REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1368.v1
Online: 19 June 2023 (14:18:44 CEST)
Cobalt, like other critical elements, is gaining in importance today. The great technological advances and the deep knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of this element have allowed to enhance its applications in various fields, such as: catalysts, paints, alloys for the mechanical and aerospace industries, as well as the medical sector and in recent times, its use within the rechargeable battery industry. The main exploitable deposits are in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which have economic potential due to a strong influence on their mineralization processes. However, the growing demand for cobalt and the search for less dependence on African deposits leads to targeting other regions, so it is necessary to carry out exhaustive exploration to find out the potential of its reserves for a subsequent benefit of the mineral. Generally, cobalt comes as a by-product of the extraction of other metallic minerals, mainly from Cu-Co, Ni-Co, Ni-Cu-Co deposits. From the above, a first review is carried out on the differences that exist in the geochemical, mineralogical and forecast properties that exist within the different deposits that harbor cobalt. As a second review topic, it delves into efficient processing for cobalt recovery, which is generally carried out by flotation, acid leaching, in addition to its recovery from secondary sources, such as batteries and metallurgical waste. However, generally speaking there is still a vast lack of fundamental knowledge about the processability of cobalt. Said processing has been affected from the point of view of mineralogy, that is, understanding and knowing the cobalt-bearing minerals, as well as gangue mineralogy, these aspects exercise significant control during their processing and selection of the most appropriate route. suitable for cobalt extraction (leaching and/or flotation). In this context, the document concludes with a vision of the challenges that the mining industry must implement to enter circular economy models, mainly in the creation of sustainable processes from secondary sources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0010.v3
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: beneficiation; slag; flotation; construction material; soil remediation
Online: 12 August 2022 (06:20:08 CEST)
Mining is an important industry, accounting for 6.9% of global GDP. However, global development promotes accelerated demand, resulting in the accumulation of hazardous waste in land, sea, and air environments. It reached 7 billion tonnes of mine tailings generated yearly worldwide, and 19 billion solid tailings will be accumulated by 2025. Adding to this, the legacy of environmental damage from abandoned mines is worrying; in Canada there are around 10,000 abandoned mines, 50,000 in Australia, 6,000 in South Africa, and 9,500 coal mines in China, reaching 15,000 by 2050. In this scenario, restoration techniques from mining tailing have become increasingly discussed among scholars due to their potential to offer benefits towards reducing tailings levels, thereby reducing environmental pressure for the correct management and adding value to previously discarded waste. This review paper explores available literature on the main techniques of mining tailing recycling and reuse and discusses leading technologies, including the benefits and limitations, as well as emerging prospects. The findings of this review serve as a supporting reference for decision-makers concerning the related sustainability issues associated with mining, mineral processing, and solid waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0353.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Estonian phosphorite; beneficiation; reverse flotation; phosphate concentrates; phosphate recovery
Online: 14 December 2020 (15:56:13 CET)
Phosphorus is essential and non-substitutable chemical element required for the cellular processes of all living organisms. The main source of phosphorus in the biosphere is phosphate rock. With more than 700 Mt P2O5, Estonia holds the largest sedimentary phosphate rock deposits in European Union. Estonian phosphate rock is principally sandstone that holds abundant remains of phosphatic brachiopod shells and compared to other sedimentary rocks, is particularly outstanding by its remarkably low content of hazardous heavy metals such as Cd and saturated by valuable elements present in the rock such as rear earth elements (REEs).