REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2006.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: MFCs; Wastewater treatment; Bio-sensors; Alternate energy
Online: 29 June 2023 (03:18:29 CEST)
: Microbial fuel cell (MFCs) devices utilise the metabolic processes of bacteria to generate electricity from various organic substrates. Due to the enormous amount of energy that organic waste produces, scientists are highly interested in advanced MFCs. MFCs serve as a multidisciplinary research platform at the engineering and natural sciences intersection. MFCs have various uses besides being used as energy sources, such as sensing capabilities. Despite showing considerable promise, only a few marine sediment MFCs have been deployed in real-world applications to supply current for low-power devices. It is now required to maintain track of the work being done by research groups worldwide and regularly compile significant discoveries due to the rising quantity of research publications. Review papers are a traditional beginning point for a literature review for new scholars. This review is a fast reckoner that directs readers to pertinent reviews and research publications detailing significant advances in microbial fuel cell research during the previous two decades. An overview of key advances in MFC research over the past two decades is provided as a quick reference in this review article. In addition, the report identifies research gaps that, if filled, could bring this technology closer to real-world use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Bio-energy; Artiﬁcial intelligence; Industry 4.0; Biodiesel; Biogas; Renewable energy; Supply Chain
Online: 3 September 2020 (09:32:40 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) is penetrating in all walks of life and is one of the major driving forces behind the fourth industrial revolution, typically known as Industry 4.0. This study reviews the state-of-the-art ML applications in the biofuels’ life cycle stages, i.e., soil, feedstock, production, consumption, and emissions. A keyword search is performed to retrieve relevant articles from the databases of the Web of Science and Google Scholar. ML applications in the soil stage were mostly based on the use of satellite images of land for estimation of biofuels yield or suitability analysis of agricultural land. In the second stage of the life cycle, assessment of rheological properties of the feedstocks and their effect on the quality of biofuels were dominant studies reported in the literature. The production stage included estimation and optimization of quality, quantity, and process conditions. The fuel consumption and emissions stage included analysis of engine performance and estimation of emissions temperature and composition, such as NOx, CO, and CO2. This study identiﬁed the following trends: dominant ML method, the stage of life cycle getting more usage of ML, the type of data used for the development of the ML-based models, and the stage-wise frequently used input and output variables. The ﬁndings of this article are beneﬁcial for academia and industry-related people involved in model development in different stages of biofuel’s life cycle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Bio-energy; Artificial intelligence; Industry 4.0; Biodiesel; Biogas; Renewable energy; Supply Chain
Online: 2 September 2020 (07:56:48 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) is penetrating in all walks of life and is one of the major driving forces behind the fourth industrial revolution, typically known as Industry 4.0. The purpose of the present study is to review the state-of-the-art ML applications in the biofuels' life cycle stages, i.e., soil, feedstock, production, consumption, and emissions. A keyword search is performed to retrieve relevant articles from the databases of the Web of Science and Google Scholar. ML applications in the soil stage were mostly based on the use of satellite images of land for estimation of biofuels yield or suitability analysis of agricultural land. In the second stage of the life cycle, assessment of rheological properties of the feedstocks and their effect on the quality of biofuels were dominant studies reported in the literature. The production stage included estimation and optimization of quality, quantity, and process conditions. The fuel consumption and emissions stage included analysis of engine performance and estimation of emissions temperature and composition, such as NOx CO, and CO2. This study identified the following trends: dominant ML method, the stage of life cycle getting more usage of ML, the type of data used for the development of the ML-based models, and the stage-wise frequently used input and output variables. The findings of this article are beneficial for academia and industry-related people involved in model development in different stages of biofuel’s life cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0429.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: biomass, bio-energy, bio-chemicals, advanced technologies, agricultural production, trade, land use, economic modelling, MAGNET model
Online: 23 July 2018 (15:08:09 CEST)
As the EU is moving towards a low carbon economy and seeks to further develop its renewable energy policy, this paper quantitatively investigates the impact of plausible energy market reforms from the perspective of bio-renewables. Employing a state-of-the-art biobased variant of a computable general equilibrium model, this study assesses the perceived medium-term benefits, risks and trade-offs which arise from an advanced biofuels plan, two exploratory scenarios of a more 'sustainable' conventional biofuels plan and a 'no-mandate' scenario. Consistent with more recent studies, none of the scenarios considered present significant challenges to EU food-security or agricultural land usage. An illustrative advanced biofuels plan simulation requires non-trivial public support to implement whilst a degree of competition for biomass with (high-value) advanced biomass material industries is observed. On the other hand, it significantly alleviates land use pressures, whilst lignocellulose biomass prices are not expected to increase to unsustainable levels. Clearly, these observations are subject to assumptions on technological change, sustainable biomass limits, expected trends in fossil fuel prices and EU access to third-country trade. With these same caveats in mind, the switch to increased bioethanol production does not result in significant market tensions in biomass markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: bio-digesters; household income levels; renewable energy; socio-economic
Online: 25 May 2018 (10:55:58 CEST)
1) Background: The environmental, financial and social questions in Africa remain unanswered up-to-date, with the rapid increase in human population and the demand for fuel energy, trigger the need to generate data on the socio-economic factors influencing the knowledge of use and adoption of family-sized bio-digesters. The increasing prices of fossil fuels and taxes on energy sources require finding the alternative, clean and economical sources of energy for households in developing countries. Moreover, in Africa, the consumption of firewood and charcoal continues to increase, with wood fuel consumption predicted to increase by 2030 to over 140%. The study objectives were 1) to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the people in Ngoma district, 2) to assess socio-economic factors influencing people to use and adopt family-sized bio-digesters. 2) Methods: Quantitative data collected with semi-structured questionnaires and interviews were analyzed using descriptive statistics. 3) Results: The results show that many households had not realized the potential benefits of biogas use and adoption in Rwanda. The study further found that a number of factors such as household income levels, socio-economic, technological, and institutional influence the household use and adoption of biogas energy. 4) Conclusions: At the end, the study suggests the need for all players such as Government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) and local communities to work together to provide incentives and favorable environment that can attract individual households to invest in biogas energy production and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0457.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: microbial fuel cells; energy recovery; biosensors; bio-electrochemical sensors; Antibiotic contamination
Online: 9 October 2023 (04:34:31 CEST)
This work demonstrates that microbial fuel cells (MFCs), optimized for energy recovery, can be used as an effective tool to detect the presence of antibiotics in water-based environments. MFCs directly convert chemical energy of organic matter in electrical energy thanks to electroactive biofilms. The efficiency of the conversion process can be significantly affected by the presence of contaminants acting as toxicants for the biofilm. In the present work, we demonstrate that MFCs can successfully detect the presence of antibiotic residues in water and water-based electrolytes associated to the food industry, especially using honey as a new and more complex electron donor. The effectiveness of MFCs to sense antibiotics is here demonstrated for tetracycline that was added to both water and water/honey electrolytes with a minimum concentration close to 3.5 μg⁄kg. MFCs not only efficiently detect the presence of tetracycline in both the electrolytes, but also recover the same performance after each cycle of exposure, showing to a be very robust and reliable technology for both biosensing and energy recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0188.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Açaí; Residual Seeds; Pyrolysis; Bio-Oil; Distillation; Bio-gasoline; Bio-kerosene
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:10:32 CET)
The bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) seeds at 450 ºC, 1.0 atmosphere, in technical scale, submitted to fractional distillation to produce biofuels-like fractions. The distillation of bio-oil carried out in a laboratory distillation column (Vigreux) of 30 cm. The physical-chemistry properties (density, kinematic viscosity, acid value and refractive index) determined by official methods. The chemical functions present in distillation fractions determined by FT-IR and the chemical composition by GC-MS. The distillation of bio-oil yielded gasoline, light kerosene, and kerosene-like fuel fractions of 16.16, 19.56, and 41.89% (wt.), respectively. All the physical-chemistry properties (density, kinematic viscosity, acid value and refractive index) increase with boiling temperature. The gasoline-like fraction is composed by 64.0% (area.) hydrocarbons and 36.0% (area.) oxygenates, while light kerosene-like fraction by 66.67% (area.) hydrocarbons and 33.33% (area.) oxygenates, and kerosene-like fraction by 19.87% (area.) hydrocarbons and 81.13% (area.) oxygenates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: biomass pyrolysis, bio-oil, hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), bio-oil blending
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:51:41 CET)
In response to global climate challenges and the increasing demand for energy, exploring renewable energy alternatives has become crucial. Bio-oils, derived from biomass pyrolysis, are emerging as potential replacements for fossil fuel-based liquid fuels. This paper shares findings from the Institute of Energy and Fuel Processing Technology on the quality of crude biomass pyrolysis bio-oil samples. These findings highlight their potential as motor liquid fuels. The article details the results of tests on the physicochemical properties of four distinct bio-oil samples. Additionally, it presents preliminary test results on the hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oils in a batch reactor. The production of homogeneous, stable mixtures using other fuel additives, such as diesel oil, rapeseed methyl ester (RME), and butanol, is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1908.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Bio-magnification; Bio-accumulation; degassing; methyl-mercury; fish physiology
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:01:55 CEST)
Mercury toxicity significantly threatens aquatic ecosystems, particularly impacting fish populations and human well-being. This article exposes the effects of mercury contamination on aquatic life and their habitats. Mercury primarily originates from natural degassing and anthropogenic activities and accumulates in aquatic organisms, most notably in predatory fish, through bio-accumulation and bio-magnification. This bio-accumulation, driven by microbial transformation to methyl-mercury, leads to elevated concentrations in top-level predators. The consequences of mercury exposure on fish physiology are stunted growth, reproductive impairments, and compromised immunity, with potential ramifications for population dynamics and ecosystem resilience. This study delves into specific impacts of mercury on fish, ranging from bone deformities to liver damage, developmental anomalies, neurotoxic effects, and disruptions in reproductive systems. The interplay between ecological, physiological, and human health effects underscores the need for a comprehensive understanding of mercury's underlying mechanisms. Monitoring mercury levels in aquatic systems emerges as a crucial strategy for ensuring fish populations' health and ecosystems' sustainability. Urgent collaborative efforts are imperative to address this global concern, promote harmonious coexistence between human activities and aquatic environments, and secure the availability of safe and nutritious fish for future generations. In conclusion, this article highlights the urgent necessity for targeted interventions and informed decision-making to mitigate the influence of mercury contamination on aquatic ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0099.v1
Online: 4 February 2021 (09:15:34 CET)
Use of porous titanium (Ti) and Ti alloys in orthopedic implants or in light structures requires processing routes that could generate an as-much-as possible control in the pores amount, shape, size and connectivity. In this work, a colloidal approach to the processing of Ti porous structures by the inside foaming of a porogen into a gelled high solid content aqueous suspension of Ti powders, is presented. The prepared slurries contained different amounts of Methyl Cellulose (MC) as gelling agent (8, 10 and 12 g/L) and ammonium bicarbonate (BA) as porogen (15, 20, 25 wt. %). The gel-casted samples were heated at mild temperatures ranging (60, 70 and 80 °C) to promote the gelation and produce, at the same time, the porosity by the thermal decomposition of the ammonium bicarbonate. Different structures are obtained depending on the combination of the study variables
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0584.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Bio-organic fertilizer; Bio-chemical fertilizer; Grain yield; N-Fixer
Online: 24 July 2020 (13:46:30 CEST)
The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of All Cosmos Industries (ACI) bio-organic and bio-chemical fertilizers and ACI N-Fixer (N-Bio Booster) on the paddy yields based on the field trial plots at Langkat, Medan, Indonesia. This application of ACI bio-organic fertilizer (NPK 5/5/5) and ACI bio-chemical (NPK 15/15/15) fertilizer and ACI N-Fixer tests were conducted at the paddy farm at Langkat from May-October 2018. This study employed a factorial randomized complete block design which consisted of two factors, namely: Factor I with four types of fertilizers while Factor II consisted of two paddy varieties (Inpari 30 and Inpari 32). Overall, the filled grains in the ACI treatments are significantly (P< 0.05) higher than those in the control treatments that used Normal Chemical Compound NPK. Overall, total weight per meter² (368-617g) in ACI treatments are also significantly (P< 0.05) higher than those (319-371g) in the control treatments. At harvesting time at 105 days after transplanting, significantly higher (P< 0.05) colony counts (13-15 x 106 CFU/mL) (for ACI treatments), than those (8 x 106 CFU/mL) in the controls positively indicated higher total yields of paddy grains per hectare. It was found that the application of ACI bio-organic and bio-chemical fertilizers and ACI N-Fixer can improve paddy yields of the two rice varieties, between 16.4-38.2% (up to 5.75 MT/ha), in the field trial plots at Langkat. These commercial fertilizers play an imperative role in refining the soil fertility and thereby can increase the yield of rice production. Therefore, it is highly recommended that ACI bio-organic and ACI bio-chemical fertilizers and ACI N-Fixer (N-Bio Booster) can be employed to increase the paddy yield in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0782.v1
Online: 9 August 2023 (12:18:12 CEST)
Herein we report the expansion of the chemical space available from the chitin, accessible via the biogenic N-platforms 3A5AF, M4A2C and di-HAF. The biologically active heteroaromatics furo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one and furo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-amine can be selectively accessed from 3A5AF and M4A2C, respectively. The chiral pool synthon di-HAF is a viable substrate for the Achmatowicz rearrangement, providing streamlined access to 2-aminosugars possessing a versatile hydroxymethyl group at C5.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1780.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: flexible touch sensor; biomimetics; bio‐inspired material; bio‐inspired structure; bioinspired sensor
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:56:58 CEST)
Wearable touch sensors, which can convert force or pressure signals into quantitative electronic signals, have emerged as an essential smart sensing devices and played an important role in various cutting-edge fields, including wearable health monitoring, soft robots, electronic skin, artificial prosthetics, AR/VR, and the Internet of Things. Flexible touch sensors have made significant advancements, while construction of novel touch sensors via mimicking the unique properties of biological materials and biogenetic structures always remains a hot research topic and significant technological pathway. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the research status of wearable touch sensors constructed by imitating the material and structural characteristics in nature, and also summarizes the scientific challenges and development tendency of this aspect. Firstly, the research status for constructing flexible touch sensors based on biomimetic materials is summarized, including hydrogel materials, self-healing materials, and other bioinspired or biomimetic materials with extraordinary properties. Then, design and fabrication of flexible touch sensors based on bionic structures for performance enhancement are fully discussed. These bionic structures include special structures in plants, special structures insects/animal, and special structures in human body. Moreover, a summary of the current issues and future prospects for developing wearable sensors based on bioinspired materials and structures is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0244.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: wood combustion; sawdust pellets; solid woods; heat calorific value; ash content; bio-energy; Papua New Guinea
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:23:34 CET)
Burning woody biomass for energy is gaining attention due to environmental issues associated with fossil fuels and carbon emission. The carbon released from burning wood is absorbed by plants and is carbon neutral. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combustion characteristics (heat calorific values and ash contents) of three timbers: Araucaria cunninghamii, Instia bijuga and Pometia pinnata and recommend for fuelwood. The test samples were sawdust particles (treatment) and solid woods (control) extracted from the heartwoods. The sawdust particles were oven-dried, sieved and pelletized into pellets using a hand-held pelletizing device, thus, forming cylindrical dimension (volume 1178.57 mm3, oven dry density 0.0008 g/mm3). While the solid woods were cubed and oven-dried (volume 1000.00 mm3, oven dry density 0.001 g/mm3). Prior to combustion in a semi-automatic bomb calorimeter, 90 test specimens (15 replicates per treatment and control per species) were conditioned to 14 % moisture content (at temperature 105 ºC) and weighed to a constant (unit) mass (1.0 g). The heat energy outputs and ash residues (of treatments) were analyzed statistically. The results indicated variability in heat energy outputs and ash residues between test specimens of the three species. Comparatively, the treatment specimens of A. cunninghamii produced higher calorific value (18.546 kJ/g) than the control (18.376 kJ/g) whilst the treatment specimens of I. bijuga and P. pinnata generated lower heat calorific values (17.124 kJ/g and 18.822 kJ/g) than the control (18.415 kJ/g and 20.659 kJ/g), respectively. According to ash content analysis, A. cunninghamii generated higher residues (6.3%) followed by P. pinnata (4.5%) and I. bijuga (2.8%). The treatment specimens of the three species could not meet the standard heat energy requirement (20.0 kJ/g) and thus, were unsuitable for fuelwood. However, the control specimens of P. pinnata generated equivalent heat energy (20.659 kJ/g) and could be a potential fuelwood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0266.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: diatomite; bio-composites; , mechanical properties; fractionation; purification of diatomaceous earth; bio-raw materials
Online: 9 March 2021 (11:44:48 CET)
The authors of this paper use an original method of diatomaceous earth fractionation, which allows for obtaining a filler with a specific particle size distribution. The method makes it possible to separate small, disintegrated and broken diatom frustules from those which maintained their original form in diatomaceous earth. The study covers a range of tests conducted to prove that such a separated diatomic fraction shows features different from the base diatomite used as an epoxy resin filler. We have examined mechanical properties of a series of diatomite/resin composites considering the weight fraction of diatoms and the parameters of the composite production process. The studied composites of Epidian 601 epoxy resin cross-linked with amine-based curing agent Z-1 contained 0 to 70% vol. of diatoms or diatomaceous earth. Samples were produced by casting into silicone moulds in vacuum degassing conditions and, alternatively, without degassing. The results have shown that the size and morphology of the filler based on diatomaceous earth affects mechanical and rheological properties of systems based on epoxy resin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Bio-inoculants; Consortium; Treatment; PGPB
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:10:51 CET)
Application of native PGPR as bio inoculant is an alternative sustainable agricultural practice to enhance crop productivity, grain quality, and soil fertility. In this view, a study was to examine the effect of either individual or consortium PGPR inoculation on growth, yield, and grain nutrient uptake of two teff varieties. The pot experiment was carried out in (CRD) three replication and 10 treatments. The PGPR inoculants used in this study were Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G, Enterobacter cloacae ss disolvens, and Serratia marcescens ss marcescen and their consortium. Dukem and Magna varieties were used in this study. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.001) among the treatment and most of the agronomic traits except number of fertile tillers and also significant different (P ≤ 0.01) for grain P and N uptake. The variety was significantly affected grain Mg, Zn and Fe uptake at 5 % probability level and did not significantly influence all agronomic traits of the two varieties. Furthermore, interaction effects of two factors (TM*VT) were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for plant height and panicle length. Individual treatments mean comparison results showed that inoculation of native PGPR consortium significantly affected most of the PGP traits at (P ≤ 0.05). The maximum traits like plant height (189cm), panicle length (66.7cm), shoot dry biomass (9.98g), root dry biomass (2.90g) and grain yield per plant (4.55g) were observed from Dz-01-196. It could be concluded that the consortium of native PGPR inoculants for plant growth, yield and grain nutrient uptake improvement performed better than their individual strain.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: biodegradation; bio-derived polymer; composites
Online: 5 August 2019 (04:29:57 CEST)
Composites with HDPE and PLA matrix have been tested to analyse the effect of natural fillers (wood flour, recycled waste paper and a mix of both fillers) and temperature on polymer degradation. Composting tests have been performed in both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (58°C) conditions. Degradation development has been evaluated through mass variation, TGA and DSC. HDPE, as expected, did not display any relevant variation, confirming its stability under our composting conditions. PLA is sensibly influenced by temperature and humidity, with higher reduction of Mw when composting is performed at 58°C. Natural fillers seem to influence degradation process of composites, already at 35°C. In fact, degradation of fillers at 35°C allows a mass reduction during composting of composites, while neat PLA do not display any variation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: MHSW; Organic fraction from MHSW, Thermal processing; Bio-char characterization; Bio-oil: Liquid hydrocarbons
Online: 26 August 2022 (03:16:54 CEST)
This work aims to investigate the effect of process temperature and catalyst content by pyrolysis and thermal catalytic cracking of (organic matter + paper) fraction from municipal household solid waste (MHSW) on the yields of reaction products (bio-oil, bio-char, H2O, and gas), acid value and chemical composition of bio-oils, and characterization of bio-chars, in laboratory scale. The collecting sectors of MHSW in the municipality of Belém-Pará-Brazil were chosen based on geographic and socio-economic database. The MHSW collected and transported to the segregation area. The gravimetric analysis of MHSW carried out and the fractions (Paper, Cardboard, Tetra Pack, Hard Plastic, Soft Plastic, Metal, Glass, Organic Matter, and Inert) separated. The selected organic matter and paper submitted to pre-treatment of crushing, drying, and sieving. The experiments carried out at 400, 450, and 475 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, and at 475 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using 5.0, 10.0, and 15.0% (wt.) Ca(OH)2, in batch mode. The bio-oil characterized for acid value. The chemical functions present in bio-oil identified by FT-IR and the composition by GC-MS. The bio-char characterized by SEM, FT-IR and XRD. The variance in mass (wt.%) for organic fraction of municipal household solid waste, between 56.21 and 67.45% (wt.), lies with the interval of 56% (wt.) and 64% (wt.) of OFMHSW for middle and low income countries. The pyrolysis of MHSW fraction (organic matter + paper) show bio-oil yields between 2.63 and 9.41% (wt.), aqueous phase yields between 28.58 and 35.08% (wt.), solid phase yields between 35.29 and 45.75% (wt.), and gas yields between 16.54 and 26.72% (wt.). The bio-oil yield increases with pyrolysis temperature. For the catalytic cracking, the bio-oil and gas yields increase slightly with CaO content, while that of bio-char decreases, and the H2O phase remains constant. The GC-MS of liquid reaction products identified the presence of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, alcohols, phenols, and aldehydes), as well as compounds containing nitrogen, including amides and amines. The acidity of bio-oil decreases with increasing process temperature and with aid Ca(OH)2 as catalyst. The concentration of hydrocarbons in bio-oil increases with increasing Ca(OH)2-to-MHSW fraction ratio due to the catalytic deoxygenation of fatty acids molecules, by means of de-carboxylation/de-carbonylation, producing aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: bio-based lubricant; thermal stability; tribology
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:08:53 CEST)
Castor oil may be differentiated from other non-edible vegetable oils because of its main composition of hydroxylated fatty acids. Ricinoleic acid comprises 80–90% wt. of fatty acids in castor oil (Ricinus communis). In this study, the thermo-oxidative stability and tribological behavior of bio-based lubricant samples synthesized from castor oil using isoamyl alcohol were evaluated. Initially, the compositional and physicochemical properties of the obtained samples were assessed using 1H NMR, FTIR, and ASTM methods. Oxidative stability of the samples was evaluated using Rancimat method at 110 °C under air flow. The final biolubricant sample (BL2), obtained after esterification, epoxidation, and oxirane rings opening reactions, presented an oxidation stability time (OST) of 14.3 h. The thermal stability was also evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG) from the mass variations under inert and oxidative atmosphere. BL2 showed higher thermal stability compared to the other samples, demonstrating higher decomposition temperatures in both inert (339.04 °C) and oxidative (338.47 °C) atmospheres, for a mass loss of 50%. The tribological properties of the samples were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer configuration. The BL1 and BL2 samples exhibited lower friction coefficients than the mineral oil sample (MOS) by 21.5% and 43.1%, respectively. Regarding wear, the observed wear scar diameter (WSD) was also lower in BL1 and BL2 compared to MOS by 5.2% and 40.4%, respectively. The results of the tribological evaluation suggest that both samples obtained in this study have promising potential for applications in lubricating machines and mechanical systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1387.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: bio-graphen; metal-free; doped; antibiotic
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:35:03 CEST)
Wastewater contaminated with antibiotics is a major environmental challenge. We developed here the green synthesis of bio-graphenes by using natural precursors (Xanthan, Chitosan, Boswellia, Tragacanth). The use of these precursors can act as templates to create 3D doped graphene structures with special morphology. Also, this method is a simple method for in-situ synthesis of doped graphenes. The elements present in the natural polymers (N) and other elements in the natural composition (P, S) are easily placed in the graphene structure and improve the catalytic activity due to the structural defects, surface charges, increased electron transfers, and the high absorption. In this mechanism, O2 dissolved in water absorbs onto the positive charged C in doped graphenes to create oxygenated radicals, which enables the degradation of antibiotic molecules. Light irradiation increases the amounts of radicals and rate of antibiotic removal. The results have shown that the hollow cubic Chitosan-derived graphene has shown the best performance due to the doping of N, S, and P. The Boswellia-derived grapheme shows the highest surface area, but lower catalytic performance, which indicates the more effective role of doping in the catalytic activity. The effect of oxygen and light were also studied to accelerate the degradation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0031.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Ionic Liquids; Corrosion Inhibitors; Bio-based
Online: 4 July 2023 (02:23:59 CEST)
In this work, the inhibition properties of new bio-based lignine ILs on the corrosion of mild steel in an aqueous solution of 0.01 M NaCl were investigated by Potentiostatic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (PEIS), Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP). Moreover, the surface was characterized using SEM, EDS, and optical profilometry. The influence of cation and anion on the inhibitor properties and a possible synergistic effect were investigated. The IL choline syringate showed a promising performance, reducing the corrosion current after 24-hour immersion in 0.01 M sodium chloride, from 1.66 µA/cm2 for the control to 0.066 µA/cm2 with 10 mM of the IL present. In addition to the performance as a corrosion inhibitor, both components of this IL also meet or exceed current additional desired properties of such compounds, being readily available, economically efficient, and well tolerated in organisms and the environment.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0320.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Bio hydrogen; photo-fermentation; agro-waste
Online: 10 November 2020 (15:05:24 CET)
This study evaluates the production of biohydrogen from agro industrial waste. The worldwide energy demand is increasing exponentially and the reserves of fossil fuels are depleting, the combustion of fossil fuels has the effect on environment because of CO2 emission. Hydrogen generation market size is forecast to cross 180 billion by 2024, according to a new research report by global market. For the production of biohydrogen. we had chosen groundnut shell as our source, using Tween80 as a surfactant we had undergone pre-treatment studies for (10min,20min,30min,40min,50min) we had estimated the content of cellulose, protein, carbohydrates at (1%,2%,3%,4%,5%) and obtained the optimum value in the form of graph. The production of hydrogen is done by using the rumen fluid of the cow and the quantity of the hydrogen produced by this process is identified by using the analytical instrument Gas Chromatography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Incremental Forming; Bio-composites; Hot Formability
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:25:46 CEST)
The use of biodegradable materials has a growing field of application due to environmental concerns, however, scientific research on incremental forming using biomaterials is scarce. Thus, this study focuses on the single point incremental forming (SPIF) process applied to a composite sheet that combines a biodegradable thermoplastic matrix (Solanyl) reinforced with natural fibres (flax). The influence of the process parameters on the final geometry is determined, evaluating the effect of the following factors: step depth, wall angle and temperature reached during the process. Additionally, a heated aqueous medium is incorporated which facilitates the formability of the composite sheets. This method is especially useful for materials that have poor formability at room temperature. The benefits of using controlled heat include the reduction of formation forces applied to the plate, improved accuracy due to the reduction of elastic recovery, and the manipulation of the samples remarkably close to the glass transition temperatures. Through this experimental study with the variables analysed, a maximum shaping depth of 310 mm is obtained. These results confirm that the single point shaping used with bioplastic materials is possible and has positive outcomes for incremental forming.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: bio-aerosol; reduction; procedures; dentistry; review
Online: 25 June 2020 (12:24:48 CEST)
Microbe laden air particles, known as bio-aerosols, are routinely generated, in clinical dentistry due to the operative instrumentation within a milieu rich in salivary organisms. As the major mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be airborne aerosols and droplets, there has been an intense focus on such aerosol generating procedures (AGP). As there has been no systematic reviews on the efficacy of bio-aerosol reducing measure in dentistry, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature on three major AGPs, rubber dam application, pre-procedural oral rinse, and high-volume evacuation (HVE) aimed at reducing dental bio-aerosols. Method: PubMed via Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO host, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases between January 01, 1985, and April 30, 2020, were searched.Results: A total of 156 records in the English language literature were identified, of which 17 clinical studies with 724 patients were included in the final analyses. The eligible reviewed articles revealed the inadequacy of the afore mentioned three principal AGPs used in contemporary dental practice to minimise bio-aerosols. HVE appears to be the most efficacious method, although no single approach provides total elimination of bio-aerosols. Conclusion:This, the first systematic review on methods of controlling bio-aerosols in dental operatory settings, indicates that employing combination strategies of rubber dam, with a pre-procedural antimicrobial oral rinse, and HVE can significantly minimize bio-aerosols. As the quality of the currently available data on dental bio-aerosols are rather poor, further, controlled, multi-centre studies are essential to address this critical issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0253.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: copper; surface plasmon resonance; bio-sensor
Online: 16 March 2020 (01:16:25 CET)
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is an attracting property of certain transition metals when they are synthesized in nano-range giving rise to promising optical applications. However, most SPR and associated applications are limited to the noble metal nanoparticles, which limits their potential due to high production cost. We report surface plasmon resonance in copper-copper oxide core-shell quantum dots synthesized via chemical route studied by using UV-Visible spectrophotometry. Tuning of the plasmonic resonance with respect to the particle diameter is achieved by an inexpensive all chemical route. Photoluminescence measurements also support the data. This size reduction leads to remarkable changes in its optical response as compared to the bulk metal. The results point towards applications of these materials in tunable SPR based biosensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0359.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Music Keywords: Scambi; Bio-Art; Bio-Music; music; counterpoint; process composition; dynamic programming; Needleman-Wunsch algorithm; global alignment
Online: 30 June 2020 (08:17:20 CEST)
The Needleman-Wunsch process is a classic tool in bioinformatics, being a dynamic programming algorithm that performs a pairwise alignment of two input biological sequences, either protein or nucleic acid. A distance matrix between the tokens used in the sequences is also required as input. The distance matrix is used to generate a positional pairwise similarity matrix between the input sequences, which is in turn used to generate a dynamic programming matrix. The best path through the dynamic programming matrix is navigated using a traceback procedure that maximises similarity, inserting gaps as necessary. Needleman-Wunsch can align both nucleic acids or proteins, which use alphabets of size 4 and 20 tokens respectively. It can also be applied to any other kind of sequence where distance matrices can be specified. Here, we apply it to chains of Pousseur’s Scambi electronic music fragments, of which there are 32, and which Pousseur categorised by their sonic properties, thus permitting the consecutive construction of distance, similarity and dynamic programming matrices. Traceback through the dynamic programming matrix thus produces contrapuntal duet compositions in which two Scambi chains are played in the maximally euphonious manner, providing also an illustration of the principles of biological sequence alignment in sound.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1980.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; bio-fertilizer; vetiver; intercropping
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:34:23 CEST)
In this study, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and yield responses of Sri Lankan lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) with the application of beneficial Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculum, and inter-cropping with highly mycorrhizal dependent vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) under two different soil nutrient management systems (NMSs): conventional/chemical (CNMS) and organic (ONMS). The experiment was designed as a split plot with three blocks. Each CNMS and ONMS experiment included untreated control (T0), and three treatments—AMF inoculation (T1), vetiver intercropping (T2), and the combination of AMF and vetiver (T3). According to the results, colonization of rice roots with AMF was not affected significantly by the treatments and ranged from 0‒15.8%. The effect was very low or absent in the early stage and then higher in the later stages of the rice plant. Furthermore, plant growth was not significantly different between the two NMSs, although grain yield was significantly higher (P < 0.05), with the order T1 (0.45 kg/m2) >T2 (0.42 kg/m2) >T3 (0.41 kg/m2) in CNMS and T2 (0.44 kg/m2) >T1 (0.41 kg/m2) >T3 (0.40 kg/m2), in ONMS than for the respective controls (T0), thus suggesting beneficial utilization of AMF and vetiver in the lowland rice farming system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1916.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Antimicrobial Peptides, Bio-films, Biomedical Applications, Sepsis
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:12:59 CEST)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a promising class of bioactive molecules with the potential to combat infections associated with medical implants and biomaterials. This review article aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the role of antimicrobial peptides in medical implants and biomaterials, along with their diverse clinical applications. The incorporation of AMPs into various medical implants and biomaterials has shown immense potential in mitigating biofilm formation and preventing implant-related infections. We review the latest advancements in biomedical sciences and discuss the AMPs that were immobilized successfully to enhance their efficacy and stability within the implant environment. We also highlight successful examples of AMP coatings for the treatment of surgical site infections (SSIs), Contact lenses, Dental Applications, AMP-Incorporated Bone Grafts, Urinary tract infections (UTIs), Medical Implants, etc. Additionally, we discuss the potential challenges and prospects of AMPs in medical implants, such as effectiveness, instability and implant-related complications. We also discuss strategies that can be employed to overcome the limitations of AMP-coated biomaterials for prolonged longevity in clinical settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1520.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Bio hydrogen; Thermochemical conversion; Biomass; Syngas; gasification
Online: 24 July 2023 (02:16:38 CEST)
The utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative energy source presents a promising opportunity to achieve a future energy system that is clean and free from CO2 emissions. To realize this potential, it is crucial to develop effective techniques for converting biomass and organic solid waste into secondary energy sources. Among the available options, hydrogen production stands out due to its numerous advantages, including its cleanliness, versatility in conversion and utilization technologies, high energy efficiency, and dense energy content per unit weight. This article offers a comprehensive overview of different conversion pathways and important technologies for generating hydrogen from biomass and organic solid waste. It specifically focuses on the thermochemical conversion process, which shows promise as an economically viable approach. While certain thermochemical conversion processes are still in the developmental phase, utilizing organic biomass for hydrogen production is widely recommended due to its ability to yield higher amounts of end products and its compatibility with existing facilities. However, it should be noted that this method necessitates a substantial amount of energy due to its endothermic nature. The article also explores alternative hydrogen conversion technologies and their potential for utilizing organic biomass as a feedstock, while addressing the challenges and limitations associated with these methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Microalgae; Bio acids; Phytohormones; Medium Culture; Stress
Online: 3 February 2023 (08:45:13 CET)
Natural astaxanthin is a precious substance obtained from some organisms such as microalgae. This plant has many benefits for humans, so research into its cost-effective and economical production has recently increased. For this purpose, some methods such as the use of different culture media, gene engineering, different stresses, nanoparticles, bio acids, and phytohormones are important. Accordingly, this review study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of the factors mentioned above for the high production of astaxanthin in microalgae, especially Haematococcus pluvialis (H.p).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Bio-briquettes; Heating values; lignocellulosic composition; Binders
Online: 8 July 2022 (07:54:23 CEST)
Briquetting of biomass is an ideal technique for improvising both its volumetric and net energy density; besides, serving as an effective means for reducing pollution. In general, numerous biomass and organic by-products are discarded as wastes, citing their non-edibility, composition of chemical compounds present in their raw form, in addition to their zero usage value. Yet, these biomass wastes hold significant heating values, which promote them into promising solid biofuels, either in their existing or pre-treated form. Accordingly, this review article discusses about the various biomasses used as raw feedstock for briquetting, besides summarising the works carried out in relevance to their respective briquettes. In addition, proximate and lignocellulosic composition of these biomasses, and their pre-treatment techniques followed to prepare them for briquetting, have also been discussed. This study suggested that the heating value of biomasses ranged between 10-20 MJ/kg, whilst, their briquettes reported between 15 and 25 MJ/kg; thereby citing their potential as viable replacement for existing fossil coals. Besides, factors affecting different thermal and physicochemical properties of these briquettes have also been studied and concluded that these properties play a crucial role in deciding the overall quality of the briquettes. Ultimately, this study proposed that any biomass with good calorific value and lignin content can be processed into briquettes with good strength and durability; however, the choice of biomass will also be accounted for by its availability, geographical distribution, and handleability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0272.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: saponin-containing plants; cleansing plants; bio-surfactant
Online: 12 November 2018 (09:07:26 CET)
The natural forests of Northern Thailand are the mother source of many utilisable natural products because of their diverse flora and fauna. Among many plant species found within Northern Thai forests, detergent plants are known for its distinctive cleansing properties. Several local species of detergent plants in Thailand are traditionally used by the locals and indigenous people. However, these plants may become extinct because their habitats have been replaced by industrial agriculture, and their uses have been replaced by chemically synthesised detergents. Researchers need to study and communicate the biology, phytochemistry, and the importance of these plants to conserve natural biodiversity of Northern Thailand. Of many utilisable detergent phytochemicals, natural saponins are known as bio-surfactant and foaming agents. Their physiochemical and biological properties feature structural diversity, which leads to many industrial applications. In this review, we explained the term “detergent” from the physiological mechanism perspective and the detergent effects of saponin. We also compiled a list of Thai local plants with cleansing properties focusing on the saponin-containing plants. Future studies should investigate information relative to plant environment, ethnobotanical data and bioactive compound content of these plants. The knowledge acquired from this study will promote the maintenance of the local biodiversity and the conservation of the detergent plant species found in Thailand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Bio-disinfection, G. latifolium, Water, Z. zanthoxyloides.
Online: 3 October 2018 (12:53:16 CEST)
Water and sanitation facilities in sub-Saharan Africa and Africa in general are appalling and for the most part absent. Progress continues with respect to the development of plant materials as potent adsorbents, disinfectants, coagulants, flocculants, wetland species and lots more as substitutes for the dangerous chemical disinfectants. This research presents the potential of phyto-active components of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Gongronema latifolium as effective biocides against water microbial contaminants. Dry powder of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Gongronema latifolium were extracted and prepared into different concentrations with ethyl acetate and chloroform, ranging from 25 to 500 mg/ml. These fractions were then examined for antimicrobial activities against inherent bacterial and fungal water contaminants using disc diffusion assay. Fractions were afterwards screened for phytochemical active compounds using standard methods. Crude extracts of the different plant examined selectively comprise saponins, tannins, reducing sugars, anthraquinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, phlobatanins and alkaloids. All plant extracts showed broad spectrum antibiosis against selected gram positive and gram negative bacteria including E. coli, P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp, S. pneumoniae and B. cereus, as well as tested fungi, including A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma sp and Candida sp. While all extracts exhibited maximum antibiosis at 500 mg/ml, the chloroform extracts compared well than ethyl acetate extracts. The overall results revealed that antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts are dose dependent with comparative activity greater than that of commercial antibiotics at the concentration of extracts tested. E.coli was the most susceptible microbial isolate tested and represents the potential of the extract against a group of coliform which are important indicators of microbial pollution in water. Other microbial isolates also recorded sensitivity to extracts tested at varying degrees. The findings indicate that microbes tested were mostly susceptible to chloroform extract of Z. zanthoxyloides and G. latifolium except for the activity of ethyl acetate extract of Z. zanthoxyloide against E.coli. Results of phytochemical screening of the extract also showed the varied presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and anthraquinones The results indicated that plant materials investigated can be developed as effective biocides against water microbial contaminants
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1502.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: bio-nanocomposite; alginate; heavy metals; Moroccan natural clay
Online: 23 November 2023 (10:02:19 CET)
The results of the investigation showed that second-order kinetics govern the adsorption process, and the corresponding rate constants were found. To evaluate the parameters related to the adsorption process, the adsorption equilibrium was examined using a variety of mathematical models, such as the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best appropriate among all models for describing the adsorption of Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions using bio-nanocomposite beads. The positive values of ΔH° indicate that the adsorption is physical and endothermic, in agreement with experimental results. The negative value of ∆G° shows that the adsorption process is spontaneous. Positive ΔS° values indicate increased randomness at the solid/liquid interface, during adsorption of Cu2+ and Ni2+ cations onto the engineered bio-nanocomposite. The maximum adsorbed amounts of metal ions by the bio-nanocomposite used were 370.37 mg/g for Ni2+ and 454.54 mg/g for Cu2+ from single system. For the binary system, according to the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorbed amounts of Ni2+ and Cu2+ were 357.14 mg/g and 370,37 mg/g, respectively. There is proof that Alginate-Moroccan clay bio-nanocomposites can serve as a different, less expensive source of sorbents for the removal of metal ions from single and binary systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0805.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: antioxidants; aroma profiling; bio-stimulant; fertilizer; phytochemicals; tomato
Online: 12 October 2023 (09:12:45 CEST)
Tomato quality is intricately regulated by a combination of factors, including the presence of bioactive compounds referred to as secondary metabolites and various organoleptic characteristics. These attributes are notably influenced and harmonized by the specific growing conditions, with a particular emphasis on the type of fertilization employed. Traditionally, chemical fertilizers have been favoured in crop cultivation due to their cost-effectiveness and ability to accelerate crop growth. However, in pursuit of sustainable and intelligent agricultural practices, there is a growing need for alternative fertilizers. In this context, the present study aimed to assess the impact of fertilizers derived from waste materials, specifically sulphur bentonite and orange residue (referred to as SB), on tomato quality. This assessment extended to examining qualitative and quantitative alterations in aroma-related volatile compounds and the antioxidant systems of tomatoes, in comparison to the conventional use of fertilizers such as horse manure and NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium). The results obtained revealed distinct effects of different fertilizers on tomato quality. Notably, parameters such as TPRO (total protein), TCARB (total carbohydrate), LIC (lycopene content), TCAR (total carotenoid content), total phenols, total flavonoids, and aroma profiling exhibited significantly superior values in the group treated with SB fertilizer. These findings strongly suggest that the novel fertilizer functioned as a bio-stimulant, enhancing the nutraceutical and sensory attributes of tomatoes, with a pronounced impact on the synthesis of secondary metabolites and the aroma profile of the fruits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1609.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: neural dynamics; neural oscillation; bio-inspiration; artificial intelligence
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:05:36 CEST)
This paper investigates the dynamic properties of artificial neural networks using differential equations and explores the influence of parameters on stability and neural oscillations. By analyzing the equilibrium point of the differential equations, we identify conditions for asymptotic stability and criteria for oscillation in artificial neural networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate how adjusting synaptic weights between neurons can effectively control stability and oscillation. The proposed model offers potential insights into the malfunctioning mechanisms of biological neural networks implicated in neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease tremors and epilepsy seizures, which are characterized by abnormal oscillations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1274.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Bio-based building material; hysteresis; swelling; microstructure; cellulose
Online: 18 May 2023 (05:21:06 CEST)
Considering the current energy environment, both efficient and environmentally friendly solutions have to be developed for building construction. Bio-based building materials offer new perspectives through their insulating and natural humidity regulation capacities. Nevertheless, these materials are as complex as they are promising and grey areas still remain regarding their behavior. Their water sorption and desorption curves recorded in experimental work demonstrate a hysteresis phenomenon and, although plausible hypotheses have been formulated in the literature, there is currently no consensus on its causes. Furthermore, it is important to emphasize that no reference considers the hydrophilic nature of the resource. Yet this is a specificity of raw material coming from the plant world. In this context, this paper explores the microstructure and chemical composition of plant aggregates to propose a new explanation for the hysteresis. It is based on recent work demonstrating the existence of differentiated hydrogen bonds between the water sorption and desorption phase in cellulose. Obviously, hysteresis also has an origin at the molecular scale. Lastly, the hypothesis put forward here is supported by the swelling of bio-based materials that has been observed at high relative humidity and this study aims to identify a link between the mechanical (swelling/shrinking) of bio-based materials and their hygroscopic behavior. This leads to a better understanding of the hydro-mechanical coupling of these materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0590.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Catalytic pyrolysis; plum seed; TGA; bio-oil; zeolite
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:51:05 CEST)
In terms of obtaining fuels as well as chemicals with or without catalysts at different conditions, the plum seed stands out as an alternative biomass source. Under varying heating rates (10, 50, and 100ºC min-1) and pyrolysis temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C), the plum seed was pyrolysed at constant sweep gas flow at a constant rate (100 cm3min-1) in a tubular fixed bed reactor. According to the results, an oil yield reaching to a maximum of %45 was procured at the heating rate of 100 ºCmin-1 and the pyrolysis temperature of 550ºC in non-catalytic procedure. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in optimum conditions with two selected commercial catalysts, namely ZSM-5 and PURMOL-CTX and clinoptilolite (natural zeolite, NZ) with catalyst ratio of 10 % of raw material. Along with the catalyst addition, the quantity and the quality of bio-oil increased including the calorific value, removal of oxygenated groups, and hydrocarbon distribution. An increase related to the desirable products like phenols, alkene, and alkane and a decrease in undesirable products like acids were observed in the presence of catalysts. When all the results are considered and evaluated, using zeolite materials in the pyrolysis as catalysts is a recommendable option to achieve enhanced chemicals and fuels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0303.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Synthesis; characterization; carbonization; coagulation; bio char; nanocarbon; morphological
Online: 16 March 2023 (10:35:30 CET)
This work aimed to study the thermal and crystalline properties of poly (1,4-phenylene sulfide)@carbon char nanocomposites. Coagulation-processed nanocomposites of polyphenylene sulfide were prepared using synthesized mesoporous nanocarbon of coconut shell as reinforcement. The mesoporous reinforcement was synthesized using a facile carbonization method. The investigation of the properties of nanocarbon was done by SAP, XRD, and FESEM analysis. The research was further propagated via the synthesis of nanocomposite by the addition of characterized nanofiller into poly (1,4-phenylene sulfide) at five different combinations. The coagulation method was utilized for the nanocomposite formation. The obtained nanocomposite was analyzed using FTIR, TGA, DSC, and FESEM analysis. The BET surface area and average pore volume of bio-carbon prepared from coconut shell residue were calculated to be 1517 m2/g and 2.51 nm respectively. The addition of nanocarbon to poly (1,4-phenylene sulfide) has led to an increase in thermal stability and crystallinity up to 6% loading of filler. The minimum achievable glass transition temperature is for 6 % doping of filler into the polymer matrix. It was established that the thermal, morphological, and crystalline properties have been tailored by synthesizing their nanocomposites with mesoporous bio-nanocarbon obtained from coconut shells. So, the loading of filler into poly (1,4-phenylene sulfide) can be optimized to enhance its thermoplastic properties for surface applications.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Bio-image Analysis; Core-Facility; Sustainability; FAIR-principles
Online: 30 January 2023 (10:03:53 CET)
Recent advances in microscopy imaging and image analysis motivate more and more institutes world-wide to establish dedicated core-facilities for bio-image analysis. To maximize the benefits research groups at these institutes gain from their core-facilities, they should be established to fit well into their respective environment. In this article, we introduce common collaborator requests and corresponding potential services core-facilities can offer. We also discuss potential conflicts of interests between the targeted missions and implementations of services to guide decision makers and core-facility founders to circumvent common pitfalls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Bio-Sensing; inter-symbol interference; molecular communication; synchronisation
Online: 11 March 2022 (04:43:21 CET)
Molecular communication (MC) is a promising bio-inspired paradigm for exchanging molecule information among nanomachines. This paper proposes a synchronisation-assist photolysis MC system that aims to transmit the bio-sensing signal of the tumour microenvironment, facilitated by mitigating redundant molecules for improved bit error rate (BER) performance. Benefits from bio-compatible MC, biosensors could transmit bio-sensing signals of the tumour in $vivo$ instead of converting them to electrical signals. Due to diffusion motion's slow and stochastic nature, inter-symbol interference (ISI), resulting from previous symbols' residual information molecules, inevitably occurs in diffusion-based MC. ISI is one of the challenges in diffusion-based MC, which significantly impacts signal detection. Inspired by on-off keying (OOK) modulation, the proposed modulation implements a switch of molecules and light alternatively. The light emitted is triggered by a synchronisation signal, and the photolysis reactions could reduce the redundant molecules. An expression for the relevant channel impulse response (CIR) is derived from a hybrid channel model of diffusion and photolysis-reaction. This paper implements the maximum posterior estimation scheme to find the optimal decision threshold and analysis the BER performance in terms of different time intervals of the system. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the channel capacity and BER performance. We believe that our work may pave the way for MC application in bio-sensing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Capsicum annuum; flavonoids; fluorescence monitoring; bio-waste utilization
Online: 20 December 2019 (11:05:22 CET)
The green biomass of horticultural plants contains valuable secondary metabolites (SM) which can potentially be extracted and sold. When exposed to stress, plants accumulate higher amounts of these SMs, making the extraction and commercialization even more attractive. We evaluated the potential for accumulating of the flavones cynaroside and graveobioside A in leaves of two bell pepper cultivars (Mavras and Stayer) when exposed to salt stress (100 mM NaCl), UVA/B excitation (UVA 4-5 W/m²; UVB 10-14 W/m² for 3 hours per day) or a combination of both stressors. HPLC analyses proved the enhanced accumulation of both metabolites under stress conditions. Cynaroside accumulation is effectively triggered by high-UV stress, whereas graveobioside A contents increase under salt stress. Highest contents were observed in plants exposed to combined stress. Effects of stress on overall plant performance differed significantly between treatments, with least negative impact on aboveground biomass found for high-UV stressed plants. The usage of two non-destructive instruments (Dualex and Multiplex) allowed us to gain insights in ontogenetical effects at the leaf level and temporal development of SM contents over time. Indices provided by those devices correlate fairly with amounts detected via HPLC (Cynaroside: R2 = 0.46 – 0.66; Graveobioside A: R2 = 0.51 – 0.71). The concentrations of both metabolites tend to decrease at leaf level during the ontogenetical development even under stress conditions. High-UV stress is a promising tool for enriching plant leaves with valuable SM without major effects on plant biomass. All data is available online .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0268.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: intellectual capital; sustainability; harness; bio-economy; global crisis
Online: 24 April 2019 (12:10:55 CEST)
Bio-economy is a major area of the strategy that can afford the European Union to achieve growth: (i) smart, through the development of knowledge and innovation; and (ii) sustainable, based on a greener, more efficient economy in resource management. We believe that the progress of bio-economy cannot be achieved without the harnessing of intellectual capital. Our research aimed to emphasize the benefits of the dynamics of the intellectual capital growth on the evolution of the bio-economy. Thus, the information published by Eurostat (European Statistic Institute) during a period spanning seven years (2011-2018) was used to assess the influence exerted by the conduct of the harness of intellectual capital related to sustainability as well as for the reporting of indicators relevant to appreciating an economic progress and sustainability (renewable waste material, share of renewable energy and energy intensity of the economy). The ultimate goal was represented by the generation of a regression model to see what factor influences mostly the progress of the bio-economy at European and Romanian level. Significant dependency relationships were identified. The results remain robust even after the introduction of certain control variables, such as gross domestic product rate, food production, population growth, urbanization growth and inflation. Our paper sets out to contribute to expanding the specialty literature by highlighting the involvement of intellectual capital as a factor in optimizing sustainability growth and, at a methodological level, by using a multiple regression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0282.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: intellectual capital; sustainability; harness; bio-economy; global crisis
Online: 3 January 2019 (11:08:57 CET)
Bio-economy is a major area of the strategy that must enable the European Union to achieve growth: smart, through the development of knowledge and innovation; and sustainable, based on a greener, more efficient economy in resource management. We believe that the progress of bio-economy cannot be achieved without the harnessing of intellectual capital. Our research aimed to emphasize the benefits of the dynamics of the intellectual capital growth on the evolution of the bio-economy. The aim of this analysis was to study the established link between the Energy Intensity of the Economy (EIE) and a number of factors that can measure the intellectual capital, such as: Market Capitalization of Bitcoin, Patent applications listed by European Patent Office and the Turnover from Innovation as a proportion of the total Turnover. The ultimate goal was represented by the generation of a regression model to see what factor influences mostly the progress of the bio-economy at European and Romanian level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0167.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Bio-separation, magnetic separation, magnetic particles, continuous-flow
Online: 10 July 2018 (10:53:45 CEST)
Bio-separation of natural molecules as well as clinical compounds has been constantly developed in last decades. Several techniques are available but the majority of them presents drawbacks such us impossibility to be applied for industrial purposes. The main limitations for the scaling up are high costs and the fact that the devices work with microfluid dynamics. Nevertheless, magnetic bio-separation is considered the most prone to be used for large scale applications. Herein, we propose a simple magnetic separation method that is not based on microfluid dynamics, can work in a continuous- and high-flow rate and can be easily automated in order to be used for standard separation purposes. It is based on the use of an anisotropic flexible ferric magnetic strip, Teflon hoses and a pumping device. We show the modelling of the separation process along with an experimental test on iron oxide magnetic particles. The results showed that it is possible to remove, and separately collect, more than 92% of magnetic particles from a liquid solution of 100 ml in roughly 15 minutes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0043.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: saccharides; biomass burning; haze; source apportionment; bio-aerosol
Online: 4 June 2018 (12:47:58 CEST)
The characteristics of biogenic aerosols in urban area were explored by determining the composition, temporal distribution of saccharides in PM2.5 in Shanghai. The total saccharides showed a wide range of 15.2 ng/m3 to 1752.8 ng/m3, with the averaged concentrations were 169.8 ng/m3，300.5 ng/m3，288.4 ng/m3，688 ng/m3 in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The concerned saccharides include anhydrosaccharides (levoglucosan and mannosan), which were higher in cold seasons due to the increased biomass burning, saccharide alcohols (mannitol, arabitol, sorbitol) and monosaccharides (fructose, glucose), which showed more abundant in warm seasons attributed to the biological emissions. By PMF analysis, four emission sources of saccharides were demonstrated, including biomass burning, fungal spores, soil suspension and plant pollens. Resolution of backward trajectory and fire points showed a process of high concentrations of levoglucosan. We found that concentrations of anhydrosaccharides showed relatively stable under different pollution levels while saccharide alcohols exhibited an obvious decrease, indicated that biomass burning was not the core reason of the heavy haze pollution, however, and high level PM2.5 pollution might inhibit effects of biological activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1893.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: atherosclerosis; coronary artery disease; stent; bio-resorbable; 3D printing
Online: 27 September 2023 (11:23:16 CEST)
Coronary artery disease is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease, claiming millions of lives annually around the world. The current treatment includes surgically inserting a tubular construct called as a stent inside arteries to restore blood flow. However, due to lack of patient-specific design, the commercial products cannot be used with different vessel anatomies. In this review, we have summarized the drawbacks in existing commercial metal stents which face problems of restenosis and inflammatory responses, owing to the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Further, we have highlighted the fabrication of stents using biodegradable polymers, which can circumvent most of the existing limitations. In this regard, we elaborated on utilization of new fabrication methodologies based on additive manufacturing such as three-dimensional printing to design patient-specific stents. Finally, we have discussed on the functionalization of these stent surfaces with suitable bioactive molecules which can prove to enhance their properties in preventing thrombosis and better healing of injured blood vessel lining.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2152.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: 87Sr/86Sr; archaeology; environment; mineral dissolution; bio-available Sr
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:47:16 CEST)
During the last forty years, the use of strontium isotopes in archaeology and biogeochemical research has spread widely. These isotopes, alone or in combination with others, can contribute to trace past and present environmental conditions. However, the interpretation of the isotopic values of strontium is not always simple and requires good knowledge of geochemistry and geology. This short paper on the use of strontium isotopes is aimed at those who use this tool (archaeologists, but not only) but who do not have a thorough knowledge of mineralogy, geology, and geochemistry necessary for a good understanding of natural processes involving these isotopes. We report basic knowledge and suggestions for a correct use of these isotopes. The isotopic characteristics of bio-assimilable strontium depend not so much on the isotopic characteristics of the bulk rock as, rather, on that of its more soluble minerals. Before studying human, animal and plant remains, the state of conservation and any conditions of isotopic pollution should be carefully checked. Samples should be collected according to random sampling rules. The data should be treated by a statistical approach. To make comparisons between different areas, it should be borne in mind that the study of current soils can be misleading since the mineralogical modification of the soil over time can be very rapid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1805.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Açaí seeds; Chemical activation; Pyrolysis; Bio-oil; Acidity; Antioxidants
Online: 25 August 2023 (13:36:35 CEST)
This study explores the impact of temperature and molarity on the pyrolysis of Açaí seeds (Euterpe Oleraceae, Mart.) activated with KOH on the yield of bio-oil, hydrocarbon content of bio-oil, an-tioxidant activity of bio-oil and chemical composition of aqueous phase. The experiments were carried out at 350, 400, and 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, with 2.0 M KOH, and at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, with 0.5 M, 1.0 M and 2.0 M KOH, in laboratory scale. The composition of bio-oils and aqueous phase determined by GC-MS, while the acid value, a physical-chemical property of fundamental importance in biofuels, of bio-oils and aqueous phases by AOCS methods. The an-tioxidant activity of bio-oils determined by the TEAC method. The solid phase (biochar) charac-terized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The diffractograms identified the presence of Kalicinite (KHCO3) in biochar, and those higher temperatures favor the formation peaks of Kalicinite (KHCO3). The pyrolysis of Açaí seeds activated with KOH show bio-oil yields from 3.19 to 6.79 (wt.%), aqueous phase yields between 20.34 and 25.57 (wt.%), solid phase yields (coke) between 33.40 and 43.37 (wt.%), and gas yields from 31.85 to 34.45 (wt.%). The yield of bio-oil shows a smooth exponential increase with temperature. The acidity of bio-oil varied between 12.3 and 257.6 mgKOH/g, decreasing exponentially with temperature, while that of aqueous phase between 17.9 and 118.9 mgKOH/g, showing and exponential decay behavior with temperature, demonstrating that higher temperatures favor not only the yield of bio-oil but also bio-oils with lower acidity. For the experiments with KOH activation, the GC-MS of bio-oil identified the presence of hydro-carbons (alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones, and esters). The concentration of hydrocarbons varied between 10.19 to 25.71 (area.%), increasing with temperature, while that of oxygenates from 52.69 to 72.15 (area.%), decreasing with temperature. For the experiments with constant temperature, the concentrations of hydrocarbons in bio-oil increase exponentially with molarity, while those of oxygenates de-crease exponentially, showing that higher molarities favor the formation of hydrocarbons in bio-oil. The antioxidant activity of bio-oils decreases with increasing temperature, as the content of phenolic compounds decreases, and decreases with increasing KOH molarity, as higher molarities favors the formation of hydrocarbons. Finally, it can be concluded that chemical activation of Açaí seeds with KOH favors the not only the yield of bio-oil but also the content of hydrocarbons. The study of process variables is of utmost importance in order to clearly assess reaction mechanisms, economic viability and design goals that could be derived from chemically activated biomass pyrolysis processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1403.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: aerospace coatings; bio-inspired coatings; polymer coatings; surface engineering
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:47:41 CEST)
The aerospace industry demands high-performance materials that can withstand extreme conditions and maintain efficiency in a variety of applications. Bio-inspired polymer coatings have emerged as a promising approach to meet these demands, by drawing inspiration from natural systems to develop new coatings that exhibit enhanced properties, such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, thermal management, and corrosion resistance. In this review, recent developments in the field of bio-inspired polymer coatings for aerospace applications are presented, covering a range of coatings and their respective properties. We discuss the recent developments and applications of bio-inspired coatings, with a focus on their advantages and challenges in aerospace applications. We also highlight the potential for future research and development in this field, including the integration of advanced technologies such as nanotechnology and additive manufacturing. The review aims to provide insights into the current state-of-the-art of bio-inspired polymer coatings for aerospace applications and to inspire further research in this rapidly growing field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1216.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Voltammetry, bio current, feeling sense, in vivo, brain wave
Online: 16 August 2023 (13:48:36 CEST)
As the human-body controls depend on the brain neuro current, here assay is related to thinking nerve detection. For this purpose, the brain current was analyzed by electrochemical three-electrode systems using 0.1-mm micro wire in vivo probe, which probe was made by using carbon nanotube paste coated needle type. Here working electrode was inserted in the rat brain’s muscle core with a 0.3-mm-diameter needle type Ag/AgCl Cl-coated Ag wire reference, and counter electrode of 0.1-mm-diameter Pt micro needle was inserted 5 mm deep into the in vivo muscle skin, under anesthesia with 2.0 ~ -2.0 V potential windows, 50 mv/s cyclic scan and 1.0x10-5A chrono amperometric sensitivity on the body systems. Under the optimum conditions, diagnostic application was performed to such as smell signal, muscular strength, five sense assay and thinking neuro current.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1309.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: Sustainability; thermoset composites; bio-based; sustainable reinforcements; biocomposites applications
Online: 18 May 2023 (09:20:31 CEST)
The current concerns of both society and materials industries about the environmental impact of thermoset composites, as well as new legislation, have led the scientific sector to search for more sustainable alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of thermoset composites. Until now, to a large extent, sustainable reinforcements have been used to manufacture more sustainable composites and thus contribute to the reduction of pollutants. However, in recent years, new alternatives have been developed such as thermosetting resins with bio-based content and/or systems such as recyclable amines and vitrimers that enable recycling/reuse. Throughout this review, some new bio-based thermoset systems as well as new recyclable systems and sustainable reinforcements are described and a brief overview of the biocomposites market and its impact is shown.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0180.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Green Chemistry; Vegetable oils; Bio-based nanoparticles; Oncology APIs
Online: 4 May 2023 (04:04:06 CEST)
Latterly, the development of green synthesized polymeric nanoparticles with anticancer studies has been an emerging field in academia, and in the pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Vegetable oils are potential substitutes for petroleum derivatives, as they present themselves as a clean and environmentally friendly alternative and are available in high quantities at relatively low prices. Biomass-derived chemicals can be converted into monomers with unique structures, generating materials with new properties for the synthesis of sustainable monomers and polymers. In this way, the production of bio-based polymeric nanoparticles appears as a great application of green chemistry for biomedical uses. There is an increasing demand for biocompatible and biodegradable materials for specific applications in biomedical as cancer therapy, encouraging scientists in working on research towards designing polymers, with enhanced properties and clean processes, containing oncology active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The nanoencapsulation of these APIs in bio-based polymeric nanoparticles can control the release of the substances, increase bioavailability, reduce problems with volatility and degradation, reduce side effects, and increase treatment efficiency. Thus, this review aims to discuss the use of green chemistry for bio-based nanoparticle production and its application in anticancer medicine. The use of vegetable oils for the production of renewable monomers and polymers will be discussed, bringing castor oil as an ideal candidate for such application, as well as more suitable methods for the production of bio-based nanoparticles and some oncology APIs available for anticancer application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0203.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: pyrolysis; pyrolysis reactors; bio-waste; biofuels; biochar; pyrolytic gas
Online: 12 January 2023 (02:11:03 CET)
Pyrolysis has been applied in the human economy for many years, and it has become a significant alternative to the production of chemical compounds, including biofuels. The article focuses mostly on recent achievements in the technical and processing aspects of pyrolysis. This review provides an overview of the recent advanced pyrolysis technology used in gas, bio-oil, and biochar production. The key parameters to maximize the production of specific chemical compounds were discussed and considered during the construction of the reactors. The emphasis is put on optimizing the process parameters, technical requirements, and renewable energy use in the process and conception to improve the efficiency of product production. The application of pyrolysis gas, oil, and biochar as valuable chemical compounds are related to the intensifying effects of climate change, biofuel production, and waste management in accordance with the principles of sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0230.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: plastic; bio-based plastic; willingness to pay; attitudes; recycling
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:54:11 CET)
Fossil-based plastics are significant contributors to global warming through CO2 emissions. For more sustainable alternatives to be successful, it is important to ensure that consumers become aware of the benefits of innovations such as bio-based plastics, in order to create demand and a willingness to initially pay more. Given that consumer attitudes and (inaccurate) beliefs can influence the uptake such new technologies, we investigated participants’ attitudes towards fossil-based and bio-based plastic, their perceived importance of recycling both types of plastic, their willingness to pay, and their perceptions of bio-based plastic in four studies (total N = 961). The pre-registered fourth study experimentally manipulated information about bio-based plastic and measured willingness to pay for different types of plastic. The results suggest participants hold very favourable attitudes and are willing to pay more for bio-based products. However, they also harbour misconceptions, especially overestimating bio-based plastic’s biodegradability, and they find it less important to recycle bio-based than fossil-based plastic. Study 4 provided evidence that educating consumers about the properties of bio-based plastic can dispel misconceptions, retain a favourable attitude and a high willingness to pay. We found mixed evidence for the effect of attitudes on willingness to pay, suggesting other psychological factors may also play a role. We discuss how attitudes and misconceptions affect the uptake of new sustainable technologies such as bio-based plastics and consumers’ willingness to purchase them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0486.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; Bio-surfactants; emulsification index; Hydrocarbons; surface tension.
Online: 21 August 2020 (13:27:24 CEST)
Bio-surfactants are surface-active molecules which are produced by the wide range of microbes including bacteria, fungi, and yeast. This study was conducted to identify bio-surfactants by Bacillus subtilis combined with use of cheap substrates and industrial wastes (Mustard cake, Whey and Soya cake) which are found locally in Nepal. Bacillus subtilis, one of the most potential bio-surfactants producer; was isolated from soil sample of hydrocarbon contaminated site. Isolates were grown in a Minimal Salt Media (MSM) with 10% (v/v) mustard oil cake, whey and soya cake separately. The presence and potential of surfactant was determined by the oil spreading technique, emulsification index (%E24) and surface tension measurement. It was revealed that the surface tensions of cell free extract were 54.41, 60.02 and 56.64 mN/m for from mustard cake, whey and soya cake respectively as compared to distilled water (72.09) at 25oC. The emulsification index values are was found to be highest in engine oil from the bio-surfactant extracted from mustard cake, soya cake and whey respectively. Similarly, mustard oil showed the lowest value of emulsification index. The highest emulsification activity was shown in mustard oil i.e. 1.13 from the cell free extract from mustard oil and lowest in engine oil i.e., 0.07, by the extract from soya cake medium, when measured in spectrophotometer at 540 nm. In conclusion, strain of Bacillus subtilis was found to be the potential surface active agent producers on the mustard oil cake, which can be useful medium for various environmental, food and industrial processes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0380.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: bio-oil; biomass conversion; carbide catalyst; ketonization; doped carbides
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:10:50 CET)
Carboxylic acids such as acetic acid and propionic acid have been investigated as representative components for fast pyrolysis (FP) bio-oil upgrading. Selective catalytic conversion of carboxylic acids can enhance bio-refinery processing economics through catalyst preservation and process intensification. Various metal-doped molybdenum carbide bead catalysts have been synthesized and developed in this work. Our aim is to enable selective conversion of carboxylic acids. In the case of acetic acid conversion, calcium doped Mo2C beads offer the highest yield of acetone ~96% at 450 °C among undoped and Ca or Ni doped catalysts. By comparing hot gas filter with and without Ca-Mo2C catalyst tested with real FP vapors, the former showed a 36.7% reduction of acetic acid, a 37.5% reduction of small ketones in aqueous phase, and a ~50% reduction of methoxies (methoxy phenols and methoxy aromatics) in organic phase. The conversion resulted in the formation of more long chain chemicals in the organic phase, which are more amendable for downstream upgrading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0351.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: blend; bio-derived polymers; compatibilization; thermoplastic matrix for composite
Online: 15 November 2018 (08:49:26 CET)
High density polyethylene (HDPE) and poly(lactic) acid (PLA) blends with different ratios of both polymers, namely 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30, were produced. Polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride and a random copolymer of ethylene and glycidyl methacrylate, were also proposed as compatibilizers to modify HDPE-PLA optimal blends and were added in the amounts of 1, 3 and 5 wt.%. Blends properties have been evaluated through different aspects by performing tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy to analyze blend morphology and interfaces, and thermomechanical analysis through differential scanning calorimetry, thermo-gravimetric analyses and infrared spectroscopy. The second blend, the one with equal amounts of HDPE and PLA seems to represent a good balance between high amount of bio-derived charge and acceptable mechanical properties. This suggests a good potential of these blends, which would be a good starting point for the production of composites with lingo-cellulosic fillers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0318.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Sewage sludge, P bio-availability, P species, SMT protocol
Online: 13 November 2018 (15:07:58 CET)
The species and bio-availability of phosphorus (P) in primary, secondary and digested sludge were fractionated and further analyzed in this study. Results showed that inorganic P (IP) was the primary P fraction in the secondary sludge and digested sludge, in which non-apatite IP (NAIP) amounted to 91.6% and 69.3% of IP, respectively. Organic P (OP), accounting for about 71.7% of total P (TP), was the dominant P composition in primary sludge. The content of bio-available P was about 9.7, 43.4, 29.8 mg-P/g-TS in primary sludge, secondary sludge and digested sludge, respectively, suggesting secondary sludge is the optimal choice when land application of sewage sludge is taken into consideration, followed by digested sludge and primary sludge. Polyphosphate and orthophosphate, comprising approximately 54.3% and 89.2% of TP, was the dominant P species in the secondary sludge and digested sludge, respectively. Monoester-P (54.6% of TP in extract) and diester- P (24.1%) were identified as OP species in primary sludge by Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31PNMR). The present results would be helpful for P recovery and recycle from sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0266.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: cyclic nucleotide monophosphate; bio-reversible protection; acyloxybenzyl phosphate ester
Online: 12 October 2018 (11:32:45 CEST)
Adenine nucleotide (AN) 2nd messengers such as 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are central elements of intracellular signaling, but many details of underlying processes remain still elusive. Like all nucleotides, cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs) are net-negatively charged at physiologic pH which limits their applicability in cell-based settings. Thus, many cellular assays rely on sophisticated techniques like microinjection or electroporation. This setup is not feasible for medium- to high-throughput formats, and the mechanic stress that cells are exposed to raises the probability of interfering artefacts or false-positives. Here, we present a short and flexible chemical route yielding membrane-permeable, bio-reversibly masked cNMPs for which we employed the octanoyloxybenzyl (OB) group. We further show hydrolysis studies on chemical stability and enzymatic activation, and present results of real-time assays, where we used cAMP and Ca2+ live cell imaging to demonstrate high permeability and prompt intracellular conversion of some selected masked cNMPs. Consequently, our novel OB-masked cNMPs constitute valuable precursor-tools for non-invasive studies on intracellular signaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0421.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanoparticles – Bio-nano interfaces – Electrostatic interactions – Supported Lipid Bilayers
Online: 20 September 2018 (16:29:35 CEST)
The impact of nanomaterials on lung fluids or on the plasma membrane of living cells has prompted researchers to examine the interactions between nanoparticles and lipid vesicles. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticle-lipid interaction leads to a broad range of structures including supported lipid bilayers (SLB), particles adsorbed at the surface or internalized inside vesicles, and mixed aggregates. Today, there is a need to have simple protocols that can readily assess the nature of structures obtained from particles and vesicles. Here we apply the method of continuous variation for measuring Job scattering plots and provide analytical expressions for the scattering intensity in various scenarios. The result that emerges from the comparison between modeling and experimental measurements is that electrostatics plays a key role in the association, but it is not sufficient to induce the formation of supported lipid bilayers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1462.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: simulation; modelling; separation; bio-oil; acetol; acetic acid; extraction; distillation
Online: 24 October 2023 (04:12:38 CEST)
Biomass as a whole offers a more diverse potential for valorisation than any other renew-able energy source. As one of the stages in the separation of bio-oil involves the liquid mixture of acetol and acetic acid, and as both components are particularly well suited for valorisation, a hybrid method has been developed for their separation with a high purity level through an approach combining liquid-liquid extraction and rectification. In order to design and simulate the flowsheet, the ChemCAD 7.0 simulation software has been used. Sensitive analyses have been carried out to investigate the influence of the different pa-rameters in the rectification columns such as the reflux ratio, the feed stage location, and the vapour/bottom molar flow ratio. The effect of different extractants and of their excess on the separation process as well as the possibility of regenerating the extractant has also been studied. Tri-n-octylamine has accordingly been selected as a separating agent which has been fully recycled. The end result for separating an initial 48/52 wt% ace-tol/acetic-acid liquid mixture has been acetol with a purity of 99.4 wt% and acetic acid with a purity of 100 wt%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0563.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Energreen; Biomass liquefaction; Pilot Scale; Bio-oils; Sugars extraction; Stabilization
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:41:08 CEST)
The reagents and raw materials used, as well as the products obtained (bio-oil, reaction condensates, polyols and sugar phases) were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The heating value of the bio-oils is higher than that of the original biomass (higher heating value of Eucalyptus sawdust bio-oil 29 MJ/kg versus 19.5 MJ/kg of the original Eucalyptus sawdust). The analyses of the bio-oils allowed to identify the presence of high added-value compounds, such as levulinic acid and furfural. Finally, a study of the accelerated aging of the liquefied biomass showed that the biofuel density increases with the storage time due to the occurrence of repolymerization reactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: bio-waste; material development; engineering; architecture; eco-friendly dry wall
Online: 3 August 2023 (11:11:19 CEST)
Amidst the strong demand for wood-based products, and the clamor of environmental consciousness, more functional and green solutions arise to meet both of these goals. Pursuant to this, the study looked into the potential of a bio-waste taken from Cocos nucifera tree known as phellem—the tree’s outermost skin made of dead tissues, to be a main component of a new construction material. This study builds on existing research showing phellem is impermeable, buoyant, elastic, has a slow burn rate, and repels water during precipitation, which supports the hypothesis that phellem may be a potential substitute material for dry wall boards. To test this, three (3) formulations were developed as experimental setups to test the physico-mechanical properties of coconut palm phellem (COPAP): Formulation A (40% COPAP and 60% cement); Formulation B ( 25% COPAP and 75% cement); and lastly, Formulation C that was (10% COPAP and 90% cement). The study tested (1) which among these formulations exhibited the best physico-mechanical properties, then it (2) compared the formulations with common dry wall products available in the market, and subsequently, (3) identified the possible architectural applications of COPAP board as a new building material. Of the three setups, Formulation C exhibited the best physico-mechanical properties in terms of compressive and flexural strength, fire resistivity, and water absorption. It fared better than the particle board in terms of compressive strength, better than wafer and particle board in fire resistivity, performed best in the water absorption test, and was almost equivalent in flexural strength to fiber cement board. With these findings, the study concluded that COPAP board can be used for projects that entail a high number of interior partitions, such as offices, BPO firms and commercial stalls in shopping malls, etc. The findings were conclusive only for interior applications, as the results clearly suggest that the COPAP boards are not load-bearing. Future investigations may explore and assess other properties of COPAP boards like thermal and sound insulation, resistance to rot and other properties that may prove its competitive advantage as a construction material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1960.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Vine; soil-borne pathogens; chemical control; bio-fungicide; seedling quality
Online: 28 July 2023 (08:38:30 CEST)
In the production of grafted vines, losses are caused by fungal pathogens during callus forming or after planting in the soil. To control or reduce natural fungal infections in nurseries, certain applications were conducted in sapling cultivation stage to analyse the efficacy of cyprodinil + fludioxonil, floupyram + tebuconazole active substances and Trichoderma harzianum biological preparation. 1103 Paulsen rootstock and Vitis viniferea L. Sultana cultivars were stored in fungicide suspensions for 60 minutes before and after grafting in the study. After grafting, the seedlings were divided into i) cutting + sawdust ii) cutting + sawdust + soil application groups and transferred to the callus room. Fungicides were applied 1 to 7 days after the callus development to wet the seedling roots 1 to 7 days after they were planted. After nine months in the nursery, the plants were uprooted, classified as diseased or healthy, and analysed for morphological and molecular diagnosis of fungal species, isolation incidence, and seedling quality and yield. After callus development, Fusarium solani was most frequently isolated pathogen in the roots (21.5%), cyprodinil + fludioxonil reduced the Ilyonectria sp. isolation rate in both shoots and roots. Botryosphaeria obtusa and I. liriodendri pathogens were not detected in sick and healthy cyprodinil + fludioxonil-treated saplings. The highest seedling yield was observed with fludioxonil + cyprodinil, cutting + sawdust + soil (78.75%) and cutting + sawdust (70.68%) applications. According to the results of this study, it was found that fungicide applications before and after grafting prevented soil-borne pathogen infections and improved sapling quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1918.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Açaí seeds; Chemical activation; Pyrolysis; Bio-oil; Acidity; Antioxidants, Hydrocarbons.
Online: 28 July 2023 (03:16:52 CEST)
This study explores the impact of temperature and molarity on the pyrolysis of Açaí seeds (Euterpe Oleraceae, Mart.) activated with KOH on the yield of bio-oil, hydrocarbon content of bio-oil, antioxidant activity of bio-oil and chemical composition of aqueous phase. The experiments were carried out at 350, 400, and 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, with 2.0 M KOH, and at 450 °C and 1.0 at-mosphere, with 0.5 M, 1.0 M and 2.0 M KOH, in laboratory scale. The composition of bio-oils and aqueous phase determined by GC-MS, while the acid value, a physical-chemical property of fundamental importance in biofuels, of bio-oils and aqueous phases by AOCS methods. The antioxidant activity of bio-oils determined by the TEAC method. The solid phase (biochar) characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The diffractograms identified the presence of Kalicinite (KHCO3) in bio-char, and those higher temperatures favor the formation peaks of Kalicinite (KHCO3). The pyrolysis of Açaí seeds activated with KOH show bio-oil yields from 3.19 to 6.79 (wt.%), aqueous phase yields between 20.34 and 25.57 (wt.%), solid phase yields (coke) between 33.40 and 43.37 (wt.%), and gas yields from 31.85 to 34.45 (wt.%). The yield of bio-oil shows a smooth exponential increase with temperature. The acidity of bio-oil varied between 12.3 and 257.6 mgKOH/g, decreasing exponentially with temperature, while that of aqueous phase between 17.9 and 118.9 mgKOH/g, showing and exponential decay behavior with temperature, demonstrating that higher temperatures favor not only the yield of bio-oil but also bio-oils with lower acidity. For the experiments with KOH activation, the GC-MS of bio-oil identified the presence of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones, and esters). The concentration of hydrocarbons varied between 10.19 to 25.71 (area.%), increasing with temperature, while that of oxygenates from 52.69 to 72.15 (area.%), decreasing with temperature. For the experiments with constant temperature, the concentrations of hydrocarbons in bio-oil in-crease exponentially with molarity, while those of oxygenates decrease exponentially, showing that higher molarities favor the formation of hydrocarbons in bio-oil. The antioxidant activity of bio-oils decreases with increasing temperature, as the content of phenolic compounds decreases, and de-creases with increasing KOH molarity, as higher molarities favors the formation of hydrocarbons. Finally, it can be concluded that chemical activation of Açaí seeds with KOH favors the not only the yield of bio-oil but also the content of hydrocarbons. The study of process variables is of utmost importance in order to clearly assess reaction mechanisms, economic viability and design goals that could be derived from chemically activated biomass pyrolysis processes.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: CTs molecular weight; ruminal fermentation; bio-hydrogenation; milk compositions; goat
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:44:56 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of condensed tannin (CTs) with differing molecular weight on their capacity to modify the fatty acid profile in milk. Twenty multiparous crossbred lactating dairy goats were assigned in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), and were subjected to receive the dietary treatments as followings; T1: control (with no CTs supplementation), T2: supplemented with mangosteen peel in a concentrate as a source of low molecular weight CTs at level of 3.0 %DM of CTs equivalent, T3: supplemented with the same diet with T2 but added with polyethylene glycol (PEG, as tannin inactivator) as the control of T2, and T4: supplemented with quebracho CT extract (UNITAN ATO, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 75-77 % tannins) in a concentrate as a source of high molecular weight CTs at level of 3.0 %DM of CTs equivalent, and T5) supplemented with the same diet with T4 but added with PEG as the control of T4. No significant change was detected for feed intake and nutrient digestibility indicate that CTs at level of 3.0 %DM of diet did not showed the detrimental effect to feed intake and nutrient digestibility, however, ruminal fermentation parameters and milk yield and milk compositions did not affected by different source of CT inclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Asphalt rubber; Bio-binder; Component analysis; FTIR; Guayule resin; TGA
Online: 5 September 2020 (09:40:46 CEST)
This research seeks to interpret the component analysis of an innovative bio-asphalt binder using guayule resin in addition to crumb rubber modifier (CRM) at high concentrations. Such asphalt modification aims to minimize the dependency on virgin asphalt binder and provide new solutions concerning sustainable, flexible pavement industry. Guayule resin is a promising bioresource for asphalt binder replacement. By now, it could be considered a no value byproduct extracted during the guayule natural rubber production. CRM is a recycled material derived from scrap tires. The provided interpretation could help in understanding the asphalt-rubber-guayule interaction mechanism. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), supported by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), was used to investigate the component analyses of guayule resin composition, asphalt guayule interaction, and asphalt rubber guayule interaction, compared to corresponding asphalt rubber interaction. Additionally, the rheological properties at elevated temperatures were provided to link the microscale properties with the final product performance. The study clarified the distinct carbon and hydrogen compositional elements of guayule resin. Asphalt and guayule resin have similarities in chemical composition and rheological behavior with temperature susceptibility. The asphalt guayule binder had physical interaction. However, when both interacted with rubber, a chemical interaction was attributed, with no difference in rubber dissolution tendency, in asphalt rubber guayule, compared to asphalt rubber. A bio-binder composed of 62.5% asphalt, 25% guayule and 12.5% CRM had the potential to provide rheological properties better than base asphalt. Such behavior was interpreted by a high release of rubber components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0373.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: carbon nanostructures; nanodiamonds; metal nanoparticles; functionalization electrochemical (bio)sensor; nanocomposites
Online: 31 January 2020 (02:13:31 CET)
The incorporation of nanomaterials on (bio)sensors based on composite materials has led to important advances in analytical chemistry field due to the extraordinary properties that these materials offer. Nanodiamonds (NDs) are a novel type of material that has raised much attention, as they have the possibility of being produced on large scale by using relatively inexpensive synthetic methodologies. Moreover, NDs present some other interesting features as suitability for fluorescence due to surface functionalization and a proved biocompatibility, which makes them well suited for biomedical applications. In addition, NDs can be modified with metallic nanoparticles (NP), such as silver or gold, in order to combine the special features of both. The aim of this research work is the nanostructuration of novel sensing devices using NDs combined with silver (Ag@NDs) and gold (Au@NDs) nanoparticles. A complete morphological and electrochemical characterization as function of the prepared nanocomposite composition have been performed in order to improve the electroanalytical properties of the developed (bio)sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0140.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: shallot; cabbage; green peach aphid; lacewing; bio-stress; companion planting
Online: 13 January 2020 (15:47:15 CET)
Phloem-feeding insects strive to offset the disadvantageous effects of stressors to sustain their offspring and survive. Adaptive responses to environmental stress are not well understood under complex influences of companion planting, natural enemies, and host gradient. In this study, under predation by lacewing Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), we survey the responses of green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), reared on different densities of cabbage Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) to its shallot companion Allium cepa (L.) var. aggregatum G. Don (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae). Firstly, aphid aggregative abundance was strongly influenced by shallot perturbation, predator presence and changes in cabbage-host biomass, altering aphid phenotypic plasticity. Interestingly, the shallot and predation negative impacts can be of similar magnitudes. Secondly, changes in the cabbage-host availability and biomass, especially under predation, had a strong impact on aphid traits. Our study underscores the benefits of including shallots as crop-companions in augmenting pest control, but also suggests that the outcome of coupling companion planting with natural enemies is context-dependent and thus should be empirically applied. At the confluence of ecology and agronomy, this work provides insights on how manipulated functional biodiversity may function as an alternative strategy for pestilent herbivory management in model and green-house systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0080.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: algal oil; green chemistry; green solvents; extraction; biofuel; bio compound
Online: 8 November 2019 (03:16:06 CET)
The procedures for the extraction and separation of lipids and nutraceutics from microalgae using classic solvents have been used many times. However, these production methods usually require expensive and toxic solvents. Based on our studies involving the use of eco-sustainable methodologies and alternative solvents, we select ethanol (EtOH) and cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) for extracting bio-oil and lipids from algae. Different percentage of EtOH in CPME favors the production of an oil rich of SFA useful to production biofuel or rich of compounds bioactive. The proposed method for obtain a rich extract of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids from dry algal biomass is disclosed is eco-friendly and allows a good extraction yield. The method is compared both in extracted oil percentage yield and in extracted fatty acids selectivity to extraction by supercritical carbon dioxide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Bacteriophages; Bio-control; E. coli O157:H7; Podoviridae; TEM, safety
Online: 14 January 2019 (11:18:57 CET)
Bacteriophages can provide alternative measures for the control of E. coli O157:H7 that is currently an emerging food-borne pathogen of severe public health concern. This study was aimed at characterising E. coli O157:H7 specific phages as potential biocontrol agents for these pathogens. Fifteen phages were isolated and screened against 69 environmental E. coli O157:H7. Only 3 phages displayed broad lytic spectra against environmental shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 strains. These 3 lytic phages were designated V3, V7 and V8. Subsequent characterization indicated that they displayed very high degree of similarities despite isolation from different locations. Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM) of the phages revealed that they all had isometric heads of about 73 – 77 nm in diameter and short tails ranging from 20 - 25 nm in diameter. Phages V3, V7 and V8 were assigned to the family Podoviridae based on their morphology. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genome estimation of the 3 phages demonstrated identical genome sizes of ~ 69 nm. The latent periods of these phages were 20 min, 15 min, and 20 min for V3, V7 and V8 respectively while the burst sizes were 374, 349 and 419 PFU/ infected cell respectively. While all the phages were relatively stable over a wide range of salinity, temperatures and pH values, their range of infectivity or lytic profile was rather narrow on environmental E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from cattle faeces. This study showed that the Podoviridae bacteriophages are the dominant E. coli O57:H7-infecting phages harboured in cattle faeces in the North-West Province of South Africa and due to their favourable characteristics can be exploited in the formulation of phage cocktails for the bio-control of E. coli O157:H7 in meat and other meat products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0567.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: bio-impedance, phase angle, over-hydration, body composition, nutrition, hemodialysis
Online: 23 November 2018 (15:01:18 CET)
Background A body composition monitor (BCM) has a role not only in determining over-hydration (OH) but also as an aid to nutritional assessment. For dialysis patient-specific clinical applications of BCM, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between body composition parameters and OH in healthy Chinese individuals. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 314 healthy individuals with a mean age of 45.7±13.1 years. BCM measurements were performed while the subjects were fasting. Results The mean OH level was 0.379±0.81 L. Lean tissue index (LTI) and Lean tissue mass (LTM) were significantly higher in males (p<0.001), while fat tissue index (FTI) was significantly higher in females (p<0.001). In univariate correlation analysis, FTI, Fat, and ATM had a negative correlation with OH in females and all subjects (p<0.05), while LTM and BCM had a positive correlation in all subjects (p<0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between phase angle (PhA) and OH in males, females, and all subjects (r=-0.634, p<0.001; r=-0.666, p<0.001; r=-0.484, p<0.001, respectively). In multivariate linear regression analysis, PhA (b=-1.266, p<0.001), LTM (b=0.987, p<0.001), age (b=-0.307, p<0.001) were independent predictors of OH. Conclusions This study demonstrated that age, LTM and especially PhA, had important roles in predicting OH in healthy Chinese individuals. In the future, PhA may aid in clinical assessment by helping to titrate dry weight among hemodialysis patients with malnutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0364.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Bio-sensing, Extinction cross-section, Nano-particles, Plasmons, Raman scattering.
Online: 15 November 2018 (14:54:58 CET)
In this paper, the far field and near field optical responses of a gold nanoparticle are studied and simulated numerically. The electromagnetic field was excited by an electric dipole located near one end of the nanorod, which is used to model the emission of a quantum dot. Another excitation method was also simulated in which an incident plane wave is used. The excitation of dark plasmon modes of the gold nanorod is presented. The Poynting equation was solved numerically to study the influence of the gold nanorod on the dipole radiative power. In addition, the extinction cross section of the gold nanoparticle illuminated by the incident plane wave was calculated to estimate the amount of the scattered and absorbed light.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: reverse micelles, biomimetic, confinement, water dynamics, nanoparticles, nano(bio) sensors
Online: 2 November 2018 (13:25:22 CET)
This paper presents an overview of the principal structural and dynamics characteristics of reverse micelles (RMs) in order to highlight their structural flexibility and versatility, along with the possibility to modulate their parameters in a controlled-manner. The multifunctionality in a large range of different scientific fields is exemplified in two distinct directions: a theoretical model for mimicry of biological microenvironment and practical application in the field of nanotechnology and nano-based sensors. RMs represents a convenient experimental approach that limits the drawbacks of the conventionally biological studies in vitro, while the particular structure confers them the status of simplified mimics of cells by reproducing a complex supramolecular organization in an artificial system. The biological relevance of RMs is discussed in some particular cases referring to the confinement and crowding environment, molecular dynamics of water and cell membrane structure. The use of RMs in different range of applications seems to be more promising due to their structural and compositional flexibility, a high efficiency and selectivity being achieved. The advance in nanotechnology is based on developing new methods of nanomaterials synthesis and deposition. This review highlighting the advantages of using RMs in synthesis of nanoparticles with specific properties and in nano (bio)sensors design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0552.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Colliguaya integerrima; Colliguaja salicifolia; vegetable oil; bio-polyol; renewable resources
Online: 28 September 2018 (04:44:48 CEST)
In this study we investigated the potential of two non-edible oil extracts from seeds of Colliguaya Integerrima (CIO) and Colliguaja Salicifolia (CSO) to use as a renewable source for polyols and eventually polyurethane foams or biodiesel. For this purpose, two novel polyols from the aforementioned oils were obtained in a one-single step reaction using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid. The polyol derivatives obtained from the two studied oils were characterized by spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR), physico-chemical (e.g. chromatographic analysis, acid value, oxidizability values, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification number, kinematic viscosity, theorical molecular weights, density, hydroxyl number and hydroxyl functionality) and thermal (TGA) analyses according to standard methods. Physico-chemical results revealed that all parameters, with the exception of the iodine value, were higher for bio-polyols (CSP and CIP polyols) compared to the starting oils. The NMR, TGA and FT-IR analyses demonstrated the formation of polyols. Finally, the OH functionality values for CIP and CSP polyols were 4.50 and 5.00, respectively. This result indicated the possible used of CIP and CSP polyols as a raw material for the preparation of polyurethane rigid foams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0283.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: energy policy; energy economics; renewable energy; fossil energy; nuclear energy; hybrid energy; teaching
Online: 23 May 2022 (03:33:09 CEST)
Issues related to safe and abundant energy production have been prominent in recent years. This is particularly tr ue when society considers how to increase the quality of life by providing low-cost energy to citizens. A significant concern of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) relates to the environmental effects of energy production and energy use associated with climate change. Efforts to reduce fossil fuel use and increase the use of renewable energy, together with the price volatility of fossil fuels, have seriously impacted the economics of many of the oil-producing countries, particularly the Gulf States, which has led to efforts to make their economies more diverse and less dependent on oil production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2079.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Energy literacy; energy reviews; energy-related knowledge; energy transitions; energy education.
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:21:33 CEST)
The world is facing an energy crisis. Governments are seeking to provide universal energy access and guarantee energy security while trying to mitigate climate change. One possible solution is energy transitions towards low carbon energy systems. Among other things (physical infrastructure, public policy and regulatory enablers and knowledge and capacities) changes in the energy systems require a well informed and participative citizenship. Within this context the concept of energy literacy appears. Energy literacy is the understanding of how energy is generated, transported, stored, distributed and used, awareness about its environmental and social impacts and the knowledge to use it efficiently in the different sectors of the economy. This paper provides a systematic literature review in the Web of Science’s Core Collection. Most of the work done around energy literacy addresses its evaluation among different groups, particularly students at different levels, and the construction, application and evaluation of tools for improving energy literacy. Other frequently studied issues are the influence of energy literacy in decision making, its drivers and conceptual research about the topic. Energy enables citizens to effectively contribute to energy efficiency and sustainable development, nevertheless energy literacy is not strongly correlated to energy consumption habits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1827.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: collagen; Chitin; Chitosan; circula (bio)economy; market opportunities; sustainability; SWOT; PESTEL
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:30:32 CET)
Chitin/chitosan and collagen are two of the most important bioactive compounds with applications in the pharmaceutical, veterinary, nutraceutical, cosmetic, biomaterials, and other industries. When extracted from fish and shellfish non-edible parts, by-catches, and invasive species, their use contributes to a more sustainable and circular economy. The present article reviews the scientific knowledge and publication trends along the marine chitin/chitosan and collagen value-chains and assesses how researchers, industry players, and end-users can bridge the gap between scientific understanding and industrial applications. Overall, research on chitin/chitosan remains focused on the compound itself rather than its market applications. Still, chitin/chitosan use is expected to increase in food and biomedical applications, while that of collagen is expected to increase in biomedical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and nutritional applications. Sustainable practices, such as the reuse of waste materials, contribute to strengthen both value-chains; the identified weaknesses include the lack of studies considering market trends, social sustainability, and profitability, as well as insufficient examination of intellectual property rights. Government regulations, market demand, consumer preferences, technological advancements, environmental challenges, and legal frameworks play significant roles in shaping both value-chains. Addressing these factors is crucial for seizing opportunities, fostering sustainability, complying with regulations, and maintaining competitiveness in these constantly evolving value-chains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0627.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Bio-cementation; Sustainable Construction Materials; Building Construction; Soil Stabilization; Sporosarcina Pasteurii
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:54:56 CEST)
With the development of bioinspired green solutions for sustainable construction over the past two decades, bio-cementation, which exploits the naturally occurring phenomenon of calcium carbonate precipitation in different environments, has drawn a lot of attention in both building construction and soil stabilization. Various types of microorganisms, along with specific enzymes derived from these microorganisms, have been utilized to harness the benefits of bio-cementation. Different application methods for incorporating this mechanism into the production process of the construction material, as well as a variety of experimental techniques for characterizing the outcomes of bio-cementation, have been developed and tested. Despite the success of bio-cementation as a sustainable method to construction has been demonstrated in a significant body of literature at the laboratory scale, the expansion of this strategy to construction sites and field application remains a pending subject. The issue may be attributed to two primary challenges. Firstly, the complexity of the bio-cementation phenomenon is influenced by a variety of factors. Secondly, the extensive body of literature examines various types of microorganisms under different conditions, leading to a wide range of outcomes. Hence, this study aims to examine the recent advancements in utilizing the most commonly employed microorganism, Sporosarcina Pasteurii, to emphasize the significance of influential factors identified in the literature, discuss the findings that have been brought to light, and outline future research directions toward scaling up the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: biosimilars; bio-originators; biologic drug; ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; interchangeability; economics
Online: 31 August 2023 (02:41:46 CEST)
While biologic originators’ patents are expiring, biosimilars are emerging to take their place, offering significant cost savings to healthcare systems. Many challenges still need to be addressed in the clinical practice of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A global survey was organized to highlight physicians’ current knowledge and beliefs and to gain insight about their practical management and remaining concerns and obstacles associated with starting a biosimilar, switching from an originator to a biosimilar, or switching from one biosimilar to another (multiple switches and reverse switching). Fifteen physicians with expertise in the field of IBD from 13 countries attended a virtual international consensus meeting to develop practical guidance regarding biosimilar adoption worldwide, considering the survey results. Consensus was reached on 10 statements regarding biosimilar effectiveness, safety, indications and rationale, multiple switches, therapeutic drug monitoring of biosimilars, non-medical switching and future perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0280.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: foamed concrete; porous structure; mechanical strength; bio-based concrete; hemp shiv
Online: 6 July 2023 (02:34:10 CEST)
This study investigates the influence of the porous structure, on the density and the mechanical behaviour of new foam concretes incorporating hemp shives. A total of eight batches of foam concretes were manufactured and tested, made with a protein-based foam agent, containing cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag and Metakaolin as binder and hemp shives as natural aggregate. The effect of several parameters is studied, elaboration method (direct and preformed), amount of pozzolanic additions (0% and 30%) and incorporation of hemp shives (5 and 15 vol%) on the resulting physical properties, microstructure, porous structure and mechanical behaviour of the concretes. Hemp shives incorporation results in increased concrete porosity and air bubble radius, decreased uniformity and mechanical strength, and lower cohesion with the cement matrix compared to standard concretes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0759.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Polyamideamine-epichlorydrin resin; chitosan; bio-based wet strength agents; paper packaging
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:21:26 CEST)
Polymeric wet-strength agents are important additives used in the paper industry to improve the mechanical properties of paper products, especially when they come in contact with water. These agents play a crucial role in enhancing the durability, strength, and dimensional stability of paper products. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the different types of wet-strength agents available and their mechanisms of action. We will also discuss the challenges associated with the use of wet-strength agents and the recent advances in the development of more sustainable and environmentally friendly agents. As the demand for more sustainable and durable paper products continues to grow, the use of wet strength agents is expected to increase in the coming years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0778.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Finger kinematics; Motion coordination; Grasping and release; Robotic hand; Bio-inspired
Online: 23 April 2023 (05:24:47 CEST)
Bionic robotic hand can perform many movements similar to human hand. But there is still a significant gap in manipulation between robot and human hand. It is necessary to understand the finger kinematics and motion patterns of human hand to improve the performance of robotic hand. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate normal hand motion patterns by evaluating the kinematics of hand grip and release in healthy individuals. The data corresponding to rapid grip and release were collected from the dominant hand of 22 healthy people by sensory glove. The kinematics of 14 finger joints were analyzed, including the dynamic range of motion (ROM), peak velocity, joint sequence and finger sequence. The results show that the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint had a largest dynamic ROM than metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints. Besides, the PIP joint had the highest peak velocity, both in flexion and extension. For joint sequence, the PIP joint moved prior to the DIP or MCP joints during flexion, while extension started in DIP or MCP joints, followed by PIP joint. Regarding the finger sequence, the thumb started to move before four fingers, and stopped moving after the fingers during both grip and release. This study explored the normal motion patterns in hand grip and release, which provided kinematic reference for the design of robotic hand and thus contribute to its development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0272.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: design education; design activity; design model(s); analogical reasoning; bio-inspiration
Online: 15 March 2023 (08:47:22 CET)
From the merge of arts and crafts towards a practice for mass production of desirability, consumption and product development in a capitalist economy of scale, design has lost its natural ability of problem comprehension and tension alleviation. The modern world needs the creativity, flexibility, and responsiveness embedded into design practices, mostly when a behavioural change, either individual or organizational, is intended. Still, the informality nature of the field is creating a gap between the study, research, and industrial design practice. Here it is presented the Biology of Creativity Model (BoC) which is a design-by-analogy method that promotes an empowered design practice through analysis of mostly biology reference texts for enhanced creativity and innovation performance in a diverse array of contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0387.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: bio-stimulant; seaweed liquid extract; rice; Oryza sativa; plant growth promoter
Online: 25 October 2022 (10:55:27 CEST)
Rice is considered as the most important crop for most of the world population. Utilization of seaweed as bio-stimulant can be an alternative way to enhance rice plant growth and productivity, as well as a strategic move to reduce the use of inorganic fertilizer that is harmful to the environment. Seaweed and its derivative products have been widely used as bio-stimulant in the agricultural industry because of their potential use in increasing plant growth and productivity. Auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinin are some of growth regulators found in seaweed extract, as well as macro and micronutrients required for plant growth and development. Several studies have found that seaweed extract has a variety of favorable effects as a plant growth promoter, including early seed germination and establishment, improved nutritional quality, increased yield and crop performance, and increased tolerance to environmental stress. The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the impacts of several seaweed species on seed germination, crop development and production, enhancement of rice plants (Oryza sativa) nutritional quality and the modes of action of seaweed extract includes the chemical components that might be causing plant physiological changes.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Bio-Binder; Guayule Resin; HMA; Mix Performance; Superpave Mix Design; Sustainability
Online: 20 August 2021 (08:54:55 CEST)
Literature revealed the potential of using guayule resin for asphalt cement replacement from the binder’s perspective. However, monitoring guayule resin through binder-aggregate mixture could disclose its performance through field. In this study, designated binders were employed to investigate the applicability of such an innovative replacer through mixture, which were neat asphalt and guayule-based binders (neat guayule, asphalt-rubber-guayule, guayule-rubber binders). Consecutively, field-simulated lab mixtures were prepared to investigate the major distresses. Moisture damage, rutting, fatigue cracking, and thermal cracking resistances were investigated using the modified Lottman (TSR) test, rut test by asphalt pavement analyzer (APA), semi-circular bending (SCB) test, and disk-shaped compact tension (DCT) test, respectively. Additionally, the Hamburg wheel-tracking (HWT) test was employed to evaluate moisture susceptibility and rutting resistance. Outcomes revealed that the neat guayule was susceptible to moisture damage at a 7% air content (Va) when the TSR test was employed. In contrast, all investigated mixtures yielded perfect performances against moisture susceptibility under the HWT test. Guayule-based mixtures perfectly resisted rutting, as analyzed by the rut test and HWT test. Generally, changing parameters (e.g., Va, rubber addition, and partial asphalt replacement by guayule and rubber) enhanced the guayule-based mixture resistance to rutting and moisture damage resulting in acceptable performances. Guayule-based mixture had a high fracture toughness at low temperatures, hence fatigue fracture resistance at intermediate temperatures. Neat guayule mixture with or without rubber addition did not entirely resist thermal fracture. However, partial asphalt replacement by guayule and rubber resisted the thermal fracture to a great extent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0720.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microneedle; microneedle array, interstitial fluid; bio sensing, wearable system; ISF sampling
Online: 30 March 2021 (09:55:02 CEST)
Dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) is a novel source of biomarkers that can be considered as an alternative to blood sampling for disease diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, in vivo extraction and analysis of ISF are challenging. On the other hand, microneedle (MN) technology can address most of the challenges associated with dermal ISF extraction and is well-suited for long-term, continuous ISF monitoring as well as in situ detection. In this review, we first briefly summarise the different dermal ISF collection methods and compare them with MN methods. Next, we elaborate on the design considerations and biocompatibility of MNs. Subsequently, the fabrication technologies of various MNs used for dermal ISF extraction, including solid MNs, hollow MNs, porous MNs and hydrogel MNs, are thoroughly explained. In addition, different sensing mechanisms of ISF detection will be discussed in detail. Subsequently, we identify the challenges and propose the possible solutions associated with ISF extraction. A detailed investigation is provided for the transport and sampling mechanism of ISF in vivo. Also, the current in vitro skin model integrated with the MN arrays will be discussed. Finally, future directions to develop a point-of-care (POC) device to sample ISF are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0618.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Binding sites; Optimization; cell free bacteria condition for metal bio-sorbents
Online: 25 March 2021 (13:59:50 CET)
Bacteria a Microscopic organisms are the most inexhaustible and flexible of microorganisms and constitute a huge division of the whole living earthly biomass, certain microorganisms were found to amass metallic components at a high limit Was Known as Bacterial Bio-sorption Due to their little size, capacity to become under controlled conditions, and their Accommodation to an extensive variety of ecological situations; Potent metal bio-sorbents among microorganisms, at low pH esteems, cell divider ligands are protonated and contend essentially with metals for official. With expanding pH, more ligands, such as amino and carboxyl groups, could be exposed, leading to attraction between these negative charges and the metals, and consequently increment bio-sorption onto the cell surface. Starting with Isolation and identification of heavy metal-resistant bacteria from rock Ore. Studying Factors Affecting Uranium Bio-sorption, Optimization of bacterial growth conditions and optimum for metal uptake by free and immobilized bacterial cells and Desorption ratio of uranium ions adsorbed by Coli. /alginate, All this evidence suggest that functions groups Represented in our study are responsible for metal uptake in our bacterial biomass beside change in peaks position which assigned for it's groups confirm bio-sorption of metal ions from waste due to ions charge interaction comparing with immobilized we found increase in no of binding sites indicate that immobilized bacterial have high efficiency for metal up take which also change in peaks position which assigned for its groups confirm bio-sorption of metal ions from waste due to ions charge interaction, Where the high bio-sorption yield obtained by bacteria, the Uranium & heavy metal bioremediation process expects microorganisms to be joined to a strong surface.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0238.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Artificial reefs; design; building material; bio-monitoring; species diversity; European Atlantic
Online: 13 January 2021 (10:31:56 CET)
Artificial reefs have been deployed in multiple regions of the world for different purposes including habitat restoration and protection, biodiversity and fish stock enhancement, fisheries management and recreation. Artificial reefs can be a valuable tool for ecosystem protection and rehabilitation, helping mitigate the effects of anthropogenic impacts that we face today. However, knowledge on artificial reefs is unevenly distributed worldwide, with some regions having much more quality information available and published (e.g. European Mediterranean Sea area), while others, for instance the North-East Atlantic area, do not. Here, we provide a characterization of purposely built artificial reefs in North-East Atlantic area based on all available literature (i.e. research papers and reports), highlighting the needs and gaps that are vital for establishing future perspectives for artificial reef deployment and research. In the North-East Atlantic area, sixty-one purposely built artificial reefs have been deployed since 1970, mostly between the years 1990-2009, with Spain being the country with the highest number of artificial reefs. The most reported purpose for their deployment is fisheries productivity and habitat/species protection, although, most artificial reefs are multipurpose in order to maximise the benefits of a given financial investment. The majority of artificial reefs were submerged at < 50 m, mainly between 10-20 m of depth. The most used designs were cubic blocks and complex designs made by an array of combined shapes, which mostly consist of concrete (79%). From all the analysed data on artificial reefs, 67% of the cases reported surveys to assess biodiversity after the deployment. However, in 26% of those cases, data was not available. When data was available, only 31% of cases reported long-term biomonitoring surveys (3 years or more). Based upon these findings, we noticed a general lack of scientifically robust data, including records of species and abundance of both fish and invertebrates, as well as macroalgae. Preventing an adequate determination of the best balance between shape, construction material and bio-colonization. Critiques and suggestions are discussed in the light of current available data in order to perform more efficient research, evaluation and functioning of future artificial reefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0695.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: clay minerals; limestone; biochar; trace elements; bio-availability; alkaline degraded soils
Online: 28 September 2020 (17:52:02 CEST)
Ca-bentonite (CB) alone and in a mixture with limestone (L), tobacco biochar (TB) and zeolite (Z) on the fixation, geochemical fractions and absorption of Cd and Zn by Chinese cabbage in smelter heavily polluted (S-HP) and smelter low polluted (S-LP) soils were investigated. The results showed that the CB+TB and CB+L+TB treatments significantly immobilized Cd up to 22.03% and 29.68%, respectively, and reduced uptake by Chinese cabbage shoot to 35.98% with CB+Z+L and 61.35% with CB+L in S-HP and S-LP soils compared with the control. The CB+ Z+ L+TB treatment mobilized Cd up to 4.45% and increased absorption in the shoot by 9.85% in S-HP soil. The greatest immobilization of Zn was 53.18% and 58.20% with the CB+Z+L+TB treatment, which reduced Zn uptake in the plant shoot by 9.94% with CB + L and 58.04 with CB+Z+L+TB in S-HP and S-LP soils. The CB+Z+TB and CB+TB treatments mobilized Zn up to 35.40% and 4.80%, respectively, in both soils. Furthermore, the uptake of Zn in plant shoot was observed by 58.96% and 7.82% with application of CB+Z and CB+TB treatments, respectively, in S-HP and S-LP soils. Overall, our results suggest that Ca-bentonite alone and in mixtures with different amendments can be used to reduce the phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn in Zn-smelter polluted soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0306.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Egyptian mongoose; Gut microbiota; Microbial profiling; Bio-ecology; Mediterranean Wild Carnivores
Online: 21 February 2020 (08:02:59 CET)
Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) is a medium-size carnivore that in Europe is restricted to Iberia. The bio-ecology of this species remains to be elucidated in several dimensions, including gut microbiota that is nowadays recognized as a fundamental component of mammals. In this work, we investigated the gut microbiota of this herpestid by single-molecule real-time sequencing of twenty paired male (n=10) and female (n=10) intestinal samples. This culture-independent approach enabled microbial profiling based on 16S rDNA and investigation of taxonomical and functional features. The core gut microbiome of the adult subpopulation was dominated by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Eight genera were uniquely found in adults and five in non-adults. When comparing gut bacterial communities across sex, four genera were exclusive of females and six uniquely found in males. Despite these compositional distinctions, alpha- and beta-diversity analyses showed no statistically significant differences across sex or between adult and non-adult specimens. However, males presented a significantly higher abundance of amino acid and citrate cycle metabolic pathways, compared to the significant overrepresentation in females of galactose’ metabolic pathways. Adults showed a significantly higher abundance of cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance pathways, while non-adults bared a significant overrepresentation of two-component systems associated with antibiotic synthesis, flagellin production and chemotaxis control. This study adds new insights into mongoose bio-ecology palette, highlighting taxonomical and functional microbiome dissimilarities across sex and age classes, possibly related to primary production resources and life-history traits that impact on behavior, diet and gut ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0185.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: bioeconomy; bio-based products; GDP; policy measures; sustainability assessment; sustainable development
Online: 16 April 2018 (04:54:19 CEST)
Developments in technology have enabled envisioning the derivation of materials and products from renewable biomass, as an alternative to finite fossil-based resource consumption. Therefore, bioeconomy is regarded as an opportunity for sustainable economic growth. Countries are formulating strategies in accordance with their goals to attain from bioeconomy. Proper measurement, monitoring and reporting of the outcomes of these strategies is crucial for long-term success. This study aims to critically evaluate the national methods used for the measurement, monitoring and reporting of bioeconomy contribution to the total economy. For this purpose, research and surveys have been conducted on selected countries (Argentina, Germany, Malaysia, the Netherlands, South Africa and the United States). The results reveal that the bioeconomy targets set up in the strategies often reflect country’s priorities and comparative advantages. However, comprehensive approaches to measure and monitor bioeconomy progress are frequently lacking. Most countries only measure the contribution to gross domestic product (GDP), turnover and employment of the sectors included in their bioeconomy definition, which may provide an incomplete picture. In addition, this study identifies the mismatch between the targets and measurement methods, as the environmental and social impacts of bioeconomy are often foreseen, but not measured. It is concluded that existing global efforts towards a sustainable bioeconomy monitoring can be strengthened and leveraged to measure progress towards sustainable goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: drug delivery; dentine; diffusion; bio-active molecules; CFD; μ-LIF; microfluidics
Online: 14 November 2017 (10:15:29 CET)
This work deals with the numerical investigation of the delivery of potential therapeutic agents through dentinal discs (i.e. a cylindrical segment of the dentinal tissue) towards the dentin-pulp junction. The aim is to assess the main key features (i.e. molecular size, initial concentration, consumption rate, disc porosity and thickness) that affect the delivery of therapeutic substances to the dental pulp and consequently to define the necessary quantitative and qualitative issues related to a specific agent before its potential application in clinical practice. The CFD code used for the computational study is validated with relevant experimental data obtained using micro Laser Induced Fluorescence (μ-LIF) a non-intrusive optical measuring technique. As the phenomenon is diffusion dominated and strongly dependent on the molecular size, the time needed for the concentration of released molecules to attain a required value can be controlled by their initial concentration. Finally, a model is proposed which, given the maximum acceptable time for the drug concentration to attain a required value at the pulpal side of the tissue along with the aforementioned key design parameters, is able to estimate the initial concentration to be imposed and vice versa.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0294.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Dark Energy; Entropic Energy; Suprathermal Energy
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:53:59 CET)
The Universe at last scattering is locally treated as an unbound gas. The internal kinetic energy of the gas effectively constitutes a scalar energy field. The gas’s adiabatic expansion is entropic, giving repulsive entropic pressure. Gas kinetic energy is converted into entropic energy gain (63%) and isoentropic work against gravity (37%) at a constant 63:37 ratio. A three-term expression of the gas’s Hubble parameter is derived and found to be exclusively dependent on its mass density. At last scattering, this model gives a Hubble constant that is 125% of the value found from the ΛCDM model. After partition of Universal mass into the cosmic web of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM), expansion came mostly from the IGM, presently comprising about 84% of total Universal mass and 90% of its volume. The onset of star formation within the cosmic web increased the IGM’s kinetic energy through the action of starlight, giving free electrons as an additional repository. Many of these free electrons are suprathermal. Suprathermal energy from both electrons and protons comprises about half of the IGM’s total kinetic energy and is expressed in the ΛCDM model as “dark energy” Λ. Entropic pressure derives from thermodynamic laws not found within general relativity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0627.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Energy efficiency; Lifecycle analysis (LCA); Embodied energy; Source energy; Site energy; Energy savings; Energy payback period.
Online: 9 November 2023 (10:13:47 CET)
This article aims to assess the benefits of floor-slab insulation measures using extruded polystyrene (XPS) and polyisocyanurate (polyiso) insulation materials at various levels of insulation thicknesses for a detached residential building. The EnergyPlus simulation analysis was carried out within the seven energy zones (represented by eight locations) of South Africa in accordance with the South African national code for building energy efficiency (SANS10400-XA). The energy savings and payback periods due to use of the insulation over a lifecycle period of 50 years were assessed. Cape Town (zone 4) behaved differently from other locations and hardly benefitted from the application of floor-slab insulation measures. Generally, polyiso insulation performed better than XPS, for vertical gap insulation. For vertical gap insulation, lower insulation thicknesses required higher insulation depths to maximize energy savings. Similarly, lower insulation thicknesses required higher perimeter insulation widths to maximize energy savings, for the horizontal perimeter insulation method. The locations that benefitted most from vertical gap floor-slab insulation were Pretoria (zone2), Kimberley (zone6), Nelspruit (zone3), Fraserburg (zone7), Welkom (zone1), Mthatha (zone5), Ixopo (zone5H) and Cape Town (zone4) in that order. This order was almost similar with those for the horizontal perimeter floor-slab insulation and horizontal full floor-slab insulation methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy poverty; primary energy; renewable energy; distributed generation; energy storage
Online: 5 February 2020 (03:31:29 CET)
Following an updated outlook of global energy production and utilization, we show through selected examples from both developing and developed countries how distributed generation from renewable energy sources, and from solar energy in particular, is the key solution to ending energy poverty across the world. Guidelines aimed at policy makers suggest a systems view of energy that will be instrumental in guiding the transition from fossil fuels to combustion-free renewable energy for all energy end uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0705.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy; batteries; energy storage; energy challenges
Online: 9 August 2023 (04:24:25 CEST)
This analysis focuses on identifying the most efficient and cost-effective method of supplying power to a remote site, exploring photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines as primary power sources, and evaluating battery banks and hydrogen storage fuel cell systems as potential storage options. The hydrogen storage system converts surplus renewable power into hydrogen through an elec-trolyzer, storing it for later use in a fuel cell when renewable sources produce less power, enabling efficient energy storage during peak production periods. A sensitivity analysis of wind speed and hydrogen subsystem cost was conducted to evaluate the hydrogen storage system's performance. The optimal system graph suggests that the hydrogen subsystem must significantly decrease in cost to rival the battery bank, and in most cases, both the hydrogen system and battery bank were recommended together, offering reliable and efficient power for the remote site. While the battery bank is presently the more feasible option for powering the remote site, continuous monitoring and evaluation of both systems, considering site location, energy needs, and available resources, are essential to determine the most suitable power supply approach as technology advances and costs evolve over time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: water–energy nexus; energy use; energy intensity
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:44:36 CET)
The water and wastewater sectors are energy-intensive, and so a growing number of utility companies are seeking to identify opportunities to reduce energy use. Though England’s water sector is of international interest, in particular due to the early experience with privatisation, for the time being very little published data on energy usage exists. We analyse telemetry data from Thames Water Utilities Ltd. (TWUL), which is the largest water and wastewater company in the UK and serves one of the largest mega-cities in the world, London. In our analysis, we (1) break down sectoral energy use into their components, (2) present a statistical method to analyse the long-term trends in use, as well as the seasonality and irregular effects in the data, (3) derive energy-intensity (kWh m3) figures for the system, and (4) compare the energy-intensity of the network against other regions in the world. Our results show that electricity use grew during the period 2009 to 2014 due to capacity expansions to deal with growing water demand and storm water flooding. The energy-intensity of the system is within the range of reported figures for systems in other OECD countries. Plans to improve the efficiency of the system could yield benefits in lower the energy-intensity, but the overall energy saving would be temporary as external pressures from population and climate change are driving up water and energy use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0681.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Bio-based aerogel; multi-functional properties; thermal insulation; flame retardant; textile applications
Online: 10 November 2023 (07:29:56 CET)
Given its exceptional attributes, aerogel is viewed as a material with immense potential. Being a natural polymer, cellulose offers the advantage of being both replenishable and capable of breaking down naturally. Cellulose-derived aerogels encompass the replenish ability, biocompatible nature, and ability to degrade naturally inherent in cellulose, along with additional benefits like minimal weight, extensive porousness, and expansive specific surface area. Even with increasing appreciation and acceptance, the undiscovered possibilities of aerogels within the textile sphere continue to be predominantly uninvestigated. In this context, we outline the latest advancements in the study of cellulose aerogel formulation and their diverse impacts on textile formations. Drawing from the latest studies, we reviewed the materials used for the creation of various kinds of cellulose-focused aerogels and their properties, analytical techniques, and multiple functionalities in relation to textiles. This comprehensive analysis extensively covers the diverse strategies employed to enhance the multi-functionality of cellulose-based aerogels in the textile industry. Additionally, we focused on the global market size of bio-derivative aerogels, companies in the industry producing goods, and prospects moving forward.