ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0307.v1
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:51:18 CET)
Usually in the manufacture of beer by fermentation of barley, in both industrialized and developing countries significant amounts of organic solid waste are produced from barley straw. These possibly have an impact on the carbon footprint with an effect on global warming. According to this, it is important to reduce environmental impact of these solid residues, and an adequate way is the recycling using them as raw material for the elaboration of handmade paper. Therefore, it is required to manage this type of waste by analyzing the environmental impact, and thus be able to identify sustainable practices for the treatment of this food waste, evaluating its life cycle, which is a useful methodology to estimate said environmental impacts. It is because of this work shows the main results obtained using the life cycle analysis (LCA) methodology, to evaluate the possible environmental impacts during the waste treatment of a brewery located in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The residues evaluated were barley straw, malt residues and spent grain, and at the end, barley straw was selected to determine in detail its environmental impact and its reuse, the sheets analyzed presented a grammage that varies from 66 g/m2 and 143 g/m2, resistance to burst was 117 to 145 kpa, with a crystallinity of 34.4% to 37.1%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0380.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: barley; sowing date; seed rate; row spacing; yield
Online: 31 January 2020 (05:21:36 CET)
The precise information regarding the date of sowing, seed rate and row spacing is critical for achieving yield targets and better economic returns of barley. Therefore here, we determined the information regarding the optimum date of sowing, seed rate, spacing and economic aspects for barley production. This study was conducted for three years, in north Indian plains. Early sowing date of barley (last week of October) recorded higher yield in comparison to late sown crop (3rd week of November). Moreover, the higher barley production proved more remunerative when sown early in the last week of October to the first week of November as compared to late sown the late sown crop. Furthermore, the enhanced seed rate of 10% then recommended did not affect the grain yield of barley. But, the closer spacing of 20 cm (row to row) produced higher grain yield (5.45 Mg ha-1 ) than the recommended spacing of 22.5 cm (5.30 Mg ha-1). Likewise, the economical parameters (net returns) were higher with 20 cm row spacing. Overall, this study determines the optimum date of sowing, seed rate and spacing for scoring better returns of barley crop under north Indian conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0253.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: technical efficiency; stochastic frontier; trans-log; Meket; Barley
Online: 23 March 2018 (08:54:55 CET)
This study analyzed the technical efficiency of barley production by smallholder farmers in Meket district, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. A cross sectional data from a sample of 123 barley producers during the 2016/17 production season was collected by applying two stage random sampling. To address the objective of the study, both descriptive statistics and econometric models were used to analyze the data. The trans-log functional form of the production function simultaneously with single stage estimation approach was used to estimate the production of barley output and technical inefficiency factors. The estimated stochastic production frontier model indicated that input variables such as fertilizer, human labor and oxen power were the significant variables to increase the quantity of barley output while, barley seed had a negative effect. The estimated mean levels of technical efficiency of the sample farmers were about 70.9% which revealed that, presence of a room to increase their technical efficiency level on average by 29.1% with the existing resources. The discrepancy ratio gamma indicated that 63% of the total variation from the frontier comes due to technical inefficiency while, the remaining 37% comes due to factors outside the control of farmers. Among the hypothesized factors that affect technical inefficiency; education level, extension contact and number of barley plots significantly and negatively affected technical inefficiency score. Besides, practice of crop rotation, distance of residence from the nearest main market, total expenditure and soil fertility was found to have a positive and significant effect. Hence, emphasis should be given to decrease the inefficiency level of those more inefficient farm households via experience sharing among the farmers and usage of improved or certified barley seed. Besides to this, policies and strategies of the government should be directed towards increasing farmers’ education, improve the system of input distributions and institutional facilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Pakistan; bajra; barley; jowar; crops production; agricultural gross domestic product
Online: 24 May 2019 (09:02:30 CEST)
This paper investigates and explores the minor crops production in Pakistan and its association with the agricultural gross domestic product. The agriculture sector of Pakistan has a rich contribution to the economic growth and development. Like major crops; minor crops also have a vital role to boost up the agriculture sector. Time span data was used in this study and it was collected from the Economy Survey of Pakistan annual reports. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method was used to analyze the data and results were interpreted by employing the Johansen co-integration test. Study results reveal that bajra, barely and jowar has a significant impact on the agricultural gross domestic product, while the total cropped area has a negative impact on AGDP. On the basis of the study results, we recommend the policy implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0086.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: activated carbon; barley husk; corn cob; agave leaves; biomass; thermogravimetry
Online: 14 December 2017 (07:46:00 CET)
Biomass is a promising alternative and renewable energy source that can be transformed into other value-added products such as activated carbon. In this research, barley husk, corn cob and Agave salmiana leaves were characterized to determine their chemical composition and morphology to evaluate their potentiality as precursors of activated carbons. Based on the main composition results obtained, the biomass samples have suitable chemical and physical characteristics to be considered as good precursors of activated carbons, such as carbon contents greater than 40%, ash content less than 10%, moisture content less than 30%, high volatile contents with values from 75 to 80% and a porous and fibrous morphology. The results indicate that the main compositions in the biomass were cellulose and lignin. The cellulose content was more than lignin (15–26%) for the residues selected. Specifically, a-cellulose contents with values from 52% to 79%, β-cellulose contents of 13–44%, γ-cellulose contents less than 11%, and holocellulose contents of 82–83% were determined. The thermal decomposition for the biomass samples proceeded with five stages attributed to the evaporation of some volatile compounds (70–150 ºC), to the degradation of hemicellulose (180–230 ºC), to the cellulose volatilization (250–350 ºC), to the lignin decomposition (380–550 ºC), and to the degradation of complex polymers and inorganic salts, respectively. The stage corresponding to the cellulose decomposition showed rapid mass decreased in the three residues. This results show that the cellulose and lignin content is another important parameter to evaluate the pyrolysis characteristics of a good precursor of activated carbon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0378.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: FHB; plant metabolomic; plant-pathogen interaction; barley; wheat; Brachypodium distachyon; pathway enrichment
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:22:55 CEST)
Background: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious fungal disease of crop plants due to substantial yield reduction and production of mycotoxins in the infected grains. The breeding progress in increasing resistance with maintaining a high yield is not possible without a thorough examination of the molecular basis of plant immunity responses; Methods: LC-MS based metabolomics approaches powered by three-way ANOVA and differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) selection, correlation network and functional enrichment were conducted on grains of resistant and susceptible to FHB genotypes of barley and wheat as well as model grass Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) still poorly known at metabolomic level; Results: We selected common and genotype-specific DAMs in response to F. culmorum inoculation. Immunological reaction at metabolomic level was strongly diversified between resistant and susceptible genotypes. DAMs common for all tested species from porphyrins, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids metabolic pathways were highly correlated and reflects conservativeness in FHB response in Poaceae family. Resistant related DAMs belonged to different structural classes including tryptophan derived metabolites, pirimidines, amino acids proline and serine as well as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. Physiological response to F. culmorum of Bd was close to barley and wheat genotypes however, metabolomic changes were strongly diversified. Conclusions: Combined targeted and untargeted metabolomics provides comprehensive knowledge about significant elements of plant immunity with potential of being molecular biomarkers of enhance resistance to FHB in grass family. Thorough examination of Bd21 metabolome in juxtaposition with barley and wheat diversified genotypes facilitate their setting as model grass for plant-microbe interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0323.v2
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: epigenetics; differentially methylated markers (DMMs); LEAVES; roots; DNA methylation; salinity stress; barley
Online: 15 June 2018 (06:10:53 CEST)
Salinity can negatively impact crop growth and yield. Changes in DNA methylation are known to occur when plants are challenged by stress and have been associated with the regulation of stress-response genes. However, the role of DNA-methylation in moderating gene expression in response to salt stress has been relatively poorly studied among crops such as barley. Here, we assessed the extent of salt-induced alterations of DNA methylation in barley and their putative role in perturbed gene expression. Using Next Generation Sequencing, we screened the leaf and root methylomes of five divergent barley varieties grown under control and three salt concentrations, to seek genotype independent salt-induced changes in DNA methylation. Salt stress caused increased methylation in leaves but diminished methylation in roots with a higher number of changes in leaves than in roots, indicating that salt induced changes to global methylation are organ specific. Differentially Methylated Markers (DMMs) were mostly located in close proximity to repeat elements, but also in 1094 genes, of which many possessed gene ontology (GO) terms associated with plant responses to stress. Identified markers have potential value as sentinels of salt stress and provide a starting point to allow understanding of the functional role of DNA methylation in facilitating barley’s response to this stressor.