REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: medical writing; research communication; biomedical publications; teaching; medical education; article introduction; faculty training; early-career researchers; medical authorship
Online: 10 December 2021 (15:01:35 CET)
Skilled academic/medical writing is critical to research communication. The fundamental sections of a scholarly manuscript are introduction, methods, results and discussion. The introduction of a medical manuscript is aimed at briefing readers on the clinical extent and public health context of the research problem. It must justify the essentialness of the research to the scientific community and reveal any underlying research novelty. Skillfully conceived, designed and performed research protocols that are unskillfully presented can lose scientific credibility and impact. Without research communication skills authors would not be able to display the usefulness of their research for the scientific community. Generally, research communication or medical writing training/skills is underrepresented in curricular systems of medical schools globally. This can challenge publication quality and quantity of early-career authors/researchers. The author presents the academic experience he accumulated through peer review and supervision of vast manuscripts and theses. This article aimed at presenting a comprehensive roadmap for academic writing of the introduction and at identifying its common pitfalls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1722.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Research impact; engineering; Mexico; article citation analysis
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:11:55 CEST)
Engineers make things, make things work, and make things work better and easier. This kind of knowledge is crucial for innovation, and much of the explicit knowledge developed by engineers is embodied in scientific publications. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of publications and citations in Engineering in a middle-income country such as Mexico. Using a database of all Mexican publications in Web of Science from 2004 to 2017, we explore the characteristics of publications that tend to have the greatest impact; this is the highest number of citations. Among the variables studied are the type of collaboration (no collaboration, domestic, bilateral, or multilateral), the number of coauthors and countries, the language of the article, controlling for a coauthor from the USA and the affiliation institution of the Mexican author(s). Our results emphasize the overall importance of joint international efforts and suggest that publications with the highest number of citations are those with multinational collaboration (coauthors from three or more countries), written in English, and when one of the coauthors is from the USA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0648.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: open access; article processing charges; monitoring systems
Online: 28 June 2021 (12:33:05 CEST)
The Open Access (OA) publishing model that is based on article processing charges (APC) is often associated with the potential for more transparency regarding the expenditures for publications. However, the extent to which transparency can be achieved depends not least on the completeness of data in APC monitoring systems. This article investigates two blind spots of the largest collection of APC payment information, OpenAPC. It aims to identify likely APC-liable publications for German universities that contribute to this system and for those that do not provide data to it. The calculation combines data from Web of Science, the ISSN-Gold-OA-list and OpenAPC. The results show that for the group of universities contributing to the monitoring system, more than half of the APC payments are not covered by it and the average payments for non-covered APCs is higher than for APCs covered by the system. In addition, the group of universities that does not contribute to OpenAPC accounts for two thirds of the number of APC-liable publications recorded for contributing universities. Regarding the size of these blind spots, the value of the monitoring system is limited at present.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0373.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: review; article; perception; practice; challenge; design; methodology; findings
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:32:03 CEST)
This review paper aimed at reviewing English language teaching articles on EFL teachers’ perceptions, practices and challenges towards communicative language teaching. In this review, two ELT articles, which have been conducted on teachers’ perceptions, practices and challenges towards communicative language teaching in EFL classes, were reviewed in detail. While reviewing the articles, the researcher adapted Rideley’s (2008) checklist to evaluate elements of article. Thus, articles were reviewed by focusing on the title, abstract, introduction, research questions, objectives, research design, participants, sample and sampling techniques, data collecting instruments, methods of data analyses, findings and references based on the checklist provided above. The review revealed that the articles had clear objectives, researchable questions, appropriate methods and inevitable conclusions. They tried to answer the questions which were raised in each article, and the objectives went along with the overall research findings. The review, on the other hand, revealed that the participants in the articles were not representative so as to conclude and generalize the overall population by taking only few participants which were selected even by using non probability sampling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0092.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate clubs; Article 6 of the Paris Agreement; assetization; effort-sharing; joint certification mechanism; carbon neutrality
Online: 5 October 2021 (16:04:49 CEST)
Recent times have witnessed an increasing number of countries and private firms pledging carbon neutrality by mid-century. Whilst representing a significant improvement in intentions to tackle climate change, such pledges lack substance and structure. For instance, individual pledges lack coordination and aggregation among peers, while strategies and measures to achieve ambitious targets are largely absent. Moreover, current disagreements obstructing progress in international climate change negotiations further undermine the reliability of carbon neutrality objectives. Effective international policies are needed to foster aggregate mitigation ambitions and the creation of adequate supporting mechanisms. This theoretical paper describes a governance innovation aimed at overcoming such shortfalls and disagreements through a unifying yet customizable pathway towards carbon neutrality. It does so by first outlining a political governance framework based on a climate club interpretation of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. Secondly, it proposes carbon emission mitigation effort sharing on a per capita basis to ensure efficiency, equity and political feasibility. Thirdly, this paper describes how the supply of certified mitigations of carbon emissions required to satisfy effort sharing-based demand can be assetized as carbon credits by operationalizing Article 6 as a joint certification mechanism. The resulting governance architecture for managing demand and supply of mitigations shifts efforts to tackle climate change from a ‘problem-driven’ cost approach to ‘opportunity-driven’ value creation pathways towards carbon neutrality.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Reproducibility, Mathematical Modeling, Multiscale Modeling, Translational Research, Biomedical Research, Experimental Biology, Clinical Research Article Type: Essay
Online: 23 May 2018 (16:18:52 CEST)
The “Crisis of Reproducibility” has received considerable attention both within the scientific community and without. While factors associated with scientific culture and practical practice are most often invoked, I propose that the Crisis of Reproducibility is ultimately a failure of generalization with a fundamental scientific basis in the methods used for biomedical research. The Denominator Problem describes how limitations intrinsic to the two primary approaches of biomedical research, clinical studies and pre-clinical experimental biology, lead to an inability to effectively characterize the full extent of biological heterogeneity, which compromises the task of generalizing acquired knowledge. Drawing on the example of the unifying role of theory in the physical sciences, I propose that multi-scale mathematical and dynamic computational models, when mapped to the modular structure of biological systems, can serve a unifying role as formal representations of what is conserved and similar from one biological context to another. This ability to explicitly describe the generation of heterogeneity from similarity addresses the Denominator Problem and provides a scientific response to the Crisis of Reproducibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2137.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Cancer; tobacco use; neurobiology of nicotine dependence; nicotine addiction; tobacco use treatment; smoking cessation; literature review article
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:50:24 CEST)
The prolonged exposure to nicotine and the development of nicotine dependence have significant implications for cancer risk. Tobacco use, driven by nicotine addiction, is a major contributing factor to the development of various types of cancer. Smoking tobacco, in particular, has been strongly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, as well as other malignancies. The harmful chemicals present in tobacco products, including carcinogens, can cause DNA damage and promote the initiation and progression of cancerous cells. This article presents a comprehensive literature review on the neurobiology of nicotine dependence and its implications for tobacco use treatment. Nicotine dependence is a complex phenomenon involving various neurobiological mechanisms. When nicotine enters the body, it binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain's reward circuitry, triggering the release of neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Over time, repeated nicotine exposure leads to neuroadaptive changes in the brain, resulting in increased motivation to seek and use the drug. Understanding the neurobiology of nicotine dependence is crucial for developing effective treatment strategies. Pharmacological interventions, such as nicotine replacement therapy and medications like bupropion and varenicline, can help individuals manage cravings and withdrawal symptoms. Additionally, behavioral therapies and counseling play a vital role in enhancing self-efficacy and providing support for smoking cessation efforts. By reviewing the existing literature, this article sheds light on the intricate neural pathways and processes involved in nicotine addiction. It emphasizes the importance of a multidimensional approach that combines pharmacological treatments and behavioral interventions to address the physiological and psychological aspects of nicotine dependence. This knowledge can inform the development of more targeted and personalized treatment approaches to help individuals overcome tobacco addiction and improve their chances of successful smoking cessation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; SNP; genetic diversity; population differentiation (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
Online: 31 May 2023 (13:23:36 CEST)
Hubei, Hunan and Henan Provinces are located in Central China, a region with extensive transport networks and trade. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease, is spreads mainly through human activities. In order to further understand the genetic structure of PWN in Central China, we studied the genetic information of PWN populations in this region and compared the genetic relationship with strains from Guangdong and Jiangsu provinces. We found that the HB (Hubei) 15, HEN (Henan) 20, HN (Hunan) 07, HN08 and HN10 had significantly more SNPs and homozygotes than other strains from Central China, and their most frequent mutant genotypes also differed from other strains. The clustering results indicated that HB15, HEN 20, HN07, HN08 and HN10 were genetically distinct from other strains and closely related to Guangdong strains. We also observed significant genetic variation among strains in Henan province, suggesting that some of them might have different transmission sources than those from Hubei and Hunan provinces. The results provide a basis for tracing the origin and spread of PWD in China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0487.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Immunology; innate immunity; immunogenetics; noncoding genome; tRNA biology; evolutionary genetics (list 3-10 specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline)
Online: 1 November 2022 (09:55:10 CET)
During the past few years unexpected developments have driven studies in the field of clinical immunology. One driver of immense impact was the outbreak of a pandemic caused by the novel virus SARS-CoV-2. Excellent recent reviews address diverse aspects of immunological re-search into cardiovascular diseases. Here, we specifically focus on selected studies taking ad-vantage of advanced state-of-the-art molecular genetic methods ranging from genome-wide epi/transcriptome mapping and variant scanning to optogenetics and chemogenetics. First, we discuss emerging clinical relevance of advanced diagnostics for cardiovascular diseases - includ-ing those associated with COVID-19 - with a focus on the role of inflammation in cardiomyopa-thies and arrhythmias. Second, we consider newly identified immunological interactions at or-gan and systems level which affect cardiovascular pathogenesis. Thus, studies into immune in-fluences arising from the intestinal system are moving towards therapeutic exploitation. Fur-ther, powerful new research tools have enabled novel insight into brain – immune system inter-actions at unprecedented resolution. This latter line of investigation emphasizes the strength of influence of emotional stress - acting through defined brain regions - upon viral and cardiovas-cular disorders. Several challenges need to be overcome before the full impact of these far-reaching new findings will hit the clinical arena.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0989.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Whole genome duplication; tetraploidy; polyploidy; aneuploidy; Caenorhabditis; WGD model (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
Online: 26 April 2023 (12:43:20 CEST)
Whole genome duplication (WGD) or polyploidization can occur at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels. At the cellular level, tetraploidization has been proposed as a driver of aneuploidy and genome instability, and correlates strongly with cancer progression, metastasis, and development of drugs resistance[1–6]. WGD is also a key developmental strategy for regulating cell size, metabolism, and cellular function[1,7–10]. In specific tissues, WGD is involved in normal development (e.g. organogenesis), tissue homeostasis, wound healing, and regeneration[10–17]. At the organismal level, WGD propels evolutionary processes such as adaptation, speciation, and crop domestication. An essential strategy to further our understanding of the mechanisms promoting WGD and its effects is to compare isogenic strains that differ only in their ploidy. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is emerging as an animal model for these comparisons, in part because relatively stable and fertile tetraploid strains can be produced rapidly from nearly any diploid strain. Here we review the use of Caenorhabditis polyploids as tools to understand important developmental processes (e.g. sex determination, dosage compensation, and allometric relationships)[21–27] and cellular processes (e.g. cell cycle regulation, chromosome dynamics during meiosis)[28–32]. We also discuss how the unique characteristics of the C. elegans WGD model will enable significant advances in our understanding of mechanisms of polyploidization and its role in development and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0549.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: vibration suppression; topology optimization; band gaps; Bloch theory; finite element analysis (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article; yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
Online: 20 November 2020 (16:35:21 CET)
Vibration suppression in a field of frequencies and the creation of band gaps which do not allow the propagation of the waves is studied in this paper by means of microstructures designed through topology optimization. Topology optimization is formulated in frequency domain. Band gap design is based on Floquet-Bloch theory and genetic optimization. The result is appealing in view of modern 3D printing techniques.