ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0899.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: frontal incomes; quality of life; obesity; binge eating disorder
Online: 12 May 2023 (07:25:44 CEST)
Frontal incomes play an important role in human behavioral regulation and can be a determinant of eating behavior. The aim of this study was to analyse the frontal incomes in obese patients with and without Binge Eating Disorder (BED), compared to normoweight (NW) subjects and to analyse the effect of sex and binge disorder on quality of life, with age and BMI as covariates. A total of 114 participants comprised three different groups (obese with BED, obese without BED and NW) completed the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL-lite). The results showed that obese patients, with and without BED, have poorer frontal functioning than NW persons. Obese patients with BED have lower performance in frontal income than obese patients without BED. Male participants have a higher perception of quality of life in all dimensions, with women showing lower values in self-esteem and sex life. Obese with BED show greater weaknesses in physical function. These results suggest that low frontal incomes and worse quality of life characterize obese patients, more evident in obese patients with BED.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: binge eating; body image; cognitive control; compulsive behavior; eating disorders; emotional regulation; impulsive behavior; non-suicidal self-injury; self-injurious behavior; urgency
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:26:45 CET)
Eating disorder (ED) symptoms often co-occur with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This comorbidity is consistent with evidence that trait negative urgency increases risk for both of these phenomena. We previously found that impaired late-stage negative emotional response inhibition (i.e., negative emotional action termination or NEAT) might represent a neurocognitive mechanism for heightened negative urgency among people with NSSI history. The current study evaluated whether relations between negative urgency and ED symptoms similarly reflect deficits in this neurocognitive process. One hundred and five community adults completed an assessment of ED symptoms, negative urgency, and an emotional response inhibition task. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, negative urgency and NEAT contributed independent variance to the prediction of ED symptoms, while controlling for demographic covariates and NSSI history. Worse NEAT was also uniquely associated with restrictive eating, after accounting for negative urgency. Our findings suggest that difficulty inhibiting ongoing motor responses triggered by negative emotional reactions (i.e., NEAT) may be a shared neurocognitive characteristic of ED symptoms and NSSI. However, negative urgency and NEAT dysfunction capture separate variance in the prediction of ED-related cognitions and behaviors, distinct from the pattern of results we previously observed in NSSI.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: eating disorder; binge-eating disorder; bulimia nervosa; binge eating, cue-exposure; therapy; treatment; virtual reality
Online: 4 March 2021 (10:08:22 CET)
Binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have adverse psychological and medical consequences. Novel interventions, like the integration of virtual reality (VR) with cue-exposure therapy (VR-CET), enhance outcomes for refractory patients compared to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of translating VR-CET into real-world settings. To investigate this question, adults previously treated for BED or BN with at least one objective or subjective binge episode/week were recruited from an outpatient University eating disorder clinic to receive up to eight weekly one-hour VR-CET sessions. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) eligible patients enrolled; nine (82%) completed treatment; 82% (9/11) provided follow-up data 7.1 (SD=2.12) months post-treatment. Overall, participant and therapist acceptability of VR-CET was high. Intent-to-treat objective binge episodes (OBEs) decreased significantly from 3.3 to 0.9/week (p < .001). Post-treatment OBE 7-day abstinence rate for completers was 56%, with 22% abstinent for 28 days at follow-up. Among participants purging at baseline, episodes decreased from a mean of one to zero/week, with 100% abstinence maintained at follow-up. The adoption of VR-CET into real-world clinic settings appears feasible and acceptable, with a preliminary signal of efficacy. Findings, including some loss of treatment gains during follow-up may inform future treatment development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0156.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: esketamine; ketamine; ketamine assisted psychotherapy; eating disorder; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; binge eating disorder; pharmacology; psychedelics; treatment
Online: 7 March 2022 (08:34:11 CET)
Eating disorders (EDs) are serious, life-threatening psychiatric conditions associated with physical and psychosocial impairments, as well as high morbidity and mortality. Given the chronic refractory nature of EDs and the paucity of evidence-based treatments, there is a pressing need to identify novel approaches for this population. The noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ketamine, has recently been approved for treatment-resistant depression, exerting rapid and robust antidepressant effects. It is now being investigated for several new indications, including obsessive-compulsive, post-traumatic, and substance use disorder; and shows transdiagnostic potential for EDs, particularly among clinical non-responders. As such, the aim of this review is to examine contemporary findings on the treatment of EDs with ketamine, whether used as a primary, adjunctive, or combination psychopharmacotherapy. Avenues for future research are also discussed. Overall, results are encouraging and point to therapeutic value, yet are limited to case series and reports on anorexia nervosa. Further empirical work is thus needed to explore ketamine efficacy across ED subgroups; establish safety profiles and optimize dosing; and develop theory-driven, targeted treatment strategies at the individual patient level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0511.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: bariatric surgery; feeding and eating disorders; binge-eating disorder; food addiction; night eating syndrome.
Online: 21 June 2021 (12:33:11 CEST)
Background: Patients in the postoperative period following bariatric surgery are at risk of developing eating disorders. This study aims to analyse the relation between bariatric surgery and the development and recurrence of eating disorders. Material and methods: Literature review was done on 15th November 2020. Fourteen studies that met the eligibility criteria were included for qualitative synthesis, and 7 studies for meta-analysis. Results: The prevalence of eating disorders in the postoperative period was 7.83%, based on the 7 studies in the meta-analysis. Binge eating disorder alone was 3.81%, which was the most significant factor, and addressed in 6 of these studies. Conclusion: The investigated studies have significant methodological limitations in assessing the relation between bariatric surgery and eating disorders, since they mostly present data on prevalence. PROSPERO CRD42019135614.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotional eating; eating disorder; binge-eating disorder; bulimia nervosa; virtual reality; treatment; somatic marker
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:53:18 CET)
Emotional eating (EE) can be understood as a manifestation of difficulties with emotion regulation (ER) among individuals with eating disorders. Existing interventions do not always successfully treat EE. We developed a novel ER intervention based upon virtual reality to improve EE among adults with an eating disorder diagnosis. The design pivoted to non-immersive virtual delivery to increase access, particularly given heightened demand during COVID-19 for EE treatment. The study aimed to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary signals of effectiveness of this novel ER protocol that utilized evidence-based strategies such as mindfulness and imagery rescripting as well as innovative techniques such as virtual reality. Twenty-one adults with a history of an eating disorder diagnosis and self-reported EE were recruited from the Adult Eating Disorders Program within Stanford University to receive seven weekly one-hour virtual experiences (VE) focusing on ER. Participants chose between the novel VE-Emotion Regulation (VE-ER) intervention or continuing with their current treatment as usual. Before and after the seven sessions, participants completed an assessment by filling out online questionnaires. Overall, VE-ER treatment was feasible (100% completion), and participant and therapist acceptability of VE-ER treatment was fairly high. In terms of preliminary effectiveness, the results showed a significant reduction in the frequencies of disordered eating behaviors in both groups, but a greater improvement in EE in the VE-ER group. The VE-ER group also had a significant reduction in emotion dysregulation after the treatment.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0495.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Sulforaphane; Alcohol; Burkholderia; Binge drinking; MHS cells; Melioidosis
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:03:02 CET)
Binge drinking is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of pneumonic melioidosis can occur in healthy humans; however, binge alcohol intoxication is a major risk factor. Previous findings indicate that a single binge alcohol episode increases Burkholderia spp. infection by reducing alveolar macrophage function. The aim of this study was to test the ability of the phytonutrient sulforaphane (SFN) to rescue the phagocytic function of alveolar macrophages when infected with Burkholderia spp. in vitro. B. thailandensis E264 was used as a useful BSL-1 model to determine the effects of SFN pre-treatment. The primary outcome was macrophage phagocytic killing, while the secondary outcome was the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like (Nrf2) signaling response measured by western blot analysis. Results indicate that alveolar macrophages pre-treated with SFN (5 M) and challenged with 0.2% (v/v) alcohol for 3 or 8 h prior to live B. thailandensis infection improved intracellular killing of B. thailandensis ~2-fold compared to MH-S cells treated with alcohol alone. These data demonstrate that SFN may be an effective pre-treatment option to prevent alcohol mediated immune dysfunction and restore macrophage phagocytic killing of Burkholderia spp. and other similar opportunistic pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0035.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: BRFSS; Binge Drinking; Population Survey; Bereavement; SDG#3; Mental Health
Online: 22 February 2023 (14:30:30 CET)
Binge drinking is a pattern of alcohol abuse. Its prevalence and associated risk factors are not well documented. Heavy drinking, on the other hand, has a well-studied association with bereavement . This report uses a cross-sectional, population-based survey to estimate prevalence of bingeing and its association with new bereavement. Bingeing is defined as 4 or more drinks (women) or 5 or more drinks (men) in a 2-to-4-hour setting. For the first time, the Georgia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) included a bereavement item, ‘Have you experienced the death of a family member or close friend in the years 2018 or 2019?’. Methods: Georgia BRFSS is a complex sampling survey administered annually. It is designed to represent the 8.1 million persons in the U.S. state of Georgia aged 18 years and older. Alcohol consumption patterns are routinely measured in the common core. In the 2019 field survey, the state added a new item probing for bereavement in the prior 24 months predating the pandemic of COVID-19. Imputation and weighting techniques were applied to yield population prevalence rates of new bereavement, bingeing, and their co-occurrence with other high-risk health states. Models, adjusted for age, gender, and race were used to estimate the risk for other unhealthy behaviors posed by the co-occurrence of bereavement and bingeing. Results: In Georgia, bereavement is common (45.8 %), and alcohol consumption is common (48.8 %). Bereavement and alcohol use co-occurred among 1,796,817 persons (45 % of all drinkers). The subset of co-occurring bereavement and binging totaled 608,282 persons. Within this group, the highest rates of bereavement were associated with death of a friend / neighbor (30.7%) or 3 plus deaths (31.8%). Conclusions: While bingeing is a known risk to public health, its co-occurrence with recent bereavement is a new observation. Public health surveillance systems need to monitor this co-occurrence to protect both individual and societal health. In a time of global bereavement, documenting its influence on binge drinking can support the work towards Sustainable Goal #3 – Good health and Well-Being. Keywords: BRFSS, Binge Drinking, Population Survey, Bereavement, SDG#3. Mental Health