ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1616.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Trichoderma; maize; wheat; barley; host range
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:07:54 CEST)
Trichoderma sp. is a fungus in the genus Trichoderma, ubiquitous in soils, on plant roots and in decaying plant residues. Due to its competitiveness and mycoparasitic potential against other microorganisms, particular strains of Trichoderma sp. are used in agriculture as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. However, Trichoderma afroharzianum. has been recently reported as a pathogen causing ear rot disease on maize in Germany, France and Italy leading to massive infections on maize cobs. This raised the question, whether and to what extend Trichoderma can infect other cereal crops than maize and cause disease symptoms and yield losses. To address this question, two varieties of wheat, barley and sorghum millet were grown in the greenhouse and artificially inoculated with T. afroharzianum by both spray and point inoculation at the time of flowering. Disease severity was scored weekly and thousand-kernel weight and colonization rate were determined after harvest. As early as 14 days after inoculation, the first visual symptoms appeared on wheat and barley as tan or brown discoloration of the base of a floret within the spikelets. After spray inoculation, clear discolorations of the entire ear were seen, while point inoculation only showed symptoms at the injection site and above. No visible symptoms were observed on sorghum millet. The colonization rate on wheat and barley grains was significantly increased compared to the control while thousand kernel weights (TKW) were significantly reduced. No differences in colonization rate and TKW compared to the control were observed in sorghum. This is the first report of Trichoderma afroharzianum infecting wheat and barley, causing diseases symptoms and significantly reducing thousand-kernel weights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1496.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: prolamins; highland barley; composition; structure; functionalities
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:43:07 CEST)
The composition, structure and functionalities of prolamins from highland barley was investigated. These parameters of was compared with the widely applied prolamins (zein). There are more charged and hydrophilic amino acids in prolamins from highland barley than zein. The molecu-lar weight of prolamins from highland barley were between 30 to 63 kDa, which was larger than zein (20 to 24 kDa). β-turn helices is the main secondary structure in prolamins from highland barley, while α-helical structure is the main secondary structure in zein. The water holding capacity, thermal stability, emulsifying capacity and stability of prolamins from highland barley is quite lager than zein, while opposite results can be observed for oil absorption capacity. The diameter of fibers prepared with prolamins from highland barley was almost 6 times that of zein, while ribbon structures rather than fibers were formed by prolamins from highland barley. The results would provide the guidance for application of prolamins from highland barley.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0307.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Barley straw; Straw; Handmade paper; Properties
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:51:18 CET)
Usually in the manufacture of beer by fermentation of barley, in both industrialized and developing countries significant amounts of organic solid waste are produced from barley straw. These possibly have an impact on the carbon footprint with an effect on global warming. According to this, it is important to reduce environmental impact of these solid residues, and an adequate way is the recycling using them as raw material for the elaboration of handmade paper. Therefore, it is required to manage this type of waste by analyzing the environmental impact, and thus be able to identify sustainable practices for the treatment of this food waste, evaluating its life cycle, which is a useful methodology to estimate said environmental impacts. It is because of this work shows the main results obtained using the life cycle analysis (LCA) methodology, to evaluate the possible environmental impacts during the waste treatment of a brewery located in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The residues evaluated were barley straw, malt residues and spent grain, and at the end, barley straw was selected to determine in detail its environmental impact and its reuse, the sheets analyzed presented a grammage that varies from 66 g/m2 and 143 g/m2, resistance to burst was 117 to 145 kpa, with a crystallinity of 34.4% to 37.1%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0380.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: barley; sowing date; seed rate; row spacing; yield
Online: 31 January 2020 (05:21:36 CET)
The precise information regarding the date of sowing, seed rate and row spacing is critical for achieving yield targets and better economic returns of barley. Therefore here, we determined the information regarding the optimum date of sowing, seed rate, spacing and economic aspects for barley production. This study was conducted for three years, in north Indian plains. Early sowing date of barley (last week of October) recorded higher yield in comparison to late sown crop (3rd week of November). Moreover, the higher barley production proved more remunerative when sown early in the last week of October to the first week of November as compared to late sown the late sown crop. Furthermore, the enhanced seed rate of 10% then recommended did not affect the grain yield of barley. But, the closer spacing of 20 cm (row to row) produced higher grain yield (5.45 Mg ha-1 ) than the recommended spacing of 22.5 cm (5.30 Mg ha-1). Likewise, the economical parameters (net returns) were higher with 20 cm row spacing. Overall, this study determines the optimum date of sowing, seed rate and spacing for scoring better returns of barley crop under north Indian conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0253.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: technical efficiency; stochastic frontier; trans-log; Meket; Barley
Online: 23 March 2018 (08:54:55 CET)
This study analyzed the technical efficiency of barley production by smallholder farmers in Meket district, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. A cross sectional data from a sample of 123 barley producers during the 2016/17 production season was collected by applying two stage random sampling. To address the objective of the study, both descriptive statistics and econometric models were used to analyze the data. The trans-log functional form of the production function simultaneously with single stage estimation approach was used to estimate the production of barley output and technical inefficiency factors. The estimated stochastic production frontier model indicated that input variables such as fertilizer, human labor and oxen power were the significant variables to increase the quantity of barley output while, barley seed had a negative effect. The estimated mean levels of technical efficiency of the sample farmers were about 70.9% which revealed that, presence of a room to increase their technical efficiency level on average by 29.1% with the existing resources. The discrepancy ratio gamma indicated that 63% of the total variation from the frontier comes due to technical inefficiency while, the remaining 37% comes due to factors outside the control of farmers. Among the hypothesized factors that affect technical inefficiency; education level, extension contact and number of barley plots significantly and negatively affected technical inefficiency score. Besides, practice of crop rotation, distance of residence from the nearest main market, total expenditure and soil fertility was found to have a positive and significant effect. Hence, emphasis should be given to decrease the inefficiency level of those more inefficient farm households via experience sharing among the farmers and usage of improved or certified barley seed. Besides to this, policies and strategies of the government should be directed towards increasing farmers’ education, improve the system of input distributions and institutional facilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wild barley; (Hordeum spontaneum L.),; drought and salinity; transcriptome analysis
Online: 4 July 2023 (09:52:45 CEST)
Drought and salinity are among the most important abiotic stress factors that limit the productivity in economically important plants. Although genes from wild relatives or unadapted germplasm have often been used for stress tolerance breeding, only few studies have examined wild relatives to understand the genetic and molecular basis of stress tolerance. In this study, we monitored the changes in gene expression profiles of leaf and root tissues of two wild barleys (Hordeum spontaneum L.) accessions from Israel after treatment with salt (NaCl) and drought (PEG) stress. We identified a total of 641 differentially expressed genes across 24 conditions (2 accessions, 2 stress conditions, 2 tissues and 3 time points). Our gene expression analyses revealed large numbers of differentially expressed genes in different accessions by different stress treatments. In addition, the number of genes altered in the leaves of stress-exposed plants of both genotypes was higher than those altered in the roots. Interestingly, there was a relatively little overlap between the leaf and the root stress-responsive gene expression patterns, suggesting that different stress-associated processes might be operating in these tissues during stress adaptation. Overall, our results revealed a number of candidate genes and plant processes associated with stress tolerance in wild barley. Wild barley would be a useful source of new genetic variation for drought and salt stress tolerance. Our results could provide new insights into the mechanisms of drought and salt stress tolerance in wild barley and should be useful for genetic improvement of salt-drought tolerance in cultivated barley.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0356.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agronomy; N2 Applied; field crops; fertilization; innovation; wheat; barley; nitrogen
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:49:06 CEST)
Plasma treatment of livestock slurry and biogas digestate is a method by which the nitrogen content of organic fertilizers can be increased. The resultant nitrogen-enriched organic fertilizer (NEO) contains twice as much plant-available nitrogen, and its pH is reduced, which is known to reduce ammonia volatilization. The current study included 14 spring wheat and barley field trials in Norway fertilized by NEO and other fertilizers over three years. The results showed that 120 kg N ha-1 in NEO yielded the same as 95 kg N ha-1 in mineral fertilizer considering the grain yields and 100 kg N ha-1 regarding the harvested nitrogen yield in the grains. On average, 39 tons ha-1 of untreated slurry supplemented with mineral fertilizers Opti-NS up to 120 kg N ha-1 yielded 5083 kg ha-1 of barley and 5290 kg ha-1 of spring wheat. Filtrating 39 tons of untreated slurry and running it through the N2 Applied unit gave 35 tons of NEO with 120 kg N. 35 tons ha-1 of NEO yielded 5068 kg ha-1 of barley and 5155 kg ha-1 of spring wheat. Filtrating the slurry increased grain yields by 756 and 447 kg ha-1 in spring wheat and barley, respectively, compared to the untreated slurry. 120 kg N ha-1 in mineral fertilizer yielded 5443 kg of barley and 6123 kg of spring wheat. Combining 12 kg N ha-1 in mineral fertilizer at sowing day and 108 kg N ha-1 in NEO at three leaves stage led to a higher yield in spring wheat than 120 kg ha-1 NEO spread at sowing day in two out of three experimental years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0291.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Pakistan; bajra; barley; jowar; crops production; agricultural gross domestic product
Online: 24 May 2019 (09:02:30 CEST)
This paper investigates and explores the minor crops production in Pakistan and its association with the agricultural gross domestic product. The agriculture sector of Pakistan has a rich contribution to the economic growth and development. Like major crops; minor crops also have a vital role to boost up the agriculture sector. Time span data was used in this study and it was collected from the Economy Survey of Pakistan annual reports. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method was used to analyze the data and results were interpreted by employing the Johansen co-integration test. Study results reveal that bajra, barely and jowar has a significant impact on the agricultural gross domestic product, while the total cropped area has a negative impact on AGDP. On the basis of the study results, we recommend the policy implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0086.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: activated carbon; barley husk; corn cob; agave leaves; biomass; thermogravimetry
Online: 14 December 2017 (07:46:00 CET)
Biomass is a promising alternative and renewable energy source that can be transformed into other value-added products such as activated carbon. In this research, barley husk, corn cob and Agave salmiana leaves were characterized to determine their chemical composition and morphology to evaluate their potentiality as precursors of activated carbons. Based on the main composition results obtained, the biomass samples have suitable chemical and physical characteristics to be considered as good precursors of activated carbons, such as carbon contents greater than 40%, ash content less than 10%, moisture content less than 30%, high volatile contents with values from 75 to 80% and a porous and fibrous morphology. The results indicate that the main compositions in the biomass were cellulose and lignin. The cellulose content was more than lignin (15–26%) for the residues selected. Specifically, a-cellulose contents with values from 52% to 79%, β-cellulose contents of 13–44%, γ-cellulose contents less than 11%, and holocellulose contents of 82–83% were determined. The thermal decomposition for the biomass samples proceeded with five stages attributed to the evaporation of some volatile compounds (70–150 ºC), to the degradation of hemicellulose (180–230 ºC), to the cellulose volatilization (250–350 ºC), to the lignin decomposition (380–550 ºC), and to the degradation of complex polymers and inorganic salts, respectively. The stage corresponding to the cellulose decomposition showed rapid mass decreased in the three residues. This results show that the cellulose and lignin content is another important parameter to evaluate the pyrolysis characteristics of a good precursor of activated carbon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0910.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: allomelanin; high throughput sequencing; bulk segregation analysis; benzoic acids derivates; barley
Online: 25 April 2023 (09:40:08 CEST)
Black barley seeds are a health-beneficial diet resource because of their special chemical composition and antioxidant properties. The black lemma and pericarp (BLP) locus was mapped in a genetic interval of 0.807 Mb on chromosome 1H, but its genetic basis remains unknown. In this study, targeted metabolomics and conjunctive analyses of BSA-seq and BSR-seq were used to identify candidate genes of BLP and the precursors of black pigments. The results revealed that five differentially expressed genes identified on the 1H chromosome were candidate genes of the BLP locus, and 17 differential metabolites, including the precursor and repeating unit of allomelanin, were accumulated in the grain-filling stage of black barley. Phenol nitrogen-free precursors such as catechol (protocatechuic aldehyde) or catecholic acids (caffeic, protocatechuic, and gallic acids) may promote black pigmentation. BLP can manipulate the accumulation of benzoic acid derivatives (salicylic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, and syringaldehyde) through the shikimate/chorismite pathway other than the phenylalanine pathway and alter the metabolism of the phenylpropanoid-monolignol branch. Collectively, it is reasonable to infer that black pigmentation in barley is due to allomelanin biosynthesis in lemma and pericarp, and BLP regulates melanogenesis by manipulating the biosynthesis of its precursors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1559.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Grain exports; primers; phyto-pathogens; identification; bacteria; wheat; barley; oats; Gene bank
Online: 24 July 2023 (08:13:36 CEST)
Russia is one of the largest cereal grain exporters in the world, churning out 34,3 million tons of export grain (wheat, barley and oats) in 2021. Plant infectious pathogens continue to be among the main factors in yield loss in the field and are a danger to the grain exporting industry's ability to expand internationally. This is primarily due to phytosanitary restrictions imposed by nations that monitor the presence and absence of certain phytopathogens in imported goods. Phytosanitary measures prevent the spread of plant pathogens, thus cutting the cost of dealing with them, once the pathogens invade new agricultural regions. This paper is devoted to the detection and identification of bacteria in samples of grain crops of three regions in The Republic of Crimea. The objects of the study were bacterial isolates from plant samples particularly wheat, oats, barley and triticale. The study was conducted in 2021. The identification of the isolates was carried out by sequencing a section 16–23S of the rRNA amplified by PCR with 8UA/519B, 27f/907r and PSf/PSr primers. Nucleotide sequences were deciphered using the Bio Edit program and compared with sequences placed in GenBank (https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov). The result of identification was considered an organism with maximum similarity. As a result, 38 samples of grain crops were collected, 95 bacterial colonies were isolated, of which 68 were identified to genus level and 22 were identified to species level. Some of the phytopathogens identified include: Agrococcus jenensis, Pseudomonas sp. and Curtobacterium sp. Some of the bacteria identified are beneficial like Ochrobactrum sp. Erwinia sp. and Pantoea sp. had a frequency of 28.95%, with Pantoea agglomerans having a frequency of 18.42%. Ochrobactrum sp. had a frequency of 10.53%. Enterococcus mundtii an frequency of 5.26%. Information about the species composition of bacteria on grain crops can be used to determine the spread of bacteria and their diagnosis and for bioinformatic analysis of genomes in search of species-specific genetic markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0378.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: FHB; plant metabolomic; plant-pathogen interaction; barley; wheat; Brachypodium distachyon; pathway enrichment
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:22:55 CEST)
Background: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious fungal disease of crop plants due to substantial yield reduction and production of mycotoxins in the infected grains. The breeding progress in increasing resistance with maintaining a high yield is not possible without a thorough examination of the molecular basis of plant immunity responses; Methods: LC-MS based metabolomics approaches powered by three-way ANOVA and differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) selection, correlation network and functional enrichment were conducted on grains of resistant and susceptible to FHB genotypes of barley and wheat as well as model grass Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) still poorly known at metabolomic level; Results: We selected common and genotype-specific DAMs in response to F. culmorum inoculation. Immunological reaction at metabolomic level was strongly diversified between resistant and susceptible genotypes. DAMs common for all tested species from porphyrins, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids metabolic pathways were highly correlated and reflects conservativeness in FHB response in Poaceae family. Resistant related DAMs belonged to different structural classes including tryptophan derived metabolites, pirimidines, amino acids proline and serine as well as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. Physiological response to F. culmorum of Bd was close to barley and wheat genotypes however, metabolomic changes were strongly diversified. Conclusions: Combined targeted and untargeted metabolomics provides comprehensive knowledge about significant elements of plant immunity with potential of being molecular biomarkers of enhance resistance to FHB in grass family. Thorough examination of Bd21 metabolome in juxtaposition with barley and wheat diversified genotypes facilitate their setting as model grass for plant-microbe interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0323.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: epigenetics; differentially methylated markers (DMMs); LEAVES; roots; DNA methylation; salinity stress; barley
Online: 15 June 2018 (06:10:53 CEST)
Salinity can negatively impact crop growth and yield. Changes in DNA methylation are known to occur when plants are challenged by stress and have been associated with the regulation of stress-response genes. However, the role of DNA-methylation in moderating gene expression in response to salt stress has been relatively poorly studied among crops such as barley. Here, we assessed the extent of salt-induced alterations of DNA methylation in barley and their putative role in perturbed gene expression. Using Next Generation Sequencing, we screened the leaf and root methylomes of five divergent barley varieties grown under control and three salt concentrations, to seek genotype independent salt-induced changes in DNA methylation. Salt stress caused increased methylation in leaves but diminished methylation in roots with a higher number of changes in leaves than in roots, indicating that salt induced changes to global methylation are organ specific. Differentially Methylated Markers (DMMs) were mostly located in close proximity to repeat elements, but also in 1094 genes, of which many possessed gene ontology (GO) terms associated with plant responses to stress. Identified markers have potential value as sentinels of salt stress and provide a starting point to allow understanding of the functional role of DNA methylation in facilitating barley’s response to this stressor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0416.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: GEE; Landsat 8 OLI; Multi-linear regression; Remote Sensing; Vegetation indices; Wheat and barley
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:35:20 CEST)
Wheat and barley are among the primary food resources of the world population; therefore, their growth and observation are essential in farms to enhance food security worldwide. On top of that, careful observation of the product is essential to find solutions for the issues faced during their production and to reduce the impacts of weather changes. With the advancement of Remote Sensing technology, the observation and estimation process has increased. In this study, numbers of spectral vegetation indices was used along with canopy biophysical properties ( LAI ) and biochemical properties (chlorophyll), there calculated from (Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2) satellite data. The wheat and barley samples were collected before were be ready for harvest, and a relation with the vegetarian indices was established using the Multi-Linear Regression module, in which the equations used in predicting the harvest were developed and used to create a graph for expected harvest. The result indicated that there is a strong relationship between the vegetation indices of Sentinel-2 and Landsat images and the actual grain yield with R2 of 0.77 and 0.71, respectively. The results show that the strongest correlation is observed between the LAI data obtained from Sentinel data and cereal yield data, with an R2 0.68, and the highest correlation for the indices of Landsat images is observed in the NDWI with R2 0.59 and the lowest degree of error was in the root mean square error (RMSE) for the Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 with 0.57 and 1.54. In addition, this study also showed that the least relationship for grain yield prediction was observed between the NDRI for Sentinel-2 (R2 0.1) and SAVI for Landsat image (R2 0.47).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0943.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: barley; Hordeum vulgare ssp; vulgare; Wheat dwarf virus (WDV); leafhoppers; resistance; tolerance; single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); marker; QTL
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:50:31 CEST)
Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) causes an important vector transmitted virus disease, which leads to significant yield losses in barley production. Due to the fact, that at the moment no plant protection products are approved to combat the vector Psammotettix alienus and this disease cannot be controlled by chemical means, therefore the use of WDV resistant or tolerant genotypes is the most efficient method to control and reduce negative effects of WDV on barley growth and production. In this study, a set of 480 barley genotypes were screened to identify genotypic differences in response to WDV and five traits were assessed under infected and non-infected conditions. In total, 32 genotypes showed resistance or tolerance against WDV. Subsequently, the phenotypic data of 191 out of 480 genotypes combined with 34,408 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a genome wide association study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and markers linked to resistance/tolerance to WDV, using Tassel, GAPIT, and FARM CPU. In total, 1, 3, 2, 2 and 1 significantly associated markers on chromosomes 3H, 4H, 5H and 7H identified by all three methods for ELISA-60, relative performance of total grain weight, plant height, number of ears per plant and thousand grain weight, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1726.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: barley; Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei; Hordeum vulgare; reverse octal notation; powdery mildew; resistance genes; virulence complexity; virulence frequency
Online: 26 September 2023 (04:01:50 CEST)
Barley is an important crop grown on almost 49 Mha worldwide in 2021 and is particu-larly significant in Europe where powdery mildew is the most frequent disease on sus-ceptible varieties. The most suitable way for protecting crops is exploiting genetic re-sistance. However, the causal agent Blumeria hordei is an extremely adaptable pathogen. The aims of this research were to increase our knowledge of the rapidly changing path-ogen population and detect rare virulences. Random samples of the pathogen were ob-tained from the air by means of a mobile spore sampler. Spores were collected by driv-ing across the Czech Republic in 2019, 2021 and 2023 and 299 isolates were analyzed on 121 host varieties. No infection occurred on 35 differentials, rare virulence was recorded on 31 varieties and a higher virulence frequency was found on 55 differentials. A core set of differentials along with four additional varieties distinguish 295 pathotypes (Simple Index = 0.987) and virulence complexity of isolates varied from 4 to 19 with an average 10.39. The detection of new virulences, the increasing frequency of previously rare viru-lences and high pathotype diversity as well as high virulence complexity confirm that using nonspecific durable resistance is crucial for successfully breeding commercial va-rieties.