ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0142.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: ater-borne; iodine excess; impairement; control and prevention
Online: 8 February 2018 (15:21:11 CET)
Since the water-borne iodine excessive goiter was firstly found and reported in 19 in Hebei Province, it was confirmed successively. The national water-borne investigation carried out in 2005 demarcated the water-borne iodine excess areas and water-borne iodine excess endemial areas. The high iodine water well was found In 129 counties of 11 provinces, about 30.98 million people of threatened population lived in water-borne iodine excess areas and water borne iodine excess endemial areas. In these areas, the measures of prevention and control was effectively implemented. In 2016, the new standard of iodine excess area was issued, the iodine excess areas redrawed, and in these areas, non-iodized salt should be supplied and the drinking water should be gradually improved of water, and to control the damage of water-borne iodine excess at an early date
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1377.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; seroprevalence; flavivirus; arbovirus; fever; mosquito-borne virus; vector-borne virus
Online: 20 July 2023 (04:51:12 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a widespread mosquito-borne pathogen. Phylogenetically, two lineages of the ZIKV are distinguished: African and Asian-American. The latter became the cause of the 2015-2016 pandemic with severe defeat to newborns. In West African countries the African lineage has been found, but there is evidence of the emergence of Asian-American lineage in Cape Verde and Angola. This highlights the need not only to monitor the ZIKV, but also to sequence the isolates. In this article, we present a case report of Zika fever in a pregnant woman from Guinea, identified in 2018. Viral RNA was detected by qRT-PCR in serum sample. In addition, seroconversion of anti-Zika IgM and IgG antibodies was detected in repeated blood samples. Subsequently, the virus was isolated in C6/36 cell line. The detected ZIKV belonged to the African lineage, the Nigerian sublineage. The strains with the closest sequences were isolated from mosquitoes in Senegal in 2011 and 2015. In addition, we conducted serological screening of 116 blood samples collected from patients presenting to the hospital of Faranah with fevers during the period 2018-2021. As a result, it was found that IgM-positive patients occurred each year, seroprevalence varied between 5.6% and 17.1%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0156.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: canine vector-borne diseases; mosquito-borne diseases; dirofilariosis; ehrlichiosis; leishmaniosis; dogs; multi-modal prophylaxis; Corsica
Online: 8 July 2020 (12:03:53 CEST)
With a mild Mediterranean-type climate, Corsica is endemic for canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) such as dirofilariosis (a mosquitoes borne-diseases: MBDs), leishmaniosis and ehrlichiosis. The aim of this present study was to evaluate a monthly multi-modal prophylactic strategy (MMP) against CVBDs occurring in Corsica. The study was conducted as a comparative field trial in which eighty dogs allocated into two groups were included: (i) Group 1 consisted of 25 dogs under the MMP [per-os administration of 1.5 tablet of milbemycine oxime-praziquantel and a topical line-on application of a 3.6 mL solution of dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen] and (ii) Group 2 under various real-life prophylactic treatment (RLP) based on the use of ectoparasiticide products [different formulations: deltamethrin, fluralaner, fipronil] and/or macrocyclic lactones based-products [milbemycin oxime/praziquantel, milbemycin oxime, moxidectin] during the period ranging from June to October 2017. All animals were followed for one year and had blood drawn at day 0, followed by follow-up at 6 and 12 months. Samples were screened for filariosis using molecular tools as well as for leishmaniosis and ehrlichiosis using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). At the end of the study, no new cases of CVBDs were recorded within Group 1. In Group 2, the cumulative incidence of CVBDs was 20.0% (n= 11; p= 0.015) including dirofilarioses due to Dirofilaria immitis and/or D. repens, with 16.4% (n= 9; p=0.027). Ehrlichiosis was 5.5% (n= 3; p=0.241). No new cases of leishmaniosis were detected in Group 2. The data illustrated that, unlike the RLP treatment which failed to protect at least 20% of dogs, the MMP based on the concurrent administration of milbemycine oxime-praziquantel and dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen is efficient to protect dogs against CVBDs in a high-risk area.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis; tick; Serbia; Switzerland; fatal
Online: 2 December 2022 (07:14:48 CET)
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is vaccine-preventable neglected zoonotic neuroinvasive disease, caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Many of the Central and Eastern European countries are affected by TBE, which is often poorly perceived by tourists visiting endemic territories. Here we are reporting a fatal case of imported TBE in Serbian resident who was exposed to tick bite during a visit to Switzerland.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0715.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dog; ehrlichiosis; ELISA; Tick-borne; TRP19; TRP36
Online: 29 September 2020 (14:38:27 CEST)
Tandem repeat proteins of 36 kDa (TRP36) are major immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis, which have been used in the serological diagnosis of different genotypes of the microorganism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the American (USTRP36), Brazilian (BrTRP36) and Costa Rican (CRTRP36) genotypes of E. canis in Brazil, using ELISA assays. Serum samples of 815 dogs from 49 cities from all over Brazil were analyzed. Our results showed that 33.9% of the samples were reactive to the USTRP36 genotype and 32.6% to the BrTRP36 genotype. The two genotypes appeared to occur equally throughout Brazil, although the frequency of seropositivity was lower in the south than in the country’s other regions. Co-positivity for the American and Brazilian genotypes was also observed in 16% of samples. A few dogs (n=5; 0.6%) reactive to E. canis-TRP36 genotype (CRTRP36) were also detected in the northeast and southern regions. We conclude that the American and Brazilian genotypes of E. canis are distributed evenly in Brazil, especially in the tropical region, while the temperate region in the south presented the lowest prevalence values. This study offers the first report of dogs seropositive for the Costa Rican genotype in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis; vaccination; NS1; vaccine; flavivirus
Online: 11 February 2020 (09:10:41 CET)
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is based on the use of formalin-inactivated, culture-derived whole-virus vaccines. Immune response following vaccination is primarily directed to the viral envelope (E) protein, the major viral surface antigen. In Europe, two TBE vaccines are available in adult and pediatric formulations, FSME-IMMUN® (Pfizer) and Encepur® (GlaxoSmithKline). Herein, we analyzed the content of these vaccines using mass spectrometry (MS). The MS analysis revealed that the Encepur vaccine contains not only proteins of the whole virus particle, but also viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1). MS analysis of the FSME-IMMUN vaccine failed due to the high content of human serum albumin used as a stabilizer in the vaccine. However, the presence of NS1 in FSME-IMMUN was confirmed by immunization of mice with six doses of this vaccine, which led to a robust anti-NS1 antibody response. NS1-specific western blot analysis detected anti-NS1 antibodies also in sera of humans who received multiple doses of either of these two vaccines; however, most vaccinees who received ≤3 doses were negative for NS1-specific antibodies. The contribution of NS1-specific antibodies to protection against TBE was demonstrated by immunization of mice with purified NS1 antigen, which led to a significant (p < 0.01) prolongation of the mean survival time after lethal virus challenge. This indicates that stimulation of anti-NS1 immunity by the TBE vaccines may increase their protective effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: crop rotation; metabarcoding; soil-borne oomycetes; soybean; tillage
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:17:04 CEST)
Soil-borne oomycetes include devastating plant pathogens that cause substantial losses in the agricultural sector. To better manage this important group of pathogens, it is critical to understand how they respond to common agricultural practices, such as tillage and crop rotation. Here, a long-term field experiment was established using a split-plot design with tillage as the main plot factor (conventional tillage [CT] vs. no till [NT], 2 levels) and rotation as the subplot factor (monocultures of soybean, corn, or wheat, and corn-soybean-wheat rotation, 4 levels). Post-harvest soil oomycete communities were characterized over three consecutive years (2016-2018) by metabarcoding the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) region. The community contained 292 Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) and was dominated by Globisporangium spp. (85.1% in abundance, 203 ASV) and Pythium spp. (10.4%, 51 ASV). NT decreased diversity and community compositional structure heterogeneity, while crop rotation only affected the community structure under CT. The interaction effects of tillage and rotation on most oomycetes species accentuated the complexity of managing these pathogens. Soil and crop health represented by soybean seedling vitality was lowest in soils under CT cultivating soybean or corn, while grain yield of the three crops responded differently to tillage and crop rotation regimes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika; arboviruses; vector-borne infections; genomic surveillance; phylogenetics
Online: 14 April 2023 (03:51:13 CEST)
The Americas, particularly Brazil, were greatly impacted by the widespread outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2015 and 2016. Efforts were made to implement genomic surveillance of ZIKV as part of the public health responses. The accuracy of spatiotemporal reconstructions of the epidemic spread relies on the unbiased sampling of the transmission process. In the early stages of the outbreak, we recruited patients exhibiting clinical symptoms of arbovirus-like infection from Salvador and Campo Formoso, Bahia, in Northeast Brazil. Between May 2015 and June 2016, we identified 21 cases of acute ZIKV infection and subsequently recovered 14 near full-length sequences using the amplicon tiling multiplex approach with nanopore sequencing. We perform a time-calibrated discrete phylogeographic analysis to trace the spread and migration history of the ZIKV. Our phylogenetic analysis supports a consistent relationship between ZIKV migration from Northeast to Southeast Brazil and its subsequent dissemination beyond Brazil. Additionally, our analysis provides insights into the migration of ZIKV from Brazil to Haiti and the role Brazil played in the spread of ZIKV to other countries, such as Singapore, the USA and Dominican Republic. The data generated by this study enhances our understanding of ZIKV dynamics and supports the existing knowledge, which can aid in future surveillance efforts against the virus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0606.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: virology; emerging viruses; vector-borne diseases; climate change
Online: 29 October 2020 (09:49:40 CET)
Three decades have now passed since the first papers linking climate change to issues in human disease and healthcare. One of the most active topics in this area has been the implication of climate change events, particularly temperature and humidity fluctuations, in the northward spread of vector-borne viruses from more tropical regions into Europe and North America. However, some detailed studies of one such emerging disease, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEv), have called the connection into question, concentrating the debate on the investigation of precise mechanisms for the spread of viral disease. More recently, firmer statistical correlations have been made between climate variables, the presence of insect vectors and the prevalence of viral disease, particularly for West Nile Virus (WNV). These insights suggest avenues for mechanistic confirmation of the involvement of climate change in other diseases where the connection remains conjectural.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: beta-lactamase; cephalosporin; cefotaxime; transconjugation; plasmid-borne resistance
Online: 9 October 2019 (11:03:44 CEST)
Clinical pathogens especially Gram-negative bacteria developing resistance to third-generation cephalosporins are making the clinical outcome more complicated and serious. This study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Tamil Nadu regions in India. For this study, clinical samples were collected from five different hospitals located in Tamil Nadu and ESBL producing Gram-negative isolates were characterized. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was performed using cefotaxime and ceftazidime. The blaESBL producing genes were screened using multiplex PCR for the genes, CTX-M group-1,-2,-8,-9,-26. Conjugation studies were performed using E. coli AB1157 as a recipient for the isolates harbouring plasmid-borne resistance following broth-mating experiment. In total, 1500 samples were collected and 599 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated that included Escherichia coli (n=233), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=182), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=79), Citrobacter spp. (n=30), Proteus mirabilis (n=28), Salmonella spp. (n=21), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=12), Serratia spp. (n=6), Shigella spp. (n=4), Morganella morganii (n=3) and Providencia spp. (n=1). MIC results showed that 358 isolates were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftazidime. Further, ESBL gene amplification results showed that 19 isolates had CTX-M group-1 gene including E. coli (n=16), K. pneumoniae (n=2) and P. aeruginosa (n=1) whereas one M. morganii isolate had CTX-M group-9 gene in their plasmid. Through conjugation studies, 12/20 isolates were found to be involved in the transformation of its plasmid-borne resistance gene. Our study highlighted the role of horizontal gene transfer in the dissemination of plasmid-borne blaCTX-M resistance genes among ESBL producing isolates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Built Environment, Design Decisions, Vector Borne Diseases, Malaria
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:01:08 CET)
Although significant efforts have been made to combat the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), they still account for more than 17% of all infectious diseases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were 216 million estimated cases in 2016, which is a 9.3% decrease from the estimated cases reported one decade earlier. It is known that the built environment, through features such as openings, can propagate the spread of malaria. There have been some significant efforts directed at addressing this risk. This notwithstanding, there are some knowledge gaps that have resulted in a missed opportunity for synergistically tackling the problem of vectors through leveraging design decisions made by built environment professionals. This work assesses the extent to which design decisions in the built environment can have a positive impact on the efforts directed at mitigating the risk of malaria based on selected cases from East Africa. Secondary data derived from relevant urban health journals as well as repositories curated by leading health agencies such as WHO were synthesized and analyzed using a web of causation approach. The outcome of the analysis is a schema of primary and secondary source (risk) factors. The use of the web of causation approach revealed the existing factor-to-factor interactions that could have a reinforcing effect. This information was used to identify the critical linkages and interdependencies across different factors. The outcome of the analysis was mapped against risk factors that can be linked to decisions made during the six primary phases of the construction life cycle: preliminary phase, conceptual design, detailed design, construction, facilities management, and end of life/disuse. The findings of the research have established that 1) there is, in fact, a built environment–related opportunity that can be leveraged to advance the impact of malaria mitigation effort; 2) cross-disciplinary synergies are critical to managing the interdependencies and complexity of malaria risk factors that have a reinforcing effect; and 3) a knowledge-management framework that serves as a decision support tool would be valuable for sharing data under a push-and-pull mechanism, in which data shared in real time can address the timeliness of mitigating the spread of malaria at the earliest stages for the greatest impact. Based on the findings, a conceptual architecture for a decision support framework has been proposed. This will be developed into a knowledge-management platform in subsequent efforts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0378.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Yellow fever virus; flavivirus; vector-borne transmission, emergence
Online: 20 July 2018 (05:54:00 CEST)
As revealed by the recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV) activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America, YFV control measures need urgent rethinking. Over the last decade, most reported outbreaks occurred in, or eventually reached, areas of low vaccination coverage but suitable for virus transmission, with an unprecedented risk of expansion to densely populated territories in Africa, South America and Asia. As reflected in the World Health Organization’s initiative launched in 2017, it is high time to strengthen epidemiological surveillance to monitor accurately, viral dissemination and redefine vaccination recommendation areas. Vector-control and immunisation measures need to be adapted and vaccine manufacturing must be reconciled with an increasing demand. We will have to face more YF cases in the upcoming years hence, improving disease management through the development of efficient treatments will prove most beneficial. Undoubtedly, these developments will require in-depth descriptions of YFV biology at molecular, physiological and ecological levels. This second section of the two-part review describes the current state of knowledge and gaps regarding the molecular biology of YFV, along with an overview of the tools that can be used to manage the disease at the individual, local and global levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0099.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: yellow fever virus; Flavivirus; vector-borne transmission, emergence
Online: 7 May 2018 (05:19:50 CEST)
The recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV) activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America has sparked renewed interest in this infamous arboviral disease. YFV had been a human plague for centuries prior to the identification of its urban transmission vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito species, and the development of an efficient live-attenuated vaccine, the YF-17D strain. The combination of vector-control measures and vaccination campaigns drastically reduced YFV incidence in humans on many occasions, but the virus never ceased to circulate in the forest, through its sylvatic invertebrate vector(s) and vertebrate host(s). Outbreaks recently reported in Central Africa (2015-2016) and Brazil (since late 2016), reached considerable proportions in terms of spatial distribution and total numbers of cases, with multiple exports, including to China. In turn, questions regarding the likeliness of occurrence of large urban YFV outbreaks in the Americas or of a successful import of YFV to Asia are currently resurfacing. This two-part review describes the current state of knowledge and gaps regarding the molecular biology and transmission dynamics of YFV, along with an overview of the tools that can be used to manage the disease at the individual, local and global levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0439.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: urban zone; mosquitoes; mapping; mosquito-borne diseases; stinkbugs; nuisance
Online: 6 June 2023 (10:07:51 CEST)
Urban environments are frequently populated by different insect species. Some of them are very beautiful and appealing to the people around them, such as ladybugs and butterflies, while some others are molestants and even dangerous to public health. Mosquitoes often inhabit urban environments by staying close to their hosts (humans, birds, etc.), while phytophagous species such as stinkbugs find hosts among ornamental plants and shelters during the winter around humans. This article describes the early discoveries and distribution of two invasive mosquito species, Aedes albopictus, and Ae. japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae), which were recorded in Serbia in 2009 and 2018, respectively. Both species are important for human health, due to their nuisance behavior and because they are vectors of many viruses. On the other hand, in 2015 and 2008, two invasive stinkbug species, Halyomorpha halys and Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) were observed to spread, respectively. Since then, these species have disrupted human population in urban areas, but also damaged a range of crops and ornamental plants. All species have been monitored in the territory of Serbia, and establishment and distribution have been confirmed so far.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis virus; vaccine; non-structural protein 1
Online: 3 June 2022 (09:48:01 CEST)
The presence of a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccines and the possible induction of an NS1-specific immune response in vaccinated individuals remains a somewhat controversial topic. Previously, we detected the presence of NS1 in Encepur TBE vaccine by mass spectrometry and found the induction of NS1-specific IgG antibodies in mice vaccinated with FSME-Immun TBE vaccine. Here, in this follow-up study, we examined the dynamics and extent of the NS1-specific IgG response in mice vaccinated with these two vaccines in more detail and compared it with the IgG response to the whole virus (WV). Mice were vaccinated at two-week intervals with a total of six doses of each vaccine, and levels of IgG antibodies to TBE virus WV and NS1 were measured by ELISA after each dose. Both vaccines elicited a robust anti-WV IgG response after two doses. The Encepur vaccine did not elicit NS1-specific IgG even after all six doses. In contrast, FSME-Immun vaccine triggered production of NS1-specific IgG after four doses. The results indicate that FSME-Immun is the only vaccine that elicits an NS1-specific antibody response in mice. However, compared to WV-specific IgG, the NS1-specific response is weaker, and a higher number of doses is required to induce detectable levels of NS1-specific IgG antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Rickettsia parkeri; Rhipicephalus sanguineus; dogs; tick-borne disease; rickettsiosis
Online: 11 April 2022 (03:37:16 CEST)
Of the documented tick-borne diseases infecting humans in Mexico, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the gram-negative bacterium Rickettsia rickettsia, is responsible for most fatalities. Given recent evidence of brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, as an emerging vector of human RMSF, we aimed to evaluate dogs and their ticks for rickettsiae infections as an initial step in assessing the establishment of this pathosystem in a poorly studied region of northeastern Mexico while evaluating the use of dogs as sentinels for transmission/human disease risk. We sampled owned dogs living in six disadvantaged neighborhoods of Reynosa, Northern Mexico to collect whole blood and ticks. Of 168 dogs assessed, tick infestation prevalence was 53%, comprised of exclusively R. sanguineus s. l. (n=2,170 ticks). Using PCR and sequencing, we identified an overall rickettsiae infection prevalence of 4.1% (n=12/292) in ticks, in which eight dogs harbored at least one infected tick. Rickettsiae infections included R. amblyommatis and R. parkeri, both of which are emerging human pathogens, as well as candidatus R. andeanae. This is the first documentation of pathogenic Rickettsia in R. sanguineus s.l. collected on dogs from northeastern Mexico. Domestic dog infestation with Rickettsia-infected ticks indicates ongoing transmission, thus humans are at risk for exposure and underscores the importance of public and veterinary health surveillance for these pathogens.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Coxiella burnetii; Rickettsia; Q fever; rickettsiosis; tick-borne pathogens
Online: 31 March 2020 (09:54:07 CEST)
Rickettsia and Coxiella burnetii are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens that can cause febrile illnesses with or without other symptoms in humans but may cause subclinical infections in animals. There are only a few reports on the occurrence of these pathogens in cattle and water buffaloes in Southeast Asia, including the Philippines. In this study, molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. and C. burnetii in the blood and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks of cattle and water buffaloes from five provinces in Luzon Island of the Philippines was done. A total of 620 blood samples of cattle and water buffaloes and 206 tick samples were collected and subjected to DNA extraction. After successful amplification of control genes, nested PCR was performed to detect gltA of Rickettsia and com1 of C. burnetii. No samples were positive for Rickettsia while 10 (cattle – 7, water buffaloes - 3) or 1.6% of blood and 5 or 1.8% of tick samples were C. burnetii-positive. Sequence analysis of the positive amplicons showed 99-100% similarity to reported C. burnetii isolates. This molecular evidence on the occurrence of C. burnetii in Philippine ruminants and cattle ticks and its zoonotic nature should prompt further investigation and surveillance to facilitate its effective control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: synthetic aperture radar (sar); space-borne sar; deceptive jamming
Online: 27 November 2019 (09:49:31 CET)
Due to the advantages such as low power consumption and higher concealment, deceptive jamming against synthetic aperture radar (SAR) receives extensive attention during the past decades. However, the large scene deception jamming is still a challenge because of the huge computing burden. In this paper, we propose a new large scene deceptive jamming algorithm. First, the time-delay and frequency-shift (TDFS) algorithm is introduced to improve the jamming processing speed. The system function of jammer (JSF) for a fake scatter is simplified to the multiplication of the scattering coefficient, a time-delay term in range dimension and a frequency-shift term in azimuth dimension. Then, in order to solve the problem that the effective region of the TDFS algorithm is limited, the scene deceptive jamming template is divided into several blocks according to the SAR parameters and imaging quality control factor. The JSF of each block is calculated by the TDFS algorithm and added together to achieve the large scene jamming. Finally, the correction algorithm in squint mode is derived. The simplification and parallel block processing could improve the calculation efficiency significantly. The simulation results verified the validity of the algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1960.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Vine; soil-borne pathogens; chemical control; bio-fungicide; seedling quality
Online: 28 July 2023 (08:38:30 CEST)
In the production of grafted vines, losses are caused by fungal pathogens during callus forming or after planting in the soil. To control or reduce natural fungal infections in nurseries, certain applications were conducted in sapling cultivation stage to analyse the efficacy of cyprodinil + fludioxonil, floupyram + tebuconazole active substances and Trichoderma harzianum biological preparation. 1103 Paulsen rootstock and Vitis viniferea L. Sultana cultivars were stored in fungicide suspensions for 60 minutes before and after grafting in the study. After grafting, the seedlings were divided into i) cutting + sawdust ii) cutting + sawdust + soil application groups and transferred to the callus room. Fungicides were applied 1 to 7 days after the callus development to wet the seedling roots 1 to 7 days after they were planted. After nine months in the nursery, the plants were uprooted, classified as diseased or healthy, and analysed for morphological and molecular diagnosis of fungal species, isolation incidence, and seedling quality and yield. After callus development, Fusarium solani was most frequently isolated pathogen in the roots (21.5%), cyprodinil + fludioxonil reduced the Ilyonectria sp. isolation rate in both shoots and roots. Botryosphaeria obtusa and I. liriodendri pathogens were not detected in sick and healthy cyprodinil + fludioxonil-treated saplings. The highest seedling yield was observed with fludioxonil + cyprodinil, cutting + sawdust + soil (78.75%) and cutting + sawdust (70.68%) applications. According to the results of this study, it was found that fungicide applications before and after grafting prevented soil-borne pathogen infections and improved sapling quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0231.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Mosquito; arthropod-borne; vector; RNA virus; mycovirus; Chrysoviridae; sequencing; Serbia
Online: 15 July 2022 (11:44:59 CEST)
Mosquitoes are widespread arthropods that serve as vectors for a broad spectrum of viruses, many of which pose a substantial threat to humans. Conversely, some viruses may seemingly present with beneficial implications for the health of man whilst impinging on other domains of life, such as the fungi-infecting mycoviruses. This study is only the second one so far to describe the exceptionally scarcely identified Xanthi chryso-like virus (XCLV), member of the mycopathogenic Chrysoviridae family, in a new geographical area and a novel potential arthropod vector, the Culex pipiens mosquito. Interestingly, the XCLV was initially fortuitously detected by West Nile virus-specific primers directed at a conserved part of the NS5 gene, possibly indicative of a genetic resemblance and shared ancestry reflected in the NS5 evolutionary heritage. Detection and characterization of the virus and insect alike was done via PCR and Sanger sequencing. This investigation draws attention to our knowledge of viral pervasiveness – be it topographical or vectorial – and how humble it truly is. Additionally, we would propose that more attention be given to arthropod-borne viral pathogens that might prove advantageous to human health.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0462.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: roe deer; Tick-Borne Encephalitis; neurologic disease; pathology; genetic characterization
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:21:18 CET)
Tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the causative agent of Tick borne encephalitis in humans, a severe zoonosis occurring in the Paleartic region mainly transmitted through ticks belonging to the genus Ixodes. In Italy, TBEV is restricted to few foci in the north-eastern part of the country. This report describes for the first time a case of clinical TBE in a roe deer, occurred in the Belluno province, Veneto region, an area highly endemic for the presence of the virus. The affected roe deer showed ataxia, staggering movements, muscle tremors and persistent teeth grinding causing hypersalivation. At necropsy, the macroscopic picture was inconclusive. RNA of TBEV was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship to TBEV of the European subtype, and 100% similarity with a virus from the bordering Trento Province. The histological examination of the midbrain confirmed the viral etiology and specific immunofluorescence indicated the presence of a Flavivirus infection and characterized the pattern of infection in the neurons. This report underlines for the first time the occurrence of clinical encephalitic manifestations due to TBEV in a roe deer, thussuggesting to include this pathogen in the frame of differential diagnosis in this species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0596.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Climate change; Urban Heat Islands; Mosquito-borne Disease; Mitigation Strategies
Online: 26 February 2021 (08:27:16 CET)
Cities worldwide are facing ever-increasing pressure to develop mitigation strategies for all sectors to deal with the impacts of climate change. Cities are expected to house 70% of the world’s population by 2050 and developing related resilient health systems is a significant challenge. Because of their physical nature, cities’ surface temperatures are often substantially higher than that of the surrounding rural areas, generating the so-called Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Whilst considerable emphasis has been placed on strategies to mitigate against the UHI-associated negative health effects of heat and pollution, the World Health Organization estimates that one of the main consequences of global warming will be an increased burden of such vector-borne diseases. Many of the major mosquito-borne diseases are urban and thus the global population exposed to these pathogens will steadily increase. Mitigation strategies beneficial for one sector may, however, be detrimental for another. Implementation of inter-sectoral strategies that can benefit many sectors (such as water, labour and health) do exist and would enable optimal use of the meagre resources available. Discussion among inter-sectoral stakeholders should be actively encouraged.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1216.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: mosquito; MENA region; mosquito-borne disease; population at risk; climate; environment
Online: 20 November 2023 (05:06:27 CET)
Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are a group of illnesses transmitted by mosquitoes and can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. These diseases represent a significant global burden of infectious diseases, including morbidity and mortality. This systematic review delves into the multifaceted factors contributing to the spread of mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Following PRISMA guidelines, a thorough analysis of peer-reviewed articles from May 1990 to Jan 2023 was conducted, highlighting the interplay of population, environmental, disease, and mosquito factors in disease transmission and prevalence. The review incorporated 31 studies that revealed a complex relationship between various risk factors and the presence of MBDs. Significant associations were observed with age, certain occupations, environmental conditions such as rainfall and temperature, sanitation practices, specific pathogen variants, clinical symptoms, and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Conversely, gender, socioeconomic status, educational status, and certain sanitation-related factors showed inconsistent association with the spread of MBDs. The review underscores the need for targeted interventions, including vector control, improved sanitation, and educational campaigns to mitigate the spread of MBDs in the MENA region. This review could guide research studies to address data gaps and assist in developing effective surveillance programs in the MENA region. This work emphasizes the need for region-specific public health strategies and further research to understand and curb the burden of these diseases effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0823.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: bioinformatic analysis; arboviruses; vector-borne disease (VBD), RNA binding proteins (RBPs)
Online: 24 April 2023 (04:51:12 CEST)
Climate change and globalization have raised the risk of vector-borne disease (VBD) introduction and spread in various European nations in recent years. In Italy, viruses carried by tropical vectors have been shown to cause viral encephalitis, one of the symptoms of arbovirosis, a spectrum of viral disorders spread by arthropods such as mosquitoes and ticks. Arbovirosis are currently causing alarm and attention, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has released recommendations to adopt essential measures, particularly during the hot season, to restrict the spreading of the infectious agents among breeding stocks. In this scenario, rapid analysis systems are required, because they can quickly provide information on potential virus-host interactions, the evolution of the infection, and the onset of disabling clinical symptoms, or serious illnesses. Such systems include bioinformatics approaches integrated with molecular evaluation. Viruses have co-evolved different strategies to transcribe their own genetic material, by changing the host's transcriptional machinery, even in short periods of time. The introduction of genetic alterations, particularly in RNA viruses, results in a continuous adaptive fight against the host's immune system. We suggest an in silico pipeline method to unravel viral sequences that may interact with host RNA binding proteins (RBPs), which play important roles in RNA metabolism and its several related biological processes. Indeed, viral RNA sequences, able to bind host RBPs may compete with cellular RNAs, altering important metabolic processes. Our findings suggest that the proposed in silico approach, could be a useful and promising tool to investigate the complex and multiform clinical manifestations of viral encephalitis, and possibly identify altered metabolic pathways as targets of pharmacological treatments and innovative therapeutic protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0210.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Food safety; Fresh-cut produce; salads; Food borne pathogens; Microbiological safety
Online: 29 June 2022 (09:47:27 CEST)
The consumption and sale of fresh-cut products and salads have been growing tremendously in the present era. Therefore, the microbial safety of such products is of great concern. In the current study, a survey of general microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and salads at quick-service restaurants (QSR) was undertaken across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These findings were compared with microbiological criteria for foodstuffs by Saudi standards, metrology, and quality organization SASO-GSO-1016. Of the 82 samples of fresh-cut produce, 7% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits. TPC count was unsatisfactory at 22%, coliform at 48%, and Staphylococcus aureus at 4%. For 108 samples for fresh salads, 11% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits,13%, 27%, 4%, and 27% of samples showed an unsatisfactory range of TPC, coliforms, S. aureus, and Escherichia coli, respectively. The fresh-cut produce and salads were microbiologically safe in the central region compared to the eastern region followed by the western region. The relatively higher count was found in green pepper, mixed vegetables, and lettuce followed by fresh-cut onions and coleslaw salads. No Salmonella was detected in both fresh-cut produce and salads. The restaurants should be more stringent in their processing to ensure the consumer safety. Washing and sanitization of produce is the only way to reduce the diffusion of food borne pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0244.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: car-borne user interface; Miryoku engineering; human-computer interaction; psychology; car design
Online: 5 October 2023 (07:33:14 CEST)
This study explored drivers’ emotion-based impressions of car-borne central control platforms (CBCCPs) personal-use vehicles. Thus, this preference-based study examined experts’ and drivers’ opinions regarding CBCCPs’ appeal from the perspective of Miryoku engineering. To this end, this study analyzed data via the EGM (evaluation grid method (EGM) and quantification theory type I. Results: Drivers’ preferences for specific CBCCP design characteristics were categorized into the factors “legible,” convenient,” and “tasteful,” which comprised the core of the EGM semantic hierarchical diagram. In addition, the importance of CBCCPs’ appeal factors and characteristics was assessed through quantification theory type I.The findings of this study provide valuable insights for designers, manufacturers, and researchers interested in the design of CBCCPs. Additionally, the results of this study can contribute to research on applied psychology, human-computer interactions, and car interface design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0869.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Jingmenvirus group; Alongshan virus; qPCR; Flavivirus; Yanggou tick virus; tick-borne viruses
Online: 11 May 2023 (14:25:01 CEST)
The recently discovered Jingmenvirus group includes viruses with a segmented genome, RNA of a positive polarity, and several proteins with distant homology to the proteins of the members of the genus Flavivirus. Some Jingmenvirus group members, namely Alongshan virus (ALSV) and Jingmen tick virus, are reported to be tick-borne human pathogens, causing a wide variety of symptoms. ALSV is widely distributed in Eurasia, yet there is no reliable assay for its detection. Here, we describe a qPCR system for the detection of ALSV. Our data show that this system can detect as low as 104 copies of ALSV in the probe. It shows no amplification with common tick-borne viruses circulating in Eurasia, Yanggou tick virus—another member of the Jingmenvirus group—or some known members of the genus Flavivirus. The qPCR system was tested have no non-specific signal for Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, Haemaphysalis concinna, and H. japonica ticks. Overall, the qPCR system described here can be used for reliable and quantitative ALSV detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Vector-borne diseases; urbanization; urban forest; Aedes; Anopheles; Culex; Gabon; central Africa
Online: 16 February 2023 (06:29:19 CET)
In Africa, vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are still a major public health issue especially in cities that gather an increasing human population. Market gardening practices, for example, can favor the transmission of urban malaria, while insufficient water supply and waste management favor the circulation of arboviroses related to Aedes mosquitoes. Urban planning is a major challenge to mitigate vector risks. As a planning strategy, greening is a concept that is increasingly considered as a major element impacting the well-being of inhabitants, but also for the restoration of biodiversity in cities. Nevertheless, the impact of urban green spaces on vector risk remains poorly investigated, as they may serve as refuge for vectors. This is why the diversity of mosquitoes in terms of species and larval habitat, through larval prospections in environmental water collections and human landing catches, is studied here at an intra-urban interface area between a forest and an urban ecosystem in order to assess the vector risk generated by preserving a forest patch in the heart of Libreville, capital of Gabon, central Africa. Out of 104 water containers explored, 94 (90.4%) were artificial, mainly comprising gutters, used tires, and plastic bottles, while 10 (9.6%) were natural, comprising a puddle, streams, and tree holes. The majority of the water collections recovered (73.1%) were found outside of the forested area, natural and artificial ones considered together. A total of 770 mosquitoes belonging to 14 species were collected from water collections. The mosquito community was largely dominated by anthropophilic species like Aedes albopictus (33.5%), Culex quinquefasciatus (30.4%), and Lutzia tigripes (16.5%). The Shannon index of diversity showed that mosquitoes were almost twice less diversified inside the forest (0.7) than outside (1.3). However, both communities were quite similar in terms of common species and relative abundance (Morisita-Horn index = 0.7). Regarding Human landing catches, Aedes albopictus (86.1%) was the most aggressive species, putting people at risk of Aedes-borne viruses. This study uncovered the importance of considering urban forested ecosystems as potential drivers of disease emergence and spread in urban areas, as they might locally boost urban mosquito densities due to poor environmental practices, mainly maintained by humans through poor environmental practices. In Gabon, this study should contribute to guide targeted vector control strategies, especially regarding the implementation of policies for a better environmental management and vector surveillance in urbanized areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0024.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: flavivirus; tick-borne encephalitis; electron microscopy; EELS; nanoparticle tracking analysis; cryo-EM
Online: 1 September 2022 (10:54:41 CEST)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a RNA-containing enveloped virus, a member of the Flaviviridae family. Here we describe a detailed analysis of the size and structure of inactivated TBEV (the Sofyin-Chumakov TBEV strain, used in vaccines). Four analytical methods were used to analyze individual TBEV particles—negative staining TEM, cryo-EM, AFM, and NTA. All methods confirmed that the particles were monodisperse, and their mean size was ~50 nm. Cryo-EM data were used to obtain a 3D electron density model of the virus with clearly distinguishable E-proteins. STEM-EELS analysis detected phosphorous in the particles, which was interpreted as the RNA signal. Altogether, the described analytical procedures can be valuable for the further analysis of vaccine inactivated virus samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0170.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: dromedary camels, ticks, heartwater, zoonosis, tick-borne pathogens, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:39:26 CEST)
Ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are major constraints to camel health and production, yet epidemiological data on their diversity and impact on dromedary camels are limited. We sur-veyed the diversity of ticks and TBPs associated with camels and co-grazing sheep at 12 sites in Marsabit County, northern Kenya. We screened blood and ticks (858 pools) collected from 296 camels and 77 sheep for bacterial and protozoan TBPs by high-resolution melting analysis and sequencing of PCR products. Hyalomma (75.7%), Amblyomma (17.6%) and Rhipicephalus (6.7%) spp. ticks were morphologically identified and confirmed by molecular analyses. We detected TBP DNA in 80.1% of blood samples from 296 healthy camels. “Candidatus Anaplasma camelii”, “Candidatus Ehrlichia regneryi” and Coxiella burnetii were detected in both camels and associ-ated ticks, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii and Coxiella endo-symbionts were detected in camel ticks. We also detected Ehrlichia ruminantium, responsible for heartwater disease in ruminants, in Amblyomma ticks infesting camels and sheep and in sheep blood, indicating its endemicity in Marsabit. Our findings also suggest that camels and/or the ticks infesting them are reservoirs of zoonotic Q fever (C. burnetii), ehrlichiosis (E. chaffeensis), and rickettsiosis (R. africae), which pose a public health threat to pastoralist communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Chytridiomycosis; Amphibian pathogen; Amphibian disease; Culex quinquefasciatus, vector-borne disease
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:01:02 CET)
The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an infectious disease responsible for the worldwide decline of amphibian species. To mitigate these declines, it is necessary to identify the various vectors by which the fungus can be transmitted between individuals and populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether adult female mosquitoes can carry and transfer Bd fungal cells. Mosquitoes were exposed to net soaked in a live Bd zoospore suspension to determine whether they are able to externally acquire the fungus. Another group was placed into containers with a sterile and Bd-inoculated agar plate to determine whether mosquitoes could transfer Bd between these surfaces. Bd DNA was found to be present on mosquito legs exposed to inoculated netting and agar plates suggesting that Bd can be transmitted by the mosquito over short distances This is the first study to demonstrate that an insect host may be a mechanical vector of Bd and suggests that we should begin to consider the role of mosquitoes in the dissemination and control of the fungus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Zoonoses, food-borne, disease control, public health, domestic livestock, pigs, One health
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:59:03 CET)
Non-typhoid salmonellosis is a common and problematic foodborne zoonotic disease in which pork and pork products can be an important potential source of infection. In order to prevent this disease important efforts to monitor the situation in the main source, livestock, are conducted in most developed countries. In the European Union EFSA and ECDC compile information at the member state level, even though important differences in production systems and surveillance systems exist. Here, Salmonella surveillance systems in one of the main sources of foodborne salmonellosis, swine, and humans in Spain were reviewed to identify potential gaps and discuss potential ways of integration under a One Health approach. Despite the extensive information generated through the surveillance activities source attribution can be only routinely performed through ad-hoc outbreak investigations, and national reports on human outbreaks do not provide sufficiently detailed information to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of the pathogen. Human and animal monitoring of Salmonella would benefit from a better exchange of information and collaboration. Analysis of spatio-temporal trends in livestock and humans could help to identify likely sources of infection and to target surveillance efforts in areas with higher prevalence or where specific strains are found.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0816.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Tick-borne diseases; Lyme disease; Diagnostic methods; PCR; Bacteriophages (phages); Borrelia; Detection limit
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:05:15 CEST)
Tick-borne diseases are a growing concern worldwide, affecting both human and animal populations. Ticks are known to harbor a wide range of pathogens and are considered one of the most important vectors of disease. Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is the most common tick-borne disease in the US and Europe. However, accurate diagnosis of Lyme disease can be challenging due to the complex immune evasion strategies employed by Borrelia species and the limitations of existing diagnostic tests. To address this issue, researchers are exploring novel approaches, including the use of bacteriophages as diagnostic tools. Bacteriophages are highly specific and offer advantages over traditional methods for detecting bacteria, including Borrelia. In particular, the use of multicopy bacteriophages as molecular markers for Borrelia detection is a promising approach that may provide greater sensitivity than targeting single-copy bacterial genes. Nonetheless, the task of identifying trace amounts of bacteriophages in blood samples necessitates attention, and scientists are devising innovative techniques to surmount this hurdle. In summary, employing bacteriophages as a diagnostic tool for tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, by specifically targeting free circulating bacteriophages in blood samples, offers significant potential for enhancing patient outcomes and public health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0573.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Borrelia miyamotoi, Ixodes, Lyme disease, relapsing fever, reservoir species, tick-borne disease, vector
Online: 30 December 2022 (08:08:13 CET)
Borrelia miyamotoi is an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the Northern hemisphere and is the causative agent of Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD). B. miyamotoi is vectored by the same hard-bodied ticks as Lyme disease Borrelia, yet phylogenetically groups with relapsing fever Borrelia, and thus has been uniquely labeled a hard tick-borne relapsing fever Borrelia. Burgeoning research has uncovered new aspects of B. miyamotoi in human patients, nature, and the lab. Of particular interest are novel findings on disease pathology, prevalence, diagnostic methods, ecological maintenance, transmission, and genetic characteristics. Herein we review recent literature on B. miyamotoi, discuss how findings adapt to current Borrelia doctrines, and briefly consider what remains unknown about B. miyamotoi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0543.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Francisella tularensis; Dermacentor variabilis; Amblyomma americanum; Haemaphysalis longicornis; tick-borne disease; Tularemia; Chitinase
Online: 20 November 2020 (12:21:26 CET)
Tick-borne tularemia was first described in 1924. Nearly 100 years later, questions remain about the tick vector(s) that pose(s) the greatest risk for transmitting Francisella tularensis (Ft), the causative agent of tularemia. Additionally, few studies have identified genes/proteins required for Ft to infect, persist, and replicate in ticks. To answer questions about vector competence and Ft transmission by ticks, we infected Dermacentor variabilis (Dv), Amblyomma americanum (Aa), and Haemaphysalis longicornis (Hl; invasive species from Asia) ticks with Ft, finding that although Aa ticks initially become infected with 1-log higher Ft, Ft replicated more robustly in Dv ticks, and did not persist in Hl ticks. In transmission studies, both Dv and Aa ticks efficiently infected naïve mice, causing disease in 57% and 46% of those mice, respectively. We identified a putative Ft chitinase, FTL1793, generated a FTL1793 mutant, and found that FTL1793 was deficient in tick infection, persistence, and replication in ticks. Recombinant FTL1793 exhibited chitinase activity in vitro, suggesting that this chitinase may provide an alternative energy source for Ft in ticks. Taken together, Dv ticks appear to pose a greater risk for harboring and transmitting tularemia and FTL1793 plays a major role in promoting tick infections by Ft.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0566.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Awareness; KAP survey; Leishmaniasis; neglected tropical Diseases; Questionnaire; Socio-economic factors; Vector borne diseases
Online: 14 October 2023 (20:24:02 CEST)
Leishmaniasis is one of the Neglected tropical diseases. Studies show that the poor knowledge about epidemiological aspects of Leishmaniasis within communities causes the collapse of existing disease control programs. Therefore, the present study focuses on a detailed survey of the existing awareness among the threatened population in the Medawachchiya PHI Area in the Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka aiming to assist the health staff to organize community-based vector control programs effectively in the future. Assessment of the awareness of the two hundred and seventy households (n=270) residents from ten GNDs was carried out by using a structured questionnaire. Among 143 females and 134 males, only 75.1% have knowledge about the disease. 5.8%(n=16) of the participants know only about the vector and 28.9% (n=80) know their control methods. The study shows a shortage of a considerable amount of awareness about the disease among the studied population The study found that age and education levels had significant impacts on knowledge, attitudes, and practices. However, factors like gender, marital status, occupation, income, and expenses did not show significant correlations. The present study suggests the huge scope for community-related vector control methods for greater achievements in vector control methods by implementing a continuous educational program.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1664.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Soft tissue; necrotizing infection; water borne; vibrio; fungal; aeromonas; debridement; negative pressure wound care
Online: 23 May 2023 (14:43:28 CEST)
Background: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common presentations to the emergency department. However, this is less common after contact with contaminated water, both salt or fresh. This review presents the diagnosis and the management of water-related soft tissue sepsis in this vulnerable and difficult to treat subgroup of necrotizing soft tissue sepsis. Methods: A summative literature overview regarding bacterial and fungal SSTI after contact with contaminated water, with practical diagnostic and management aspects addressed. Results: The literature indicates that these remain difficult to treat wounds and organisms. An approach using appropriate diagnostic tools with both medical and surgical management strategies is provided. Conclusion: SSTI due to water contamination of wounds involve unusual organisms with unusual resistance patterns and require a nuanced and directed diagnostic approach with adaptation of the normal antibiotic or antifungal selection to achieve cure, along with aggressive debridement and wound care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: climate change; vector-borne disease; artificial intelligence; explainable AI; geospatial modeling; infectious disease; arbovirus
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:21:32 CEST)
As recent history has shown, changing climate not only threatens to increase the spread of known disease, but also the emergence of new and dangerous phenotypes. This occurred most recently with West Nile virus: a virus previously known for mild febrile illness rapidly emerged to become a major cause of mortality and long-term disability throughout the world. As we move forward, into increasingly uncertain times, public health research must begin to incorporate a broader understanding of the determinants of disease emergence – what, how, why, and when. The increasing mainstream availability of high-quality open data and high-powered analytical methods presents promising new opportunities. Up to now, quantitative models of disease outbreak risk have been largely based on just a few key drivers, namely climate and large-scale climatic effects. Such limited assessments, however, often overlook key interacting processes and downstream determinants more likely to drive local manifestation of disease. Such pivotal determinants may include local host abundance, human behavioral variability, and population susceptibility dynamics. The results of such analyses can therefore be misleading in cases where necessary downstream requirements are not fulfilled. It is therefore important to develop models that include climate and higher-level climatic effects alongside the downstream non-climatic factors that ultimately determine individual disease manifestation. Today, few models attempt to comprehensively address such dynamics: up until very recently, the technology simply hasn’t been available. Herein, we present an updated overview of current perspectives on the varying drivers and levels of interactions that drive disease spread. We review the predominant analytical paradigms, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and highlight promising new analytical solutions. Our focus is on the prediction of arboviruses, particularly West Nile virus, as these diseases represent the pinnacle of epidemiological complexity – solution to which would serve as an effective “gatekeeper”. We present the current state-of-the-art with respect to known drivers of arbovirus outbreak risk and severity, differentially highlighting the impact of climate and non-climatic drivers. The reality of multiple classes of drivers interacting at different geospatial and temporal scales requires advanced new methodologies. We therefore close out by presenting and discussing some promising new applications of AI. Given the reality of accelerating disease risks due to climate change, public health and other related fields must begin the process of updating their research programs to incorporate these much needed, new capabilities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1735.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Heartland Virus; Bandavirus; Amblyomma americanum; Haemaphysalis longicornis; vector-borne disease; Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:23:41 CEST)
Heartland virus (HRTV) is an emerging tick-borne bandavirus that is capable of causing severe disease characterized by acute thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. The virus is endemic to the eastern United States, and is carried by the Lone Star tick (Amblyomma americanum). Since its discovery in 2009, at least 60 human infections have been recorded across this area, with an overall 5-10\% estimated mortality rate. All infections reported thus far have occurred following a known tick bite or exposure to tick-infested areas, but the possibility of nosocomial transmission has not been ruled out. Despite relatively high rates of seroprevalence among certain wildlife species such as white-tailed deer, the reservoir species for HRTV remains unknown, as the virus has never been isolated from any mammalian wildlife species. Furthermore, how the virus is transmitted to its vector species in nature remains unknown, though laboratory studies have confirmed both horizontal and vertical transmission of HRTV in A. americanum. In addition, the recent 2017 introduction of the Asian longhorned tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) to the US has raised concerns about possible spillover of HRTV into a new tick species that has been confirmed to be a competent vector for HRTV in the laboratory. Thus, an increased awareness of its clinical presentation is needed, and further research is urgently required to establish the natural transmission cycle and develop new countermeasures for this novel zoonotic pathogen
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Tick-borne encephalitis virus; Yellow fever virus; vaccine strain; chimeric virus; infectious subgenomic amplicons; candidate vaccines
Online: 16 November 2022 (16:35:12 CET)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most threatening pathogens which affects the human central nervous system (CNS). TBEV circulates widely in Northern Eurasia. According to ECDC the number of TBE cases increase annually. There is no specific treatment for the TBEV infection, thus vaccination is the main preventive measure. Despite the existence of several inactivated vaccines currently being licensed, the development of new TBEV vaccines remains a leading priority in countries endemic to this pathogen. Here we report new recombinant virus made by infectious subgenomic amplicon (ISA) approach using TBEV and yellow fever virus vaccine strain (YF17DD-UN) as a genetic backbone. The recombinant virus is capable of effective replication in mammalian cells and induce TBEV-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Unlike the original vector based on the yellow fever vaccine strain chimeric virus became neuroinvasive in doses of 107-106 PFU and can be used as a model of Flavivirus neuroinvasiveness, neurotropism and neurovirulence. These properties of hybrid structures are the main factors limiting their practical use as vaccines platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0228.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Bacteriophages; P100; Electrostatic Assembly; Colloids; Thin films; AFM; SEM; Charge-Transfer Studies; Food-borne Pathogens; Listeria monocytogenes
Online: 14 February 2023 (03:23:40 CET)
The integration of bacteriophages, a particular class of viruses that specifically infect bacteria and archaea, in biosensors for the monitoring of pathogens in foods and beverages is highly desirable. To this end, an increasing focus has been set on the exploration of covalent and physical methods for the immobilization of phages on solid surfaces. This work investigates the electrostatic assembly of tailed phages, specifically anti-Listeria monocytogenes P100 phages, on an ultrathin self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (AUT). The cationic properties of AUT may allow for the electrostatic capture of P100 in a capsid-down fashion, thus, exposing the specific receptor-binding proteins on their tails to the corresponding pathogens in analytical samples. The physical properties of immobilized phages have been studied using AFM, SEM, and electrochemical techniques, providing insight into the orientation of the phages and revealing that the pH plays a remarkable role in the morphology and charge transfer behavior of the adsorbed films. Overall, this research portrays SAMs of amino-akylthiols as a valid platform for the oriented immobilization of bacteriophages on surfaces for electroanalytical purposes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: animal-assisted interventions; child development; dog bites; dog-borne zoonoses; dog ownership; dog welfare; human-animal interactions
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:13:49 CEST)
Our wellbeing is greatly influenced by our childhood and adolescence, and the relationships that we form during those phases of our development. The human-dog bond started thousands of years ago. The higher prevalence of dog ownership around the world, especially in households including children along with the growing number of people studying dogs most likely explain the growing literature focusing on child-dog interactions. We review the potential effects of child-dog interactions on the physical, mental, and social wellbeing of both species. A scoping search of the SCOPUS database found several hundred documents meeting selection criteria. It allowed us to define the numerous ways in which children and dogs can interact, be it neutral (e.g., sharing a common area), positive (e.g., petting), or negative (e.g., biting). Then, we found evidence for an association between interacting with dogs during childhood and an array of health and mental benefits like stress relief and the development of empathy. Walking a dog and playing with one are perfect physical activity opportunities. Additionally, interacting with a dog can help lower stress and may have a role in the development of empathy. Nonetheless, a number of detrimental outcomes have also been identified in both humans and dogs. Children are the most at-risk population regarding dog bites and dog-borne zoonoses, which may lead to a subsequent fear of dogs or even death. Moreover, pet bereavement is generally inevitable when living with a canine companion and should not be trivialized. In terms of dogs, children sometimes take part in caretaking behaviors toward them which include going on walks. They are opportunities for dogs to relieve themselves outside, but also to exercise and socialize. In contrast, a lack of physical activity can lead to the onset of obesity. Dogs may present greater levels of stress when in the presence of children. Finally, the welfare of assistance, therapy, and free-roaming dogs remains underexplored. Overall, the study of the effects, positive as well as negative, on both species still requires further development. We call for more longitudinal studies and hope for cross-cultural research in the future in order to better understand the impact child-dog interactions might have.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis virus; cryo-electron microscopy; TBEV; envelope protein; membrane protein; lipid factor; glycoprotein; quasi-equivalence
Online: 1 April 2022 (03:24:38 CEST)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a pathogenic, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae. Structural studies of flavivirus virions have primarily focused on mosquito-borne species with only one cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a tick-borne species published. Here, we present a 3.3 Å cryo-EM structure of the TBEV virion of the Kuutsalo-14 isolate, confirming the overall organisation of the virus. We observe conformational switching of the peripheral and transmembrane helices of M protein, which can explain the quasi-equivalent packing of the viral proteins and highlights their importance in stabilizing the membrane protein arrangement in the virion. The residues responsible for the M protein inter-actions are highly conserved in TBEV but not in the structurally studied Hypr strain, nor in mosquito-borne flaviviruses. These interactions may compensate for the lower number of hydrogen bonds between E proteins in TBEV compared to the mosquito-borne flaviviruses. The structure reveals two lipids bound in the E protein, which are important for virus assembly. The lipid pockets are comparable to those recently described in mosquito-borne Zika, Spondweni, Dengue, and Usutu viruses. Our results thus advance the understanding of tick-borne flavivirus architecture and virion-stabilising interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0735.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Rickettsia raoultii; Rickettsia felis: Haemaphysalis intermedia: DNA Barcode: Spotted fever group (SFG); Rickettsia; MLST; Tick borne pathogens (TBP).
Online: 9 June 2023 (16:43:56 CEST)
Rickettsia is an important pathogenic entity among tick-borne diseases (TBD), which are considered serious emerging public health problems globally. In India, though the widespread distribution of ticks and TBD has been documented, its real burden remains underreported. In a preliminary attempt, rickettsial surveillance was carried out in ticks collected from Sirumalai, Eastern Ghats in Tamil Nadu by using pathogen genome-based phylogenetic inferences generated through multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), targeting the genes 16s rRNA, OmpA, OmpB, and gltA by nested PCR. The laboratory evidence confirms the circulation of Rickettsia in Haemaphysalis intermedia species collected from this area. Analysis of the four gene sequences detected demonstrates their closest identity to the spotted fever group (SFG) available in the GenBank database. Further, multiple sequence alignment with other sequences derived from the GenBank database showed close relatedness to Rickettsia conorii subsp. raoultii (16s rDNA-99.32%, ompA-93.38%, ompB-97.39%, and gltA-98.57%) and Rickettsia felis (ompA-100%, ompB-100% and gltA-99.41%). With this genomic evidence, the circulation of rickettsial pathogens in the pools of H. intermedia ticks infesting livestock in the Sirumalai foothill area has been demonstrated and to complement the microscopic identification of the tick species, DNA barcodes were generated for H. intermedia using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Nevertheless, R. raoultii and R. felis were found to be the aetiological agents of tick-borne lymphadenopathy and flea-borne spotted fever in human cases, respectively. Further study on the determination of their diversity, distribution, clinical relevance, and potential risk to the local community in these areas is highly warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0937.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Google Trends; disease prediction; Lyme disease; Lyme; Big Data; One Health; negative binomial; mixed models; zoonotic disease; tick-borne disease
Online: 11 August 2023 (11:01:40 CEST)
Google Trends data can be informative for infectious disease incidences, including Lyme disease. However, the use of Google Trends for predictive purposes is underutilized. In this study, we tested the ability of Google Trends search data to predict monthly state-level Lyme disease case counts in the United States. We requested Lyme disease data for the years 2010-2021. We downloaded Google Trends search data on terms for Lyme disease, symptoms of Lyme disease, and diseases with similar symptoms as Lyme disease. We built mixed negative binomial models based on a training dataset (2010-2016) and tested the models on a test dataset (2017-2021). A model was built for each search term and monthly lags of search terms were included as predictors. The highest performing models had high predictive ability, indicated by low Root Mean Squared Errors (RMSEs) and close association between observed and predicted case counts. The highest performing model was for the search term “Summer Flu”, which indicates low specificity of some of the terms. We outline challenges of using Google Trends data, including data availability and a mismatch between geographic units. We discuss opportunities for Google Trends data, including prediction of additional zoonotic diseases and incorporating environmental and companion animal data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; rodents; rodent-borne diseases; environment contamination; biomonitoring; wildlife; molecular detection; PCR assay; nested-PCR assay prevalence; serological detection; agglutination test; ELISA method; seroprevalence
Online: 7 March 2023 (09:38:21 CET)
Rodents are known to be reservoirs of Toxoplasma gondii and keep the parasite circulation in the environment. We conducted biomonitoring to assess the role of sylvatic rodents in maintaining T. gondii and to analyse the prevalence and seroprevalence of the parasite in seven wild rodent species. Rodents were collected in our study sites (woodland and open grasslands) located in northeastern Poland and dissected. We collected brain, spleen, blood and serum samples. We applied both molecular (PCR assay, nested-PCR assay) and serological (ELISA and agglutination tests) methods to indicate the best approach for application in the biomonitoring of T. gondii in small mammals. We screened samples from 95 individuals sing PCR assays and found no T. gondii DNA. The agglutination test showed no signal. We found antibodies against T. gondii in 6 sera samples out of 74 analysed (seroprevalence = 8.11% [4.0-17.1]). Our results confirm that rodents participate in the life cycle of T. gondii as reservoirs of this parasite in the sylvatic environment. However, biomonitoring should be performed with the ELISA tests to search for T. gondii antigens, rather than a molecular approach only.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0557.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: coinfection; tick Ixodes persulcatus; virus isolate; tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV); ectromelia virus; biological properties of co-isolate; electron microscopy; south of the Russian Far East
Online: 7 June 2023 (13:14:24 CEST)
The phenomenon of pathogens co-infection detected in the half fed on humans I. persulcatus tick in the south of the Far East was studied. Researchs were carried out on PEK, Vero, Vero-E6 cell lines, outbred mice, chicken embryos, using ELISA, PCR, IMFA, plaque formation, and electron microscopy. The tick contained an antigen and a genetic marker of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The patient had post-vaccination antibodies in a titer of 1:200, as a result of which, obviously, an antibody-dependent elimination of TBEV occurred. The tick-borne co-isolate also contained an unknown pathogen (Kiparisovo-144 virus), which, in our opinion, was a trigger for the activation of chronic infection in suckling white mice. In the laboratory coisolate, ectromelia virus was present, as evidenced by paw edema during intradermal infection of mice, characteristic rashes on the chorion-allantoic envilope of chicken embryos, and typical plaques on Vero-E6. The Kiparisovo-144 virus was not pathogenic for white mice and chicken embryos, but successfully multiplied in the PEK, Vero, and Vero-E6 lines. Viral co-infection was confirmed by electron microscopy. Passaging on mice contributed to an increase in the virulence of the co-isolate, whose titer increased by 10,000 times by the 5th passage, which poses a serious epidemiological danger.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; Hyalomma marginatum; human cutaneous immune response; Langerhans cells; dermal dendritic cells; tick-borne virus; tick-virus-host interface
Online: 19 June 2018 (11:50:54 CEST)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is one the most important and wide spread tick-borne viruses. Very little is known about the transmission from the tick and the early aspects of pathogenesis. Here, we generate human cutaneous antigen presenting cells: dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells, from umbilical cord progenitor cells. In order to mimic the environment created during tick feeding, tick salivary gland extract was generated from semi-engorged Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Our findings indicate that human dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells are susceptible and permissive to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection, however, to different degrees. Infection leads to cell activation and cytokine/chemokine secretion, although these responses vary between the different cell types. Hyalomma marginatum salivary gland extract had minimal effect on cell responses, with some synergy with viral infection with respect to cytokine secretion. However, salivary gland extract appeared to inhibit antigen presenting cell (APC) migration. Based on the findings here we hypothesize that human dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells serve as early target cells. Rather affecting Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus replication, tick saliva likely immunomodulates and inhibits migration of these APC from the feeding site.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: safety of products of human origin; solid organ transplantation; hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation; West Nile virus; dengue virus; tick-borne encephalitis virus; Usutu virus; Chikungunya virus; Zika virus; mainland and overseas France
Online: 3 August 2023 (11:28:33 CEST)
Diseases caused by arboviruses are on the increase worldwide. In addition to arthropod bites, most arboviruses can be transmitted via accessory routes. Products of human origin (labile blood products, solid organs, hematopoietic stem cells, tissues) present a risk of contamination for the recipient if the donation is made when the donor is viremic. This narrative review describes the risks of acquiring certain arboviral diseases from human products, mainly solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells, in the French context. Mainland France and its overseas territories are exposed to a complex array of imported and endemic arboviruses, which differ according to their respective location. The main risks considered in this study are infections by West Nile virus, dengue virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The ancillary risks represented by Usutu virus infection, chikungunya and Zika are also addressed more briefly. For each disease, the guidelines issued by the French High Council of Public Health, which is responsible for issuing guidelines to mitigate the risks associated with products of human origin and for supporting public health policy decisions, are briefly outlined. The aim of this review is also to contribute to the standardization of recommendations at international level in areas with the same viral epidemiology.