REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1243.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: autoimmunity; inflammation; fibrosis
Online: 30 April 2023 (02:59:41 CEST)
Fibrosis is an important health problem and its pathogenetic activation is still largely unknown. It can develop either spontaneously or, more frequently, as a consequence of various underlying diseases, such as chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Fibrotic tissue is always characterized by mononuclear immune cells infiltration. The cytokine profile of these cells shows clear proinflammatory and profibrotic characteristics. Furthermore, the production of inflammatory mediators by non-immune cells, in response to several stimuli, can be involved in the fibrotic process. It is now established that defects in the abilities of non-immune cells to mediate immune regulation may be involved in the pathogenicity of a series of inflammatory diseases. The convergence of several, not yet well identified, factors results in the aberrant activation of non-immune cells, such as epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts, that producing pro-inflammatory molecules, exacerbate the inflammatory condition leading to the excessive and chaotic secretion of extracellular matrix proteins. However, the precise cellular mechanisms involved in this process have not yet been fully elucidated. In this review we explore the latest discoveries on the mechanisms that initiate and perpetuate the vicious circle of abnormal communications between immune and non-immune cells, responsible for fibrotic evolution of inflammatory autoimmune diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0372.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: exonuclease; autoimmunity; mutation; trex1
Online: 28 June 2022 (04:08:17 CEST)
The TREX1 exonuclease degrades DNA to prevent aberrant nucleic acid sensing through the cGAS-STING pathway, and dominant Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome type 1 (AGS1) represents one of numerous TREX1-related autoimmune diseases. Monoallelic TREX1 mutations were identified in patients showing early-onset cerebrovascular disease, ascribable to small vessel disease, and CADASIL-like neuroimaging. We report the clinical-neuroradiological features of two patients with AGS-like (Patient A) and CADASIL-like (Patient B) phenotypes carrying the heterozygous p.A136V and p.R174G TREX1 variants, respectively. Genetic findings, obtained by a customized panel including 183 genes associated with monogenic stroke, were combined with interferon signature testing and biochemical assays to determine the mutations’ effects in vitro. Comprehensive studies revealed no pathological impact on TREX1 enzymatic function for the p.A136V variant. The p.R174G variant modestly altered exonuclease activity consistently with perturbation of substrate interaction rather than catalysis, which represents the first robust enzymological data for a TREX1 variant identified in a CADASIL-like patient. In conclusion, functional analysis allowed us to interpret the impact of TREX1 variants on patients’ phenotypes. Whilst Patient A’s manifestations are not related to p.A136V variant, Patient B’s phenotype is likely related to the p.R174G variant. Further functional investigations of TREX1 variants found in CADASIL-like patients are warranted to establish a causal link and interrogate the molecular disease mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: IL-23; autoimmunity; inflammation; fibrosis
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:44:21 CEST)
Interleukin (IL)-23 is a central proinflammatory cytokine with a broad range of effects on immune responses. The pathological consequences of excessive IL-23 signaling have been linked to its ability to promote the production of inflammatory mediators such as IL-17, IL-22 by stimulating the differentiation and proliferation of T helper type 17 (Th17 cells). Emerging evidence suggests a potential pro-fibrotic role for IL-23 in the development of chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases characterized by intense fibrosis. In this review, we summarized the biological features of IL-23 and gathered recent research on the role of IL-23 in fibrotic autoimmune conditions, which could provide a theoretical basis for clinical targeting and drug development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0686.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: thyroid hormone; transport; thyroid axis; autoimmunity
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:01:12 CEST)
The monocarboxylate transporters 8 (MCT8) and 10 (MCT10) are important for thyroid hormone (TH) uptake and signaling. Reduced TH activity is associated with impaired development, weight gain and discomfort. We hypothesized that autoantibodies (aAb) to MCT8 or MCT10 are prevalent in thyroid disease and obesity. Analytical tests for MCT8-aAb and MCT10-aAb were developed and characterized with commercial antiserum. Serum samples from healthy controls, thyroid patients and young overweight subjects were analyzed, and prevalence of the aAb was compared. MCT8-aAb were additionally tested for biological effects on thyroid hormone uptake in cell culture. Positive MCT8-aAb and MCT10-aAb were detected in all three clinical cohorts analyzed. MCT8-aAb were most prevalent in thyroid patients (11.9%) as compared to healthy controls (3.8%) and overweight adolescents (4.2%). MCT8-aAb positive serum reduced T4 uptake in cell culture in comparison to MCT8-aAb negative control serum. Prevalence of MCT10-aAb was highest in the group of thyroid patients as compared to healthy subjects or overweight adolescents (9.0% versus 4.5% and 6.3%, respectively). We conclude that MCT8 and MCT10 represent autoantigens in humans, and that MCT8-aAb may interfere with regular TH uptake and signaling. The increased prevalence of MCT8-aAb and MCT10-aAb in thyroid disease suggests that their presence may be of pathophysiological relevance. This hypothesis deserves an analysis in large prospective studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0352.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Graves’ disease; autoimmunity; dendritic cells; methimazole
Online: 14 December 2020 (15:50:00 CET)
Graves’ disease (GD) is hyperthyroidism associated with organ-specific autoimmune inflammation. GD occurs more frequently in adults than in children, however, pediatric patients are a therapeutic challenge due to cycles of remissions and relapses requiring constant monitoring at every stage of treatment administered. Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered a link between innate and adaptive immunity. DCs as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are involved in antigen presentation to T lymphocytes, thereby, initiate shift towards effector cells. In accordance, DCs participates also in the modulation of tolerance to specific antigens. To date, the data on DC role in Graves’ pathological processes are scarce. Therefore, here we evaluated frequencies and role of circulating DCs in GD pediatric patients treated with methimazole. Flow cytometric analysis was implemented to evaluate mDC1, mDC2 and pDC cells and their correlation with clinical GD-related parameters. We found significantly higher levels of DC subsets in patients at admission. Furthermore, methimazole treatment seemed to effectively reduce subsets of DCs which, in addition, were found to differentialy correlate with thyroid function. Our study shed a new light on DCs role in pediatric GD pathomechanism. Further studies are required for mechanistic assessment of DCs exact role in disease progression and influence on thyroid function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0186.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: transcription factors; cytokines; autoimmunity; dendritic cells
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:16:35 CET)
Tolerogenic dendritic cells are crucial to control development of autoreactive T cell responses and prevention of autoimmunity. We have reported that NOD.CD11cStat5b-CA transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of Stat5b under the control of CD11c promoter are protected from diabetes and that Stat5b-CA-expressing DCs are tolerogenic and halt ongoing diabetes in NOD mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Stat5b-CA modulates DC tolerogenic function is not fully understood. Here, we used bone marrow-derived DCs from NOD.CD11cStat5b-CA transgenic mice (Stat5b-CA.BMDC) and found that Stat5b-CA.BMDC displayed high levels of MHC class II, CD80, CD86, PD-L1 and PD-L2 and produced elevated amounts of TGFβ but low amounts of TNF and IL-23. Stat5b-CA.BMDCs upregulated Irf4 and downregulated Irf8 genes and protein expression and promoted CD11c+CD11b+ DC2 subset differentiation. Interestingly, we found that the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 interacted with Stat5b-CA complex that bound GAS sequences in the Irf8 enhancer whereas Ezh2 did not interact with GAS sequences in the case of the Irf4 promoter. Injection of Stat5b-CA.BMDCs to prediabetic NOD mice halted progression of islet inflammation and protected against diabetes. Importantly, inhibition of Ezh2 in tolerogenic Stat5b-CA.BMDCs reduced their ability to prevent diabetes development in NOD recipient mice. Taken together, our data suggest that the active form of Stat5b induces tolerogenic DC function by modulating IRF4 and IRF8 expression through recruitment of Ezh2 and highlight the fundamental role of Ezh2 in Stat5b-mediated induction of tolerogenic DCs function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Exosomes, extracellular vesicles, immune regulation, autoimmunity
Online: 28 December 2018 (12:28:28 CET)
T-cell mediated immune responses should be regulated to avoid the development of autoimmune or chronic inflammation diseases. Several mechanisms have been described to regulate this process, namely death of overactivated T cells by cytokine deprivation, suppression by T regulatory cells (Treg), induction of expression of immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, or activation-induced cell death (AICD). In addition, activated T cells release membrane microvesicles called exosomes during these regulatory processes. In this review, we revise the role of exosome secretion in the different pathways of immune regulation described to date and its importance in the prevention of autoinmune disease. Expression of membrane-bound death ligands on the surface of exosomes during AICD, or the more recently described transfer of miRNA or even DNA inside T-cell exosomes are molecular mechanisms that will be analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1623.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Thyroid; autoimmunity; antibodies; thyrotropin; receptor; thyroglobulin; peroxidase
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:25:56 CEST)
Autoimmune thyroid disease refers to a spectrum of various diseases, with two extremes of clinical presentation, hypo-thyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), and hyperthyroidism (Graves-Basedow disease). Both conditions are character-ized by presenting a cellular and humoral autoimmune reaction, with an increase in the synthesis and secretion of an-tibodies directed towards various thyroid antigens, together with a phenomenon of thyrocyte necrosis and apoptosis (in Hashimoto's thyroiditis) and a persistent thyrotropin-receptor stimulation (in Graves-Basedow disease). The diagnosis of both entities is based on the clinical, laboratory and imaging findings. In this review, the usefulness of thyroid antibodies in the diagnostic approach to autoimmune thyroid disease is de-scribed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: autoimmune disease; autoimmunity; dysbiosis; Mediterranean diet; microbiome
Online: 21 January 2020 (02:58:57 CET)
The nutritional habits regulate the gut microbiota and may provoke and/or prevent autoimmune disease. Western diet is rich in sugars, meat and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, which lead to dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota, disruption of gut epithelial barrier and chronic mucosal inflammation. On the other hand, Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is rich in ω3 fatty acids, fruits and vegetables and has anti-inflammatory properties, which can restore gut eubiosis. The effect of MedDiet and its components in health and disease states have been thoroughly analyzed in several studies. Moreover, several studies have specifically investigated the association between MedDiet, microbiota and risk for autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, the MedDiet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, which plays a critical role in reducing mortality in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases with comorbidities. The aim of the present review is to specifically highlight current knowledge regarding possible interactions of MedDiet with the patterns of intestinal microbiota focusing on autoimmunity and a blueprint through dietary modulations for the prevention and management of diseases’s activity and progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1901.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; SARS COV2; coronavirus; autoimmunity; molecular mimicry
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:25:59 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on global health, notably the virus's association with autoimmune illnesses. Autoimmune illnesses occur when the immune system of the body targets healthy cells, causing damage and inflammation. The potential impact of COVID-19 on autoimmune disorders, the hazards of COVID-19 vaccinations for persons with autoimmune diseases, and the potential risks of COVID-19 vaccines are all discussed in this essay. COVID-19 can cause autoimmune illnesses by causing inflammation, organ and tissue damage, and molecular mimicry, in which the immune system mistakenly assaults healthy cells for the virus. However, not everyone infected with COVID-19 develops autoimmune disorders. While some research has found a link between COVID-19 and autoimmune illnesses, this does not always suggest causation. Other factors, such as genetics and environment, may also play a role in the emergence of autoimmune illnesses. COVID-19 can aggravate existing autoimmune disorders by causing the immune system to attack healthy cells, making management more difficult and increasing the risk of consequences. People with autoimmune disorders, on the other hand, may not be at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 than the general population. Some research has found that persons with autoimmune disorders are more likely to have severe COVID-19, whereas others have found no difference. COVID-19 vaccinations may represent dangers to persons with autoimmune illnesses since they contain antigens that can activate the immune system. Furthermore, due to their already overactive immune systems, some vaccines may not perform as well for people with autoimmune disorders, and some people with autoimmune diseases may have severe reactions to immunizations, producing inflammation and other symptoms. COVID-19 may not be any more hazardous to those with autoimmune illnesses than it is to the general population. The connection between COVID-19 and autoimmune disorders is complicated and under investigation. While some research implies that people with autoimmune disorders have a higher risk of severe COVID-19, others demonstrate no difference in death rates between them and the general population. There are also counterarguments that COVID-19 can induce and exacerbate autoimmune disorders, as well as worries about COVID-19 vaccine hazards for people who have autoimmune diseases. More research is required to completely understand the influence of COVID-19 on autoimmune illnesses, as well as the dangers and benefits of vaccinations for these people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1076.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: D-mannose; butyrate; acetaldehyde; serotonin; autoimmunity
Online: 17 November 2023 (04:28:31 CET)
Long Covid has become a blight, its economic consequences overwhelming. But Long Covid (LC) may represent persistent Covid-19 in those with preexisting Candida overgrowth (CO). The features shared by both are striking. LC may be a growing subset of CO. The altered tryptophan metabolism encountered in LC is driven by IFN-γ in reaction to CO. Females are robust producers of IFN-γ, yet estrogen promotes CO.The consequent decline in serotonin and melatonin triggers the mood swings and sleeplessness respectively in LC. The low serotonin, the primary messenger in the gut brain axis, creates autonomic dysfunction. The CO induced gut dysbiosis and leaky gut initiate an autoimmune path. TNFα seen in both LC and this opportunistic yeast is at the center of the cytokine triad that leads to neurodegeneration. The Western diet, high in carbohydrates, alcohol, and glutamate, is exploited by this commensal turned parasite. Residual SARS CoV2 and Candida generate abundant ROS, inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. Alcohol tastes different for many with LC, because acetaldehyde requires functioning hepatic mitochondria. This article delves into the complex physiology and biochemistry that drive the symptoms of this conspicuous connection. Recent research has revealed innovative approaches that might address this global scourge, including D-mannose for the immune dysfunction and butyrate for the gut dysbiosis created by and seen in both LC and intestinal Candidiasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: aquaporins; AQP4; AQP1; antibodies; autoimmunity; CNS demyelination; NMOSD
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:16:07 CEST)
Aquaporins (AQPs; AQP0-AQP12) are water channels expressed in many and diverse cell types, participating in various functions of cells, tissues and systems, including the central nervous system (CNS). AQP dysfunction and autoimmunity to AQPs are implicated in several diseases. The best-known example of autoimmunity against AQPs is the antibodies to AQP4 which are involved in the pathogenesis of Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), a demyelinating disease of the CNS. The present review focuses on the discovery and the potential role of antibodies against AQP1 in the CNS, and their potential involvement in CNS demyelination and specifically in NMOSD. We describe (a) the several techniques developed for the detection of the AQP1-antibodies, with emphasis on methods that specifically identify antibodies targeting the extracellular domain of AQP1, i.e., those of potential pathogenic role, and (b) the available evidence supporting the pathogenic relevance of AQP1-antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: fibromyalgia; myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; autoantibodies; autoimmunity
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:47:48 CET)
(1) Background: Recent studies provide some evidence for the contribution of antibody-mediated autoimmune mechanisms to the nature of fibromyalgia (FM) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Much attention was paid to the autoantibodies (AAb) targeting G protein-coupled receptors as natural components of the immune system. However, natural AAb network is much more extensive, and has not been previously investigated in these disorders; (2) Methods: The enzyme immunoassays ELI-Viscero-Test and ELI-Neuro-Test were used to determine changes in serum content of a 33 natural AAb to neural, organ-specific and non-tissue-specific autoantigens a) in 11 FM patients with comorbid ME/CFS; b) in 11 ME/CFS patients without FM; c) in 11 healthy controls. Individual autoantibody profiles and their correlation with some clinical symptoms were analyzed. (3) Results: both patients with ME/CFS and ME/CFS+FM were characterized by more frequent and pronounced deviations in the immunoreactivity to GABA-receptors than healthy controls. Although the level of other natural AAb did not differ between study groups, AAb correlation signatures were changing in patients compared to healthy controls. Both in patients and healthy controls the level of natural AAb to various neural and tissue-specific antigens correlated with the severity of fatigue, bodily pain, depression, anxiety, physical and mental-health related quality of life. Notably, that widely different correlation patterns were observed between study groups. (4) Conclusions: Findings from this pilot study provide some evidence that the homeostasis of autoimmune relationships, which are possibly a physiological part of our immune system, may break down in FM and ME/CFS. The correlation of disease-induced perturbations in individual AAb profiles with some clinical symptoms may arise from the immune system's ability to reflect qualitative and quantitative changes in antigenic composition of the body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: sarcoidosis; granulomatous diseases; vimentin; mutated vimentin; autoantibodies; autoimmunity
Online: 7 July 2022 (04:44:21 CEST)
There is a need to further characterize the antibody response to vimentin in relation to it possible involvement in pathogenicity of sarcoidosis, and other lung disorders. Objectives: We investigated serum samples from patients with sarcoidosis, healthy and diseased control subjects to evaluate levels and frequency of these antibodies. Materials and methods. A retrospective-prospective comparative study was performed in the years 2014-2017. 188 serum samples were examined for presence of autoantibodies to mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV). Patients with elevated anti-MCV levels were tested for antibodies to a cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) and citrullinated vimentin (anti-Sa). Additionally, sera from 93 patients with sarcoidosis and 40 healthy subjects were evaluated for the presence of autoantibodies to non-modified vimentin. In all cases ELISA assays was used. The results were considered statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. Results of the study. The high concentrations of anti-MCV. antibodies were more frequent in patients with sarcoidosis (40.9% of the cases, 38/93), compared to the control groups (23.6% and 25.0% of cases, respectively). In sarcoidosis, clinical symptoms similar to the autoimmune pathology were described. A moderate positive correlation between the anti-MCV and anti-Sa antibodies (r = 0.66) was found in 13 patients with sarcoidosis. There was no significant difference between the levels of the anti-MCV and the anti-CCP in patients with non-infectious lung diseases and the healthy control group. Conclusion. A high level of anti-MCV antibodies in patients with sarcoidosis characterizes the presence of an autoimmune process that is not related to citrullination. The absence of a significant difference in the level of antibodies to modifications of vimentin in patients with sarcoidosis may indicate the autoimmune process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbes; autoimmunity; glycolipids,alpha-GalactosylCeramide; sulfatide; CD1d; NKT.
Online: 20 January 2018 (13:59:26 CET)
Natural killer T cells (NKT) are a subset of T lymphocytes bridging innate and adaptive immunity. These cells recognize self and microbial glycolipids bound to non-polymorphic and highly conserved CD1d molecules. Three NKT cell subsets, type I, II and NKT-like expressing different antigen receptors (TCR) were described and TCR activation promotes intracellular events leading to specific functional activities. NKT can exhibit different functions depending on the secretion of soluble molecules and the interaction with other cell types. NKT cells act as regulatory cells in the defence against infections but, on the other hand, their effector functions can be involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory disorders due to their exposure to different microbial or self antigens, respectively. A deep understanding of the biology and functions of type I, II and NKT-like cells as well as their interplay with cell types acting in innate (Neuthrophils, Innate Lymphoid cells, Machrophages and Dendritic cells) and adaptive immunity (CD4+,CD8+ and Double Negative T cells) should be important to design potential immunotherapies for infectious and autoimmune diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1523.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Biomarker discovery; disease pathogenesis; autoimmunity; antigenic mimicry; machine learning
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:10:59 CET)
The diagnosis and the pathology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) remain under debate. However, there is a growing body of evidence for an autoimmune component in ME/CFS caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and other viral infections. In this work, we took advantage of a large public dataset on the IgG antibodies to 3,054 EBV peptides to understand whether these immune responses could be used as putative biomarkers for disease diagnosis and triggers of pathological autoimmunity in ME/CFS patients using healthy controls (HCs) as a comparator cohort. We then aimed at predicting disease status of study participants using a Super Learner algorithm targeting an accuracy of 85% when splitting data into train and test datasets. When we compared data of all ME/CFS patients or data of a subgroup of these patients with non-infectious or unknown disease trigger to the dataset of HC, we could not find an antibody-based classifier that would meet the desired accuracy in the test dataset. In contrast, we could identify a 26-antibody classifier that could distinguish ME/CFS patients with an infectious disease trigger from HCs with 100% and 90% accuracies on the train and test sets, respectively. We finally performed a bioinformatic analysis of the EBV peptides associated with these 26 antibodies. We found no correlation between the importance metric of the selected antibodies in the classifier and the maximal sequence homology between human proteins and each EBV peptide recognized by these antibodies. In conclusion, these 26 antibodies against EBV have an effective potential for disease diagnosis of a subset of patients, but they are less likely to trigger pathological autoimmune responses that could explain the pathogenesis of ME/CFS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: autoimmunity; T-Cell; LncRNAs; miRNAs; RA; T1D; MS; SLE
Online: 1 July 2022 (03:49:07 CEST)
The importance of a properly regulated immune response has been explored through various research-oriented methods. It has proved that having an effective and well-regulated immune response helps prevent many minors and serious diseases. Any kind of dysregulation in the working of the immune system may lead to severe consequences. An autoimmune disorder is one such consequence in which the component of the immune system starts targeting self-cells of the body, treating them as self-antigen producing autoantibodies and immune complexes resulting from the failure of immune responses both at a central and peripheral level. Currently, many autoimmune disorders are prevailing across the world, and new diseases need attention.In this review, we have written about the functions of T cell, LncRNAs and also some interactions between the LncRNAs and miRNAs in the pathogenesis of Multiple sclerosis (MS), Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Type 1 diabetes (T1D), Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To find the functions of these autoimmune disorders we have done intensive literature search during this we also found that GAS5 and MALAT are common in MS, SLE, T1D, RA. And finally, we have also mentioned the therapeutic drugs which neutralizes the different cluster of differentiation (CDs) and also suppresses the T cell differentiation in MS, SLE and RA. For T1D therapeutic strategies and various types of insulin are mentioned.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0140.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; genetic vaccines; adverse reactions; autoimmunity; immunohistochemistry; spike protein
Online: 8 March 2023 (02:57:33 CET)
As a result of the spread of SARS-CoV-2, a global pandemic was declared. Indiscriminate COVID-19 vaccination has been extended to include age groups and naturally immune people with minimal danger of suffering serious complications due to COVID-19. Solid immuno-histopathological evidence demonstrates that the COVID-19 genetic vaccines can display an off-target distribution in tissues that are terminally differentiated, triggering autoimmune reactions. These include the heart and brain, which may incur in situ production of spike protein eliciting a strong autoimmunological inflammatory response. Due to the fact that every human cell which synthesizes non-self antigens becomes inevitably the target of the immune system, and since the human body is not a strictly compartmentalized system, accurate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are needed in order to determine precisely which tissues can be harmed. Therefore, our article aims to draw the attention of the scientific and regulatory communities on the critical need of bio-distribution studies for the genetic vaccines against COVID-19, as well as of rational harm-benefit assessments by age group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Extracellular Traps; Inflammation; Neutrophils; Basophils; Macrophage/Monocytes; Therapeutic Targets; autoimmunity
Online: 1 March 2022 (12:39:13 CET)
The first description of a new form of neutrophil cell death distinct from that of apoptosis or necrosis was discovered in 2004 and coined neutrophil extracellular traps “(NETs)” or “NETosis”. Different stimuli for NET formation, and pathways that drive neutrophils to commit to NETosis have been elucidated in the years that followed. Critical enzymes required for NET formation have been discovered, and targeted therapeutically. NET formation is no longer restricted to neutrophils but has been discovered in other innate cells: Macrophages/Monocytes, Mast Cells, Eosinophils, Basophils, Dendritic cells, and extracellular DNA is extruded from both B and T cells. It has become clear that although this mechanism is thought to enhance host defence by ensnaring bacteria within large webs of DNA to increase bactericidal killing capacity, it is also injurious to innocent bystander tissue. Proteases and enzymes released from extracellular traps (ETs), injure epithelial and endothelial cells perpetuating inflammation. In the context of autoimmunity ETs release over 70 well known autoantigens. ETs are associated with pathology in multiple diseases: lung diseases, vasculitis, autoimmune kidney diseases, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Defining these pathways that drive ET release will provide insight into mechanisms of pathological insult, and provide potential therapeutic targets.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: autoimmune diseases; antinuclear antibodies; antinuclear factor; functional autoantibodies; natural autoantibodies; physiological autoimmunity
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:01:32 CET)
Incidence of autoimmune diseases increases. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) testing is a critical tool for their diagnosis. However, ANA prevalence in health increased over last decades, especially among young people. ANA in health occur in low concentrations, with prevalence up to 50% in some populations, which demands a cutoff revision. The review deals with origin and probable physiological or compensatory function of ANA in health, according to the concept of immunological clearance, theory of autoimmune regulation of cell functions and the concept of functional autoantibodies. Considering ANA titers ≤1:320 as a serological marker of autoimmune diseases seems inappropriate. The role of anti-DFS70/LEDGFp75 autoantibodies is highlighted as possible anti-risk biomarker for autoimmune rheumatic disorders. ANA prevalence in health is different in various regions due to several underlying causes discussed in the review, all influencing in additive combinations according to the concept of the mosaic of autoimmunity. Not only titer, but the HEp-2 IFA staining patterns, like AC-2, is also important. Accepting autoantibodies as a kind of bioregulators, not only upper, but also lower borders of their normal range should be determined. Not only their excess, but also lack of them or “autoimmunodeficiency” could be a reason of disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mood disorders; depression; nitrosative and oxidative stress; IgM autoimmunity; neuro-immune; inflammation
Online: 16 September 2020 (04:17:25 CEST)
Major depression is accompanied by increased IgM-mediated autoimmune responses to oxidative specific epitopes (OSEs). Nevertheless, these responses have not been examined in bipolar disorder type 1 (BP1) and BP2. IgM responses to malondialdehyde (MDA), phosphatidinylinositol, oleic acid, and azelaic acid were determined in 35 healthy controls, and 101 mood disorder patients, namely 47 major depressed (MDD), 29 BP1, and 25 BP2 patients. We also measured serum total peroxides, IgG to oxidized LDL (oxLDL), IgM to nitroso-adducts, and IgM/IgA directed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IgM responses to OSEs were significantly higher in MDD and BP1 as compared with controls and higher in MDD than in BP2. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis showed that 57.7% of the variance in the clinical phenome of mood disorders was explained by number of episodes, IgM directed to OSEs and nitroso-adducts, IgG to oxLDL, and peroxides. There were significant specific indirect effects of IgA/IgM to LPS on the clinical phenome, which were mediated by peroxides, IgM OSEs, and IgG oxLDL. Using PLS we have constructed a data-driven nomothetic network which ensembled causome (increased plasma LPS load), adverse outcome pathways (namely neuro-affective toxicity), and clinical phenome features of mood disorders in a data-driven model. Based on those feature sets, cluster analysis discovered a new diagnostic class characterized by increased plasma LPS load, peroxides, autoimmune responses to OSEs and nitroso-adducts, and increased phenome scores. Using the new nomothetic network approach, we constructed a mechanistically transdiagnostic diagnostic class indicating neuro-affective toxicity in 74.3% of the mood disorder patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1750.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Atherosclerotic; Inflammation; Bone marrow; Clonal Hematopoiesis; Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Autoimmunity; Cardiovascular Risk; Cardio-Oncology
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:54:10 CET)
: For a long time, atherosclerosis has been regarded as a mere lipid deposit in the blood vessels. However, in the recent years a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence have highlighted the role of inflammation and immunity as a central mechanism of disease. Moreover, in the last decade the coming of next-generation sequencing and its application to large human population has broken the barrier between inflammation and cancer. Indeed, acquired mutation in key genes related to the control of hematopoiesis and myeloproliferation have paved the way to establish the new concept of clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential. This phenomenon is being considered not such “indeterminate”, but as an emerging cardiovascular risk factor. Thus, this may explain the mechanisms of myeloproliferation and inflammation in atherosclerosis. And in a bidirectional journey, it has helped to explain the extremely high cardiovascular risk in cancer survivors, in particular in myeloprolfierative neoplasm patients. A deeper understanding of these mechanisms may pave the way for the future early diagnosis and potential preemptive treatments of the leading worldwide cause of death.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0227.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; neuromuscular disease; autoimmunity; the clonotypic immune system
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:51:54 CEST)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neuromuscular disease, characterized by progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in the cortex and spinal cord. Although the pathogenesis of ALS remains unclear, evidence on the role of the clonotypic immune system is growing. Adaptive immunity cells often appear changed in number or activation profile peripherally and centrally. However, their role in ALS appears conflicting. Data, from human and animal model studies, currently reported in literature show that each subset of lymphocytes and their mediators may mediate a protective or toxic mechanism in ALS, affecting both its progression and risk of death. In the present review article and attempt is made to shed light on the actual role of the cellular clonotypic immunity in ALS by integrating recent clinical studies and experimental observations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: synthetic mRNA; analogue caps; elF4E; mTORC1; autophagy: immunity deregulation; maturation defects; autoimmunity; cancer
Online: 19 July 2021 (10:41:42 CEST)
The structure of synthetic mRNAs as used in vaccination against cancer and infectious diseases contain specifically designed caps followed by sequences of the 5’ untranslated repeats of β-globin gene. The strategy for successful design of synthetic mRNAs by chemically modifying their caps aims to increase resistance to the enzymatic deccapping complex, offer a higher affinity for binding to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (elF4E) protein and enforce increased translation of their encoded proteins. However, the cellular homeostasis is finely balanced and obeys to specific laws of thermodynamics conferring balance between complexity and growth rate in evolution. An overwhelming and forced translation even under alarming conditions of the cell during a concurrent viral infection, or when molecular pathways are trying to circumvent precursor events that lead to autoimmunity and cancer, may cause the recipient cells to ignore their differential sensitivities which are essential for keeping normal conditions. The elF4E which is a powerful RNA regulon and a potent oncogene governing cell cycle progression and proliferation at a post-transcriptional level, may then be a great contributor to disease development. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis manly inhibits the elF4E to proceed with mRNA translation but disturbance in fine balances between mTOR and elF4E action may provide a premature step towards oncogenesis, ignite pre-causal mechanisms of immune deregulation and cause maturation (aging) defects.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus; retroelements; L1; LINE-1; reverse transcriptase; type I interferons; autoimmunity
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:53:09 CET)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogenous autoimmune disease. While its etiology remains elusive, current understanding suggests a multifactorial process with contributions by genetic, immunologic, hormonal, and environmental factors. A hypothesis that combines several of these factors proposes that genomic elements, the L1 retrotransposons, are instrumental in SLE pathogenesis. L1 retroelements are transcriptionally activated in SLE and produce two proteins, ORF1p and ORF2p, which are immunogenic and can drive type I interferon (IFN) production by producing DNA species that activate cytosolic DNA sensors. In addition, these two proteins reside in RNA-rich macromolecular assemblies that also contain well-known SLE autoantigens like Ro60. We surmise that cells expressing L1 will exhibit all the hallmarks of cells infected by a virus, resulting in a cellular and humoral immune response similar to those in chronic viral infections. However, unlike exogenous viruses, L1 retroelements cannot be eliminated from the host genome. Hence, dysregulated L1 will cause a chronic, but perhaps episodic, challenge for the immune system. The clinical and immunological features of SLE can be largely explained by this model. Here we review the support for, and the gaps in, this hypothesis of SLE and its potential for new diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic options in SLE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0134.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV); viral infection; autoimmunity; molecular mimicry; bystander activation; immune tolerance
Online: 3 October 2019 (13:51:08 CEST)
Viral infections are a natural part of our existence. They can affect us in many ways that are the result of the interaction between the viral pathogen and our immune system. Most times the resulting immune response is beneficial for the host. The pathogen gets cleared thus protecting our vital organs with no other consequences. Conversely, the reaction of our immune system against the pathogen can cause organ damage (immunopathology) or lead to autoimmune disease. To date, there are several mechanisms for virus-induced autoimmune disease, including molecular mimicry and bystander activation, in support of the “fertile field” hypothesis, terms defined in our review. On the flip side, viral infections have been associated with protection from autoimmunity through mechanisms that include Treg invigoration and immune deviation, in support of the “hygiene hypothesis”, also defined here. Infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is one of the prototypes showing that the interaction of our immune system with viruses can either accelerate or prevent autoimmunity. Studies using mouse models of LCMV have helped conceive and establish several concepts that we today know and explain how viruses can lead to autoimmune activation or induce tolerance. Some of the most important mechanisms established during the course LCMV are described in this short review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1979.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: autoimmunity; glycolysis; metabolites; psoriasis; rheumatoid arthritis; T-cell function; T-cell motility; T-lymphocytes
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:01:58 CEST)
Immune surveillance and adaptive immune responses, involving continuously circulating and tissue-resident T-lymphocytes, provide host defense against infectious agents and possible malignant transformation while avoiding autoimmune tissue damage. Activation, migration, and deployment of T-cells to affected tissue sites are crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. An effective adaptive immune defense depends on the ability of T-cells to dynamically reprogram their metabolic requirements in response to environmental cues. Inability of the T-cells to adapt to specific metabolic demands may skew cells to become either hyporesponsive creating immunocompromised conditions or hyperactive causing autoimmune tissue destruction. Here, we review maladaptive T-cell metabolic fitness that can cause autoimmune diseases and discuss how T-cell metabolic programs can potentially be modulated to achieve therapeutic benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Inflammation; NF-κB; drug repurposing; drug development; autoimmunity; COVID-19; multiple sclerosis; rheumatoid arthritis
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:16:25 CET)
NF-κB is a central mediator of inflammation, response to DNA damage and oxidative stress. As a result of its central role in so many important cellular processes, NF-κB dysregulation has been implicated in the pathology of important human diseases. NF-κB activation causes inappropriate inflammatory responses in diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, modulation of NF-κB signaling is being widely investigated as an approach to treat chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. The emergence of COVID-19 in late 2019, the subsequent pandemic and the huge clinical burden of patients with life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia led to a massive scramble to repurpose existing medicines to treat lung inflammation in a wide range of healthcare systems. These efforts continue and these efforts continue to be con-troversial. Drug repurposing strategies are a promising alternative to de-novo drug development, as they minimize drug development timelines and reduce the risk of failure due to unexpected side effects. Different experimental approaches have been applied to identify existing medicines which inhibit NF-κB that could be repurposed as anti-inflammatory drugs.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; heparin; thrombocytopenia; thrombosis; platelet; endothelial cell; autoimmunity; proteoglycan; B cell; coagulation
Online: 9 April 2021 (10:13:14 CEST)
Prothrombotic thrombocytopathy mimicking heparin-induced thrombocytopenia has been observed in patients with severe COVID-19 and after immunisation with the Vaxzevria vaccine. Herein, we discuss the possible pathogenesis of this disorder focusing on the possible involvement of anti-platelet factor 4 (PFA) autoantibodies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: enterovirus; type 1 diabetes; virome; vaccine; antiviral; islet autoimmunity; coxsackievirus; next-generation sequencing; unbiased sequencing
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:19:33 CEST)
For over a century, viruses have left a long trail of evidence implicating them as frequent suspects in the development of type 1 diabetes. Through vigorous interrogation of viral infections in individuals with islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes using serological and molecular virus detection methods, and mechanistic studies of virus infected human pancreatic β-cells, the prime suspects have been narrowed down to predominantly human enteroviruses. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of evidence supporting the hypothesised role of enteroviruses in the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. We also discuss concerns over the historical focus and investigation bias toward enteroviruses, and summarise current unbiased efforts aimed at characterising the complete population of viruses (the “virome”) contributing early in life to the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Finally, we review the range of vaccine and antiviral drug candidates currently being evaluated in clinical trials for the prevention and potential treatment of type 1 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0489.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: molecular mimicry; post-COVID-19 syndrome; SARS-CoV-2; human coronaviruses; autoimmunity; autoantigens of nervous system
Online: 7 July 2023 (10:41:49 CEST)
In post-COVID-19 syndrome, clinical presentation of the nerve fiber dysfunction plays an important role. The possibility of autoantigen cross-mimicry of coronavirus infection and the peripheral nervous system need to be investigated. The bioinformatic analysis was applied to search for possible common protein sequences located in the immunological epitopes. Among the autoantigens of the human nervous system, fibroblast growth factor receptor protein 3, myelin protein P0, myelin protein P2, sodium channel protein type 9, alpha protein subunit, plexin-D1 protein and ubiquitin-carboxyl-terminal hydrolase protein of the L1 isoenzyme were selected. The “Alignmentaj” program was created. The UniProt database, Protein Data Bank and AlphaFold databases were used. The analysis of protein sequence similarities of spike glycoproteins in human coronaviruses revealed common pentapeptides of the MERS-CoV-2 virus with the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 and myelin protein P2. Among seasonal coronaviruses, common peptide sequences were identified in HCoV-HKU-1 virus with sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha and Plexin-D1, HCoV-OС43 with Plexin-D1, as well as HCoV-NL63 with Plexin-D1 and Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1. The data obtained make it possible to identify new potential targets for the development of autoimmune reactions that occur against the background of the activity of highly pathogenic and seasonal coronaviruses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: atherosclerosis; COVID-19; inflammation; cardiovascular system; cytokines; endothelium; lipoproteins; renin-angiotensin system; atheroma; autoimmunity; vasa vasorum.
Online: 16 December 2022 (06:32:21 CET)
The article describes how atherosclerosis and coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) may affect each other. The features of this comorbid pathogenesis at various levels (vascular, cellular and molecular) are considered. A bidirectional influence of these conditions is described: the presence of cardiovascular diseases affects different individual susceptibility to viral infection. In turn, SARS-CoV-2 can have a negative effect on the endothelium and cardiomyocytes, causing blood clotting, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and thus exacerbating the development of atherosclerosis. In addition to the established entry into cells via ACE2 принимая во внимание его влияние на, other mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry are currently under investigation, for example, through CD147. Pathogenesis of comorbidity can be determined by the influence of the virus on various links which are meaningful for atherogenesis: generation of oxidized forms of LDL, launch of a cytokine storm, damage to the endothelial glycocalyx, and mitochondrial injury. The transformation of a stable plaque into an unstable one plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis complications and can be triggered by COVID-19. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on large vessels such as aorta is more complex than previously thought considering its impact on vasa vasorum. Current information on the mutual influence of the medicines used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and acute COVID-19 is briefly summarized
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: air pollutants/exposomics; autoimmunity; autophagy; cancers; COPD; environmental diseases; eQTL; infection; inflammatory; polymorphism; prognosis; risk; susceptibility; theragnosis
Online: 4 June 2020 (06:20:15 CEST)
The rising incidence of complex illnesses and their costs have revolutionized basic research, patient management, and societal needs. Between 70 to 90% of the risk of developing a disease is due to the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the surroundings in which we work and live. Visibly polluted, infectious or not, the fact remains that we are more than ever exposed to environmental risks. Air pollution is the fourth most prevalent deadly risk factor worldwide and by far the leading risk factor for hundreds of diseases, including respiratory infections, inflammatory illness, and cancer. Thus, an unhealthy environment can be considered as a pandemic, affecting 280 million people and claiming 12 million deaths every year. Although critical for identifying of the people at risk, the causal environment components (pollutants and/or the microbiome), and the affected physiological mechanisms are not well understood. Herein, we consider the dysregulation of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as ‘autophagy’), as the mechanism at the heart of an immediate response to environmental stress. We discuss the missing link between the autophagy gene variations, and the exposome in the susceptibility, prognosis, and management of complex diseases when embracing personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0318.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus; 1,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D; PBMCs; 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1); 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1); miRNA; Ongoing Islet Autoimmunity
Online: 9 October 2023 (09:28:37 CEST)
Background: The immunomodulatory role of 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is exerted through its interaction with the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) present on pancreatic and immune cells. While a deficiency in Vitamin D has been linked to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), the exact molecular mechanism driving this down-regulation in T1DM is yet to be fully understood. This study aimed to decipher differences in the expression of genes associated with Vitamin D metabolism in T1DM patients and to ascertain if there is a correlation between serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels and the expression of these genes. We also sought to understand the influence of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) on the expression of Vitamin D metabolism genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of T1DM patients. Furthermore, the study delved into the potential implications of altered Vitamin D metabolism genes and miRNAs on autoimmune processes. Methods: Utilizing real-time PCR, we assessed the expression profiles of genes encoding for 1-hydroxylases (CYP27B1) and 24-hydroxylases (CYP24A1), as well as related miRNAs, in PBMCs from 30 T1DM patients and 23 healthy controls. ELISA tests facilitated the measurement of 1,25(OH)2D3, GAD65, and IA-2 levels. Results: Our findings showcased down-regulated CYP27B1 mRNA levels, while CYP24A1 expression remained stable compared to healthy subjects (CYP27B1, p = 0.0005; CYP24A1, p = 0.205, respectively). In T1DM patients, the levels of has-miR-216b-5p were found to be increased, while the levels of has-miR-21-5p were decreased in comparison to the control group. Notably, no correlation was identified between the expression of CYP27B1 in T1DM patients and the levels of has-miR-216b-5p, has-miR-21-5p, and 1,25(OH)2D3. A significant negative correlation was identified between CYP27B1 mRNA levels in PBMCs of T1DM and IA2, but not with GAD65. Conclusions: The study highlights there were reduced levels of both CYP27B1 mRNA and has-miR-21-5p, along with elevated levels of has-miR-216b-5p in the PBMCs of T1DM. However, the absence of a correlation between the expression of CYP27B1, levels of has-miR-216b-5p, and the status of 1,25(OH)2D3 suggests the possible existence of other regulatory mechanisms. Additionally, the inverse relationship between IA2 autoantibodies and CYP27B1 expression in T1DM patients indicates a potential connection between this gene and the autoimmune processes inherent in T1DM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1883.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs); innate immunity; sepsis; lung disease; cardiovascular disease; liver disease; kidney disease; diabetes; COVID-19; coagulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy; cancer; autoimmunity; preeclampsia; Kawasaki disease
Online: 28 September 2023 (04:00:59 CEST)
Neutrophils are the principal trouper of innate immune system. Activated neutrophils undergo a noble cell death termed NETosis and release a mesh-like structure called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as a part of their defensive strategy against microbial pathogen attack. This web-like architecture includes a DNA backbone embedded with antimicrobial proteins like myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase (NE), histones etc. and deploys in the entrapment and clearance of encountered pathogens. Thus NETs play an inevitable beneficial role in the host's protection. However, recent accumulated evidence shows that dysregulated and enhanced NET formation has various pathological aspects including promotion of sepsis, pulmonary, cardiovascular, hepatic, nephrological, thrombotic, autoimmune, pregnancy, cancer diseases etc. and the list is increasing gradually. In this review, we summarize NETs mediated pathophysiology of different diseases, focus on some updated potential therapeutic approaches against NETs and share our future perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: autoimmunity; toll-like receptors; TLR; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain; NOD1; major histocompatibility complex; MHC; human leukocyte antigens; HLA; proteasome; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; T cells; B cells; antibodies; microbiome; tolerance; self; non-self; antigen processing
Online: 4 June 2019 (10:21:32 CEST)
Current theories of autoimmunity are diverse, sometimes contradictory, and suffer from incompleteness. Although substantial evidence exists that adaptive and innate immunity, sex, genetic predisposition, and the microbiome all play essential roles in autoimmune disease etiologies and pathogenesis, and that antigen processing is altered during disease induction, no existing theory integrates all of these factors through a single, coherent mechanism. In an attempt to focus the field on the need to elucidate such an integrative mechanism, I propose one possibility here that, if nothing else, helps to identify the nature of the problems that need to be addressed. My theory is that autoimmune diseases are induced by normal immunological responses to unique pairs of complementary antigens, at least one of which is a molecular mimic of a host target. Each antigen in the complementary pair induces a complementary immune response (T or B cell); although each immune response is idiotypic in origin, the antigenic complementarity results in what appears to be an idiotype-anti-idiotype relationship between the responses. Additionally, because of the antigenic complementarity, each immune response mimics one of antigens, abrogating the distinction between self and non-self. If at least one of the antigens mimics a host antigen, then the resulting immunological civil war spreads to a host tissue. Complementary antigens also alter antigen processing so that antigens that would normally be proteolytically digested are presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to T and B cell receptors inducing a cross-reactive immune response. The resulting civil war is supported by the innate immune system due to the complementarity of the initiating antigens.. Complementary antigens stimulate synergistic toll-like receptors (TLR) and/or nucleotide-binding oligomerization receptors (NOD) resulting in up-regulation of cytokine production and further stimulation of the adaptive immune response. Because the immune responses (e.g., antibodies) mimic the initiating antigens, this synergistic activation of innate immunity becomes chronic. Additionally, TLR and NOD function are highly sensitive to sex hormones, some becoming up-regulated and some down-regulated in the presence of either testosterone or estrogens. This sensitivity explains how sex modifies susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Genetic mutations in TLR, NOD and MHC further alter antigen presentation and the degree to which antigens stimulate an immune response explaining how genetics also modifies susceptibility. Finally, sex hormones also alter the host microbiome, which in turn modulates autoimmune disease risk by shaping the immunological nature of self and by mediating susceptibility to microbial infection. Moreover, it appears that the microbiome camouflages itself from the immune system by mimicking the host antigenic repertoire; the mimicry between the antigens of the microbiome and the host results in selective attacks on microbiome constituents concomitant with any autoimmune attack on host tissues. This antigenic complementarity theory thereby integrates all major elements known to affect, or be affected by, autoimmune diseases and provides a set of testable implications.