ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; AST/ALT ratio; mortality; artificial intelligence; older people
Online: 4 March 2022 (11:17:44 CET)
Low serum alanine aminotransferase activity and high aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/ALT ratio may be associated with high mortality in older people. We aimed to confirm this in an 8-year retrospective cohort study. Clinical data for 5,958 people aged 67–104 years were analyzed for their relationships with all-cause mortality using artificial intelligence (AI; Prediction One [Sony Network Communications Inc.]) and conventional statistical analysis (SAS Enterprise Guide [SAS Institute Inc.]). In total, 1,413 (23.7%) participants died during the study. Auto-AI analysis with five rounds of cross-validation showed that AST/ALT ratio was the third largest contributor to mortality, following age and sex. Serum albumin concentration and body mass index were the fourth and fifth largest contributors, and the individual serum ALT and AST activities were the seventh and tenth largest contributors. Conventional survival analysis showed that ALT, AST, and AST/ALT ratio as continuous variables were all associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.98 (0.97–0.99), 1.02 (1.02–1.03), 1.46 (1.32–1.62), respectively; all p <0.0001). In conclusion, both AI and conventional analysis suggest that of the conventional biochemical markers, high AST/ALT ratio is most closely associated with all-cause mortality in older people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; post COVID; liver; aspartate aminotransferase; risk factors
Online: 8 February 2023 (10:47:25 CET)
The long-term laboratory aspects of the effects of COVID-19 on liver function are still not well understood. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatic clinical-laboratory profile of patients with up to 20 months of long-term COVID-19. A total of 243 patients of both sexes aged 18 years or older hospitalised in the acute phase of COVID-19 were included in this study. Liver function analysis was performed. Changes were identified in the mean levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and ferritin. Inflammatory markers such as ferritin > 300 U/L were observed in the group that presented more changes in liver function markers (ALT, AST, and GGT). Age ≥ 60 years, male sex, AST > 25 U/L, and GGT ≥ 50 or 32 U/L were associated with ALT > 29 U/L. There was a correlation between ALT and AST, LDH, GGT, and ferritin. Our findings suggest that ALT and AST levels may be elevated in patients with long-term COVID, especially in those hospitalised in the acute phase. In addition, ALT > 29 U/L was associated with other markers of liver injury, such as LDH, GGT, and ferritin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cytomegalovirus; alanine transaminase; aspartate transaminase alkaline phosphatase; γ-glutamyltranspeptidase; liver function
Online: 5 December 2016 (11:08:57 CET)
Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major pathogen that cause remarkable rate of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. It is important to find risk factors associated with CMV viremia. We studied the differences in CMV seropositivity in relation to liver function biomarkers in male and female Saudi population in an attempt to understand the variation in the CMV seroprevalence with sex and find the risk factor to develop liver dysfunction or hepatocellular carcinoma. Material and subjects: The CMV- IgG and IgM were screened in serum samples of 150 non- A-G hepatities patients with elevation of liver profiles (ALT, AST, ALP and GGT) and categorized as males and females. Samples were collected from different general hospitals and polyclinic in KSA from March 2014 to June 2015. A correlation between CMV seropositivity measured with both antibodies and liver enzymes were tested. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and multiple regressions were done for the obtained data. Results: Our study shows that females had much higher IgG and IgM compared to age-matching males. A significant correlation between both antibodies and liver enzymes (AST, ALT) was recorded. Less significant correlation of both IgG and IgM with GGT was also observed. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed that both IgG and IgM can be used as excellent predictive markers for CMV infection as both recorded 100% specificity and sensitivity together with area under the curve of 1 in males and females. Multiple regression analysis ascertain the correlation between both antibodies as dependent variables and liver enzymes as independent variables with ALT being the most affected enzyme with CMV seropositivity especially in females. Conclusion:he data discussed above This study shows that CMV is capable of initiating and accelerating liver dysfunction in both sexes. The high seroprevalence in females at reproductive age is especially important as they can transmit the virus to their developing fetus. Prevention of CMV infection in young girls 11-14 years old, through counseling on hygiene or possible future vaccination, may lead to a decrease of congenital CMV infections with the concomitant risk of developing liver dysfunction or hepatocellular carcinoma. Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase Alkaline phosphatase, γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase, liver function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: SLC25A13; amino acid ratio; citrullinemia; latent liver dysfunction; mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier
Online: 26 December 2017 (10:18:45 CET)
Citrullinemia is the earliest identifiable biochemical abnormality in neonates with intrahepatic cholestasis due to a citrin deficiency (NICCD) and it has been included in newborn screening panels using tandem mass spectrometry. However, only one neonate was positive among 600,000 infants born in Sapporo city and Hokkaido, Japan between 2006 and 2017. We investigated 12 neonates with NICCD who were initially considered normal in newborn mass screening (NBS) by tandem mass spectrometry, but were later diagnosed with NICCD by DNA tests. Using their initial NBS data, we examined citrulline concentrations and ratios of citrulline to total amino acids. Although their citrulline values exceeded the mean of the normal neonates and 80 % of them surpassed +3SD, all were below the cutoff of 40 nmol/mL. The ratios of citrulline to total amino acids significantly elevated in patients with NICCD compared to the control. By evaluating two indicators simultaneously, we could select about 80% of patients with missed NICCD. Introducing an estimated index comprising citrulline values and citrulline to total amino acid ratios could assure NICCD detection by NBS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0277.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: energy metabolism; oligodendrocyte; oligodendrocyte progenitor cell; myelin; remyelination; multiple sclerosis; glucose; ketone bodies; lactate; N-acetyl aspartate; demyelination
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:57:28 CET)
Central nervous system (CNS) myelin has a crucial role in accelerating the propagation of action potentials and providing trophic support to the axons. Defective myelination and lack of myelin regeneration following demyelination can both lead to axonal pathology and neurodegeneration. Energy deficit has been evoked as an important contributor to various CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). This suggests that dysregulation of energy homeostasis in oligodendroglia may be an important contributor to myelin dysfunction and lack of repair observed in the disease. This article will focus on energy metabolism pathways in oligodendroglial cells and highlight differences dependent on the maturation stage of the cell. In addition, it will emphasize that the use of alternative energy sources by oligodendroglia may be required to save glucose for functions that cannot be fulfilled by other metabolites, thus ensuring sufficient energy input for both myelin synthesis and trophic support to the axons. Finally, it will point out that neuropathological findings in a subtype of MS lesions likely reflect defective oligodendroglial energy homeostasis in the disease.