ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: carbon footprint; dacarbonization; car manufacturing; automotive industry; low-carbon material
Online: 15 September 2023 (10:59:32 CEST)
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from human activities have climbed significantly above pre-pandemic levels and reached record highs that unequivocally accelerate global warming. Industry has a significant impact on climate change, emitting at least 21 % of global GHGs and making little overall progress toward its reduction until now. Reducing industry’s emissions requires coordinated action along the value chains in order to promote mitigation options, such as energy and material efficiency, circular material flows, and transformative changes within production processes. The authors analyzed the GHG emissions generated during the manufacturing of three different products of automotive suppliers located in Austria. Despite previous efforts toward an environmentally compatible fabrication, additional and significant reduction potentials were identified. These measures for product carbon footprint (PCF) reduction included the sourcing of low-carbon materials (which are already available on the market), more extensive use of renewable energy, and changes towards more resource efficient manufacturing processes and machinery. Depending on the materials used, the PCF can be reduced by up to 80 %. The findings serve to prepare for future PCF reporting regulations and illustrate reduction potentials to achieve future market advantages, especially when PCFs become an awarding criterion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0402.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Virtual Reality; Digital Human Modeling; Physical Ergonomics Analysis; Product Development; Automotive Industry
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:13:48 CET)
The efficacy of the product development process is measured by the ability to launch a project with product and production process specifications that could guarantee that the manufacturing can produce it with the least impact. If a problem is detected late, they bring consequences beyond the high cost of the solution, if related to physical ergonomics, which will influence the well-being of operators, productivity, and quality. Virtual Reality (VR) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) are ones of the enabling technologies of Industry 4.0 and has already been applied on a large scale in industries such as automotive, construction, and aeronautics. However, even though the huge applications, these technologies are not yet applied by these industries for the analysis of physical ergonomics during product development phases. This study aims to characterize the state of the art and technology about the application of Virtual Reality and Digital Human Modeling for the physical ergonomics analysis in the during product development phases in the industry through a systematic review of the literature and patents. In patent documents recovery, we used Derwent Innovation database. The research is based on searching the selected terms in the title, summary, and claims of the documents through a search strategy containing IPC code and keywords. In articles recovery, we searched ScienceDirect, Springer, and IEEExplore databases for scientific publications. The search resulted in 311 patents documents and 16 articles in the scientific database. This study analyzed the patents to map out the technological progress in this area, where we found in the charts and data an increasing number of publications per year and a spread application with a considerable number of new technologies presented in these recent patents. The literature review indicated that Virtual Reality technology complements the Digital Human Modeling during physical ergonomics analysis for manufacturing process already designed. The majority of research on the use of VR and DHM technologies for physical ergonomics analysis focus on the automotive industry and the ergonomic assessment of workstations and current processes. Further research is needed to investigate how Virtual Reality and Digital Human Modeling might assist in the understanding of physical ergonomics in certain tasks throughout the product development process, such as the simulation of worker posture or effort when assembling parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0006.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: User Experience; Remote UX; Participatory design; Co-creation; Prototyping; Automotive user interfaces; Autonomous Vehicles; Automotive.
Online: 1 August 2018 (08:31:02 CEST)
This study reports on empirical findings of participatory design workshops for the development of a supportive user experience design system in the automotive. Identifying and addressing this area with traditional research methods is problematic due to the different UX design perspectives that might be conflicting and the related automotive domain limitations. To help resolve this problem, we conducted research with 12 User Experience (UX) designers through individual participatory prototyping activities to gain insights on their explicit, observable, tacit and latent needs. These activities allowed us to explore their motivation to use different technologies; the system's architecture; detailed features of interactivity and describe user needs including Efficiency, Effectiveness, Engagement, Naturalness, Ease of Use, Information retrieval, Self-Image awareness, Politeness, and Flexibility. Our analysis led us to design implications that translate participants' needs into UX design goals, informing practitioners on how to develop relevant systems further.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive Radar; Validation Measurements; Sensor Models
Online: 30 August 2023 (13:53:29 CEST)
Virtual validation of radar sensor models is becoming increasingly important for the safety validation of adf. Therefore, methods for quantitative comparison of radar measurements in the context of model validation need to be developed. This paper presents a novel methodology for accessing and quantifying validation measurements of radar sensor models. This method uses edf and the so-called dvm to effectively quantify deviations between distributions. By applying this metric, the study measures the consistency, reproducibility and repeatability of radar sensor measurements. Different interfaces and different levels of detail are investigated. By comparing the radar signals from real world experiments where different objects are present, valuable insights are gained into the performance of the sensor. In particular, the research extends to assessing the impact of varying rain intensities on the measurement results, providing a comprehensive understanding of the sensor’s behaviour under these conditions. This holistic approach significantly advances the evaluation of radar sensor capabilities and enables the quantification of the maximum required quality of radar simulation models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0219.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; automation; productivity; employment; automotive industry
Online: 9 July 2021 (12:59:00 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an automation mechanism that runs in a computer system performing tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision making or translation . Some authors argue that recent developments in AI are leading to a wave of innovation in organizational design and changes to institutionalized norms of the workplace . Techno-optimists even named this present phase the ‘second machine age’, arguing that it now involves the substitution of the human brain (Brynjolfsson and McAfee 2014). Potentially, the ability to apply AI in a generalized way can produce significant technical, economic and social effects in firms. But how many of these AI applications are ready and how far can they be from reaching the manufacturing industry market? The paper will answer the question: what are the implications on industrial productivity and employment in the automotive sector with the recent automation trends in Portugal? We will focus on AI as the most relevant emergent technology to understand the development of automation in areas related to robotics, software, and data communications in Europe (Moniz 2018). R&D investments in industrial processes in general may reflect productivity improvements derived from the increased automation process. Our results will be based on case studies from the automotive and components sector combined with database search by keywords that signal intelligence automation developments and AI applications selected from national R&D projects (on robotics, machine learning, collaborative tools, human-machine interaction, autonomous systems, etc) supported by European structural funds. The implications on industrial productivity and employment will be discussed in relation to automation trends in the automotive sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: fault injection; functional safety; automotive applications; fault tolerance
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:41:10 CEST)
A common requirement of embedded software in charge of safety tasks is to guarantee the identification of those Random Hardware Failures (RHFs) that can affect digital components. RHFs are unavoidable. For this reason, functional safety standards, like the ISO 26262 devoted to automotive applications, require embedded software designs able to detect and eventually mitigate them. For this purpose, various software-based error detection techniques have been proposed over the years, focusing mainly on detecting Control Flow Errors. Many Control Flow Checking (CFC) algorithms have been proposed to accomplish this task. However, applying these approaches can be difficult because their respective literature gives little guidance on the their practical implementation in high-level programming languages, and they have to be implemented in low-level code, e.g., assembly. Moreover, the current trend in the automotive industry is to adopt the so-called Model-Based Software Design approach, where an executable algorithm model is automatically translated into C or C++ source code. This paper presents two novelties: firstly, the compliance of the experimental data on the capabilities of Control Flow Checking (CFC) algorithms with the ISO 26262 automotive functional safety standard; Secondly, by the implementation of the CFC algorithm in the application behavioral model is automatically translated. There is no need to modify the code generator. The assessment was performed using a novel fault injection environment targeting a RISC-V (RV32I) microcontroller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0011.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Automotive; Electric Vehicle; Market Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Marketing Strategy
Online: 1 May 2023 (04:07:19 CEST)
With the increased liberation of trade and fierce competition in the automotive industry, Proton needs to embark on a strategic reform to survive and remain relevant in the challenging market. This case study aims to explain the effectiveness of the Post Geely acquisition's ten years master plan to enhance Proton's self-reliance and global competitiveness. This case suggests that while the company's ten-year Master Plan is holistic and shows positive results in the early years, there is a need for a new business strategy, given the challenges imposed by climate change's impact on the automotive industry moving forward. The potentials of the Electric Vehicles (EVs) market and the Internet of Things (IoT) to develop the necessary long-term competitive advantage. A market strategy integrating the 4Ps and 4Cs framework suggests a two-dimensional convergence of the market mix, incorporating the organization's market strategy with a more consumer expectations-centric and user experience. Strategic integration of Geely's technological assets in developing Proton's technical know-how can address Proton's challenges and opportunities ahead.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0524.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Camera; Radar; Lidar; Automotive Engineering; Adverse Weather; Sensor Perception
Online: 18 April 2023 (12:40:48 CEST)
Vehicle safety promises to be one of the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) biggest benefits. Higher levels of automation remove the human driver from the chain of events that can lead to a crash. Sensors play an influential role in vehicle driving as well as in ADAS by helping the driver to watch the vehicle’s surroundings for safe driving. Thus, the driving load is drastically reduced from steering as well as accelerating and braking for long-term driving. The baseline for the development of future intelligent vehicles relies even more on the fusion of data from surrounding sensors such as Camera, Lidar and Radar. These sensors not only need to perceive in clear weather but also need to detect accurately adverse weather and illumination conditions. Otherwise, a small error could have an incalculable impact on ADAS. As most of the current study is based on indoor or static testing. In order to solve this problem, this paper designs a series of dynamic test cases with the help of outdoor rain and intelligent lightning simulation facilities to make the sensor application scenarios more realistic. As a result, the effect of rainfall and illumination on sensor perception performance is investigated. As speculated, the performance of all automotive sensors is degraded by adverse environmental factors, but their behaviour is not identical. Future work on sensor model development and sensor information fusion should therefore take this into account.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: virtual reality; automotive industry; marketing research; immersive car clinic
Online: 9 November 2021 (11:01:16 CET)
Virtual reality (VR) can play a key role in automotive marketing research, lowering costs and shortening the time it takes to bring a new product to market. However, there are still few VR applications that support automotive customers' experiences during the early stages of product development. Through a systematic review of literature and patents, this study aims to identify the challenges and opportunities for the application of virtual reality in car clinics, and to categorize them into attributes. We searched through the knowledge databases of PatentScout, ScienceDirect, Springer, and IEEEXplore. We found 72 patents with a high concentration in a few inventors. The United States of America presented the greatest number of records and the most common applications related to the apparatus for automatically reading respondents' reactions in a virtual environment. In terms of articles, we found 19 research papers that discussed sixteen categories identified as challenges and opportunities for automotive marketing research: 1) cost, 2) location to customers, 3) flexibility in interactions, 4) model transportation, 5) depth perception, 6) haptic perception, 7) motion, 8) movement perception/ physical collision, 9) color and texture, 10) sound feedback, 11) product interaction/manipulation, 12) visual-spatial, 13) graphic quality, 14) intuitiveness, 15) cybersecurity and 16) cybersickness. We conclude that the automotive industry can employ virtual reality for marketing research, but relevant elements such as hardware and software definition, stimulus quality, and research objectives, among others, must be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; topology optimization; lattice; Ti6Al4V; automotive; light-weighting
Online: 2 November 2018 (09:38:06 CET)
This paper provides an overview of the new CPAM Project on Additive Manufacturing (AM) in design and simulation, focusing on topology & lattice structure optimization for a light-weighting advantage. This industry/academia collaboration project aims to utilize existing hardware and software tools, and investigate the practical limits of the technologies, providing eventual guidelines for general use. This will provide a solid foundation for the practical use of metal AM optimized solid and latticed structures especially for Ti6Al4V parts. Two case studies are demonstrated here, one a purely topology optimized design, and one also incorporating lattice optimized design, both from Ti6Al4V and load-bearing components, to be utilized in the Nelson Mandela University (NMU) Eco-Car Project in competition, late in 2018. This paper presents the Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) process, the challenges met iro applying a DfAM design mindset, and a unique final voxel-based smoothing step finishing off the design process. Detailed structural integrity assessment of these parts are included - the question remains: can Additive Manufacturing help win the race?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0609.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: position control; static friction; EGR valve system; automotive application
Online: 31 July 2018 (06:30:04 CEST)
This paper proposes a position control method for low cost EGR valve system in automotive application. Generally, position control system using in automotive application has many restrictions such as cost and space, the mechanical structure of actuator implies high friction and large difference between static friction and coulomb friction. This large friction difference occurs the vibrated position control result when the controller uses conventional linear controller such as P, PI. In this paper, low cost position control method which can apply under the condition of high difference friction mechanical system. Proposed method is verified by comparing conventional control result of experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0203.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digitalization; IT management; German automotive industry; new model; digital transformation
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:10:25 CEST)
This article examines how digitalisation is impacting the management of IT. Phase 1 of the re-search focuses on the German automotive industry, and adopts a qualitative inductive approach, based on feedback from 19 semi-structured interviews with IT managers and professionals. Five key aspects of digitalisation are identified, and a new model for the management of IT is devel-oped. Phase 2 then reviews the deployment of digital technologies in eight organisations from other industry sectors and assesses the overall impact on the management of IT. The results suggest that the transition to new IT management structures in the German automotive industry may be the forerunner of a change process that will impact more widely in other industries, in particular where digital technologies are now embedded in an organisation’s products or services. The results also provide some new perspectives on the conceptualisation of digitalisation and digital transformation, and represent a contribution to the developing theory around new tech-nology deployment and IT management in the digital era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0859.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Autonomous vehicles; weather; automotive; modelling; precipitation; rain; snow; dimensional analysis
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:25:45 CEST)
With advances in the development of autonomous vehicles (AVs), more attention has been paid to the effects caused by adverse weather conditions on them. It is well known that the performance of self-driving vehicles is reduced when they are exposed to stressors that impair visibility or generate water or snow accumulation on sensor surfaces. This paper proposes a model to quantify weather precipitation, such as rain and snow, perceived by moving vehicles based on outdoor data. The modelling covers a wide range of parameters, such as varying wind direction and realistic particle size distributions. The model allows the calculation of precipitation intensity on inclined surfaces of different orientations and on a circular driving path. The modelling results were partially validated against direct measurements carried out by a test vehicle. The model outputs showed strong correlation with the experimental data for both rain and snow. Mitigation strategies for heavy precipitation on vehicles can be developed and correlations between precipitation rate and accumulation level can be traced using the presented analytical model. Dimensional Analysis of the problem has highlighted the critical parameters that can help the design of future experiments. The obtained results highlight the importance of the angle of the sensing surface on the perceived precipitation level. The proposed model is used to analyze optimal orientations for minimization of the precipitation flux, which can help to determine the positioning of sensors on the surface of autonomous vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0069.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Consumer behaviour; Customer Perception; questionnaire survey; Car segment; Automotive Industry
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:08:39 CEST)
This research paper examines the evolution of car purchasing behaviour among consumers in India from 2010 to the present. Through extensive literature review and questionnaire survey, it explores the reasons behind the changing preferences and decision-making processes of consumers in the Indian automobile market. The study draws upon various sources, including market research reports, industry publications, academic studies, and consumer surveys, to provide a comprehensive analysis of the factors influencing car purchasing behaviour in India over the last decade. The findings of this research paper can help automakers and marketers better understand consumer preferences and develop effective strategies to cater to the evolving needs of the Indian car market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0411.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Automotive; Resistance Spot Welding; Quality Assurance; Quality Monitoring; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:27:03 CEST)
Resistance spot welding is an established joining process in the production of safety-relevant components in the automotive industry. Therefore, a consecutive process monitoring is essential to meet the high-quality requirements. Artificial neural networks can be used to evaluate the process parameters and signals to ensure the individual spot weld quality. The predictive accuracy of such algorithms depends on the provided training data set and the prediction of untrained data is challenging. The aim of this paper is to investigate the extrapolation capability of the multi-layer perceptron model. That means, that the predictive performance of the model will be tested with data that clearly differs from the training data in terms of material and coating composition. Therefore, three multi-layer perceptron regression models were implemented to predict the nugget diameter from process data. The three models were able to predict the trained datasets very well. The models, which were provided with features from the dynamic resistance curve predicted the new dataset better than the model with only process parameters. This study shows the beneficial influence of the process signals on the predictive accuracy and robustness of artificial neural network algorithms. Especially, when predicting a data set from outside of the training space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: subsidy; automotive industry; prognosis; COVID-19; environmental impact; life cycle analysis
Online: 10 November 2020 (08:20:37 CET)
This paper establishes a prognosis of the long term environmental impact of various car subsidy concepts. The CO2 emissions of the German car fleet impacted by the purchase subsidies are determined. A balance model of the CO2 emissions of the whole car life cycle is developed. Consideration of production-, use- and End-of-Life processes are taken into account. The implementation of different subsidy scenarios directly affects the forecasted composition of the vehicle population and therefore the resulting life cycle assessment. All scenarios compensate the additional emissions required by the production pull-in within the considered period and hence reduce the accumulated CO2 emissions until 2030. The exclusive funding of BEVs is most effective with a break-even in 2025.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0504.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Atmosphere pollution; atmosphere contamination; hazardous substances; particulate matters; cancerogenic substances; automotive vehicles
Online: 31 December 2021 (10:52:33 CET)
The article analyzes two existing social, technical and economic problems which the world community shall focus on and pay special attention to.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0542.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive Engineering, Electric Bus, CFD, Numerical Fluid Mechanics, Electromobility, Noise, Eco-Design
Online: 26 January 2021 (15:23:24 CET)
The dynamic development of electromobility poses challenges to designers regarding not only the efficiency of energy transformation but also the battery life, which is influenced by the stability of its operating temperature. Designing cooling systems is connected not only with the optimization of energy management but also with other environmental parameters, such as noise emission. The paper presents the numerical optimization of an innovative radiator for use in electric buses in terms of energy consumption and noise emission. The results of the numerical studies were verified in laboratory and field conditions, showing a very good convergence of the model with the results of the experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0501.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Automotive industry; Bayesian network; Fault tree analysis; Fuzzy set theory; Maintenance optimization; Uncertainty
Online: 26 August 2021 (09:49:42 CEST)
Knowledge-based approaches are useful alternatives to predict the Failure Probability (FP) coping with the insufficient data, process integrity, and complexity issue in manufacturing systems. This study proposes a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) approach as proactive knowledge-based technique to estimate the FP based maintenance planning with subjective information from domain experts. However, the classical-FTA still suffers from uncertainty and static structure limitations which poses a substantial dilemma in predicting FP. To deal with the uncertainty issues, a Fuzzy-FTA (FFTA) model was developed by statistical analysing the effective attributes such as experts' trait impacts, scales variation and, assorted membership and defuzzification functions. Besides, a Bayesian Network (BN) theory was conducted to overcome the static limitation of classical-FTA. The results of FFTA model revealed that the changes in decision attributes were not statistically significant on FP variation while BN model considering conditional rules to reflect the dynamic relationship between events had more impact on predicting FP. After all, the integrated FFTA-BN model was used in the optimization model to find the optimal maintenance intervals according to estimated FP and the total expected cost. As a practical example, the proposed model was implemented in a semi-automatic filling system in an automotive production line. The outcomes could be useful for upgrading the availability and safety of complex equipment in manufacturing systems.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive development; Secure SDLC; Evidence-based standard; ISO/SAE 21434; UNECE cybersecurity regulation
Online: 9 December 2020 (10:59:57 CET)
Although traditional automotive development has mainly focused on functional safety, as the number of automotive hacking cases has increased due to the growing Internet connectivity of automotive control systems, security is also becoming more important. Accordingly, various international organizations are preparing cybersecurity regulations or standards to ensure security in automotive development by emphasizing the concept of security-by-design(i.e. security engineering) which emphasizes trustworthiness from the beginning of development. The problem, however, is that no specific methodology has been suggested. In this paper, we propose a specific security-by-design methodology for automotive development based on Secure System Development Life Cycle (secure SDLC) standards and evidence-based standards. Our methodology could be easily used in the actual field as it is more general and detailed than existing secure SDLC standards and research. Also, since it satisfies all requirements of United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulation, automobile manufacturers could respond to the upcoming cybersecurity regulation with our methodology.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: cognitive internet of vehicles; automotive; transportation; industrial revolution 4.0; security; intelligent transportation system
Online: 29 November 2019 (06:50:28 CET)
Over the past few years, we have experienced great technological advancements in the information and communication field, which has significantly contributed to reshaping the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) concept. Evolving from the platform of a collection of sensors aiming to collect data, the data exchanged paradigm among vehicles is shifted from the local network to the cloud. With the introduction of cloud and edge computing along with ubiquitous 5G mobile network, it is expected to see the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in data processing and smart decision imminent. So as to fully understand the future automobile scenario in this verge of industrial revolution 4.0, it is necessary first of all to get a clear understanding of the cutting-edge technologies that going to take place in the automotive ecosystem so that the cyber-physical impact on transportation system can be measured. CIoV, which is abbreviated from Cognitive Internet of Vehicle, is one of the recently proposed architectures of the technological evolution in transportation, and it has amassed great attention. It introduces cloud-based artificial intelligence and machine learning into transportation system. What are the future expectations of CIoV? To fully contemplate this architecture’s future potentials, and milestones set to achieve, it is crucial to understand all the technologies that leaned into it. Also, the security issues to meet the security requirements of its practical implementation. Aiming to that, this paper presents the evolution of CIoV along with the layer abstractions to outline the distinctive functional parts of the proposed architecture. It also gives an investigation of the prime security and privacy issues associated with technological evolution to take measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: automotive applications; concentrated windings; eddy current losses; fractional-slot windings; interior permanent-magnet motors
Online: 16 March 2017 (09:02:53 CET)
This paper analyzes and compares models for predicting average magnet losses in interior permanent-magnet motors with fractional-slot concentrated windings due to harmonics in the armature reaction (assuming sinusoidal phase currents). Particularly, loss models adopting different formulations and solutions to the Helmholtz equation to solve for the eddy currents are compared to a simpler model relying on an assumed eddy-current distribution. Boundaries in terms of magnet dimensions and angular frequency are identified (numerically and using an identified approximate analytical expression) to aid the machine designer whether the more simple loss model is applicable or not. The assumption of a uniform flux-density variation (used in the loss models) is also investigated for the case of V-shaped and straight interior permanent magnets. Finally, predicted volumetric loss densities are exemplified for combinations of slot and pole numbers common in automotive applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0135.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Machine Learning Applications; Quality Assurance Methodology; Process Model; Automotive Industry and Academia; Best Practices; Guidelines
Online: 3 March 2021 (14:11:09 CET)
Machine learning is an established and frequently used technique in industry and academia but a standard process model to improve success and efficiency of machine learning applications is still missing. Project organizations and machine learning practitioners have a need for guidance throughout the life cycle of a machine learning application to meet business expectations. We therefore propose a process model for the development of machine learning applications, that covers six phases from defining the scope to maintaining the deployed machine learning application. The first phase combines business and data understanding as data availability oftentimes affects the feasibility of the project. The sixth phase covers state-of-the-art approaches for monitoring and maintenance of a machine learning applications, as the risk of model degradation in a changing environment is eminent. With each task of the process, we propose quality assurance methodology that is suitable to address challenges in machine learning development that we identify in form of risks. The methodology is drawn from practical experience and scientific literature and has proven to be general and stable. The process model expands on CRISP-DM, a data mining process model that enjoys strong industry support but lacks to address machine learning specific tasks. Our work proposes an industry and application neutral process model tailored for machine learning applications with focus on technical tasks for quality assurance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0226.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: motorised mobility; average distances; international comparison; future automobiles; automotive companies; battery autonomy (range); economic analysis
Online: 22 June 2019 (15:59:01 CEST)
This paper aims at providing a multisource data analysis, including direct data collection, focussed on daily average distances covered with motorised mobility. Its results can be used as a basis for policies involving a shift towards new propulsions, electric motors or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) for road vehicles. A number of variables influence the propensity of drivers to acquire or use electric traction, even the option of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). This paper addresses one of such variable: the compliancy of electric traction regarding both hybrid plug-in solutions and full-electric vehicles, in addition to the autonomy of batteries (range), with the daily travels by road vehicles, mainly by automobiles. We want to understand whether the constraints leading towards a greater independence from crude oil rather than constraints concerning emissions, mainly in urban contexts, might be compliant with the habitual daily trips of drivers. We also want to understand if these daily trips have varied much during recent years and the consequences they may have on operational costs of plug-in automobiles. We are well aware that the average distances do not represent the actual daily runs of vehicles; yet similar distributions of daily distances for different case studies indicate that a high percentage of trips respond to certain features. After introducing a general overview of road-motorised mobility in Italy, the paper compares data from other studies to provide an indication of average daily driving distances. This reveals how different recent analyses converge on a limited range of average road distances covered daily by Italians, which is compliant with ranges allowed by electric batteries, provided that their low energy density in comparison with that of oil-derived fuels do not imply a significant increase in vehicle mass. Subsequently, average distances in some EU Countries are taken from the literature, and the results are also compared with U.S. data. The study extends the analysis of trends on the use of automobiles and road-vehicles to the international context by also addressing average daily distances covered for freight transport in some EU Countries, thereby providing a further basis for comparison and for understanding whether the daily motorised mobility can be considered as a stable phenomenon. Finally, an analysis is provided of the economic operational advantages from using plug-in vehicles. The main aim of this paper is thereafter to investigate the average daily motorised mobility of single vehicles – so not an aggregated motorised mobility as collected by some statistics – by using private motorised vehicles in Italy, with related trends; thereafter, to compare these data with those obtained from other countries, making use of both existing research studies and directly collected data; the final aim is to understand both the compliance of daily activities based on the use of automobiles with the autonomy of batteries (range) and to calculate some economic outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cyber-Physical Systems; Automotive; Cyber-Physical Attack; Integrity; Sensor Attack Detection; Speed Estimation; Deep learning
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:16:50 CET)
The violation of data integrity in automotive Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) may lead to dangerous situations for drivers and pedestrians in terms of safety. In particular, cyber-attacks on the sensor could easily degrade data accuracy and consistency over any other attack, we investigate attack detection and identification based on a deep learning technology on wheel speed sensors of automotive CPS. For faster recovery of a physical system with detection of the cyber-attacks, estimation of a specific value is conducted to substitute false data. To the best of our knowledge, there has not been a case of joining sensor attack detection and vehicle speed estimation in existing literatures. In this work, we design a novel method to combine attack detection and identification, vehicle speed estimation of wheel speed sensors to improve the safety of CPS even under the attacks. First, we define states of the sensors based on the cases of attacks that can occur in the sensors. Second, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is applied to detect and identify wheel speed sensor attacks. Third, in order to estimate the vehicle speeds accurately, we employ Weighted Average (WA), as one of the fusion algorithms, in order to assign a different weight to each sensor. Since environment uncertainty while driving has an impact on different characteristics of vehicles and cause performance degradation, the recovery mechanism needs the ability adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, we estimate the vehicle speeds after assigning a different weight to each sensor depending on driving situations classified by analyzing driving data. Experiments including training, validation, and test are carried out with actual measurements obtained while driving on the real road. In case of the fault detection and identification, classification accuracy is evaluated. Mean Squared Error (MSE) is calculated to verify that the speed is estimated accurately. The classification accuracy about test additive attack data is 99.4978%. MSE of our proposed speed estimation algorithm is 1.7786. It is about 0.2 lower than MSEs of other algorithms. We demonstrate that our system maintains data integrity well and is safe relatively in comparison with systems which apply other algorithms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1171.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: mobile air conditioning; thermally driven; adsorption; automotive refrigeration; automobile air-conditioning; air-conditioning; car air-conditioning
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:37:13 CEST)
The automotive industry is continuously seeking innovative solutions to improve the energy efficiency and sustainability of vehicles. Among the various energy-consuming systems in automobiles, air conditioning plays a crucial role. However, conventional vapour compression-based air conditioning systems are known for their high energy consumption and environmental impact. In recent years, adsorption technology has gained significant attention as a promising alternative due to its potential for higher energy efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. This review paper presents a comprehensive analysis of advancements in adsorption air conditioning technology specifically designed for automotive applications. The paper examines the recent research and development efforts in enhancing the performance and practicality of these systems, encompassing areas such as advanced materials selection, and system integration strategies. Furthermore, this review highlights the benefits and challenges associated with implementing adsorption air conditioning systems in vehicles. The environmental impact and potential for waste heat recovery are also discussed. Additionally, emerging trends, such as hybridization with conventional vapour compression systems, are explored to further optimize the energy efficiency and sustainability of automotive air conditioning. By critically evaluating the existing literature and research advancements, this review provides insights into the state-of-the-art thermally driven technologies for automotive applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: automotive, fuel consumption; Fuel Reduction Value (FRV); Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); light-weighting; vehicle system dynamics
Online: 10 November 2016 (16:45:36 CET)
A tailored model for the assessment of environmental benefits achievable by “light-weighting” in the automotive field is presented. The model is based on the Fuel Reduction Value (FRV) coefficient, which expresses the Fuel Consumption (FC) saving involved by a 100 kg mass reduction. The work is composed of two main sections: simulation and environmental modelling. Simulation modelling performs an in-depth calculation of weight-induced FC whose outcome is the FRV evaluated for a wide range of Diesel Turbocharged (DT) vehicle case studies. Environmental modelling converts fuel saving to impact reduction basing on the FRVs obtained by simulations. Results show that for the considered case studies, FRV is within the range 0.115–0.143 and 0.142–0.388 L/100 km × 100 kg, respectively, for mass reduction only and powertrain adaptation (secondary effects). The implementation of FRVs within the environmental modelling represents the added value of the research and makes the model a valuable tool for application to real case studies of automotive lightweight LCA.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: virtual sensor; automotive control; active suspension; vehicle state estimation; neural networks; deep learning; long-short term memory; sequence regression
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:42:07 CEST)
With the automotive industry moving towards automated driving, sensing is increasingly important in enabling technology. The virtual sensors allow data fusion from various vehicle sensors and provide a prediction for measurement that is hard or too expensive to measure in another way or in the case of demand on continuous detection. In this paper, virtual sensing is discussed for the case of vehicle suspension control, where information about the relative velocity of the unsprung mass for each vehicle corner is required. The corresponding goal can be identified as a regression task with multi-input sequence input. The hypothesis is that the state-of-art method of Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory (BiLSMT) can solve it. In this paper, a virtual sensor has been proposed and developed by training a neural network model. The simulations have been performed using an experimentally validated full vehicle model in IPG Carmaker. Simulations provided the reference data which was used for Neural Network (NN) training. The extensive dataset covering 26 scenarios has been used to obtain training, validation and testing data. The Bayesian Search was used to select the best neural network structure using root mean square error as a metric. The best network is made of 167 BiLSTM, 256 fully connected hidden units and 4 output units. Error histograms and spectral analysis of the predicted signal compared to the reference signal are presented. The results demonstrate the good applicability of neural network-based virtual sensors to estimate vehicle unsprung mass relative velocity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0629.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: user experience, UX, user interface, user interaction, automotive cockpit design, intuitive driving, driving automation, digitalization, personalization, Valeo Mobius, Valeo MyMobius.
Online: 31 July 2018 (16:18:10 CEST)
As we approach the 135th anniversary of the automobile, two industry trends, automation and digitalization, are rapidly revolutionizing the thus far, relatively unchanged automotive user experience. This paper describes the development of the Valeo MyMobius user interface concept. The goal of this project was to explore how to achieve an intuitive driving experience as the automotive industry undergoes transition from primarily analog to primarily digital interfaces and from physical buttons to multimodal interactions. To achieve the perception of intuitiveness, designers must understand their users, find and reduce physical and cognitive friction points, and bridge knowledge gaps with interface designs that facilitate discovery and learnability. The Valeo MyMobius concept featured steering wheel touch displays that supported quick, frequent menu selections using swiping gestures (common in smartphone interactions) and reinforcing icons (to facilitate learnability). Learning algorithms personalized the experience by tailoring suggestions, while more complex interactions were handled with a conversational voice assistant, which also served as a driving copilot, capable of contextually suggesting when Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS) features such as ACC could be utilized. The visual design aesthetic embodied Kenya Hara’s design philosophy of “Emptiness,” reducing visual clutter and creating spaces that are ready to receive inspiration and information. Altogether, the Valeo MyMobius concept demonstrated an attainable future where the perception of intuitiveness can be achieved with today’s technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0347.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring (SHM); acoustic emission, guided waves, Lamb waves, sensors, ultrasound, piezoelectric, composites, piezopolymers, PVDF, interdigital transducer (IDT), PWAS, C-MUT, CMUT, mems, analog electronic front end; analog signal processing, impact localization, impact detection, sensor node, wireless sensor networks (WSN), IoT, aerospace, automotive, infrastructure, condition monitoring.
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:03:14 CEST)
This review article is focused on the analysis of the state of the art of sensors for guided 9 ultrasonic waves for the detection and localization of impacts, therefore of interest for the structural 10 health monitoring (SHM). The recent developments in sensor technologies are then reported and 11 discussed through the many references in recent scientific literature. The physical phenomena re-12 lated to impact event and the main physical quantities are then introduced to discuss their im-13 portance in the development of the hardware and software components for SHM systems. An im-14 portant aspect of the article is the description of the different ultrasonic sensor technologies cur-15 rently present in the literature and what advantages and disadvantages they could bring, in relation 16 to the various phenomena investigated. In this context, the analysis of the front-end electronics is 17 deepened, the type of data transmission both in terms of wired and wireless technology and in terms 18 of online and offline signal processing. The integration aspects of sensors for the creation of net-19 works with autonomous nodes with the possibility of powering through energy harvesting devices 20 and the embedded processing capacity is also studied. Finally, the emerging sector of processing 21 techniques using deep learning and artificial intelligence concludes the review by indicating the 22 potential for the detection and autonomous characterization of the impacts.