ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: social learning; self-efficacy; subjective norm; betel nut chewing; taxi driver
Online: 6 November 2017 (07:27:59 CET)
The betel nut chewing habit of taxi drivers has shown that can promote companionship, relaxation, and emotional stability at work. 19.3% of betel nut behaviors are instigated by an invitation among drivers to engage in the habit. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of social learning, subjective norm, and self-efficacy on betel nut chewing in taxi drivers in Taiwan. We conducted a cross-sectional study on taxis’ driver of betel nut behaviour and measured their evaluations of its consequences using a self-report questionnaire. Other variables include socio-demographic characteristics and chewing-related experience. The overall variance is 44.5% in socio-demographic variable, social learning, self-efficacy, and subjective norm. Results show that the variables of affected betel nut chewing behavior, driving years has the strongest influence, followed by learning about betel nut from the media, relatives, and friends, and education level, which positively affect betel nut chewing behavior. Findings indicated that education related to quitting betel nut chewing, significant others, and rules of the taxi fleet are adopted to design a plan for quitting betel chewing to reduce the positive expectations of taxi drivers for betel nut chewing and decrease their betel nut chewing behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: thyroid nodules; ultrasound; lifestyle; dietary; betel quid; red meat; nut; centenarians
Online: 16 January 2018 (10:04:38 CET)
Thyroid nodules (TNs) are common thyroid lesions in older population. Few studies focused on the prevalence of TNs and its relationship to lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits in centenarians. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of TNs in Chinese centenarians using high-resolution ultrasound equipment and investigate its relationship to lifestyles and dietary habits. The current study was part of China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study (CHCCS) which conducted in Hainan, an iodine sufficient region in China. A total of 874 permanent residents aged 100 years or older (mean age, 102.8 ± 2.8 years) without any missing data were included in the analysis. Among the participants, 649 of them were detected at least one thyroid nodule under the ultrasound examinations. The overall prevalence rate of TNs was 74.3%. The prevalence of TNs was higher in participants who were females, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight than their counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being female, hypertension, diabetes, betel quid consumption, red meat consumption were independent risk factors, while being underweight, and nut consumption were independent protective factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that the presence of thyroid nodules was highly prevalent in Chinese centenarians, particularly in females. In addition to gender, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight, the presence of TNs was independently associated with betel quid, red meat, and nut consumptions. Further prospective studies are warranted to verify these associations in population from different age strata, races, cultures, and iodine backgrounds.