REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0371.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Cyber security; privacy; awareness; impact; cyber-attacks; benefits of cyber security.
Online: 21 November 2022 (04:43:25 CET)
Background: Cyber security is used to save the important data from getting hacked, took by some unknown access. It makes our environment a safe place for us to work out or share our information and since privacy is almost everyone’s top priority, there must be the surety of saving the private information. Methods: In today’s world cyber security is really important as there are now many devices, websites, new technology which makes it a lot easier for hackers to get into anyone’s files which stores crucial data. However, many steps can be reserved to protect the data such as; educating your employees with how to prevent your files or computers from getting hacked, avoid clicking on websites that don’t seem safe, use firewalls, antimalware system and most importantly make sure to keep passwords that are hard to guess and try to go for a face recognition instead of pins and passcodes. Results and Conclusion: This all does not only makes using technology safe but also favors your business for the safety of employees working within the organization. The customers being assured about their data being safe, improves productivity since viruses can slow down computers which may trigger the focus of staff during the working hours. It could save your system from adware; the links of websites are also prevented from slow internet speeds. There is no denying at the fact that cyber security is a major requirement for everyone who is indulged with technology today.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: urban public transportation infrastructure; utilization benefits; coupling coordination degree model; Gini coefficient
Online: 1 March 2017 (10:31:45 CET)
The economic, social and environmental benefits generated by the use of urban public transportation infrastructure constitute a complex dynamic urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit system. This paper evaluates the coupling coordination among these three benefits taking four Chinese autonomous municipalities as an example. These four cities have large-scale urban public transportation infrastructures but their utilization has many serious problems. The basic function of urban public transportation infrastructure has not been fully played in these cities. Whether the different benefits of urban public transportation infrastructure have been developed in harmony or not is unclear. We analyzed the coordinated development among three benefits by constructing coupling coordination degree model and used Gini coefficient to study the difference of coordinated development among three benefits of four cities. The result shows that the levels of coordinated development among three benefits of urban public transportation infrastructure were lower in these four cities and have positive correlation with it of urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit. Raising the level of urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit is the most crucial solution of promoting the coordinated development among three benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: inflation risk; investment returns; life annuity; longevity risk; post-retirement benefits
Online: 7 December 2016 (10:27:23 CET)
Building a social security system to ensure Singapore residents have peace of mind in funding for retirement has been at the top of Singapore Government’s policy agenda over the last decade. Implementation of the Lifelong Income For the Elderly (LIFE) scheme in 2009 clearly shows that the government spares no effort in improving its pension scheme to boost its residents’ income after retirement. Despite the recent modifications to the LIFE scheme, Singapore residents must still choose between two plans: the Standard and Basic plans. To enhance the flexibility of the LIFE scheme while maintaining its simplicity, we propose some plan modifications such that scheme members do not face a dichotomy of plan choices. Instead, they select two age parameters: the Payout Age and the Life-annuity Age. This paper provides an actuarial framework for determining members’ payouts and bequests based on the proposed age parameters. We analyze the net cash receipts and internal rate of return (IRR) for various plan-parameter configurations. This information helps members make their plan choices. To address cost-of-living increases we propose to extend the plan to accommodate an annual step-up of monthly payouts. By deferring the Payout Age from 65 to 68, members can enjoy an annual increase of about 2% of the payouts for the same first-year monthly benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0515.v1
Online: 30 September 2021 (13:57:47 CEST)
This study aims to identify benefits and barriers to distance education, particularly from the perspective of teachers in Saudi Arabia. As the applied data collection tool, a questionnaire was distributed to the general education teachers in three districts. The sample size of the study was 1076 teachers. The results revealed that despite several benefits gained from distance learning, there are also some barriers. Teachers found that the most important advantage in distance learning is the acquisition of technical skills during the online teaching processes, they learn more and use digital education platforms, they have sufficient time to prepare the scientific content, they were able to provide adequate technical solutions for their courses, and they have the opportunity to use multiple media to deliver their courses. With the introduction of distance learning, teachers have explored new ways to deliver course contents to students. It has fostered better ways to provide more interactive real-time and on-demand teaching and learning using modern technology, thus, helping teachers become familiar with the use of electronic resources. It seems that teachers invest in technical methods to enhance students’ performance. Also, teachers reported some obstacles that they face during remote teaching. Most of these problems are connection problems applied with devices and the internet, lack of students’ motivation to learn in distance, problems associated with urban learners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0548.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Gated Communities; Opening Scenarios; Accessibility Benefits; Evaluation; Shanghai
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:36:59 CET)
Opening gated-communities (GCs) has been widely discussed for urban inclusion and revitalization. With the policies of opening GCs being promoted in China, quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of the potential benefits is heavily needed. Taking Shanghai as an example, this study quantifies and analyzes the accessibility benefits and risks of opening GCs with factors including GC types, opening levels, travel modes, and travel destinations considered. We found that (1) opening GCs can bring 50m+ accessibility gains to 17% and 52% of the residents in Moderately Opening (MO) and Completely Opening (CO) scenarios, respectively. (2) Cycling benefits more than walking in all cases and scenarios. (3) For different GCs, conventional GCs have fewer benefits in MO but more in CO than the newly-established one. For different facilities, trips to bus stations demonstrate the largest accessibility gains. (4) The accessibility benefit of a residential building is highly determined by its closeness to the gates and relative location in the block. (5) Only 1% and 5-7% of external trips may penetrate the opened communities in MO and CO scenarios, respectively, which are far less than both expectation and the benefits. These findings precipitate at least two policy implications in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0516.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: benefits; c++; comparative study; execution speed; memory management; python
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:57:01 CET)
In this era of technology, programming has become more significant than ever before. Python and C++ are both widely used programming languages. Python, the most popular programming language in today’s world, is a high-level object-oriented language whereas C++, the language behind most operating systems, is a low-level object-oriented language. In this paper, we present a comparative study of Python and C++. This paper discusses the introduction to these languages, their memory management techniques, and the reasons behind their program execution speed. Furthermore, we analyzed the execution time and memory used by multiple algorithms in both the languages with best, average, and worst cases. They are also compared with respect to the benefits and issues related to them. Results indicate that C++ is faster than Python in execution speed but Python serves as a better language for beginners due to its simplicity. Moreover, for the best results, the language should be selected according to the type of project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Project management; geothermal; co-benefits; sustainable development; innovation, operationalization
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:08:41 CET)
Despite knowledge concerning stakeholders and the economic advantages of consultation, collaboration and innovation, analysis of the sustainability implications of the geothermal industry has tended to take a high-level or systemic overview of national performance. This study seeks to begin to fill this gap in the academic and grey literature, investigating the following research question: how do projects in the Icelandic geothermal energy sector create co-benefits with stakeholders and reflect the integration of sustainable energy development (SED)? The focus of its analysis is on identifying who are the stakeholders, what are the sustainability benefits co-created with stakeholders, and when in the project lifecycle do these occur. Based on eleven semi-structured interviews with project managers in Iceland’s geothermal industry, the study identifies a broad array of stakeholders in the sector, including national and municipal governments and public sector institutions, businesses, the public, employees and landowners. The sustainability co-benefits of Iceland’s geothermal power projects are broad and cut cross all six themes of SED and multiple phases of the project lifecycle. Although the sustainability benefits are very apparent, trade-offs are reported between the pursuit of an economically efficient energy system and nature conservation. This relates to unsustainable utilization of the resources and the environmental externalities of power production and consumption. Efforts to mitigate these effects are ongoing and the further pursuit of SED is likely in Iceland given its recognition within the nation’s new energy policy and to meet ambitious greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets in the government’s climate action plan. These are issues that are prominent in other nations seeking to decarbonize energy systems through increased utilization of geothermal resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: HIV; routine screening; financial benefits; Opt-out approach
Online: 21 October 2022 (03:45:01 CEST)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends everyone between 13-64 years be tested for HIV at least once as a routine procedure. HIV routine screening is reimbursable by Medicare, Medicaid, expanded Medicaid, and most commercial insurance plans. Yet, scaling-up HIV routine screening remains a challenge. We conducted a scoping review for studies on financial benefits and barriers associated with HIV screening in clinical settings in the U.S. to inform an evidence-based strategy to scale-up HIV routine screening. We searched Ovid MEDLINE®, Cochrane, and Scopus for studies published between 2006 - 2020 in English. The search identified 383 Citations; we screened 220 and excluded 163 (outside the time limit, irrelevant, or outside the U.S.). Of the 220 screened articles, we included 35 and disqualified 155 (did not meet the eligibility criteria). We organized eligible articles under two themes: financial benefits/barriers in healthcare settings (9 articles); and Cost-effectiveness in healthcare settings (26 articles). The review concluded recommendations in three areas: (1) Finance: Incentivize healthcare providers/systems for implementing HIV routine screening and/or separate its reimbursement from bundle payments; (2) Personnel: Encourage nurse-initiated HIV screening programs in primary care settings and educate providers on CDC recommendations; and (3) Approach: Use opt-out approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: bioactive compounds; anthocyanins; drug delivery system; nanoparticles; chronic diseases; health benefits
Online: 11 October 2022 (05:04:19 CEST)
Anthocyanins are among the best-known phenolic compounds and possess remarkable biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antidiabetic effects. Despite their therapeutic benefits, they are not widely used as health-promoting agents due to their insta-bility, low absorption, and thus, low bioavailability and rapid metabolism in the human body. Recent research suggests that the application of nanotechnology could increase their solubility and/or bioavailability, and thus, their biological potential. Therefore, in this review, we decided to provide, for the first time, a comprehensive overview of in vitro and in vivo studies on nanocarriers used as delivery systems of anthocyanins, and their aglycones, i.e., anthocyanidins alone or com-bined with conventional drugs to the treatment or management of chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0288.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: System Dynamics; CHP; Energy Recovery; Effluents; Process Industry; Cost-benefits; LCA
Online: 23 May 2022 (09:35:23 CEST)
This study quantified effluents generated during processing in three industry types, estimated the energy potential from the quantified effluents in form of biogas generation, and determined the economic viability of the biogas recovered. Data were procured from relevant scientific publications to quantify the effluents generated from the production processes in the industry types examined using industrial process calculations. The effluent data generated was used on the 2-module biogas energy recovery model to estimate the bioenergy recovery potential within it. Economic and financial analysis was based on cash flow comparison of all costs and benefits resulting from its activities. The effluents generated average daily biogas of 2559 Nm3/gVS, having a daily potential combined heat and power of 0.52 GWh and 0.11 GWh respectively. The Life Cycle Analysis and cost-benefit analysis show the quantity of avoided emissions from using the effluents to generate heat and power for processes, and also the profitability of the approach. Conclusively, the study shows the use of biomass effluents to generate biogas for CHP is a viable one based on the technologies of a reciprocating engine, gas turbine, microturbine, and fuel cell. However, it is recommended that the theoretical estimation be validated using a field-scale project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0308.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Relational benefits; calculative and affective commitment; long-term orientation; multi-channel agency
Online: 13 July 2021 (12:21:34 CEST)
Our study provides guidelines on how to build long-term customer relationship in the non-contract mechanism context. More specifically, the findings show that special, social, and core benefits influence calculative commitment, and operational and special benefits influence affective commitment. This study also supports that calculative and affective commitment play a crucial role in understanding multi-channel agencies’ loyalty. In sum, this study revealed that calculative and affective commitment can be considered as partial or full mediators in the relationship between RBs (relational benefits) and loyalty. This study not only contributed to the existing SET (social exchange theory) and RBs paradigm but also provided practical implications for food distribution management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0119.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Donkey milk; donkey colostrum; mammal’s milk; bioactive peptides; biologic activity; health benefits
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:57:01 CEST)
Due to its similarity with human milk and its low allergenic properties, donkey milk has long been used as an alternative for infants and patients with cow's milk protein allergy. In addition, this milk is attracting growing interest in human nutrition because of presumed health benefits. It has antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumoral, antiproliferative, and antidiabetic activity. Also, it stimulates the immune system, regulates the gastrointestinal flora, and prevents inflammatory diseases. Although all components of donkey milk can contribute to functional and nutritional effects, it is generally accepted that the whey protein fraction plays a major role. The purpose of this review is to highlight the active proteins and peptides of donkey milk in comparison with other types of milk, emphasizing their properties and their roles in different fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0116.v1
Subject: Keywords: environmental benefits and costs, revealed preference, hedonic pricing, travel cost, trade-off game, opportunity cost
Online: 8 July 2019 (12:32:10 CEST)
The objective of this paper was to give an overview of the expressed preference (EP) techniques of environmental valuation. These methods offer estimation of the value of a resource not necessarily willingness to pay (WTP) or willingness to Accept (WTA) compensation rather upper and lower values. The method of measuring individuals’ willingness to pay is usually based on contingent valuation method (CVM). This research focuses on defining, categorizing, and applicability of various environmental valuation techniques that have been and can be applied in attaching value to a given resource using expressed/Revealed preference methods. The study serves as a supplementary synthesis and discussion to the board of knowledge of resource valuation methods. More specifically, selected methods to discussed herein include; contingent valuation method, hedonic pricing model, travel cost method, trade-off game method, the costless-choice method, Delphi method, Replacement Cost Method, Relocation Cost Method, Opportunity cost method, and Cost-benefit Method. In the last part, applicability of the methods is fully illustrated to support future studies on resource valuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: climate proofing; spatial planning; climate change adaptation; framework; cross-regional; integral; co-benefits
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:21:27 CEST)
Spatial planning holds a key role in preventing or mitigating the impacts of climate change on both cities and rural areas, taking a forward-thinking and holistic approach to urban and regional development. As such, spatial planning deals with challenges occurring at different scales and across sectors. The international literature points out the need for horizontal and vertical cooperation to tackle climate change impacts. While there is abundant knowledge regarding the challenges related to climate change at different spatial levels, procedural integration into planning frameworks and practice is currently under-researched. This paper presents a novel theoretical framework that integrates various steps towards a holistic, integrative and adaptive climate proofing process. An iterative process was used for conceptual development, based on literature review followed by external feedback meetings and two workshops with the core team of planning experts responsible for exchange across federal states. By specifically addressing the challenges relating to cross-regional and cross-sectoral planning, this novel framework attempts to (i) facilitate a hierarchy of measures, (ii) maximise co-benefits for various adaptation purposes and climate change mitigation and (iii) foster the long-term institutionalisation of integrative processes across sectors, planning areas and policy levels.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0324.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Farmers' market; Incentive program; SNAP benefits; Double-up Food Buck; Incentive tracking system
Online: 10 November 2020 (15:53:21 CET)
Acceptance of SNAP benefits has increased in farmers’ markets (FM) over the years. However, getting SNAP recipients to take up the opportunity of extra dollars for healthy food options remains a challenge. Thus, we tracked the use of the Double-up Food Buck (DUFB) program among SNAP recipients who visit participating FMs in Utah to understand the unique characteristics of the program users. Our results identified varying types of program users (multiple and single market shoppers, more frequent and less frequent shoppers). While our findings indicate a higher DUFB transaction in token value among frequent users, larger markets are more likely to have higher DUFB transactions with a higher number of market visits compared to smaller ones. In conclusion, while all types of users may add to the total revenue generated by participating FM, additional initiatives are required to encourage frequent visits and uptake of the program for better access to healthy foods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; food-producing animals; dairy products; health benefits; One health; antimicrobial resistance; probiotics; starter cultures; adjunct cultures; protective cultures.
Online: 7 August 2021 (00:17:15 CEST)
Animal products, in particular dairy and fermented products, are natural, major sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Due to their antimicrobial properties, LAB are used in humans and in animals, with beneficial effects, as probiotics or in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In livestock production, LAB contribute to animal performance, health, and productivity. In the food industry, LAB are applied as bioprotective and biopreservation agents, contributing to improve food safety and quality. However, some studies have described resistance to relevant antibiotics in LAB, with the concomitant risks associated to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to foodborne pathogens, their potential dissemination throughout the food chain, and the environment. Here, we summarize the application of LAB in livestock and animal products, as well as the health impact of LAB in animal food products. In general, the beneficial effects of LAB on the human food chain seem to outweigh the potential risks associated with their consumption as part of animal and human diets. However, further studies and continuous monitorization efforts are needed to ensure their safe application in animal products and in the control of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing the possible risks associated with antibiotic resistance and, thus, protecting public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0361.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Agro-economic crop water productivity; Hydro-economic modeling; CSPSO-MODSIM; Economic benefits; Crop pattern planning; Crop water Irrigation depth; Climate change; Iran.
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:12:25 CET)
For water-stressed regions like Iran improving the effectiveness and productivity of agricultural water-use is of utmost importance due to climate change and unsustainable demands. Therefore, a hydro-economic model has been developed here for the Zarrine River Basin with the central concept of that demands are value-sensitive functions, where quantities of water-uses at different locations and times have a changeable economic benefits. To do this, the potential crop yields and the surface and groundwater resources, especially Boukan Dam inflow are simulated using the hydrologic model, SWAT, based on predicted climatic scenarios i.e. quantile mapping-downscaled projections. Then, to allocate the agricultural water based on the agro- economic crop water productivity (AEWP) of crops, a basin-wide water management tool, MODSIM, is customized. Next, a simulation- optimization model has been developed using a coupled CSPSO-MODSIM, to optimize the total AEWP, considering climatic impact and crop pattern scenarios, for 2020-2038, 2050-2068 and 2080-2098 periods. Finally, the optimum crop pattern and crop water irrigation depths are presented for different RCPs and periods. The results indicated that this approach will improve considerably the AEWPs and decrease the agricultural water-use up to 40%. Thus, this integrated model is able to support water authorities and other stakeholder in a water-scarce basin, as is the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0069.v1
Subject: Keywords: waste management; waste minimization; recycling; rural district municipalities; community residents; households; satisfaction levels; willingness to recycle; waste separation; municipal solid waste; benefits and barriers
Online: 25 July 2017 (05:14:07 CEST)
Whereas waste management research has focused on mostly urban municipalities in South Africa, not much is known about the current performance of waste management services from the perspective of community residents in rural municipalities. This study reports on the status and effectiveness of waste management practices from the perspective of community residents in the Umkhanyakude and Zululand Districts in the rural areas of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Making use of structured questionnaires, primary data was obtained by interviewing 333 respondents representing households in the study area. Results have revealed several shortfalls in the provision of municipal waste management services, except for solid waste removal from households (66%), and management of landfill sites (41%). The degree of dissatisfaction for waste management services rendered was very high (97.3%). Furthermore, the majority (61.4%) of respondents were not willing to participate in waste segregation due to lack of appropriate knowledge and infrastructure. The study also pinpointed some benefits associated with waste minimization, as well as barriers constraining effective waste recycling. Based on these findings, there is a dire need for transforming current waste management practices toward increased recycling rates by creating more environmental awareness and a supporting infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0006.v1
Subject: Keywords: Water Framework Directive; ecological and microbiological water quality; choice experiment; willingness to pay for river water quality; conditional logit; latent class analysis; nonmarket benefits
Online: 3 August 2017 (05:52:45 CEST)
One important motivation for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive is the creation of non-market environmental benefits such as improved ecological quality, or greater opportunities for open-access river recreation via microbial pollution remediation. Pollution sources impacting on ecological or recreational water quality can be uncorrelated but non-market benefits arising from riverine improvements are typically conflated within benefit valuation studies. Using stated preference choice experiments, we seek to disaggregate these sources of value for different river users, thereby allowing decision makers to understand the consequences of adopting alternative investment strategies. Our results suggest anglers derive greater value from improvements to the ecological quality of river water, in contrast to swimmers and rowers for whom greater value is gained from improvements to recreational quality. We also find three distinct groups of respondents: a majority preferring ecological over recreational improvements, a substantial minority holding opposing preference orderings and a small proportion expressing relatively low values for either form of river quality enhancement. As such, this research demonstrates that the non-market benefits which may accrue from different types of water quality improvements are nuanced in terms of their potential beneficiaries and, by inference, their overall value and policy implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0270.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: red plum apricot; fruit forest; planting area; benefits; soil water resources use limit by red plum apricot; suitable leaf amount of red plum apricot; sustainable produce of red plum apricot
Online: 26 August 2019 (15:24:14 CEST)
Red plum apricot is the best apricot over the world. Since having been introduced into Guyuan county in 1987 from Shaanxi province, red plum apricot grows well and then has been selected as good varieties to popularize in semirid loess hilly regions because the color of red plum apricot is beautiful, aroma fragrant , and taste is the mix of sour and sweet and nutrition is rich. Since 1995, the yield, benefits and planting area of red plum apricot increase doubly, and the distribution range of red plum apricot increased from Guyuan to the whole Ningxia, and then to Gansu province and so on in the water-limited regions, China. However, there are still some problems in the sustainable produce of red plum apricot. In order to promote the development of red plum apricot and meet people's increasing demand, we should do intensive study of the relationship between red plum apricot and environment and the comparison of possible methods to reduce the bad influence of drought, low temperature and frost on quality and production of red plum apricot, and determine the soil water resources use limit by red plum apricot and the suitable leaf amount of red plum apricot when the planting density equal soil water carrying capacity for red plum apricot and select the best method to reduce or evade the bad influence of soil drought, low temperature, frost and soil drought on red plum apricot to ensure the sustainable produce of red plum apricot in Sustainable Produce of red plum apricot in water-limited regions.