ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: EFL learning; learner autonomy; undergraduate education level
Online: 2 November 2022 (10:45:34 CET)
The study examined the learner autonomy in EFL learning at the undergraduate level in the context of Bangladesh. It investigated the effectiveness of learner autonomy on EFL learning. Besides, it explored the factors affecting autonomous learning in English language class. This study adopted a mixed- method approach. Data were collected from 60 students who had just completed their second semester at a private university in Dhaka city. The respondent students attended the compulsory English foundation course including their two semesters. Data were also collected from 12 ELT teachers teaching at the tertiary education level. Five EFL classes were observed following a sample of classroom observation schedule. Both open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires were used by the researchers for collecting the data from the students and teachers. Major findings of the study showed that lack of confidence, teachers’ dependency, lack of motivation, short-term goals in learning, huge confusions and confinement in memorization, tendency of using mother tongue and unawareness to self-evaluation of students affected learner autonomy in EFL learning of the undergraduate students. However, the study revealed that motivated students hardly faced any difficulties in achieving maximum outcomes with autonomous learning in the EFL class. Finally, the researchers gave a number of recommendations to bring out effective EFL learning with learner autonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: medical education; medical ethics; autonomy; patients' perspectives
Online: 10 May 2022 (03:52:44 CEST)
There are complex ethical dilemmas inherent in medicine teaching, particularly in clinical prac-tice involving actual patients. Questions must be raised on fulfilling medical students' training needs while still respecting patients' fundamental rights to autonomy and privacy. We aimed to assess patients' perspectives regarding medical students' involvement in their medical care. An observational, cross-sectional study was developed, and an interview-like questionnaire was ap-plied randomly to patients waiting for a consult/admitted to three distinct departments: General Surgery, Obstetrics/Gynaecology, and Infectious Diseases. Of the 77% interviewed patients who reported previous experiences with medical students, only 59% stated that they were asked for consent for their participation and 28% that students had adequately introduced themselves. Pa-tients from Gynaecology/Obstetrics were the ones who reported lower rates of these practices and were also the ones who were most bothered by students' presence, stating that they would refuse students' participation in the future. Male patients received more explanations than female pa-tients regarding the same matters. 35% of patients stated they would feel more comfortable without the medical students' presence. The study shows a need to pay closer attention to ful-filling patients' fundamental rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0372.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: School governance; General education innovation; School Autonomy.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:49:23 CEST)
Innovation in general education governance is one of the development trends not only in Vietnam but also in the world. This is also an important measure to change and improve the quality of education, especially expand autonomy of high schools and universities. The paper focuses on some main contents: overview of general education; the experiences of some countries in the implementation of the school administration model towards the school autonomy model so that give lessons for Vietnam’s education can be learned in the context of development conditions nowadays. The results in this work would be used to classify the schools into the various groups. The data also analysts on decision-making capability, on what we called an “index of school autonomy”, expressed the possible level of school-level decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0900.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: autonomy; competence; eta-squared; cognitive skill; habituated behavior
Online: 11 August 2023 (08:13:43 CEST)
Background: Physical activity (PA) has paramount importance for achieving good health and an active lifestyle among university students. Quality physical education (QPE) program ensures the attainment of sustainability in PA. Motivation can be considered a critical factor in promoting PA in students. However, motivation alone cannot bring inclusivity unless quality aspects are not being incorporated thoughtfully into physical education (PE) programs. Aims: As such this study aimed at examining three research questions: i) do the motive of PA participation can be enhanced through the quality provision of PE programs in university settings ii) does the quality provision of PE help promote sustainable PA among adolescents? and iii) whether or not this carry-over process is influenced by gender. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited N = 610 (male = 467) & female = 143) university students. Students who studied PE as one of their course subjects were only included in this study. They participated in > 27 different sports and had a mean age of 20.76 (SD = 3.47) years and a mean of 4.70 (SD = 4.93) years of athletic experience. Descriptive (mean, SD) statistics, Pearson’s correlation, and regression analysis were used to meet the objectives. To examine the variables’ differences in gender, data were then computed using a 2 (Gender) by 2 (Type of Sport: Individual vs. Team) MANCOVA, with the covariate being age. Results: The factors provided sound reliability scores and highlighted positive correlations between QPE and exercise needs satisfaction. However, the factors lacked establishing correlations with PA. The perceived competence for exercise needs satisfaction reported differences in sexes, with the male being scored higher. Furthermore, QPE did not show any significant differences in gender. In comparison to females, males showed higher mean scores in the PA. Conclusion: The provision of QPE is identified as a pivotal factor in determining the competence of exercise satisfaction among students. QPE provision was adequate in the university, however, it could not promote PA among females as expected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0187.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: associativity; self-management; autonomy; solidarity; micro-credits; sustainability
Online: 10 August 2022 (03:50:20 CEST)
This research was carried out with the objective of analyzing the principles of social and solidarity economy in the community funds of the rural sector of Pichincha, Ecuador. Small organizations promote microcredits for local, social and economic development, representing an alternative to those managed by traditional banks. The research was descriptive, non-experimental field research. The population analyzed consisted of 220 community funds, and the size of the representative sample was 49 community organizations that practice solidarity finance. The data were collected through online questionnaires using a Likert scale, and the validity of this approach was judged by experts; the reliability of the instrument obtained was 0.95 using the Cronbach’s alpha method. The results highlight that in these organizations, the following traits prevail: associativity, self-management and organization. However, autonomy and solidarity have a negative valuation, which shows that strategies must be rethought to achieve the empowerment of the financial service. This will allow them to be sustainable and to expand with more benefits that promulgate financial activity and promote structures in rural community networks that promote local development and strengthen deficient principles as a basis for generating a greater benefit to the partners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: female; HIV infections; breastfeeding; vertical transmission; patient’s autonomy.
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:55:13 CET)
Background: Vertical transmission of HIV infection can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or through breastfeeding. The recommendations issued by the various international guidelines (WHO 2010, EACS 2017, DHHS 2017) on the safety of breastfeeding of HIV-infected women in effective antiretroviral treatment do not provide univocal indications referring to individual countries the choice to advise or advise against such procedure. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a small cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women who, despite the information received, decided to breastfeed their children. The observation was carried out in the period between March 2017 and June 2021. In all newborns, prophylaxis therapy was initiated at birth, according to the treatment guidelines, the scheme adopted involved the administration of zidovudine (AZT) orally for 4 weeks, started immediately after the childbirth. Breastfeeding time was, on average, 5 months. Results: No contagion was diagnosed. All infants were tested for HIV-RNA at birth, 1, 3, and 6 months after birth, and 1, 3 and 3 months after stopping breastfeeding. Conclusions: The data obtained represent, in our opinion, a solicitation to discuss and re-evaluate scientific evidence that starting from "Undetectable Equals Untransmittable" (U = U) can open a scientific and cultural review of breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0035.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social relationships; descent systems; female autonomy; matriliny; gendered networks
Online: 10 June 2021 (15:16:03 CEST)
Although cooperative social networks are considered key to human evolution, emphasis has usually been placed on the functions of men’s cooperative networks. What do women's networks look like? Do they resemble or differ from men's and what does this suggest about evolutionarily inherited gender differences in reproductive and social strategies? In this paper, we test the ‘universal gender differences’ hypothesis positing gender-specific network structures against the ‘gender reversal’ hypothesis that posits women's networks looking more 'masculine' under matriliny. Specifically, we ask whether men's friendship networks are always larger than women's and we investigate measures of centrality by gender and descent system. To do so, we use tools from social network analysis and data on men’s and women’s friendship ties in matrilineal and patrilineal Mosuo communities. In tentative support of the gender reversal hypothesis, we find that women's friendship networks in matriliny are relatively large. Measures of centrality and generalized linear models otherwise reveal greater differences between communities than between men and women. The data and analyses we present are primarily descriptive given limitations of sample size and sampling strategy. Nonetheless, our results provide support for the flexible application of social relationships across genders and clearly challenge the predominant narrative of universal gender differences across space and time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0318.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: AI; ethics; safety; autonomy; free energy principle; reductionism; symbiosis
Online: 30 August 2019 (07:42:42 CEST)
The free energy principle states that self-organization occurs through minimization of free energy, which is a measure of potential thermodynamic work. By minimizing free energy, the organism happens to also minimize surprise over its boundary, promoting chances of survival. We discuss the ethical implications of the cognitive goal in detail from an empirical point of view, highlighting the principle of least action as a physical basis of Occam's razor, the universality of the free energy principle, and its explanation of natural selection. We explain that the free energy principle extends to groups of organisms and helps us understand group-scale adaptations and selection in biology. The free energy principle applies to all scales of organization in the organism from single cells to the entire nervous system. When this principle is taken to its logical extremes of modeling groups, populations and ecosystems, we uncover a new, evolutionarily sensible path at explaining puzzling aspects of human motivation and judgement, including ethical decisions. To minimize free energy, populations have to act to maximize gathering of information, while building effective models at mitigating changes to its dynamic structure. The free energy principle thus provides a naturalistic explanation of some of our deepest ethical intuitions, and valuable principles of social behavior. We interpret the cognitive goal that corresponds to the principle as seeking a dynamic, fruitful, yet peaceful activity that sustains the organism. This state of mind is interestingly similar to the Buddhist intuition of mental equanimity; the organism's final goal is to be at peace and harmony with the environment. Another immediately relevant aspect is that assemblies must form to promote symbiotic, synergistic, positive feedback loops, which coincides with the findings of ecologists. Therefore, ethics naturally emerges in self-organizing systems. Assemblies of organisms must ultimately unite in macro-minds to achieve the greatest reduction in free energy, as well as building technological extensions of themselves to improve their capacity to do such, therefore the principle also predicts a post-singularity world-mind composed mostly of artificial intelligence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0101.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Transgenic; Cancer; Carcinogenesis; Immortality; Autonomy; cancer stem cells; senescence
Online: 9 May 2019 (11:29:34 CEST)
Modern research into carcinogenesis has undergone three phases. Surgeons and pathologists started the first phase and established autopsy and biopsy as routine pathology services, in turn establishing morphological traits for tumors and establishing immortality and autonomy as indispensable criteria for neoplasms. A century ago medical doctors and biologists initiated “experimental cancer research” as the second phase, in which they, with help from chemists, established many chemical-induced animal models of carcinogenesis. In this phase, the two-hit theory and stepwise carcinogenesis of “initiation-promotion” or “initiation-promotion-progression” were established, with an illustrious finding that outgrowths induced in animals depend on the inducers, and thus are not authentically neoplastic, until late stages. For the last 40 years, molecular biologists have gradually dominated the carcinogenesis research fraternity and have established numerous genetically-modified animal models of carcinogenesis. However, evidence has not been provided for immortality and autonomy of the lesions from most of these models. Probably, many peers had already collected the lesions from animals for analyses of “cancer” mechanisms before the lesions became autonomous. We herein review monumental work of many predecessors to reinforce that evidence for immortality and autonomy is essential for confirming a neoplastic nature. We extrapolate that immortality and autonomy are established early during sporadic human carcinogenesis, unlike the late establishment in all animal models. It is imperative to resume many forerunners’ work by determining the genetic bases for initiation, promotion and progression, the genetic bases for immortality and autonomy, and which animal models are, in fact, good for identifying such genetic bases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1345.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Autonomy support; basic needs; psychological climate; ego involvement; task involvement
Online: 19 June 2023 (10:41:29 CEST)
This article considers the basic psychological needs theory and tries to determine how much autonomy support from a coach is required for basic psychological needs and how autonomy, competence, relatedness, and the psychological motivational climate can explain task and ego involvement in a group of young elite ice hockey players. Our three hypotheses were as follows: autonomy support from the coach will have an impact on motivational involvement, all three basic needs will have an impact on motivational involvement, and motivational involvement will be explained by the motivational climate. A total of 175 male elite ice hockey players from Norway, ranging in age from 15 to 18 years old, answered questionnaires about autonomy support, perceived motivational climate, achievement goal orientation, and basic psychological needs. A multiple regression analysis was run to predict ego–task involvement using autonomy support from the coach, the need for autonomy, the need for competence, the need for relatedness, the task climate, and the ego climate. The only two variables that statistically significantly predicted ego–task involvement were autonomy support from the coach and the ego climate. The analysis revealed that the athletes had a higher score on task than ego involvement, but when this was transformed into two variables (high and low) for task and ego involvement, we found that most players scored high for both task and ego involvement. We found that autonomy from the coach had a positive relationship with a high score for players on both task and ego involvement. We also found that the three basic psychological needs had no impact on the motivational involvement of the athletes. Lastly, we found that the ego climate had an impact on the motivational involvement. There was a positive relationship between a high score for the ego climate and a high score for both ego and task involvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0379.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Battery autonomy; battery size; feature selection; Machine Learning; Optimization algorithms
Online: 27 May 2022 (10:12:42 CEST)
Microgrids are becoming popular nowadays because they provide clean, efficient, and low-cost energy. To use the stored energy in times of emergency or peak loads, microgrids require bulk storage capacity. Since microgrids are the future of renewable energy, the energy storage technology employed should be optimized to generate electricity. Batteries play a variety of essential roles in daily life and are used at peak hours and during a time of emergency. There are different types of batteries i.e., lion batteries, lead-acid batteries, etc. Optimal battery sizing of microgrids is a challenging problem, that limits modern technologies such as electric vehicles, etc. It is important to know different battery features such as battery life, battery throughput, and battery autonomy to get optimal battery sizing for microgrids. Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is an established technique for the integration and optimization of different energy sources and parameters for optimal battery sizing. A new MILP based dataset is introduced in this work. Support vector machine (SVM) is the machine learning application used to estimate the optimum battery size. The impact of feature selection algorithms on the proposed machine learning-based model is evaluated. The performance of the six best-performing feature selection algorithms is analyzed. The experimental results show that the feature selection algorithms improve the performance of the proposed methodology. Ranker search shows the best performance with a Spearman’s rank-ordered correlation constant of 0.9756, linear correlation constant of 0.9452, Kendall correlation constant of 0.8488 and root mean squared error of 0.0525.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0763.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Autonomy support coaching; Emotional intelligence; Interruption intention; Social competence; Symmetry
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:30:35 CEST)
Objective: Studies in Sports Psychology and Sociology have validated causality in team-sport athletes by using emotional intelligence as a variable. This study aimed to examine the causal relationship between the types of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention as psychosocial variables among current taekwondo athletes in Korea.Methods: In this study, 217 adult or university athletes registered in the Korea Taekwondo Association in 2020 were evaluated for the type of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention. Results: Autonomy support coaching recognized by taekwondo athletes has a negative and positive effect on interruption intention and emotional intelligence, respectively. Moreover, emotional intelligence has a negative effect on interruption intention. which revealed that autonomy support coaching has a negative effect on interruption intention through emotional intelligence.Conclusions: Such outcomes can serve as a foundation for athletes to have the opportunity to participate in sports in a mature manner and promote positive changes in sports culture. In other words, the sensibility of the athletes can be harmoniously symmetry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0649.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Autonomy support coaching; Emotional intelligence; Interruption intention; Social competence; Symmetry
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:24:55 CEST)
Objective: Studies in Sports Psychology and Sociology have validated causality in team-sport athletes by using emotional intelligence as a variable. This study aimed to examine the causal relationship between the types of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention as psychosocial variables among current taekwondo athletes in Korea. Methods: In this study, 217 adult or university athletes registered in the Korea Taekwondo Association in 2020 were evaluated for the type of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention. Results: Autonomy support coaching recognized by taekwondo athletes has a negative and positive effect on interruption intention and emotional intelligence, respectively. Moreover, emotional intelligence has a negative effect on interruption intention. which revealed that autonomy support coaching has a negative effect on interruption intention through emotional intelligence. Conclusions: Such outcomes can serve as a foundation for athletes to have the opportunity to participate in sports in a mature manner and promote positive changes in sports culture. In other words, the sensibility of the athletes can be harmoniously symmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0564.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: robotics; autonomy obstacle avoidance; path optimization; genetic algorithm; random search
Online: 27 October 2020 (20:44:30 CET)
In the rescue operations the full time of action plays important role. It is a sum of planning, travel, and manipulation (in the action place) phases times. The time minimization of first two phases by autonomous vehicle for remote action is considered in the paper. For known a priori map the path planning consists of local optimal decision collected next in the general algorithm of the optimal path. Such approach significantly reduces time of path planning. The robot features and known sparse obstacles reduce the allowable robot speeds. The time of travel is calculated from allowable velocity profile. So, it can be used to estimate the travel performance. Genetic algorithm and random search-based methods for path finding with travel time optimization are exploited and compared in the paper. All the proposed time optimisation solutions of rescue operation are checked during computer simulations and results of simulation are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: personal genomics, DNA, polygenic, risk, regulation, discrimination, calibration, prediction, transparency, autonomy
Online: 23 May 2019 (16:23:57 CEST)
Direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies aim to predict the risks of complex diseases using proprietary algorithms. Companies keep algorithms as trade secrets for competitive advantage, but a market that thrives on the premise that customers can make their own decisions about genetic testing should respect customer autonomy and informed decision making and maximize opportunities for transparency. The algorithm itself is only one piece of the information that is deemed essential for understanding how prediction algorithms are developed and evaluated. Companies should be encouraged to disclose everything else, including the expected risk distribution of the algorithm when applied in the population, using a benchmark DNA dataset. A standardized presentation of information and risk distributions allows customers to compare test offers and scientists to verify whether the undisclosed algorithms could be valid. A new model of oversight in which stakeholders collaboratively keep a check on the commercial market is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0611.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Autonomy; LOA; design; swarms; underwater vehicles; marine; Autonomous Job Analysis; canvas
Online: 25 October 2018 (15:33:12 CEST)
Several design methods and principles have been presented so far, in order to guide the design of autonomous operations. Putting the required efforts into learning and using the methods for designing autonomous operations is a daunting task. Experiences so far have shown that the use of methods meant to the help the design process are often ignored. One reason could be that the design guidelines are too complex and contain much information often not relevant for the project at hand, and therefore there is no easy way to distinguish what is important from what is not. This is an issue that needs to be solved with our approach. In this article, the Autonomous Job Analysis (AJA) method is presented. The proposed methodology is created in order to guide the design of autonomous operations in maritime systems by breaking them down in to sub-operations in order to reveal challenges, needs and limitations regarding autonomous behavior. The canvas contains the categories of the AJA method on a single page format -the canvas- and each category is supported with questions to be asked during the design procedure, as well as example answers. We will describe the AJA method and the AJA canvas in detail, and present a use case scenario of an autonomous operation in order to show how they can be applied. The particular use-case is the design of an autonomous operation for the detection, inspection and tracking of a waste water plume.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: mobile manipulation; shared autonomy; assitive robotics; grasping multiple objects; service robotics
Online: 8 October 2018 (10:52:44 CEST)
In recent years, autonomous robots have proven capable of solving tasks in complex environments. In particular, robot manipulations in activities of daily living (ADL) for service robots have been in wide use. However, manipulations such as loading a dishwasher or folding laundry are difficult to automate robustly. In addition, manipulations of grasping multiple objects in domestic environments present difficulty. To perform those applications better, we developed robotic systems based on shared autonomy by combining the cognitive skills of a human operator with autonomous robot behaviors. In this work, we present techniques for integration of a shared autonomy system for assistive mobile manipulation and new strategies to support users in the domestic environment. We demonstrate that the robot can grasp multiple objects with random size at known and unknown table heights. Specifically, we developed three strategies for manipulation. From experimental results, we observed that the first strategy has the highest success rate (70% for random objects) up to 70 cm table height. Two other strategies perform better for 80 cm to 100 cm table height. The success rate of the second and third strategies shows an average 63.3% and 73.3%, respectively, for grasping random objects. We also demonstrated these strategies using two intuitive interfaces, a visual interface in rviz and a voice user interface with speech recognition, which are suitable for elderly people. In addition, the robot can select strategies automatically in random scenarios, which make the robot intelligent and able to make decisions independently in the environment. We obtained interesting results showing that the robot adapts to the environmental variation automatically. After these experimental demonstrations, our robot shows the capabilities for employment in domestic environments to perform actual tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: reproductive coercion; intimate partner violence; sexual violence; reproductive autonomy; women; family violence
Online: 13 September 2020 (12:00:14 CEST)
Background: Reproductive coercion and abuse (RCA) is a hidden form of violence against women. It includes behaviours intended to control or dictate a woman’s reproductive autonomy, for the purpose of either preventing or promoting pregnancy. Main text: In this commentary, we argue that there is a lack of conceptual clarity around RCA that is a barrier to developing a robust evidence base. Furthermore, we suggest that there is a poor understanding of the way that RCA intersects with other types of violence (intimate partner violence; sexual violence) and – as a result – inconsistent definition and measurement in research and practice. To address this, we propose a new way of understanding RCA that centres perpetrator intent and the presence of fear and control. Recommendations for future research are also discussed. Conclusion: We suggest that IPV and SV are the mechanisms through which RCA is perpetrated. In other words, RCA cannot exist without some other form of co-occurring violence in a relationship. This has important implications for research, policy and practice including for screening and identification of women in reproductive healthcare settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0607.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Interdependence; human-machine teams; autonomy; complexity; problem tasks; entropy; embodied cognition; harmonic oscillators
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:18:05 CEST)
In this review, our goal is to design and test quantum-like algorithms for Artificial Intelligence (AI) in open systems to structure a human-machine team to be able to reach its maximum performance. Unlike the laboratory, in open systems, teams face complexity, uncertainty and conflict. All task domains have complexity levels, some have low, and others high levels. Complexity in this new domain is affected by the environment and the task, which are both affected by uncertainty and conflict. We contrast the individual and interdependence approaches to teams. The traditional and individual approach focuses on building teams and systems by aggregating the best available information for individuals, their thoughts, behaviors and skills. Its concepts are characterized chiefly by one-to-one relations between mind and body, a summation of disembodied individual mental and physical attributes, and degrees of freedom corresponding to the number of members in a team; however, this approach is characterized by the many researchers who have invested in it for almost a century with few effects that can be generalized to human-machine interactions; by the replication crisis of today (e.g., the invalid scales for self-esteem, implicit racism, and honesty); and by its many disembodied concepts. In contrast, our approach is based on the quantum-like nature of interdependence. It allows us to theorize about the bistability of mind and body, but it proposes a measurement problem and a non-factorable nature. Bistability addresses team structure and performance; the measurement problem solves the replication crisis; and the non-factorable aspect of teams reduces the degrees of freedom and the information derivable from teammates to match findings by the National Academies of Science. We begin with a review of the science of teams and a focus on human-machine team research in the laboratory versus the open; justifications for rejecting traditional social science while supporting our approach; a full understand of the complexity of the domain, tasks in the domain, and how teams address both; the mathematics involved; a review of results from our model versus the open field; a discussion of the results; conclusions; and the path forward to successfully advance the science of interdependence and autonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0005.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: new ways of working; sector comparison; job goal clarity; red tape; autonomy; NWW-attribution
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:00:11 CEST)
The diffusion of New Ways of Working (NWW) is an important trend in contemporary organi-zations. Many related empirical studies have been produced, but none have focused on differences in employees’ perceptions of the opportunity to use NWW according to organization sector (pri-vate, semi-public, public). This study, based on neoinstituionalism and HR attributions theory, investigated these differences via a survey (n=2693) of employees at private (n=358), semi-public (n=204), and public (n=2131) organizations. The results show that public employees reported less opportunity to use NWW than their private and semi-public counterparts. Furthermore, private sector employees were more likely to attribute well-being and productivity benefits to NWW than their public sector and semi-public counterparts. We also show that institutional and organiza-tional variables specific to the characteristics of organizations in the three sectors partially ex-plain the degree of perceptions with respect to the opportunity to use NWW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: maritime autonomy; autonomous ship; safety; digital twin; deep reinforcement learning; collision avoidance; situational awareness
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:55:58 CEST)
The use of digital twins for the development of Autonomous Maritime Surface Vessels (AMSVs) has enormous potential to resolve the increasing need for water-based navigation and safety at the seas. Aiming at the problem of lack of broad and integrated digital twin implementations with live data along with the absence of a digital twin-driven framework for AMSV design and development, an application framework for the development of a fully autonomous vessel using an integrated digital twin in a 3D simulation environment has been presented. Our framework has four layers to ensure that the simulation and the real-world boat as well as the environment are as close as possible. Åboat, an experimental research platform for maritime automation and autonomous surface ship applications, equipped with two trolling electric motors, cameras, LiDARs, IMU and GPS has been used as the case study to provide a proof of concept. Åboat and its sensors, alongwith the environment have been replicated in a 3D simulation environment. Using the proposed application framework, we develop obstacle detection and path planning systems based on machine learning which leverage live data from a 3D simulation environment to mirror the complex dynamics of the real world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0324.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: consumer behavior; green nudges; boosts; sustainability; libertarian paternalism; sustainable consumption; human bias; ethics; proportionality; autonomy.
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:40:15 CET)
Recent years have shown that traditional regulatory techniques alone are not effective in achieving behavior change in important fields such as environmental sustainability. Governments all over the world have been progressively including behaviourally informed considerations in policy and law-making with the aim of improving the acceptance and impact of sustainability-oriented measures. This led to the arrival of alternative regulatory tools, such as nudges. The effectiveness of nudges for environmental sustainability (green nudges) has been largely reported but the practical and ethical implications are still largely neglected by academic research. In this contribution, “nudges” are conceptually distinguished from “boosts” and their ethical briefly explained. The analysis is made at the light of the current mostly European and US American academic literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0226.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: motorised mobility; average distances; international comparison; future automobiles; automotive companies; battery autonomy (range); economic analysis
Online: 22 June 2019 (15:59:01 CEST)
This paper aims at providing a multisource data analysis, including direct data collection, focussed on daily average distances covered with motorised mobility. Its results can be used as a basis for policies involving a shift towards new propulsions, electric motors or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) for road vehicles. A number of variables influence the propensity of drivers to acquire or use electric traction, even the option of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). This paper addresses one of such variable: the compliancy of electric traction regarding both hybrid plug-in solutions and full-electric vehicles, in addition to the autonomy of batteries (range), with the daily travels by road vehicles, mainly by automobiles. We want to understand whether the constraints leading towards a greater independence from crude oil rather than constraints concerning emissions, mainly in urban contexts, might be compliant with the habitual daily trips of drivers. We also want to understand if these daily trips have varied much during recent years and the consequences they may have on operational costs of plug-in automobiles. We are well aware that the average distances do not represent the actual daily runs of vehicles; yet similar distributions of daily distances for different case studies indicate that a high percentage of trips respond to certain features. After introducing a general overview of road-motorised mobility in Italy, the paper compares data from other studies to provide an indication of average daily driving distances. This reveals how different recent analyses converge on a limited range of average road distances covered daily by Italians, which is compliant with ranges allowed by electric batteries, provided that their low energy density in comparison with that of oil-derived fuels do not imply a significant increase in vehicle mass. Subsequently, average distances in some EU Countries are taken from the literature, and the results are also compared with U.S. data. The study extends the analysis of trends on the use of automobiles and road-vehicles to the international context by also addressing average daily distances covered for freight transport in some EU Countries, thereby providing a further basis for comparison and for understanding whether the daily motorised mobility can be considered as a stable phenomenon. Finally, an analysis is provided of the economic operational advantages from using plug-in vehicles. The main aim of this paper is thereafter to investigate the average daily motorised mobility of single vehicles – so not an aggregated motorised mobility as collected by some statistics – by using private motorised vehicles in Italy, with related trends; thereafter, to compare these data with those obtained from other countries, making use of both existing research studies and directly collected data; the final aim is to understand both the compliance of daily activities based on the use of automobiles with the autonomy of batteries (range) and to calculate some economic outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0254.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: autonomous systems; multiple sclerosis; stroke; smart mirror; autonomy; lived experience; home healthcare; digital health technology; data sharing.
Online: 5 July 2023 (08:57:32 CEST)
The home is becoming a key location for healthcare delivery, including the use of technology driven by autonomous systems (AS) to monitor and support healthcare plans. Using the example of a smart mirror, this paper describes the outcomes of focus groups with people with multiple sclerosis (MS; n=6) and people who have had a stroke (n=15) to understand their attitudes towards the use of AS for healthcare in the home. We thematic analysis to analyse the data. The results indicate that the use of such technology depends on the level of adaptability and responsiveness to the users’ specific circumstances, including their relationships with the healthcare system. A smart mirror would need to support manual entry, responsive goal setting, effective aggregation of data sources and integration with other technology, have a range of input methods, be supportive rather than prescriptive in messaging, and give the user full control of their data. Barriers to adoption include a perceived lack of portability and practicality, lack of accessibility and inclusivity, a sense of redundancy, being overwhelmed by multiple technological devices, and a lack of trust in data sharing. These results inform the development and deployment of future health technologies based on the lived experiences of people with health conditions who require ongoing care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Post-Acute COVID-19 Vaccination Syndrome; PACVS, G-protein-coupled receptor; receptor antibody; interleukin-6; dis-autonomy; chronic fatigue.
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:14:41 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination can entail chronic fatigue/dis-autonomy tentatively termed post-acute COVID-19 vaccination syndrome (PACVS). We explored receptor autoantibodies and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as somatic correlates of PACVS. Blood markers determined before and six months after first-time SARS-CoV-2-vaccination of healthy controls (N = 89, 71 females, mean/ median age 39/ 49 years) were compared with corresponding values of PACVS-affected persons (N= 191, 159 females, mean/median age: 40/39 years) exhibiting chronic fatigue/dis-autonomy (≥ three symptoms for ≥ five months after last SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination) not due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or confounding diseases/medications. Normal vaccination response encompassed decreases of 11 receptor-antibodies (by 25 - 50 %, p < 0.0001), increases in two receptor-antibodies (by 15 - 25 %, p < 0.0001) and normal IL-6. In PACVS, serological vaccination-response appeared significantly (p < 0.0001) altered, allowing discrimination from normal post-vaccination state (sensitivity = 90%, p < 0.0001) by increased angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (cut-off ≤ 10.7 U/ml, ROC-AUC = 0.824 ± 0.027), decreased alpha-2B adrenergic receptor antibodies (cut-off ≥ 25.2 U/ml, ROC-AUC = 0.828 ± 0.025) and increased IL-6 (cut-off ≤ 2.3 pg/ml, ROC-AUC = 0.850 ± 0.022). PACVS is thus indicated as a somatic syndrome delineated/detectable by diagnostic blood markers
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0742.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: inner speech; spontaneous self-talk; goal-directed self-talk; big five personality traits; self-determination theory; autonomy; competence; relatedness; sport
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:31:01 CEST)
Good health and the promotion of well-being for all is the third of the 17 Global Goals included in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Contributing to this goal, the current study aimed to examine the relationships between one kind of athletes’ well-being, namely state organic self-talk, with personality traits, and basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration within their sport. Athletes (N = 691; mean age 21.65) from a variety of individual (n = 270) and team sports (n = 421) completed a multisection questionnaire capturing the targeted variables. Three-step hierarchical regression analyses revealed that: In step 1, all personality traits were to some extent a significant predictor of athletes’ organic, spontaneous self-talk dimensions and goal-directed self-talk functions. In step 2, need satisfaction significantly contributed to all spontaneous self-talk dimensions and goal-directed self-talk functions (except for creating functional deactivated states) over and above personality. Finally, in step 3, need frustration significantly contributed to negative spontaneous self-talk dimensions, and to all goal-directed self-talk functions (except for instruction) over and above personality and need satisfaction. Overall, our results indicate the importance of personality traits as personal antecedents, and perceptions of basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration as social-environmental antecedents, in shaping athletes’ state organic self-talk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: RBFOpt model-based optimization; genetic algorithms; multi-objective optimization; Energy Use Intensity optimization; spatial Daylight Autonomy optimization; office building; layout optimization
Online: 18 May 2023 (09:37:53 CEST)
Advancements in Parametric Design, Generative Design, and automation in Building Information Modelling (BIM) have opened new opportunities for architects and engineers working on complex buildings, such as offices. These developments allow designers to enhance their designs, increase project efficiency, improve performance, and reduce project time and costs. To address conflicting objectives that arise during the design process, genetic algorithms with multi-objective optimization (MOO) have been employed in architectural design. The GENIUS project aims to optimize building shape, apertures, and shading systems in the concept and design stages, with a focus on energy and daylight performance. The project integrates BIM and visual programming tools with Artificial Intelligence techniques like Genetic Algorithms and RBFOpt model-based optimization. Optimization algorithms are used to identify the best solutions that meet all design objectives, helping architects optimize their designs and achieve desired outcomes. The workflow was tested on a case study of a large office building, with MOO focused on maximizing daylight performance using Spatial Daylight Autonomy metric and minimizing energy consumption using Energy Use Intensity metric. The project provides architects with a method to improve their designs using Algorithm Aided Design tools, which help identify the best solutions for complex design problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: health literacy; patient health engagement model; Health Care Climate Questionnaire; patient autonomy; PHE-s; Patient Health Engagement Scale; health communication; patient centered communication; patient engagement
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Individuals with low health literacy (HL) are known to have poorer health outcomes and to have higher mortality rates compared to individuals with higher HL: hence, the improvement of HL is a key outcome in modern healthcare systems. Healthcare providers are therefore asked to support patients’ literacy skills by encouraging the implementation of autonomy-supportive patient centered communication (PCC), which in turn requires the enhancement of patient engagement. Our main hypothesis is that the well-known relationship between autonomy-supportive PCC and HL is mediated by patient engagement which is known to play a role in HL promotion and that is related to PCC as well. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model (SEM) linking PCC to patient engagement and HL. A cross-sectional survey design was employed involving 1007 Italian chronic patients. The hypothetical model was tested using SEM to verify the hypothesized mediation of patient engagement between PCC and HL. Results show that the theoretical model has a good fit indexes and that patient engagement fully mediates the relationship between PCC and HL. This finding suggests healthcare systems to implement a new paradigm where patients are supported to play an autonomous role in their own healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: autonomy; optimal; spacecraft; navigation guidance; attitude control; inertial sensors; star trackers; linear quadratic regulator; time-optimal control; optimal open loop; proportional plus derivative control; real-time optimal control; switched real-time optimal control
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:40:49 CET)
Autonomous navigation of spacecraft necessitates innovative technologies, methods, and algorithms, particularly when orbiting in proximity of other space objects. Optimization methods are useful for autonomous spacecraft navigation, guidance, and control, but their performance is hampered by noisy multi-sensor technologies and poorly modeled system equations, and real-time on-board utilization is generally computationally burdensome. Some proposed methods use noisy sensor data to learn the optimal guidance and control solutions real-time (online), where non-iterative instantiations are preferred to reduce computational burdens. This study aims to highlight efficacy and limitations of several common methods for optimizing guidance and control while proposing a few more, where all methods are applied to the full, nonlinear, coupled equations of motion including cross-products of motion from the transport theorem. Five disparate types of optimum guidance and control algorithms are presented and compared to a classical benchmark. Comparative analysis is based on tracking errors (both states and rates), fuel usage, and computational burden. Real-time optimalization with singular switching plus nonlinear transport theorem decoupling proves superior by matching open-loop solutions to the constrained optimization problem (in terms of state and rate errors and fuel usage), while robustness is validated in the utilization of mixed, noisy state and rate sensors and uniformly varying mass and mass moments of inertia. State tracking errors are reduced one-hundred ten percent. Rate tracking errors are reduced one-hundred thirteen percent. Control utilization (e.g., fuel) is reduced eighty four percent, while computational burden in reduced ten percent simultaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0362.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: astronautics; astrodynamics; terminal astroballistics; the main planetary defense problem; hydrocode; warheads; impulsive dynamic interactions on the asteroids; modeling and simulation; sensors; network-centric system architecture; space missions; navigation; planetary defense modeling; synchronization; atomic and pulsar time; autonomy; space; relativistic metrology
Online: 24 January 2022 (14:44:37 CET)
The article is devoted to the preliminary concept of the Future Planetary Defense System (FPDS), emphasizing Astroballistics. This paper is intended to support international efforts to improve the planetary security of the Earth. The work covers three areas of knowledge: Astronautics, Astrodynamics, and Astroballistics. The most important part of the presented article is dynamic, contact combat modeling against small, deformable celestial bodies. For these purposes, the original, proprietary hydrocode of the Free Particle Method (HEFPM-G) with gravity was used. The main aim of combat is to redirect the Potentially Hazardous Objects (PHOs) to orbits safe for the Earth or destroy them. This concept's first task is to find, prepare and use dynamic three-dimensional models of celestial bodies' motion and spacecraft or human-crewed spaceships in the Solar System's relativistic frame. The second task is to prepare the FPDS' architecture and computer simulation space missions' initial concepts in the internal part of the solar system. The third and main task covers simulating, using hydrocodes, selected methods of fighting 100 m and 140 m diameter asteroids. The order of the article is as follows. The first part of the article presents an architecture and FPDS' modus operandi. Preliminary design and development of FPDS' space missions, including navigation, mission dynamics simulation, is prepared using an open-source space mission analysis and design tool. E.g., Asterank and Trajectory Browser or GMAT are presented in the second part. The third part of the article is devoted to computer hydrocodes (HEFPM-G) and the modeling and simulation of asteroid–asteroid collision, laser radiation effects on an asteroid, and FPDS spacecraft's warhead contact interaction on the small celestial body. The authors formulated the Main Planetary Defense Problem (MPDP) in this paper. The proposition of this problem solving has been realized by preparing its concepts, architecture, and modus operandi of the FPDS mission. Finally, a series of realistic simulations were made using hydrocode to deflect or destroy dangerous asteroids. The summary and conclusions can be found in the fourth part of the article.