ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: psoriasis; cutaneous nervous system; axon development; myelination
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:54:23 CET)
An increasing amount of evidence indicates the critical role of the cutaneous nervous system in the initiation and maintenance of psoriatic skin lesions by neurogenic inflammation. However, molecular mechanisms affecting cutaneous neurons are largely uncharacterized. Therefore, we reanalyzed a psoriatic RNA sequencing dataset from published transcriptome experiments of nearly 300 individuals. Using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we associated several hundreds of differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) to nervous system development and functions. Since neuronal projections were previously reported to be affected in psoriasis, we performed an in-depth analysis of neurite formation-related processed. Our in silico analysis suggests that SEMA-PLXN and ROBO-DCC-UNC5 regulating axonal growth and repulsion are differentially affected in non-lesional and lesional skin samples. We identified opposing expressional alterations in secreted ligands for axonal guidance signaling (RTN4/NOGOA, NTNs, SEMAs, SLITs) and non-conventional axon guidance regulating ligands, including WNT5A and their receptors, modulating axon formation. These differences in neuritogenesis may explain the abnormal cutaneous nerve filament formation described in psoriatic skin. The processes also influence T cell activation and infiltration, thus highlighting an additional angle of the crosstalk between the cutaneous nervous system and the immune responses in psoriasis pathogenesis, in addition to the known neurogenic pro-inflammatory mediators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: traumatic optic neuropathy; mice; axon injury; TBI; neurodegeneration
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:26:51 CET)
Injury to the optic nerve, termed, traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is a known comorbidity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is now known to cause chronic and progressive retinal thinning up to 35 years after injury. Although animal models of TBI have described the presence of optic nerve degeneration and research exploring acute mechanisms is underway, few studies in humans or animals have examined chronic TON pathophysiology outside the retina. We used a closed-head weight-drop model of TBI/TON in 6-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were euthanized 7-, 14-, 30-, 90-, and 150-days post injury (DPI) to assess histological changes in the visual system of the brain spanning a total of 12 regions. We show chronic elevation of FluoroJade-C, indicative of neurodegeneration, throughout the time course. Intriguingly, FJ-C staining revealed a bimodal distribution of mice indicating the possibility of subpopulations that may be more or less sus-ceptible to injury outcomes. Additionally, we show that microglia and astrocytes react to optic nerve damage in both temporally and regionally different ways. Despite these differences, as-trogliosis and microglial changes were alleviated between 14-30 DPI in all regions examined, perhaps indicating a potential critical period for intervention/recovery that may determine chronic outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0475.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: axon, neuron, electric circuit, capacitance , biophysics, HH model
Online: 18 June 2021 (11:08:11 CEST)
The most common and taught membrane theory assumes that the membrane behaves as a kind of electrical capacitance that is exposed to an electrical current generated by an ionic flow. If this statement is verifiable, it can be confirmed by the laws of physics, mathematics and in particular electricity. We will demonstrate that this hypothesis is not verified and that it is necessary to modify biophysics according to already established and experimentally verified principles of physics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: axon guidance; peripheral nerves regeneration; bioengineering approach; optogenetic stimulation
Online: 24 August 2022 (08:39:01 CEST)
Despite a significant advance in the pathophysiological understanding of peripheral nerve damage, the successful treatment of large nerve defects remains an unmet medical need. In this article, axon growth guidance for peripheral nerve regeneration is systematically reviewed and discussed mainly from the engineering perspective. In addition, the common approach to surgery, bioengineering approaches to emerging technologies (i.e. optogenetic stimulation and magnetic stimulation) for functional recovery are discussed, with pros and cons. Alternatively, clear future perspectives of axon guidance and nerve regeneration are addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: SU-8, microchannel, prototyping, microfluidic gradient generator, axon elongation
Online: 16 November 2018 (11:19:18 CET)
We have developed a cast microfluidic chip for concentration gradient generation that contains a thin (~5 μm^2 crosssectional area) microchannel. Durable 2 μm-high microchannel mold features with a smooth bell-shaped sidewall were fabricated by exposing SU-8 photoresist to diffused 185 nm UV light emitted by a low-cost ozone lamp from the backside of the substrate to ensure sufficient crosslinking of small regions of the SU-8 photoresist. An H-shaped microfluidic configuration was used, in which the thin channel was able to maintain constant diffusion fronts beyond purely static diffusion confirmed with experiment. We also demonstrated the long-term effects of a gradient of nerve growth factor on axon elongation by primary neuronal cells cultured in the microfluidic channel.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: axon; neuron; saltatory conduction; action potential; impulse propagation; HH model
Online: 30 August 2020 (18:39:44 CEST)
For more than 70 years, biologists and biophysicists have been trying to unravel the mystery that exists regarding the saltatory conduction of so-called myelinated neurons. Albert Einstein used the train metaphor to explain the theory of relativity. It is possible to use a similar metaphor to better understand this transient functioning of the neuron: the action potential. We will, once again, use a train to demonstrate unequivocally that the action potential does not jump from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier (noR) as we thought it would. It is possible to describe that the neuron uses an elegant method to increase the speed of transmission of the neural message. It is also important to conclude that this increase in speed, contrary to the common idea, has a certain energy cost that is proportional to speed and in accordance with thermodynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0219.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: axon guidance; DRS; HGPPS; CFEOM3; in silico; systems biology; PPI network
Online: 18 April 2018 (08:23:58 CEST)
Axon guidance is a crucial process for growth of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In this study, 3 axon guidance related disorders, namely- Duane Retraction Syndrome (DRS) , Horizontal Gaze Palsy with Progressive Scoliosis (HGPPS) and Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 3 (CFEOM3) were studied using various Systems Biology tools to identify the genes and proteins involved with them to get a better idea about the underlying molecular mechanisms including the regulatory mechanisms. Based on the analyses carried out, 7 significant modules have been identified from the PPI network. Five pathways/processes have been found to be significantly associated with DRS, HGPPS and CFEOM3 associated genes. From the PPI network, 3 have been identified as hub proteins- DRD2, UBC and CUL3.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: axon guidance; growth cone; cytoskeleton; caspases; apoptosis; signal integration; basal level of caspase activity; death associated inhibitor of apoptosis; axon branching; Netrin; DCC; frazzled; slit; robo; Drosophila
Online: 16 September 2018 (09:43:52 CEST)
Navigating growth cones are exposed to multiple signals simultaneously and have to integrate competing cues into a coherent navigational response. Integration of guidance cues is traditionally thought to occur at the level of cytoskeletal dynamics. Drosophila studies indicate that cells exhibit a low level of continuous caspase protease activation, and that axon guidance cues can activate or suppress caspase activity. We base a model for axon guidance on these observations. By analogy with other systems in which caspase signaling has non-apoptotic functions, we propose that caspase signaling can either reinforce repulsion or negate attraction in response to external guidance cues by cleaving cytoskeletal proteins. Over the course of an entire trajectory, incorrectly navigating axons may pass the threshold for apoptosis and be eliminated, whereas axons making correct decisions will survive. These observations would also explain why neurotrophic factors can act as axon guidance cues and why axon guidance systems such as Slit/Robo signaling may act as tumor suppressors in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0723.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: spinal cord injury; polysialic acid; Schwann cell; transplantation; corticospinal axon; axonal regeneration
Online: 9 August 2023 (08:11:09 CEST)
Providing cellular support and modifying the glial scar around the lesion are two key strategies for promoting axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. We showed before that over-expressing polysialic acid (PSA) on Schwann cells (SCs) by lentiviral vector (LV)-mediated expression of polysialyltransferase (PST) facilitated their integration and migration in the injured spinal cord. We also showed that PSA over-expression in the injured spinal cord modified the glial scar and promoted the growth of ascending sensory axons. In this study, we combined the PST/SC transplantation with LV/PST injection in spinal cords after dorsal column transection and found the combined treatments led to faster and more profound locomotor functional recovery compared with animals receiving combined GFP/SC transplantation with LV/GFP injection. Histological examination showed significantly more injured corticospinal axons growing close to the lesion/transplant borders and into the caudal spinal cord in the PST group than in the GFP group. We also found over-expressing PSA around the lesion site did not cause allodynia and hyperalgesia in our injury model. These results demonstrate the promising therapeutic benefit of over-expressing PSA in transplanted SCs and spinal cord in promoting axonal growth and restoring motor function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0671.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: axon initial segment (AIS); action potential (AP); ankyrin-G; spectrins; plasticity; neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs)
Online: 29 July 2021 (15:49:42 CEST)
The 20–60-μm axon initial segment (AIS) is proximally located at the interface between the axon and cell body. AIS has characteristic molecular and structural properties regulated by the crucial protein, ankyrin-G. The AIS contains a high density of Na+ channels relative to the cell body, which allows low thresholds for initiation of action potential (AP). Molecular and physiological studies have shown that the AIS is also a key domain for the control of neuronal excitability by homeostatic mechanisms. The AIS has high plasticity in normal developmental processes and pathological activities such as injury, neurodegeneration, and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). In the first half of this review, we provide an overview of the molecular, structural, and ion-channel characteristics of AIS, AIS regulation through axo-axonic synapses, and axo-glial interactions. In the second half, to understand the relationship between NDDs and AIS, we discuss the activity-dependent plasticity of AIS, the human mutation of AIS regulatory genes, and the pathophysiological role of the abnormal AIS in the NDD model animals and patients. We propose that AIS may provide a potentially valuable structural biomarker in response to abnormal network activity in vivo as well as a new treatment concept at the neural circuit level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: CAMs; Classical Cadherins; Nectins; Neocortical Development; Radial Glia Cells; Neurons; Neuronal Migration; Axon Targeting; Synaptogenesis; Autism/Neurodevelopmental disorders
Online: 10 December 2020 (10:23:42 CET)
The neocortex is an exquisitely organized structure achieved through complex cellular processes from the generation of neural cells to their integration into cortical circuits after complex migration processes. During this long journey, neural cells need to stablish and release adhesive interactions through cell surface receptors known as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Several types of CAMs have been described regulating different aspects of neurodevelopment. Whereas some of them mediate interactions with the extracellular matrix, others allow contacts with additional cells. In this review, we will focus on the role of two important families of cell-cell adhesion molecules (C-CAMs), classical cadherins and nectins, as well as in their effectors, in the control of fundamental processes related with corticogenesis, with especial attention in the cooperative actions among the two families of C-CAMs.