reference ranges in SCD at steady-state. Patients were grouped into five age groups with respects to their sex. Aggregate functions were used to handle repeated measures within the indi-vidual level in each age group. A nonparametric approach was used to smooth the curves and a parametric approach was used to determine SCD normal ranges. Comparison between males and females and against the general population was documented. Data from 4,422 patients collected from 2004-2015 were analyzed. The majority of the patients (35.41%) were children aged between 5-11 years. There were no significant differences (p≥0.05) in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocytes, basophils and bilirubin direct observed between males and females. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in all selected parameters across age groups except neutrophils and MCHC in adults, as well as platelets and alkaline phosphatase in infants when SCD estimates were compared to the general population. Laboratory reference ranges in SCD at steady-state were different from those of the general population and varied with sex and age. The established reference ranges for SCD at steady-state will be a helpful in the management and monitoring of the progress of SCD.
Subject: Keywords: Aerobic exercise; Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion; autophagy; SIRT3; SOD2; NF-κB; Biochemical indicators
Online: 1 April 2021 (13:28:32 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on myocardial injury induced by I/ R in rats by regulating SIRT3/SOD2/NF-κB signaling pathway, and to provide theoretical guidance for clinical treatment of myocardial I/R injury.Methods:SPF Male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: Sham operation group(n=10), I/R group(n=10), Aerobic exercise group(n=10)and Aerobic exercise+κ-receptor antagonist group(Pro DTC group，n=10). The left anterior descending coronary artery(LAD) of rats was ligated and re-canalized to establish I/R rat model. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed to examine histological morphology in myocardial tissues of each group. The biological analysis was performed to measure cTnI、CK-MB、BNP levels in blood samples of each group. The expression levels of SOD2, TLR4, and p65 in myocardial tissues were measured by immunohistochemical assay. The influence of aerobic exercise on Beclin-1 、LC3II/I、SIRT3, TLR4, and phosphorylated p65 was measured by Western blotting.Results: The result of histological morphology examination revealed that Aerobic exercise group exhibited integrated cardiac myofilament, less inflammatory cell infiltration, as much as significantly decreased cellular edema. Measurement of cTnI、CK-MB、BNP revealed that oxycodone post-treatment reduces the injury of myocardial tissues(P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that aerobic exercise clearly decreased the expression of TLR4 and p65, and increased the expression of SOD2(P<0.05). Besides, Western blotting revealed that aerobic exercise down-regulated the expression of Beclin-1 、LC3II/I、TLR4 and phosphorylated p65, up-regulated the expression of SIRT3(P<0.05).Conclusions: Aerobic exercise significantly improved myocardial I/R injury. The mechanisms may be associated with activating κ-receptor to regulate SIRT3/SOD2/NF-κB pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0621.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Clustering; Mutation; Amino acid substitution; Structural proteins; Biochemical properties; Functional sub-domains
Online: 4 March 2021 (10:17:15 CET)
SARS-CoV-2 is mutating and creating divergent variants across the world. An in-depth investigation of the amino acid substitution in the genomic signature of SARS-CoV-2 proteins is highly essential for understanding its host adaptation and infection biology. A total of 9587 SARS-CoV-2 structural protein sequences collected from 49 different countries are used to characterize protein-wise variants, substitution pattern (type and location), and major substitution changes. The majority of the substitutions are distinct, occurred mostly in a particular location, and leads to a change in amino acid's biochemical properties. In terms of mutational changes, Envelope (E) and Membrane (M) proteins are relatively stable than Nucleocapsid (N) and Spike (S) proteins. Several co-occurrence substitutions are observed, particularly in S and N proteins. Substitution specific to active sub-domains reveals that Heptapeptide Repeat, Fusion peptides, Transmembrane in S protein, and N-terminal and C-terminal domains in N protein are remarkably mutated, and also found few deleterious mutations in these domains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0163.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ATP; OXPHOS; ATP synthase; mitochondria; biochemical assays; fluorescence microscopy; genetically-encoded biosensors
Online: 5 February 2021 (14:45:04 CET)
ATP is the most universal and essential energy molecule in the eukaryotic cell. This is due to its ability to store energy in form of high energy phosphate bonds, which are extremely stable and readily usable by the cell. This energy is key for a variety of biological functions such as cell growth and division, metabolism, signalling, and for the turnover of biomolecules. Understanding how ATP is produced and hydrolysed with a spatiotemporal resolution is necessary to understand its functions both in physiological and pathological contexts. In this review, we will first describe the ATP synthase, the main molecular motor for ATP production in mitochondria. Second, we will review the biochemical assays currently available to estimate ATP quantities in cells, and we will compare their readouts, strengths and weaknesses. Then, we will explore the palette of genetically-encoded biosensors designed for microscope-based approaches and show how their spatiotemporal resolution opened up the possibility to follow ATP levels and production in living cells. Finally, we will comment on how ATP monitoring is used in preclinical practices, and to what extent genetically-encoded sensors could be used as a promising tool to elucidate pathologies in which ATP is implicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0006.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Spirulina platensis; silver nanoparticles; gold nanoparticles; spirulina growth; biochemical composition; cell ultrastructure
Online: 3 February 2020 (03:42:43 CET)
Silver and gold nanoparticles are a promising tool for medical and industrial application, therefore, their ecotoxicity should be carefully examined. The effect of silver (12 nm) and gold (4.7) nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol on Spirulina platensis biomass growth and biochemical composition was investigated. The spirulina cultivation medium was supplemented with nanoparticles in concentration range 0.025-0.5 µM. Given concentrations stimulated spirulina biomass growth, while content of proteins, carbohydrates and auxiliary pigments was affected insignificantly by presence of nanoparticles in cultivation medium. The pronounced effect of gold nanoparticles at concentration 0.5 µM on the lipids content was observed. TEM images demonstrate that nanoparticles penetrate inside the cell, resulting in ultrastructural changes in cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Methane fermentation; biogas; biomethane; biochar; pyrolysis; hydrothermal carbonization; biochemical methane potential; biogas production kinetics
Online: 6 December 2021 (11:16:52 CET)
The proof-of-the-concept of application of low-temperature food waste biochars for the anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste (the same substrate) was tested. The concept assumes that residual heat from biogas utilization may be reused for biochar production. Four low-temperature biochars produced under two pyrolytic temperatures 300 °C and 400 °C and under atmospheric and 15 bars pressure with 60 minutes retention time were used. Additionally, the biochar produced during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was tested. The work studied the effect of a low biochar dose (0.05 gBC x gTSsubstrate-1, or 0.65 gBC x L-1) on AD batch reactors’ performance. The biochemical methane potential test took 21 days and the process kinetics using the first-order model were determined. The results showed that biochars obtained under 400°C with atmospheric pressure and under HTC conditions improve methane yield by 3.6%. It has been revealed that thermochemical pressure influences the electrical conductivity of biochars. The biomethane was produced with a rate (k) of 0.24 d-1, and the most effective biochars increased the biodegradability of FW to 81% in comparison to variants without biochars (75%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiomyopathy; hemodynamic and biochemical parameters; epidemiological and clinical Parameters; phospholamban angiotensin-1-converting enzyme
Online: 5 July 2018 (10:43:43 CEST)
Background: Cardiomyopathy is commonly observed disease that may occurs due to mutations in either susceptible genes or modifier gene. People with broad age group are affected either attributable to spontaneous or inherited mutations of these genes. Various gene mutations are reported so far but only few of them were studied in detail. Methods: In the current study, we evaluated epidemiological variables like age, sex, familial status, parental consanguinity. We also described specific clinical symptoms associated with the cardiomyopathy condition in Indian population. Results: Our studies on mutation screening of phospholamban gene revealed two transitions (4880 C/T, 4887 T/G) in 5’ flanking region which might cause inherited dilated cardiomyopathy with refractory congestive heart failure are We further deliberated the gene polymorphism of renin angiotensin system gene angiotensin-1-converting enzyme as an associated marker/ modifier in cardiomyopathy patients and their family members. Conclusions: Information on epidemiological, clinical statistics, phospholamban gene mutation analysis and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme gene polymorphism is essential to guide the successful execution for future therapies and benefits us to identify those patients at risk for faster disease progression, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0402.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Bacillus nattokinase; Physiological and biochemical characteristics; Molecular structure; Molecular modifcation; Functional food and clinical application
Online: 29 June 2022 (09:39:07 CEST)
Thrombosis has threatened human health in past decades. Bacillus nattokinase is a potential thrombolytic drug without side-effect and low cost and has been introduced into the consumer market as a functional food or dietary supplement. This review firstly summarizes the biodiversity sources and fermentation process of nattokinase, and systematically expounds the structure, cata-lytic mechanism and enzymatic properties of nattokinase; In view of the problems of low fermen-tation yield, insufficient activity and stability of nattokinase, this review discusses the heterologous expression of nattokinase in different microbial hosts, and summarizes the protein and genetic en-gineering progress of nattokinase-producing strains; Finally, this review summarizes the clinical application of nattokinase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0150.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: olive pomace oil; fatty acid profile; total nitrogen content; total protein; olive pomace; biochemical characterization
Online: 20 March 2017 (08:40:46 CET)
In this study, the olive pomace was considered because of its importance in the environment. So, this study carried out to estimate the total nitrogen content and the fatty acids profile of olive pomace. The olive pomace samples were collected from Irbid, Jarash, Ajloun and Mafraq during the harvesting season 2014 to study the biochemical characteristics of fatty acid composition and the total nitrogen (TN) content. The total nitrogen content was determined by standard Kjeldahl method and the fatty acid profile was detected by gas chromatography (GC). The results show that the total nitrogen content ranged from (0.39 ± 0.0) to (0.62 ± 0.02) with statistically significant difference suggesting that the composition of matrices and their percentage may be responsible for composition of amendments. The calculated total protein percentage ranged between (2.43 ± 0.00) to (3.87 ± 0.17). Also, 13 different fatty acids were quantitatively profiled and quantitated. Oleic acid (C 18:1) was found to be the highest percentage of all other fatty acids and ranged between (59.03%) and (63.81%), moreover the C 18:1/C 18:2 (oil quality) was calculated and C.V% showed variation meaning that nutritional implication could affect the oxidative stability of oils. In conclusion, OP by-product could give a sustainable and alternative-cheap source for fertilizers, pharmaceutical industries, cosmetics and other industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); Cuckoo search algorithm (CSA); Extreme learning machine (ELM); Soft sensor; Wastewater treatment process
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:13:22 CET)
It is difficult to capture the real-time online measurement data for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in wastewater treatment processes. An optimized extreme learning machine (ELM) based on an improved cuckoo search algorithm (ICS) is proposed in this paper for the design of soft BOD measurement model. In ICS-ELM, the input weights matrices of the extreme learning machine (ELM) and the threshold of the hidden layer are encoded as the cuckoo's nest locations. The best input weights matrices and threshold are obtained by using the strong global search ability of improved cuckoo search (ICS) algorithm. The optimal results can be used to improve the precision of forecasting based on less number of neurons of the hidden layer in ELM. Simulation results show that the soft sensor model has good real-time performance, high prediction accuracy and stronger generalization performance for BOD measurement of the effluent quality compared to other modeling methods such as back propagation (BP) network in most cases.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: incurable disease; chronic disease; cancer theory; central nervous system; state memory; mutation; tissue ecosystem; emotion; stress; exercise; baseline biochemical and cellular processes
Online: 24 November 2019 (14:50:49 CET)
We examined special roles of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in an attempt to resolve the puzzle that chronic diseases cannot be cured by medicine. By exploring a skill-learning model, we found that the CNS is able to remember certain information reflecting biochemical and cellular (B&C) processes in the body. From the skill using ability, we found that the CNS is able to control basic B&C processes that drive and power the skill. From the ability to adjust forces and force direction of a physical act, we found that the CNS is able to adjust B&C processes that drive the physical act. From this adjustment capability, we further inferred that the CNS must also store information on the baseline B&C processes. As a whole, we found that the CNS can maintain information on baseline B&C processes, up-regulate or down-regulate the processes, and make comparisons in performing its regulatory functions. We found that chronic diseases are the results of deviated baseline B&C processes. Per the proved hypothesis, the CNS maintains deviated baseline B&C processes, and thus protects the body states of fully developed diseases. We then used the three CNS roles to explain that cancer progresses with increasing malignancy, cancer quickly returns after a surgery, cancer cells repopulate after chemotherapy and radiotherapy, cancer develops drug resistance inevitably, immune cells rebound after suppression, generally poor benefits of cancer drugs such as beta-blockers, etc. We further showed that long-term exercises generally push most, if not all, baseline B&C processes in diametrical opposing directions against the diseased B&C processes, implying that exercises play unique roles in reversing chronic diseases. Finally, we proposed several strategical approaches to resetting the CNS’ state memory as the essential condition for curing chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: galantamine; curcumin; in vivo AChE inhibition; acute toxicity in mice; antioxidant activity; malondialdehide levels; glutathione levels; brain homogenate; complete blood count; biochemical serum parameters
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:45:10 CET)
The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are the main drugs for symptomatic treatment of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. A recently designed, synthesized and tested hybrid compound between the AChE inhibitor galantamine (GAL) and the antioxidant polyphenol curcumin (CU) showed high AChE inhibition in vitro. Here, we describe tests for acute and short-term toxicity in mice as well as antioxidant tests on brain homogenates measured the levels of malondialdehide (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Haematological and serum biochemical analyses were also performed. In the acute toxicity tests, the novel AChE inhibitor given orally in mice showed LD50 of 49 mg/kg. The short-term administration of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg did not show toxicity. In the ex vivo tests, the GAL-CU hybrid performed better than GAL and CU themselves. In a dose of 5 mg/kg, it demonstrates 25% reduction in AChE activity, 28% and 73% increase in the levels of MDA and GSH, respectively. No significant changes in blood biochemical data were observed. The GAL-CU hybrid is a novel non-toxic AChE inhibitor with high antioxidant activity which makes it a perspective multitarget drug candidate for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0419.v9
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: ATP hypothesis; origin of genetic code; life’s building block; probiotic “soup”; coevolution; biochemical system; missing “matchmaker”; energy transformation; informatization; structuralization; precellular selection; photo- chemical origin of life; virus; anti-life form; 2019-nCoV
Online: 11 September 2020 (08:39:39 CEST)
A plenty of theories on the origin of genetic codes have been proposed so far, yet all ignored the energetic driving force, its relation to the biochemical system, and most importantly, the missing “matchmaker” between proteins and nucleic acids. Here, a new hypothesis is proposed, according to which ATP is at the origin of the primordial genetic code by driving the coevolution of the genetic code with the pristine biochemical system. This hypothesis aims to show how the genetic code was produced e.g. by photochemical reactions in a protocell that derived from a lipid vesicle enclosing various life’s building blocks (e.g. nucleotides and peptides). At extant cell, ATP is the only energetic product of photosynthesis, and is at the energetic heart of the biochemical systems. ATP could energetically form and elongate chains of both polynucleotides and polypeptides, thus acting a “matchmaker” between these two bio-polymers and eventually mediating precellular biochemical innovation from energy transformation to informatization. ATP was not the only one that could drive the formation of polynucleotides and polypeptides, but favored by precellular selection. The protocell innovated a photosynthesis system to produce ATP efficiently and regularly with the aids of proteins and RNA/DNA. The completion of permanently recording the genetic information by DNA marked the dawn of cellular life operated by Darwinian evolution. The ATP hypothesis assumes or supports the photochemical origin of life, shedding light on the origins of both photosynthetic and biochemical systems, which remains largely unknown thus far. Based on ATP hypothesis, virus (like the new coronavirus) could not be the earliest life on Earth, as it has neither biochemical systems nor lipid bilayer membrane that provided relatively isolated environment for the development of protobiochemical reactions, although it owns the genetic code of a cellular life. Virus could not be a bridge between life and non-life, but is an anti-life substance, as it depletes cellular material for its own replication, and then spreads by destroying the host cells. It can be imagined that if cellular life are completely wiped out by the virus, the complete destruction of life on Earth would be inevitable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0207.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Antibody ID; antibody registry; Research Resource Identifier; RRID; reproducibility; quality control; documentation; traceability; clones; biochemical reagents; diagnostics; immunoassays; ELISA; western blot; immunohistochemistry; microarray; biosensor
Online: 15 February 2020 (15:46:27 CET)
Thousands of antibodies for diagnostic and other analytical purposes are on the market. However, it is often difficult to identify duplicates, reagent changes, and to assign the correct original publications to an antibody. This slows down scientific progress and might even be a cause of irreproducible research and a waste of resources. Recently, activities were started to suggest the sole use of recombinant antibodies in combination with the open communication of their sequence. In this case, such uncertainties should be eliminated. Unfortunately, this approach seems to be rather a long-term vision since the development and manufacturing of recombinant antibodies remain quite expensive in the foreseeable future. Also, nearly all commercial antibody suppliers may be reluctant to publish the sequence of their antibodies, since they fear counterfeiting. De-novo sequencing of antibodies is also not feasible today for a reagent user without access to the hybridoma clone. Nevertheless, it seems to be crucial for any scientist to have the opportunity to identify an antibody undoubtedly to guarantee the traceability of any research activity using antibodies from a third party as a tool. For this purpose, we developed a method for the identification of antibodies based on a MALDI-TOF-MS fingerprint. To circumvent lengthy denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and enzymatic digestion steps, the fragmentation was performed with a simple formic acid hydrolysis step. Eighty-nine unknown monoclonal antibodies were used for this study to examine the feasibility of this approach. Although the molecular assignment of peaks was rarely possible, antibodies could be easily recognized in a blinded test, simply from their mass-spectral fingerprint. A general protocol is given, which could be used without any optimization to generate fingerprints for a database. We want to propose that in most scientific projects relying critically on antibody reagents, such a fingerprint should be established to prove and document the identity of the used antibodies and to assign a specific reagent to a datasheet of a commercial supplier, a public database record or an antibody ID.