ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0406.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: halogen bonding; azobenzene; pH sensitive; stimuli responsive; orthogonal interaction
Online: 18 January 2022 (10:27:57 CET)
Smart materials represent an elegant class of (macro)-molecules endowed with the ability to react to chemical/physical changes in the environment. Herein, we prepared new photo responsive azobenzenes possessing halogen bond donor groups. The X-ray structures of two molecules highlight supramolecular organizations governed by unusual noncovalent bonds. In azo dye I-azo-NO2, the nitro group is engaged in orthogonal H···O···I halogen and hydrogen bonding, linking the units in parallel undulating chains. As far as compound I-azo-NH-MMA is concerned, a non-centrosymmetric pattern is formed due to a very rare I···π interaction involving the alkene group supplemented by hydrogen bonds. The Cambridge Structural Database contains only four structures showing the same I···CH2=C contact. For all compounds, an 19F NMR spectroscopic analysis confirms the formation of halogen bonds in solution through a recognition process with chloride anion, and the reversible photo-responsiveness is demonstrated upon exposing a solution to UV light irradiation. Finally, the intermediate I-azo-NH2 also shows a pronounced color change due to pH variation. These azobenzenes are thereby attractive building blocks to design future multi-stimuli responsive materials for highly functional devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0498.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: azobenzene; transition density matrix; exciton; charge transfer; excited states; TD-DFT; ADC(2)
Online: 21 June 2021 (10:20:13 CEST)
Azobenzene-containing molecules may associate with each other in systems such as self-assembled monolayers or micelles. The interaction between azobenzene units leads to a formation of exciton states in these molecular assemblies. Apart from local excitations of monomers, the electronic transitions to the exciton states may involve charge transfer excitations. Here, we perform quantum chemical calculations and apply transition density matrix analysis to quantify local and charge transfer contributions to the lowest electronic transitions in azobenzene dimers of various arrangements. We find that the transitions to the lowest exciton states of the considered dimers are dominated by local excitations, but charge transfer contributions become sizable for some of the lowest ππ* electronic transitions in stacked and slip-stacked dimers at short intermolecular distances. In addition, we assess different ways to partition the transition density matrix between fragments. In particular, we find that the inclusion of the atomic orbital overlap has a pronounced effect on quantifying charge transfer contributions if a large basis set is used.