ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0482.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Geological Astroikos; Astroikos; Space Architecture; Planetary Architecture; Architecture; Geological Habitats; Habitats;
Online: 25 September 2018 (09:21:41 CEST)
To establish a human colony in a planetary body different from the terrestrial one, will entail to join those factors that can favour the good development of life in that place. However, which of these possible parameters can be categorized as essential when referring to the creation of a shelter for a long stay? Human beings, willing to abandon their natural environment in order to open new extra-terrestrial settlements for present and future generations, have to stay long hours cloistered in a volume built in a quite hostile environment a priori. They deserve to find a habitat which not only makes them feel protected, with the tranquillity and comfort that entails, but also provides an environment capable to transmit desire to live and be. Astroikos. Term whose suffix Oikos ("house", in Greek) defines in classical antiquity the set of goods and people that constituted the basic unit of society, allows us to identify the new planetary habitat as the possible refuge of a multidisciplinary team of astronauts aiming at colonizing other worlds. This would be based on four fundamental pillars: 1. The humanization of Space Architecture. 2. The possibility of the use of indigenous materials, resources and natural geological structures, as well as the recycling of elements of space vehicles. 3. Self-construction. 4. Security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0050.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Chinese architecture; standardization; environmental architecture; Beijing urban layout
Online: 4 April 2018 (06:20:50 CEST)
A correlation between Chinese traditional architecture and cultural concepts has been established to analyze the formalization of architectural and urban patterns in relation to environmental features. In this regard, we have discussed the process of standardization from architectural elements or modules related in different levels of composition and articulated around empty spaces following ancient cosmic concepts to achieve harmony with nature. The conclusions show that Chinese architectural patterns can only be understood in relation to nature, and in turn have profound environmental values from which lessons can be learned to advance towards a more sustainable architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0092.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: complex network; neural network architecture; isotropic architecture; image classification
Online: 8 October 2022 (04:04:47 CEST)
Although neural network architectures are critical for their performance, how the structural characteristics of a neural network affect its performance has still not been fully explored. We here map architectures of neural network to directed acyclic graphs, and find that incoherence, a structural characteristic to measure the order of directed acyclic graphs, is a good indicator for the performance of corresponding neural networks. Therefore we propose a deep isotropic neural network architecture by folding a chain of same blocks then connecting the blocks with skip connections at different distances. Our models, named FoldNet, have two distinguishing features compared with traditional residual neural netowrks. First, the distances between block pairs connected by skip connections increase from always equal to one to specially selected different values, which lead to more incoherent graphs and let the neural network explore larger receptive fields and thus enhance its multi-scale representation ability. Second, the number of direct paths increases from one to multiple, which leads to a larger proportion of shorter paths and thus improve the direct propagation of information throughout the entire network. Image classification results on CIFAR-10 and Tiny ImageNet benchmarks suggested that our new network architecture performs better than traditional residual neural networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0645.v1
Online: 23 April 2021 (17:49:48 CEST)
The balance between theory and practice in architectural education is a permanent element of the discussion on teaching architecture. The article discusses the method of implementation of practical knowledge of the architectural profession at Poland’s largest department of architecture – Cracow University of Technology. Showing the subsequent stages of the education process on the way to obtaining authorization to independent design in Poland. Against this background, the didactic methods used in the initially experimental subject and now regular one taught at the Faculty of Architecture of the Technical University of Cracow together with the Chamber of Architects of the Republic of Poland since 2018 are discussed. The results of this collaboration and the didactic effects are discussed. The experience of adapting methods for remote education in connection with the pandemic of Covid-19 is also presented. In conclusion, because of the obtained results in response to the legal changes introduced by the State, the proposed new model of professional practice is discussed which, in the coming years, will cover all architecture universities in Poland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0081.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Burkina Faso; vernacular architecture; thermal performance; sustainable architecture; physical testing-mockups
Online: 2 May 2023 (10:53:56 CEST)
Burkina Faso is a sub-Saharan African country with a high poverty rate that has quadruplicated its population in the last half fifty years, that is, from 4.5 to 18 million inhabitants. Such demographic changes together with an intense migration process from rural areas to large cities, among other issues, are contributing to a rapid process of socio-cultural transformation. In this context, changes in both traditional and contemporary housing are analyzed and a complete ther-mo-hygrometric evaluation is carried out by processing significant data from on-site measure-ments to shed new light on the response of the said dwellings to the environmental and local cultural values. Results show that the introduction of land ownership linked to climate change and the increasing scarcity of natural resources are forcing native ethnic groups to modify their traditional ways of life, threatening their subsistence. Consequently, we can prove that the new building typologies are not in the least suitable for the climatic conditions nor the rich cultural heritage of Burkina Faso. This fact, negatively affects the possibility of revitalizing vernacular and environmentally-oriented solutions for the contemporary world and the necessary advance to-wards a more sustainable architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0712.v1
Online: 29 June 2021 (15:22:38 CEST)
A university campus is a place full of memorable experiences and a sense of place. It is an environment that potentially creates a social and intellectual exchange of ideas and brings together diverse people. Campus planning is one essential need for any higher institution and is an instrument used for directing, promoting, and securing orderly physical development of an institution Campus planning present unique opportunities for demonstrating and popularizing contemporary tendencies in urban planning. The purpose of this study is to explore the overall concepts of the campus planning and architecture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (Knust) And University of Ghana (Legon). The Study was based mainly on two methods; Documentary research and qualitative Observation to have in depth knowledge about the campuses. Through field observation, the study was limited to the spatial organization and planning, site layout and master planning, land use, use of space, and architectural details. The study adopts A Comparative Analysis Approach and found out that Campus Planning Concept varies and unique to campuses and in developing a campus plan, it involves a time-consuming dynamic process and besides, there are neither shortcuts nor one approach or generic solution to that. The study also revealed that Iconic and unique buildings are usually found on university campuses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0145.v1
Online: 4 September 2023 (08:07:08 CEST)
This research paper aims to unveil the splendor of the diverse architectural heritage of Lahore, one of the most culturally, ethnically and traditionally rich cities in the Indian subcontinent. Lahore is renowned for its Mughal-era grandeurs, British monuments and historic architecture which is meticulously embellished by a unique amalgamation of Islamic, Persian, and Indian architectural styles. The paper discusses some of the most significant historical buildings in Lahore, including the Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, and traces their architectural evolution over time.The research also highlights the unprecedented challenges faced by Lahore’s architectural heritage in terms of preservation and its potential by which Lahore could emerge as a tourist attractive city. Due to less proper maintenance, a plethora of Lahore’s historical buildings are deteriorating rapidly. The paper outlines some of the measures that could be taken by the government and NGOs to restore a myriad of these buildings, including the formation of conservation boards and the enforcement of strict laws.Through a detailed and thorough analysis of the structural heritage of Lahore, this research paper calls on the need for greater restoration awareness and appreciation of the city’s mesmerizing historical marvels. The paper concludes that while there are significant challenges in conserving Lahore’s architectural heritage, concerted efforts by the government and the individuals can aid to safeguard these treasures for future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0173.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: renaissance; architecture; duomo; Leonardo; Bramante
Online: 16 April 2018 (05:15:25 CEST)
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) is considered one of the greatest geniuses of the Renaissance. His studies developed advanced ideas for his time, even in its most unknown aspects, such as: architecture, urban planning and restoration. He never studied formally, but he learned everything due to his method of observation, the study of other treatises and especially the group of artists with whom he collaborated. After the study of its codices a great interest and knowledge is detected, related to the design, the structural calculation, the materials and the constructive systems, in such a way that their proposals influenced the architecture of the Renaissance, through the work of other authors of your time. The purpose of this article is to make a critical analysis of its excellent architectural proposal in the cupola of the Duomo of Milan and the reasons why it was not carried out under its name. This proposal is included within a discipline in which it has never been recognized as such, but which demonstrated the same qualities as in other fields where it is recognized prestigiously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0358.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: parametric design, paper in architecture, temporary architecture, pop-up structures, membrane structures, isogeometric analysis, fabrication
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:17:11 CEST)
Temporary pavilions play an important role as experimental fields for architects, designers and engineers, apart from providing exhibition spaces. Novel structural and formal solutions applied in pavilions also can give them unusual appearance that attracts eyesight of spectators. In this article authors explore the possibility of combination of structural novelty, visual attractiveness and low-cost by a design and construction of a temporary pavilion. For that purpose, an innovative structural system and design approach was applied, i.e. membrane structure designed in Rhino and Grasshopper environments with the use of Kiwi!3D IsoGeometric analysis tool. The designed pavilion, named Obverse/Reverse, was built in Opole, Poland, for the occasion of World Architecture Day in July 2019. Design and construction was performed by the authors in cooperation with students’ organisation Humanisation of Urban Environment from the Faculty of Architecture Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. The Rresultant pavilion proved the possibility of obtaining a low-budgets but visually attractive architectural solution with the adaption of parametrical design tools and some scientific background with innovative structural systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0480.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: architecture; sustainability; sustainable development; sustainable design
Online: 25 November 2021 (14:43:15 CET)
Sustainability is a concept shrouded in abstraction. While we have definitions in existence, it is often difficult to explain the concept itself. The current definition of ‘sustainable development’ was given by the Brundtland Commission’s report in 1987. The Earth Summit at Rio in 1992 gave us Agenda 21, an action plan to achieve sustainable development. Now in the 21st century, philosophers, academicians, and researchers across the globe are paving the way for a new understanding of the term ‘sustainability’, its contextual nature, and its relation to humans, politics, and ecology. This article investigates the origins of the term ‘sustainability’, its derivatives, and the concept of sustainable development. A semantical analysis is carried out to understand the differences between ‘sustainability’ and ‘sustainable development’. Next, the development of the three pillars of sustainability and the application of these concepts in the field of architecture and design is also investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0201.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: genetic architecture; Africa; GWAS; health disparities
Online: 13 June 2018 (11:17:04 CEST)
Human genetic studies have long been vastly Eurocentric, raising a key question about the generalizability of these study findings to other populations. Because humans originated in Africa, these populations retain more genetic diversity, and yet individuals of African descent have been tremendously underrepresented in genetic studies. The diversity in Africa affords ample opportunities to improve fine-mapping resolution for associated loci, discover novel genetic associations with phenotypes, build more generalizable genetic risk prediction models, and better understand the genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases subject to varying environmental pressures. Thus, it is both ethically and scientifically imperative that geneticists globally surmount challenges that have limited progress in African genetic studies to date while meaningfully including African investigators, as greater inclusivity and enhanced research capacity affords enormous opportunities to accelerate genomic discoveries that translate more effectively to all populations. We review the advantages and challenges of studying the genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases in Africa. For example, with greater genetic diversity comes greater ancestral heterogeneity; this higher level of understudied diversity can yield novel genetic findings, but some methods that assume homogeneous population structure and work well in European populations may work less well in the presence of greater diversity and heterogeneity in African populations. Consequently, we advocate for methodological development that will accelerate studies important for all populations, especially those currently underrepresented in genetics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1761.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: reused wood; building construction; architecture; circular construction
Online: 27 October 2023 (06:52:16 CEST)
This study explores the perspectives and practices of architects regarding the reuse of wood in construction across five South-Central European countries: Slovenia, Serbia, North Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), and Montenegro. Based on a survey of architectural professionals, the research explores their attitudes, challenges, and motivations for using reclaimed wood, with a focus on circular construction principles. Key findings reveal unanimous agreement among re-spondents that both their profession and government entities inadequately support or promote wood reuse within the context of circular construction. While architects value reclaimed wood, there are country-specific variations. Environmental benefits, unique aesthetics, historical value, and sustainability are cited as primary motivators for reclaimed wood use. Additionally, re-spondents emphasize the ecological aspect as the most important consideration in wood product reuse, followed by economic and technological factors. Common concerns revolve around the long-term quality and maintenance of wood products. This research provides insights into the challenges and opportunities surrounding reclaimed wood use in South-Central Europe, high-lighting the need for support mechanisms and increased awareness to advance circular construc-tion practices in the region. These findings can have implications for architects and investors by identifying market opportunities, promoting eco-friendly practices, and providing valuable in-sights for future building designs with a focus on reclaimed wood elements within circular con-struction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0345.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: neural architecture search; machine learning; computer vision
Online: 29 March 2023 (02:14:14 CEST)
Existing one-shot neural architecture search (NAS) methods have to conduct a search over a giant super-net, which leads to the huge computational cost. To reduce such cost, in this paper, we propose a method, called FTSO, to divide the whole architecture search into two sub-steps. Specifically, in the first step, we only search for the topology, and in the second step, we search for the operators. FTSO not only reduces NAS’s search time from days to 0.68 seconds, but also significantly improves the found architecture's accuracy. Our extensive experiments on ImageNet show that within 18 seconds, FTSO can achieve a 76.4% testing accuracy, 1.5% higher than the SOTA, PC-DARTS. In addition, FTSO can reach a 97.77% testing accuracy, 0.27% higher than the SOTA, with nearly 100% (99.8%) search time saved, when searching on CIFAR10.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0268.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: heritage; conservation; sustainability; monastic spaces; religious architecture.
Online: 19 January 2022 (10:16:52 CET)
The different technical and legal tools intended for heritage protection have introduced the novel possibility of enjoying important monumental complexes. The divergence lies in the artistic contexts in which, due to the genesis of their programmatic typology, they require residential uses, as is the case of monasteries. This article collects the results of a long-span research, whose main objective has been to find a tool that could allow us to measure different indicators on a continuous basis in which both the protection of the elements, and the capacity for habitation, are safeguarded. To this aim we have set in context the research at the Monastery of Santa Clara de la Columna in Belalcázar (Córdoba), a location with the highest possible heritage protection of Spanish ranking which, in turn, accommodates a religious community. The results have allowed us to design innovative parameters for habitation, within a protected and endangered heritage context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Traditional settlement; Vernacular architecture; Manipuri Community; Sylhet
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:56 CET)
This study intends to study a distinct typology of vernacular architecture built by the Manipuri communities of Bangladesh. The Manipuris are one of the ethnic diasporic communities in Bangladesh commonly known for their diverse cultural practice, including their dance form. This research aims to reveal the cultural entity of Manipuri that has been transformed into their living environment and household architecture. Architectural elements adapted by the Manipuris are assessed here as a part of cultural symbols to have a rigorous view of the philosophy of living. This study is a documentation of Manipuri habitat culture through the intervention of their living environment, which will attract any future working on this issue. This research shows that despite a rapid socio-economic change of context, the Manipuri housing practice is deeply connected to their socio-cultural and religious values. As the authors used an observational and ethnographical approach to studying vernacular architecture for this research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: γtubulin; nuclear architecture; cytoskeleton; nuclearskeleton; cancer; differentiation
Online: 5 October 2020 (09:16:02 CEST)
The nuclear architecture describes the organization of the various compartments in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where a plethora of processes such as nucleocytoplasmic transport, gene expression, and assembly of ribosomal subunits occur in a dynamic manner. During the different phases of the cell cycle, in post-mitotic cells and after oncogenic transformation, rearrangements of the nuclear architecture take place, and, among other things, these alterations result in reorganization of the chromatin and changes in gene expression. A member of the tubulin family, tubulin, was first identified as part of a multiprotein complex that allows nucleation of microtubules. However, more than a decade ago, γ tubulin was also characterized as a nuclear protein that modulates several crucial processes that affect the architecture of the nucleus. This review presents the latest knowledge regarding changes that arise in the nuclear architecture of healthy cells and under pathological conditions and, more specifically, considers the particular involvement of tubulin in the modulation of the biology of the nuclear compartment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0388.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: stair climbing; behavior change; architecture; environmental design
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:10:26 CEST)
Innovative interventions in the planning and design of stair and escalator facilities call for understanding their effects on stair use. This study considers five planning variables for the twinned stair and escalator facilities–stair pitch and width, angle of deviation, height and separating distance. Public sites were identified in 8 commercial districts in Beijing. Facilities (n=21) presenting heterogeneously across variables were sampled for simultaneous up and down pedestrian counts in 18 5-minute video segments middays, for a total of 1464 counts. Stair width accounts for 20% of the variance in ascending rate and 10% in descending. Plan angle accounts for 2% in ascending and 5% in descending, while pitch accounts for 1% in ascending and 5% in descending. The study confirms the effects of layout and design of stairway and escalator facilities on facility choice. The results point directly to interventions in support of higher stair-climbing rates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0096.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: IIoT; cloud computing; fog computing; reliability; architecture.
Online: 7 March 2019 (12:44:18 CET)
Reliability is essential in industrial networks. In addition, most of the data from nodes of industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) are generated in real time. Thus, those data are mainly used for the time-sensitive applications. Furthermore, device failures should be considered when modeling reliable fog computing for IIoT. In this paper, we provide fundamental aspects to model reliable fog computing for IIoT. First, existing models of fog computing are compared. Then, the most feasible communication type to achieve a reliable system is determined from model analysis. Interaction modes are elaborated to study the advantages and drawbacks when communication is deployed in fog computing for IIoT, and challenges and solutions for reliable fog computing are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0138.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Raul Lino, architecture, city, circumstance, modernity, continuity
Online: 18 February 2019 (09:54:25 CET)
Over a period of nearly one hundred years, Raul Lino da Silva (1879-1974) experienced the profound political, social and economic changes that marked the twentieth century in Portugal. Having been born during the Constitutional Monarchy (1822-1910), he lived through the First Republic (1910-1926), the Military Dictatorship (1926-1933) and the Second Republic, or Estado Novo (New State, 1933-1974), and died shortly after the Carnation Revolution of 25 April 1974, at the dawning of the Third Republic. Raul Lino was the architect who published the most in Portugal, having become known through his advocacy of the “Campanha da casa portuguesa” (“Portuguese house campaign”), which provoked a great deal of controversy among his peers. He is less known for the transversal quality of his synthesis between architecture, the decorative arts and territory, and its underlying affirmation of an idea of the city, which we conjecture from a diagonal reading of his theoretical and plastic narrative. We limit the analysis to the first half of the 20th century, concentrating on ten case studies, that encompass architectural projects, urbanistic plans and reports. The above expound the broad conception which he defended in the same year as was held the First National Architecture Congress (1948), whose proposals ratified in Portugal the orthodoxy established in 1933 by the International Congresses of Modern Architecture (CIAM). Quoting Aristotle Raul Lino conceived the city as the locus of happiness, shaping the possibilities of consensus between tradition and modernity by means of architecture, which is both envelope and stage for our collective existence. In fact, Raul Lino anticipated themes to be found in the narratives of authors like Aldo Rossi (1966), Paul Virilio (2004, 2009) or Peter Zumthor (2006), and his thought proves particularly relevant and timely in the present day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0071.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: history of architecture; architectural models; architectural media
Online: 12 December 2017 (07:05:09 CET)
Architecture is more than just buildings. Its associated production and reception processes take place through a variety of different media. Among those media, the model is of special significance: because architecture, like almost every science or art, works with models as representationally or theoretically simplified images mediating between the abstract and the reality. The properties that characterise models give them a special significance in architecture—both in the abstract, as well as in the concrete. The following article sketches out the history of the architectural model as a medium in a short tour d’horizon. A special focus is placed on showing the versatility of the model—for design and presentation and as an artefact, teaching resource and research medium. It transmits a specific form of knowledge which can be replaced by no other medium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0659.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Digital Twin; Smart City; Interoperability; High-Level Architecture
Online: 11 October 2023 (03:32:37 CEST)
Infrastructure and urban network operators, city users and industrialists are faced with complex issues to ensure the sustainability of the service, maintain, operate and develop their urban systems, while integrating environmental, economic and societal impacts and being resilient to unexpected geopolitical and climatic upheavals. Digital Twins are now recognized as the cornerstone of digital transformation. In the field of smart cities, they can enable all stakeholders to collaborate across disciplinary silos and foster digital transformation in urban and territorial projects to ensure sustainability, resilience and increased inventiveness. However, the application of the Digital Twin technology to Smart Cities lacks of standards. This paper proposes a high-level architecture for Digital Twins as an enabler of various levels of interoperation between key stakeholders of a Smart City. Such a technology-agnostic architecture, when implemented for a given Smart City, produces a middleware for large scale interoperability between actors involved in multiple supply chains of this territory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: machine learning; LSTM+1DCNN architecture; neural network; torque
Online: 2 August 2023 (05:15:15 CEST)
: Innovative solutions are now being researched to manage the ever-increasing amount of data required to optimize the performance of internal combustion engines. Machine Learning ap-proaches have shown to be a valuable tool for signal prediction due to their real-time and cost-effective deployment. Among them, the architecture consisting of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and one-dimensional Convolutional Neural Networks (1DCNN) has emerged as a highly promising and effective option for replacing the role of physical sensors. The architecture com-bines the capacity of LSTM to detect patterns and relationships in smaller segments of the signal with the ability of 1DCNN to detect patterns and relationships in larger segments of the signal. The purpose of this work is to assess the feasibility of substituting a physical device dedicated to calculating the torque supplied by a spark-ignition engine. The suggested architecture was trained and tested using signals from the field during a test campaign conducted under transient operating conditions. The results reveal that LSTM+1DCNN is particularly well suited for signal prediction with considerable variability. It constantly outperforms other architectures used for comparison, with average error percentages of less than 2%, proving the architecture's ability to replace physical sensors.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0306.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: ideal plant architecture; food-nutritional security; climate change
Online: 24 June 2020 (18:12:06 CEST)
Crop domestication and breeding considerably increased productivity over centuries, but simultaneously involved unconscious selection against ‘selfish plant behavior’. Paradoxically, modern-day crop breeding largely enhances individual plant-fitness. As agriculture relies on community performance, embracing an “Agroecological Genetics and Genomics” viewpoint might maximize communal yield by matching crop genotypes to target environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain architecture; green-field strategic engi-neering
Online: 10 April 2019 (08:49:58 CEST)
This paper developed a new theory for supply chain architecture, and engineering design that enables integration of the business and supply chain strategies. The architecture starts with individual supply chain participants and derives insights into the complex and abstract concept of green-field integration design. The paper presented a conceptual system for depicting the interactions between business and supply chain strategy engineering. The system examines the decisions made when engineering the business strategy, with regards to the supply chain design. The system derived with a new understanding of how strategies are integrated, and what are the implications for engineering successful strategies. The study revealed that supply chain design is not considered in great detail before architecting the business strategies. Thus, companies consequentially experience supply chain problems that are likely to be detrimental to the growth potentials. The paper also derived with the findings that proactive and pre-emptive involvement of supply chain participants in the strategy engineering process, would lead to a more robust strategic design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0546.v4
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep learning, Architecture, Applications
Online: 14 February 2019 (10:01:31 CET)
With the increase of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), machine learning has taken a forceful twist in recent times. One of the most spectacular kinds of ANN design is the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is a technology that mixes artificial neural networks and up to date deep learning strategies. In deep learning, Convolutional Neural Network is at the center of spectacular advances. This artificial neural network has been applied to several image recognition tasks for decades and attracted the eye of the researchers of the many countries in recent years as the CNN has shown promising performances in several computer vision and machine learning tasks. This paper describes the underlying architecture and various applications of Convolutional Neural Network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1104.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Self-Regulation; Event-Driven Architecture; Digital Genome; Autopoiesis; Cognition.
Online: 30 November 2023 (14:17:03 CET)
The benefits of event-driven architecture (EDA) derive from how systems and components are loosely coupled, which can facilitate independent development and deployment of systems, improved scaling and fault tolerance, and integration with external systems, especially in comparison to monolithic architectures. With the advent of new technologies such as containers, and microservices, a new generation of distributed event streaming platforms are commonly used in event-driven architecture for efficient event-driven communication. However, the asynchronous and distributed nature of EDA poses several problems that include handling failures, the dependence of an end-to-end transaction on individual component stability, etc. In this paper, we describe a new approach to designing self-regulating distributed applications with autopoietic and cognitive workflow management. This approach is based on the new science of information processing structures derived from the General Theory of Information. Just as a genome enables self-organizing and self-regulating biological structures, a digital genome enables a specific software application with several components, the ability to use distributed resources and self-regulate the evolution of the system based on functional and non-functional requirements, and best-practice policies that maintain the stability, safety, and survival under non-deterministic fluctuations in the demand for resources. In addition, cognitive workflow management assures end-to-end transaction delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1946.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Blockchain; blockchain architecture; digital economy; emerging technologies; online transactions
Online: 30 October 2023 (14:12:08 CET)
The digital economy, driven by information and communication technologies (ICT), has profoundly transformed in recent decades. The digitalization of society has given rise to an economic environment in which information, connectivity, and innovation play fundamental roles. In this context, a technology that has emerged as a fundamental pillar of the digital economy is the chain of blocks, commonly known as blockchain. Blockchain is a technology that has revolutionized the way online data and transactions are managed and shared. Through its ability to create secure, transparent, and decentralized ledgers, blockchain has paved the way for the digital economy, facilitating trust in digital transactions and enabling various applications ranging from cryptocurrencies to supply chain management and intellectual property. This study will delve into blockchain and its influence on the digital economy. It will explore how this technology has reshaped how companies interact, how consumers access services, and how new business models are developed in a constantly evolving digital environment. Additionally, the challenges and opportunities that blockchain presents in the context of the digital economy will be analyzed, and how it is helping to shape the future of business and society in general. As the exploration of blockchain and its impact on the digital economy progresses, it becomes evident how these two forces converge, generating a promising digital landscape full of significant opportunities and transformations. This phenomenon is consistently supported by a growing body of research and analysis, which underlines the growing influence of blockchain on the global economy (Smith, 2020; Johnson, 2019). The dynamic interplay between these two spheres, blockchain and the digital economy, constantly evolves and offers an exciting glimpse into the future regarding innovation and disruption across various sectors (Jones, 2021; Brown, 2018). As a result, significant opportunities are looming for those seeking to understand and capitalize on these emerging trends (García, 2022). Throughout this study, the current trends and most intriguing perspectives that shape this landscape will be broken down, offering a deeper insight into how blockchain and the digital economy are shaping an extraordinary digital future
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1698.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: radiological detection; alpha-emitting radionuclides; UAS software architecture; UAS
Online: 26 October 2023 (14:53:52 CEST)
The protection of first responders from radioactive contamination that may result from a radiological accident is of great importance and complexity. The complexity of detecting and quantifying such radioactive contamination is very high when it comes to the dispersion of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the environment. This work presents the development of an un-manned aerial monitoring system that integrates an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) and a novel optical alpha radioluminescence detection system to scan and obtain information about the alpha-emitting radionuclides contaminated area on a 3D map. This manuscript describes a flexible hardware and software architecture for optical detection of alpha-emitting sources. The UAS is equipped with 4G/LTE air-ground communications and onboard computation to geolocate and send to the ground control station (GCS) the measured data in real-time and thus react to any anomaly detected during the mission. A GCS has also been developed for the correct visualization of the radioactive samples in a 3D map. This article shows the results obtained from the calibration of the detector in the laboratory as well as from the different flights performed on UV LEDs and a 100 MBq 241Am source to demonstrate the feasibility of the system in a realistic scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1829.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Poka Yoke; Pick to Lights; architecture; effectiveness; industrial engineering
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:43:43 CEST)
Product assembly is usually one of the last steps in the entire production process. This activity is typically entrusted to assembly workers because it is generally not possible to automate every type of product. For complex products, assembly can take a long time until the fitter learns the procedure and is able to assemble the product on his own. This contribution presents a cus-tom-developed system that enables controlled assembly of the extruder and can be used for complex and diverse products. The system serves to guide the fitter precisely and shows him which part to use at which time. The proposed system will show and describe on the display all necessary assembly steps and parts. Two-step verification is used to ensure that the correct part is picked from the stack. The contribution is supported by the implementation of a case study in a small company with a sample of 30 employees, which demonstrates that the proposed system shortens the extruder assembly time and significantly reduces the error rate. The presented solution is scalable and flexible, as it can be easily adapted to display the assembly steps of another product.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: big data; architecture; agriculture; climate change; systematic literature review
Online: 24 May 2022 (07:42:55 CEST)
Climate change is currently one of the main problems facing agriculture to achieve sustainability. It causes situations such as drought, increased rainfall, and increased diseases, causing a decrease in food production. In order to combat these problems, Agricultural Big Data contributes with tools that allow improving the understanding of complex, multivariate, and unpredictable agricultural ecosystems through the collection, storage, processing, and analysis of vast amounts of data from diverse heterogeneous sources. This research aims to discuss the advancement of technologies used in Agricultural Big Data architectures in the context of climate change. The study aims to highlight the tools used to process, analyze, and visualize the data and discuss the use of the architectures in the crop, water, climate, and soil management, especially to analyze the context, whether it is in Resilience Mitigation or Adaptation. The PRISMA protocol guided the study, finding 33 relevant papers. Despite the advances in this line of research, few papers were found that mention the components of the architectures, in addition to the lack of standards and the use of reference architectures, which allow the proper development of Agricultural Big Data in the context of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0595.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Bayesian Optimization; Machine Learning; Neural Architecture Search; Fluid Turbulence
Online: 3 December 2020 (10:51:21 CET)
The adoption of Machine Learning (ML) for building emulators for complex physical processes has seen an exponential rise in the recent years. While neural networks are good function approximators, optimizing the hyper-parameters of the network to reach a global minimum is not trivial, and often needs human knowl- edge and expertise. In this light, automatic ML or autoML methods have gained large interest as they automate the process of network hyper-parameter tuning. In addition, Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has shown promising outcomes for improving model performance. While autoML methods have grown in popularity for image, text and other applications, their effectiveness for high-dimensional, complex scientific datasets remains to be investigated. In this work, a data driven emulator for turbulence closure terms in the context of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models is trained using Artificial Neural Networks and an autoML frame- work based on Bayesian Optimization, incorporating priors to jointly optimize the hyper-parameters as well as conduct a full neural network architecture search to converge to a global minima, is proposed. Additionally, we compare the effect of using different network weight initializations and optimizers such as ADAM, SGDM and RMSProp, to explore the best performing setting. Weight and function space similarities during the optimization trajectory are investigated, and critical differences in the learning process evolution are noted and compared to theory. We observe ADAM optimizer and Glorot initialization consistently performs better, while RMSProp outperforms SGDM as the latter appears to have been stuck at a local minima. Therefore, this autoML BayesOpt framework provides a means to choose the best hyper-parameter settings for a given dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Biophilic architecture; sustainability; perceived restorativeness; Gothic Revival; colonial churches
Online: 11 April 2019 (08:32:41 CEST)
Imperial rule in the Indian sub-continent led to the construction of several European styled churches in the late 19th and early 20th century. St. John in Wilderness, built in 1852 in Mcleod Ganj, and Christ Church built in 1857 in Shimla, are examples of the symposium of extensive natural richness and architectural imperialism carried under the name of ‘The Gothic Revival’. This paper presents a biophilic analysis of these two 19th century churches along with the responses from 238 visitors recorded on the perceived restorativeness scale’s four contributing factors Being Away, Fascination, Extent and Compatibility, to understand the relationship between the human perception of architecture and nature. The study concludes that St. John in Wilderness due to its close connection with nature has greater Perceived Restorativeness in comparison to the Christ Church. The contributing factors of high restorative quality are identified and highlighted so that improved design guidelines for religious buildings can be prepared for future references.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0322.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Futuristic Architecture; Neo-futurism; Deconstructivism; Modernism; Antonio Sant’ Elia
Online: 27 December 2018 (11:31:13 CET)
The Italian Architect Antonio Sant’Elia is considered the father of Futurist Architecture, the one who envisioned the future of cities on the basis of the native population’s work culture and habitual traits. It has been a century since his ideas were introduced in his ‘L-Architettura Futurista - Manifesto’ and later circulated by F.T. Marinetti, today they are making a prodigious impact on the architecture style of the entire world. His revolutionary ideas percolated through the murky aftermath of 19th & 20th century art movements. His out-worldly pre-modernist principles gave rise to the notion of exclusive habitats for generations and started the post-war trend of housing typologies as an industrialized and fast track medium of creating ample habitats. This review paper outlines the ideas and design theory of Antonio Sant’Elia through the advancements and achievements of the 20th & 21st century architects and their significant difference with the rest of historical architecture along with identification of elements of futurist principles in different architectural movements. The paper also makes a deliberate attempt to establish a timeline of developments within the said premise for futurist architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0501.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid; MAC protocol; UAV; wireless sensor networks; system architecture.
Online: 20 November 2018 (12:05:29 CET)
This paper proposes a hybrid medium access control (MAC) protocol for wireless sensor network (WSN) data gathering, employing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The UAV sends a beacon frame periodically to inform sensor nodes regarding its presence. Afterward, each sensor node which receives beacon frame contends to send registration frame to the UAV. The UAV will transmit the second beacon frame to the registered nodes to notify their transmission schedule. The time-slot scheme is used for the transmission schedule. The transmission schedule of each sensor is determined based on their priority. Specifically, the priority of each sensor is determined during the registration process. Furthermore, the architecture of UAV-WSN data gathering system is introduced in this paper. Simulations are performed, showing that the proposed MAC protocol achieves fairness while enhancing network performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0021.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: architecture; complex buildings; cellular automaton; uses incubators; public space
Online: 4 June 2018 (07:48:34 CEST)
We explores the relational, dynamic elements of Complex Buildings, a type of architecture designed to incubate uses, located in urban areas with high housing density. The uses of Complex Buildings concern different elements, including the network of agents using or managing them, the environment, and the activities and functions that take place occasionally, temporarily or permanently. Data was gathered through ethnographic research lasting 6 months and a chronotopian approach was used to describe time and space. We analyzed and discussed the interaction of the elements of Complex Buildings through a cellular automaton model, a computational method that simulates the growth of complex systems. It was used here to generate patterns that suggest configurations of uses that can optimize management and therefore increase economic and social capital. The cellular automaton model was also used to develop an abstraction of the Centquatre, a public cultural center in Paris. This center is a good example of a Complex Building, being based on a public-private partnership and having an architectural configuration designed to host a wide range of art, social and productive activities. The building includes a large central space used as an urban public area open to different types of people. The importance of this case study lies in its capacity to produce economic value by combining different uses, and also by welcoming different people to the public space. Regarding the building as a living organism, the cellular automaton model reveals the determinant nature of the concepts of configuration, compatibility of uses and economic value generated by the presence of people. We argue that this approach makes it possible to show that the space-time design and public space dimensions are determinant factors in Complex Buildings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: architect; sustainable architecture; paradigms of design; knowledge; society; Poland
Online: 20 December 2017 (10:22:12 CET)
The article presents the architect's attitude towards the paradigms of sustainable development. The place and role of the architect in the implementation of the multidimensional process of sustainable design has been presented. Basic dilemmas and antinomies have been presented. The analysis of architect's attitudes towards these problems was performed in various contexts, examining the architect's awareness and his environment in view of changes under way. The article draws attention to the status of knowledge, changes in design paradigms, legislative and organizational requirements. The importance of architectural culture level, the need for training, ways to support the implementation of new design paradigms through integrated activities have been indicated. The research results regarding public awareness of architecture and sustainable development are illustrated with examples from Poland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: high-rise buildings; architecture; structural solutions; interaction; SWOT analysis
Online: 26 November 2017 (12:45:01 CET)
The article reveals distinctive features of the interaction between architectural and structural solutions for the design of tall buildings as well as spotlights the most distinctive cases of expression. In the contemporary world, interaction is turning into the antithesis of the formerly dominant utilitarian attitude and standardization of tall buildings architectural solutions. Meanwhile, the search for rational structural solutions leads to new possibilities of architectural expression. This necessitates the transformation of a structural solution and its adaptation to the need of a modern architect to be exceptional and noticed. Interaction covers the current as well as retrospective and perspective periods. SWOT analysis was used by the authors of the article to assess the interaction between architectural and structural solutions in tall buildings design, select the most important criteria that could be used searching for rational architectural and structural solutions in future by applying multi-criteria decision making methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0093.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Islamic architecture; architectural visualization; intangible heritage; text-to-image generation
Online: 1 December 2023 (21:29:02 CET)
In the realm of artificial intelligence (AI), generative systems, most notably Midjourney, have tremendous power to generate creative images of buildings and sites of Islamic architectural heritage through text-to-image generation based on the internet. The AI-generated representations have significant potential for architects, specialists, and common users. However, the system has considerable limitations when generating images for some buildings and sites where the representations appear too far from their original represented structures. This research article attempts to answer the question: What are the limitations of using the AI system of Midjourney in producing images similar to the original buildings and sites of the Islamic architectural heritage? The research employs prompt engineering techniques based on historical sources as inputs to examine the accuracy of the output of the AI-generated images of selected examples of structures of the Islamic tradition. It compares the output with the original look by employing direct observation and critical analysis of human intelligence (HI). It categorizes these limitations into four groups: (1) limits of the prompt, (2) limits of fame, (3) limits of regionality and historical styles, and (4) limits of architectural elements and details. It concludes that while Midjourney has great capability to represent high-end AI-generated images inspired by the Islamic tradition, it currently falls short of presenting the actual appearance of some of their original structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1273.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Facial Emotion Detection; Deep Learning; Classification; Neural Architecture Search Network
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:36:23 CEST)
Facial emotion detection is a challenging task that deals with emotion recognition. It has applications in various domains, such as behavior analysis, surveillance systems and human-computer interaction (HCI). Numerous studies have been implemented to detect emotions, including classical machine learning algorithms and advanced deep learning algorithms. For the machine learning algorithm, the hand-crafted feature needs to be extracted, which is a tiring task and requires human effort. Whereas in deep learning models, automated feature extraction is employed from samples. Therefore, in this study, we have proposed a novel and efficient deep learning model based on Neural Architecture Search Network utilizing superior artificial networks such as RNN and child networks. We performed the training utilizing the FER 2013 dataset comprising seven classes: happy, angry, neutral, sad, surprise, fear, and disgust. Furthermore, we analyzed the robustness of the proposed model on CK+ datasets and comparing with existing techniques. Due to the implication of reinforcement learning in the network, most representative features are extracted from the sample network. It extracts all key features without losing the key information. Our proposed model is based on one stage classifier and performs efficient classification. Our technique outperformed the existing models attaining an accuracy of 98.14%, recall of 97.57%, and precision of 97.84%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2146.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Africa; architecture; health; literature review; urban agriculture (UA); urban palnning
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:03:01 CEST)
Urban agriculture is an early practice, especially for cities in the Global South that are expanding at an unprecedented rate, and in African cities, it can be a way to attend to essential social and health needs. However, it is unclear whether architects and urban planners have expressed interest or already incorporated urban farming within their designs of African cities. This literature review was conducted to understand to what extent architects and urban planners have researched urban agriculture and health. Comprehensive searches based on urban agriculture, health, and Africa were conducted in Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science from 2000 to December 2020. Zotero, Mozilla Firefox search engine, and Google Chrome were used to collect paper metadata. The duplicate articles were excluded, and all the n = 240 publications remaining were included in the analysis. Food security and the immediate health impact of urban agriculture on health were the most addressed topics. These studies reported the harmful effects of urban agriculture on malaria and the wastewater irrigation of plants. The evidence on urban agriculture is increasing from public health researchers, but not in the field of urban planning or architecture. Future research on urban agriculture's impacts on urban health should be increasingly done by architects and planners to help shape urban planning practices and regulations that could help create urban agriculture that benefits urban health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0389.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: environmental heterogeneity; functional traits; root architecture; root foraging; vegetative expansion
Online: 4 August 2023 (11:13:08 CEST)
Unlike trees, shrubs (i.e., multiple-stemmed woody plants) do not need evenly spaced large diameter structural roots and thus can spread further per unit belowground biomass. We therefore hypothesized that compared to trees, shrubs respond more to asymmetric distributions of nutrients and reach nutrient-rich patches of soil faster and with less below-ground biomass. To test these hypotheses we planted individual seedlings of shrubs (Cornus racemosa, Rhus glabra, and Viburnum dentatum) and trees (Acer rubrum, Betula populifera, and Fraxinus americana) in the centers of sand-filled rectangular boxes. In one direction we created stepwise gradients of increasing soil nutrients with slow-release fertilizer; in the other direction no fertilizer was added. Seedlings were harvested when their first root reached the plexiglass-covered fertilized end of their box; time taken as well as above- and below-ground biomass by nutrient segment were determined. There were no consistent differences between the shrubs and trees in belowground architectural plasticity (= ratio of biomass in fertilized and unfertilized volumes of soil) or in the rate and efficiency of lateral growth. Interspecific variation appeared more related to edaphic characteristics of the native habitats than to growth form. The fastest and most efficient roots were produced by the shrub (R. glabra) and the tree (B. populifolia) that are characteristic of poor soils. Root foraging by R. glabra was also facilitated by rapid rhizomatous expansion. The tested shrubs and trees did not consistently differ in nutrient foraging efficiencies or rates but further study is warranted with larger plants and more species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: bio-waste; material development; engineering; architecture; eco-friendly dry wall
Online: 3 August 2023 (11:11:19 CEST)
Amidst the strong demand for wood-based products, and the clamor of environmental consciousness, more functional and green solutions arise to meet both of these goals. Pursuant to this, the study looked into the potential of a bio-waste taken from Cocos nucifera tree known as phellem—the tree’s outermost skin made of dead tissues, to be a main component of a new construction material. This study builds on existing research showing phellem is impermeable, buoyant, elastic, has a slow burn rate, and repels water during precipitation, which supports the hypothesis that phellem may be a potential substitute material for dry wall boards. To test this, three (3) formulations were developed as experimental setups to test the physico-mechanical properties of coconut palm phellem (COPAP): Formulation A (40% COPAP and 60% cement); Formulation B ( 25% COPAP and 75% cement); and lastly, Formulation C that was (10% COPAP and 90% cement). The study tested (1) which among these formulations exhibited the best physico-mechanical properties, then it (2) compared the formulations with common dry wall products available in the market, and subsequently, (3) identified the possible architectural applications of COPAP board as a new building material. Of the three setups, Formulation C exhibited the best physico-mechanical properties in terms of compressive and flexural strength, fire resistivity, and water absorption. It fared better than the particle board in terms of compressive strength, better than wafer and particle board in fire resistivity, performed best in the water absorption test, and was almost equivalent in flexural strength to fiber cement board. With these findings, the study concluded that COPAP board can be used for projects that entail a high number of interior partitions, such as offices, BPO firms and commercial stalls in shopping malls, etc. The findings were conclusive only for interior applications, as the results clearly suggest that the COPAP boards are not load-bearing. Future investigations may explore and assess other properties of COPAP boards like thermal and sound insulation, resistance to rot and other properties that may prove its competitive advantage as a construction material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1693.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Sustainability Architecture; Building Information Modeling; Building Performance Analysis; energy analysis
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:43:02 CEST)
Although buildings constitute 35% of global energy use and 38% of carbon emissions from energy, the amount of energy and energy-related carbon emissions are increasing rapidly. On the other hand, non-renewable usable energy resources are decreasing on the contrary. New buildings are being built due to the increasing population and the existing building stock not meeting the needs or losing its lifespan. Some of the existing building stock is demolished and renewed for structural reasons and some for reasons such as usage performance. It is possible to reduce both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with strategic energy uses in existing building stocks. There are various techniques to measure the maximum performance of sustainable and energy-efficient use of existing building stocks with which changes. Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology is one of these techniques that provides wide opportunities to users in recent years, and it is almost a virtual laboratory of structures. Building stocks can be modeled with BIM, and alternative shell and system suggestions can be used to measure how building performance has changed and to achieve the best results. In this research study, improvement scenarios that optimize energy use in existing building stocks are investigated on a sample residential building by using the virtual laboratory facilities of BIM. After measuring the current energy performance of the existing building with BIM tools, 192 alternative results were obtained with 6 variables (external walls, roof, insulation layers, transparent surface materials, lighting, and photovoltaic panels). The obtained alternatives were compared with the current state of the existing building. The material expenditures and amortization periods required for these alternative scenarios are also calculated. The results obtained were evaluated according to annual / lifetime energy consumption, fuel, electricity, initial investment costs, energy use intensity, and carbon emission amounts. With the optimization of the current situation of the sample building, annual fuel consumption decreased by 61% and electricity consumption by 64%. The amortization period of the optimum improvement was determined as 12 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1854.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Architectural relations; Design theory; Architectural theory; Architectural relations; Relational architecture
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:45:26 CEST)
In recent years, architectural interactions have become the center of many important reflections. However, there is little agreement on the subject. Some authors consider architecture to be about its relations with human and nonhuman agents. Others consider that buildings have an autonomous presence, which transcends all their interactions. These approaches are generally seen as incompatible. Although at the heart of the debate is the role of relations in architecture, their nature is not addressed. The discussion could gain clarity by recognizing the differences between them. In this paper, we propose a classification of architectural interactions, which may help to better inform further discussion on the topic. A closer look at architectural relations reveals that autonomy and relationality are not opposing, but complementary aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0113.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; daylighting simulation; radiative exchanges; design strategies; healthy architecture
Online: 12 April 2022 (12:24:36 CEST)
The beneficial effects of solar radiation on human health are well documented. One necessary mechanism triggers the production of vitamin D whose insufficiency has been linked to a variety of disorders like diabetes, hypertension and more recently amyloidosis and Alzheimer disease. However, there are few architectural designs capable on ensuring adequate provision of solar radiation inside buildings. Conventional fenestration is not sufficient to provide for significant doses of sunlight even to prevent seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In this paper we discuss the effect of new design alternatives for skylights, especially in the refurbishment of obsolete facilities. After such complex retrofit is executed, we have analyzed the performance of a building in warm and sunny climates as is the case of southern Spain. It has been considered as a priority the study of the factors that relate sunlight and energy, as well as, to a certain extent, other aspects like ventilation and insulation. Many architectural designs are presented as correct if the thermal requirements alone are met, even at the risk of later energy waste in lighting devices and visual or physical discomfort. On the other hand, large glazed areas allow more daylight into a space, but they may also allow excessive heat gains or losses which increase the air-conditioning cooling or heating load. To avoid these problems, we have considered the combined effect of daylight and energy from the beginning of the skylight design-process. A daylighting software based on configuration factors that we have apply in former researches to study the problems of direct sun over architectural structures have been used. This question cannot be treated adequately with conventional programs for overcast skies. The skylights have already been constructed and on-site measurements in the offices have been taken to complement the computer simulations data. The results show that it is possible to achieve energy saving and high radiation levels in winter without increasing heat loads during the summer. All this is considered beneficial to improve the condition of users with cognitive diseases as Alzheimer’s disease by virtue of adapted spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0010.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: color; polychrome, baroque architecture; 16th-18th century; entablature; architectural order.
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:46:41 CET)
The article is dedicated to the role of polychrome solutions of the architectonic order in the concept of the Baroque façade. The ancient principles of designing architectural structures, inherited from the Renaissance were subjected to reinterpretations in order to impart different expressive values. The arrangements of façades, initially balanced or even horizontal, were replaced by ambiguous bivalent compositions. Vertical layouts began to dominate in the Baroque. Appropriately selected polychrome of the elements of the order could emphasize the compositional expression. The relationship between the layout of the polychrome in a given architectural order and the expression of a work of art has been established for quite a long time. However, the generally available data on color schemes of architectural structures in baroque buildings are still not fully organized. The paper analyses examples of Baroque façades preserved in their original state and revalorized in recent years after thorough conservator’s research in the field of architecture and color. The examples are mainly designed in the so-called great order, i.e. pertaining largely to church façades. In the Baroque, the vertical direction of the composition was strongly emphasized by multiplying or applying perspective arrangements of supports, and finally by embattled entablatures. The decisive field of change became the shaping of the coloristic decoration of the entablature – decisions regarding the material and color separation of elements of the frieze above the supports. The uniform color of all vertical elements of the façade structure guaranteed an unambiguous verticality of the composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0781.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: white cube; exhibition space; space; work; architecture; site specific; interaction
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:53:59 CEST)
The aim of this article is to make a multi-criteria analysis of various exhibition spaces of an originally non-exhibition character and to determine how these spaces affect the selection of works and the exhibition concept. The analysis is based on the exhibitions of art objects at collective exhibitions in unconventional architectural spaces: commercial, i.e. the modern office building of PBG Gallery Skalar Office Centre in Poznań, post-industrial i.e. in the former Zakłady Przemysłu Ziemniaczanego Lubanta S.A. and in the historic interior of the "U Jezuitów" Gallery of the Cultural Integration Centre in Poznań. The multi-criteria comparative analysis shows a variety of features of the studied spaces as well as the relationship between architecture and art and their mutual interaction. The participatory role of the non-exhibition space in the process of creating an exhibition and selecting works has been proven. It has also been confirmed that the presentation of works of art in originally non-exhibition spaces creates a new quality of the artwork. Unconventional architectural space, when used for the exhibition of works of art, expands and strengthens the area of their influence through the interaction between the work and the architectural space. The specificity of the space adapted for exhibition needs, the presence and type of architectural details in the interior, the quantity and quality of light and its distribution in space, the volume and colour of the interior determine the exhibition space and influence the shape of the exhibitions organised and the reception of the artworks. The only condition for the change of the original function of an architectural space into that of an exhibition space is a coherent artistic vision of the creator. This should take into account the appropriate selection of the exhibited objects, where the process of searching for the relationship between architecture and art determines the features of the architectural space as integral components influencing the realisation of the exhibition .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermal actuator; compliant architecture; open and closed operating cycles; mesoscale
Online: 16 September 2019 (10:56:57 CEST)
Thermal-based actuators are known for generating large force and displacement strokes at mesoscale (millimeter) regime. In particular, two-phase thermal actuators are found to benefit from the scaling laws of physics at mesoscale to offer large force and displacement strokes; but they have low thermal efficiencies. As an alternative, a combustion-based thermal actuator is proposed and its performance is studied in both open and closed cycle operations. Through a physics-based lumped-parameter model, we investigate the behavior and performance of the actuator using a spring-mass-damper analogy and taking an air standard cycle approach. Three observations are reported: (1) the mesoscale actuator can generate peak forces of up to 400 N and displacement strokes of about 16 cm suitable for practical applications; (2) an increase in heat input to the actuator results in increasing the thermal efficiency of the actuator for both open and closed cycles; and (3) for a specific heat input, both the open and closed cycle operations respond differently \textemdash different stroke lengths, peak pressures, and thermal efficiencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cloud computing; security patterns; privacy patterns; software and system architecture
Online: 9 April 2019 (11:46:02 CEST)
Requirements for cloud services include security and privacy. Although many security patterns, privacy patterns, and non-pattern-based knowledge have been reported, knowing which pattern or combination of patterns to use in a specific scenario is challenging due to the sheer volume of options and the layered cloud stack. To deal with security and privacy in cloud services, this study proposes the Cloud Security and Privacy Metamodel (CSPM). CSPM uses a consistent approach to classify and support existing security and privacy patterns. In addition, CSPM is used to develop a security and privacy awareness process to develop cloud systems. The effectiveness and practicality of CSPM is demonstrated via several case studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: reconfigurable architecture; CORDIC; Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA); SAR imaging
Online: 25 June 2018 (14:42:01 CEST)
This paper presents a unified reconfigurable coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) processor for floating-point arithmetic. It can be configured to operate in multi-mode to achieve a variety of operations and replaces multiple single-mode CORDIC processors. A reconfigurable pipeline-parallel mixed architecture is proposed to adapt different operations, which maximizes the sharing of common hardware circuit and achieves the area-delay-efficiency. Compared with previous unified floating-point CORDIC processors, the consumption of hardware resources is greatly reduced. As a proof of concept, we apply it to 1638416384 points target Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging system, which is implemented on Xilinx XC7VX690T FPGA platform. The maximum relative error of each phase function between hardware and software computation and the corresponding SAR imaging result can meet the accuracy index requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0174.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Efficient sorting; Reconfigurable computing; Hardware optimization; Sorting through hardware re-configuration; new computer architecture for sorting; quantum inspired computer architecture; parallelism for Grover’s algorithm
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:56:57 CEST)
The efficiency of data sorting algorithms is the key aspect which determines the speed of data processing and searching. The best known efficiency of sorting algorithm has been Log (N) if there are N terms. All of the well-known sorting algorithms use various techniques to sort data. The basis for most of these are comparing the data terms with each other. In this manuscript, we are introducing a new approach for sorting data. This method is postulated to have the highest efficiency ever achieved by any of the sorting algorithms. We achieve this by sorting data without comparing the data terms. Or achieving results of data comparison without comparing the terms explicitly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0368.v1
Subject: Aquatic Science, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: genetic basis; genomic architecture; disease tolerance; population resilience and climate change
Online: 6 December 2023 (08:34:59 CET)
Diseases pose a significant and pressing concern for the sustainable development of the aquaculture sector, particularly as their impact continues to grow due to climatic shifts such as rising water temperatures. While various approaches, ranging from biosecurity measures to vaccines, have been devised to combat infectious diseases, their efficacy is disease- and species-specific and contingent upon a multitude of factors. The field of genetics and genomics offer effective tools to control and prevent disease outbreaks in aquatic animal species. In this study, we present the key findings from our recent research, focusing on the genetic resistance to three specific diseases: White Spot Syndrome Virus WSSV) in white shrimp, Bacterial Necrotic Pancreatitis (BNP) in striped catfish and skin fluke (a parasitic ailment) in yellowtail kingfish. Our investigations reveal that all three species possess substantial heritable genetic components for disease resistant traits, indicating their potential responsiveness to artificial selection in genetic improvement programs tailored to combat these diseases. Also, we observed a high genetic association between disease traits and survival rates. Through selective breeding aimed at enhancing resistance to these pathogens, we achieved substantial genetic gains, averaging 10% per generation. These selection programs also contributed positively to the overall production performance and productivity of these species. Although the effects of selection on immunological traits or immune responses were not significant in white shrimp, they yielded favourable results in striped catfish. Furthermore, our genomic analyses, including shallow genome sequencing of pedigreed populations, enriched our understanding of the genomic architecture underlying disease resistance traits. These traits are primarily governed by a polygenic nature, with numerous genes or genetic variants, each with small effects. Leveraging a range of advanced statistical methods, from mixed models to machine and deep learning, we developed prediction models that demonstrated moderate to high levels of accuracy in forecasting these disease-related traits. In addition to genomics, our RNA-seq experiments identified several genes that undergo upregulation in response to infection or viral loads within the populations. Preliminary microbiome data, while offering limited predictive accuracy for disease traits in one of our studied species, underscore the potential for combining such data with genome sequence information to enhance predictive power for disease traits in our populations. Lastly, this paper briefly discusses the roles of precision agriculture systems, AI algorithms, and outlines the path for future research to expedite the development of disease-resistant genetic lines tailored to our target species. In conclusion, our study underscores the critical role of genetics and genomics in fortifying the aquaculture sector against the threats posed by diseases, paving the way for more sustainable and resilient aquaculture development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1984.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: factor utilization; infrastructure; industrial policy; institutional capacity; enterprise architecture; diversification levers
Online: 31 October 2023 (06:37:52 CET)
This article postulates that, in principle, it is possible (1) to develop linkages between the extractive sector and other economic sectors; (2) for such linkages to contribute to economic diversification; and (3) for economic diversification to potentially drive positive economic transformation. We argue that achieving this three-stepped pathway is impossible without also achieving some level of political and social transformation. Empirically, many resource-rich countries have failed to develop linkages. Or, if they have, the linkages built remain limited to the development of supply chains serving the extractive sector, contributing little to economic diversification. In this article, we refer to limited linkages and dependence on exporting unprocessed minerals as the centripetal force of the extractive sector. This implies that capital investments and economic activities are concentrated around the extractive sector. We propose an alternative theoretical model that strives to foster the centrifugal force of the extractive sector – a term we use to capture the three-stepped pathway. This model is underpinned by multiple factors and their interactions, which are within the purview of the complex state and market relationship (posing as a challenge) and the role of minerals in the global transformation towards a clean energy system (posing as an opportunity).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: metal matrix composite; strengthening mechanisms; toughening mechanisms; heterogeneous architecture; energy dissipation
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:33:28 CEST)
In response to the growing demand for high-strength and high-toughness materials in industries like aerospace and automobiles, there is a need for metal matrix composites (MMCs) that can simultaneously enhance strength and toughness. This paper focuses on the design configurations of MMCs, which include both the configurations resulting from reinforcements and the inherent heterogeneity of the matrix itself. The mechanical properties of MMCs are influenced by factors such as reinforcement content, shape, size, and spatial distribution within the composite architecture. Among them, Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) are particularly significant in aerospace, electronics, and electric vehicles due to their potential for weight reduction and enhanced performance. However, the challenge lies in the inverse relationship between strength and toughness, hindering the widespread utilization and large-scale development of MMCs. The design configuration of composites plays a critical role in achieving concurrent improvements in strength and toughness. This review explores the advantages of toughness, toughening mechanisms, reinforcement distribution characteristics, and structural parameters in the design of composite architectures. Drawing inspiration from biological composites like bone, the development of synthetic composites with homogeneous structural designs provides insights into attaining exceptional strength and toughness in lightweight engineering structures. Additionally, understanding fracture behavior and toughening mechanisms in heterogeneous nanostructures is vital for advancing the field of metal matrix composites. Summarily, the design of composite architectures holds tremendous potential for tailoring AMCs with outstanding strength and toughness, addressing the requirements of lightweight engineering structures in various industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Cotton; virus-induced gene silencing; plant architecture; expression QTL; candidate gene
Online: 7 April 2023 (05:30:25 CEST)
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a major source of natural fiber and an important cash crop. The cotton growth habit and architecture determine its productivity and influence management strategies for commercial production. The GATA transcription factors (TFs) control various developmental processes in plants, such as flower, bract and embryo development, and petal differentiation. As stable transformation is still a bottleneck in many plant species, TRV-VIGS was used to manipulate gene expression in different plants, including Gossypium hirsutum L. In this study, we undertook the TRV-based VIGS to functionally characterize two candidate genes, Gohir.D05G103700 and Gohir.D12G153600, identified through the expression QTL analysis for five floral induction and meristem identity genes using the upland cotton mini-core collection. Virus-induced silencing of the Gohir.D05G103700 gene resulted in up to a 1.4-fold reduction in the transcript level in two inoculated plants, G3 and G4, and Gohir.D12G153600 gene resulted in up to a 2.3-fold reduction in transcript level in a single inoculated plant P05 relative to the mock-treated plant. The TRV2-Gohir.D05G103700 inoculated plants precisely G3 and G4 also exhibited loss of the supernumerary (fourth) floral bract in the squares, whereas the TRV2-Gohir.D12G153600 inoculated plants did not show any observable phenotypic change relative to the mock-treated plants. Altogether, this study suggested that TRV-VIGS can be used to characterize genes in cotton relatively rapidly and the cotton Gohir.D05G103700 gene is a positive regulator of the indeterminate growth habit in cotton, which could be manipulated to obtain a cotton plant with architecture best suited for the cultivation area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy policy; stakeholder requirements; adaptive/transformative; heat decarbonisation; energy system architecture
Online: 1 September 2022 (09:15:02 CEST)
It is a truism that whole energy system models underpin the development of policies for energy system decarbonisation. But recent reviews have thrown doubt on the appropriateness of such models for addressing the multiple goals for future energy systems, in the face of emergent real-world complexity and the evolution of stakeholder’s priorities. Without an understanding of the changing priorities of policy makers and expectations of stakeholders for future systems, system objectives and constraints are likely to be ill-defined, and there is a risk that models may be inadvertently instrumentalised. Adopting a system architecture perspective, the authors have undertaken a three-year programme of research to explore strategies for decarbonising heat in the UK, with interaction with and elicitation of needs from stakeholders at its heart. This paper presents the procedure, methods, and results of an exercise in which experts from stakeholder organisations across the energy system were interviewed. Analysis of interview data reveals two broad approaches to heat decarbonisation which can be broadly defined as either adaptive or transformative. Specific insights gained from these interviews enabled our modelling teams to refocus their work for exploration with a wider circle of stakeholders. Results suggests that this iterative approach to formalising model-policy interaction could improve the transparency and legitimacy of modelling and enhance its impact on policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0465.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: genetic algorithm; deep neural network; hidden layer; optimal architecture; intrusion detection
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:26:18 CET)
Computer network attacks are evolving in parallel with the evolution of hardware and neural network architecture. Despite major advancements in Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) technology, most implementations still depend on signature-based intrusion detection systems, which can’t identify unknown attacks. Deep learning can help NIDS to detect novel threats since it has a strong generalization ability. The deep neural network’s architecture has a significant impact on the model’s results. We propose a genetic algorithm based model to find the optimal number of hidden layers and the number of neurons in each layer of the deep neural network (DNN) architecture for the network intrusion detection binary classification problem. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed DNN architecture shows better performance than classical machine learning algorithms at a lower computational cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Reflectarray, 3D architecture, resonator-based waveguide cells, Satellite communications, Ku band
Online: 1 October 2021 (14:33:02 CEST)
This document presents the design and manufacture of a reflectarray (RA) antenna for the Ku-band, based on a fully-metallic 3D architecture. The reflectarray unit cell is formed by a square-shaped waveguide section ended in a short circuit, that is the reflectarray back ground plane. Each cell has the ability of configuring the phase of its own reflected field by means of resonators perforated on the walls of the cell waveguide section. The resonator-based waveguide cell introduces the 3D character to the design. The geometry of the resonators and its size variation introduces the phase behaviour of each cell, conforming the radiation pattern of the reflectarray. This design explores the potential of phase value truncation (6 states and 2 states), and demonstrates that proper pattern results can be obtained with this phase truncation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Complexity Analysis & Mitigation; Software Architecture & Design, Safety; Quality; Fragility; Failure Obviation
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:45:48 CET)
Studies have found critical software malfunctions responsible for some of the worst accidents in recent times. These malfunctions are often only minor defects that snowball into large problems; a few lines of code is all it takes. Complexity, safety, quality, and resilience are among the key attributes defining a software’s operational success. There are many leading factors for complexity, such as increases in the product size, the rate of requirement changes, and the number and type of stakeholders, and failure to manage these issues efficiently always has the same consequence, i.e., massive failure and sometimes technological catastrophe. This work analyzes some of the architecture, design, and implementation guidelines used as detection and mitigation techniques. It also discusses the safety considerations, as considering how the steam industry has handled safety issues could offer some guidance for ensuring safety. Complexity in such systems also causes some of the worst side effects from the quality auditor's perspective. While failures in the software are hard to predict, one of the most significant ways of showing preparedness is practicing software resilience. New mitigation areas, such as the fragility spectrum and failure obviation, and their usage for building a safer system are analyzed. Also discussed are various architecture styles in practice and the dramatic effect human factors can have on the success of the software being developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Grammar Evolution; Deep Learning; Network Architecture Search; Grammar Guided Genetic Programming
Online: 2 May 2020 (11:36:18 CEST)
Photogrammetry involves aerial photography of the earth’s surface and subsequently processing the images to provide a more accurate depiction of the area (Orthophotography). It’s used by the Spanish Instituto Geográfico Nacional to update road cartography but requires a significant amount of manual labor due to the need to perform visual inspection of all tiled images. Deep Learning techniques (artificial neural networks with more than one hidden layer) can perform road detection but it is still unclear how to find the optimal network architecture. Our system applies grammar guided genetic programming to the search of deep neural network architectures. In this kind of evolutive algorithm all the population individuals (here candidate network architectures) are constrained to rules specified by a grammar that defines valid and useful structural patterns to guide the search process. Grammar used includes well-known complex structures (e.g. Inception-like modules) combined with a custom designed mutation operator (dynamically links the mutation probability to structural diversity). Pilot results show that the system is able to design models for road detection that obtain test accuracies similar to that reached by state of the art models when evaluated over a dataset from the Spanish National Aerial Orthophotography Plan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0207.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: tomb; religious heritage; cultural heritage; Sheikh Zahed Gilani; indigenous architecture; dome
Online: 12 March 2020 (09:16:57 CET)
Tombs and mausoleums as a cultural-religious heritage have a key role in attracting cultural tourists, as a result, they have been of great interest to researchers and academics in recent years. This paper argues the tomb of Sheikh Zahed Gilani, who was once a great mystic and is reputable due to his influence on the formation of the Safavid dynasty. Through a qualitative evaluation, this paper assesses the history, indigenous architecture, brick decorations and the significant geometry of Sheikh Zahed’ tomb. The results indicate that the dome has eight diverse geometric levels with dissimilar decorations, which is a unique design in the region. The paper also investigates the construction inscriptions and preservation projects to better comprehend the history of the tomb. Examination and understanding the characteristics of this monument alongside assessing the typology in comparison to other historical buildings can support the development of a local structure of the tomb as well as the geometric dome in similar climates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0174.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainable architecture; industrial building; indoor environment; lighting conditions; computational simulation; luminance
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:05:05 CET)
This paper highlights the problems associated with daylight use in industrial facilities. In a case study of a multi-story textile factory, we report how to evaluate daylight (as part of integral light) in the production halls marked F and G. This study follows the article in the Buildings journal, where Hall E was evaluated (unilateral daylight). These two additional halls have large areas that are 54 × 54 meters and are more than 5 meters high. The daylight is only on the side through the attached windows in envelope structures in the vertical position. In this paper, we want to present two case studies of these two production halls in a textile factory in the eastern part of Slovakia. These are halls that are illuminated by daylight from two sides through exterior peripheral walls that are against or next to each other. The results of the case studies can be applied in similar production halls illuminated by a ‘double-sided’ (bilateral) daylight system. This means that they are illuminated by natural illumination through windows on two sides in a vertical position. Such a situation is typical for multi-storied industrial buildings. The proposed approximate calculation method for the daylight factor can be used to predict the daylight in similar spaces in other similar buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: intelligent robotics; flexibility; reusability; multisensor; state machine; software architecture; computer vision
Online: 20 April 2017 (04:14:33 CEST)
This paper presents a state machine based architecture which enhances flexibility and reusability of industrial robots, more concretely dual-arm multisensor robots. The proposed architecture, in addition to allowing absolute control of the execution, eases the programming of new applications by increasing the reusability of the developed modules. Through an easy-to-use graphical user interface, operators are able to create, modify, reuse and maintain industrial processes increasing the flexibility of the cell. Moreover, the proposed approach is applied in a real use case in order to demonstrate its capabilities and feasibility in industrial environments. A comparative analysis is presented for evaluating presented approach versus traditional robot programming techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Architecture design, FPGA, IEC 61131-3, low-latency, PLC, System-on-Chip.
Online: 21 November 2023 (03:53:06 CET)
This study presents the design and implementation of a PLC microprocessor adhering to the IEC-61131-3 standard, executed on a Cyclone-V FPGA using a DE10-NANO development board. Our microprocessor optimizes the central processing unit by streamlining the data path, achieving a remarkable simulated response time of approximately 60 ns, equivalent to three clock cycles at a 50MHz frequency for Boolean operations. To substantiate our approach, we conducted practical experiments utilizing a FESTO conveyor station, employing relays as actuators, and incorporating optical and inductive sensors. The results underscore the feasibility of our proposed approach and serve as practical validation of its efficacy. This work introduces a promising avenue for the development of cost-effective PLCs employing SoC FPGA variants. Additionally, a thorough comparison of execution times with other early reported architectures. Our microprocessor outperforms even well-established PLCs like the S7-312, with substantial reductions in execution times of 94.54% for floating-point operations, 71.42% to 93.33% for word operations, and up to 78.57% for bit operations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1486.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Polycarboxylate-ether superplasticizer (PCE); Rheology; Molecular architecture; High performance concrete; Carboxylic groups
Online: 22 August 2023 (12:15:00 CEST)
The incorporation of polycarboxylate ether superplasticizer (PCE) type polymer and silica fume (SF) in high-performance concretes (HPC) leads to the achievement of remarkable rheological and mechanical improvements. In the fresh state, PCEs are adsorbed on cement particles and dispersants, in turn promoting the workability of the concrete. Silica fume enables a very well compacted concrete to be obtained, which is characterized by high mechanical parameters in its hardened state. Some PCEs are incompatible with silica fume, which can result in the loss of slump and in poor rheological behavior. The main objective of the research is the study of the influence of three types of PCEs, which all have a different molecular architecture, on the rheological and mechanical behavior of high-performance concretes containing 10% of SF as a partial replacement of cement. The results show that the carboxylic density of PCE has an influence on its compatibility with SF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1379.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; energy savings; industrial hydraulics; power drive architecture; CO2 emissions reduction
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:40:19 CEST)
In hydraulic systems, energy dissipation can be significant. The pressure drops that can occur in the hydraulic circuit, influenced by the adopted drive architecture, result in an absorbed power often significantly greater than that required by the mechanical system. In this paper, a comparative study of energy efficiency among five drive common architectures in industrial hydraulic axes is carried out. The analysis is applied to a hydraulic blanking press with variable speed and force, a fairly frequent industrial system, e.g. in the production of semi-finished brass products. Standard, regenerative, high-low, variable displacement pump and variable speed drive for a fixed displacement pump configurations have been analysed and compared. An adequate and optimized sizing of the various components of the system has been carried out in each case and subsequently the energy consumption has been estimated for a load cycle common to all the considered cases. The results show that the choice of power generation architecture of the hydraulic system has a very significant impact on energy efficiency and consequently operating costs and carbon footprint. The performed quantification of the potential energy efficiency of the considered drive architectures can be very useful in guiding energy-conscious choices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0900.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Generative Artificial Intelligence; Large Language Models; ChatGPT; Bard; Transformer Architecture; Prompt Engineering
Online: 12 May 2023 (07:47:13 CEST)
This primer provides an overview of the rapidly evolving field of generative artificial intelligence, specifically focusing on large language models like ChatGPT (OpenAI) and Bard (Google). Large language models have demonstrated unprecedented capabilities in responding to natural language prompts. The aim of this primer is to demystify the underlying theory and architecture of large language models, providing intuitive explanations for a broader audience. Learners seeking to gain insight into the technical underpinnings of large language models must sift through rapidly growing and fragmented literature on the topic. This primer brings all the main concepts into a single digestible document. Topics covered include text tokenization, vocabulary construction, token embedding, context embedding with attention mechanisms, artificial neural networks, and objective functions in model training. The primer also explores state-of-the-art methods in training large language models to generalize on specific applications and to align with human intentions. Finally, an introduction to the concept of prompt engineering highlights the importance of effective human-machine interaction through natural language in harnessing the full potential of artificial intelligence chatbots. This comprehensive yet accessible primer will benefit students and researchers seeking foundational knowledge and a deeper understanding of the inner workings of existing and emerging artificial intelligence models. The author hopes that the primer will encourage further responsible innovation and informed discussions about these increasingly powerful tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0416.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Cloud Architecture; Data Privacy; Data Confidentiality; Information Sharing; Health Information; Patient Records
Online: 6 May 2023 (10:27:41 CEST)
Cloud computing appears to be the dreamed vision of the healthcare industry; it refers to means of storing and accessing data and programs over the internet instead of the computer’s hard drive. However, the adoption of cloud computing requires solving several issues and infor-mation privacy is a major one. This work proposes a cloud architecture design for the healthcare information system. The proposed architecture enables for storing and sharing information in a privacy-preserving manner. Patients’ information in the proposed architecture is divided into four categories identified in the case study data analysis. User identity management protocol (U-IDM) is employed for controlling the access to patients’ information, and patients have means of control over who can access their information. A scenario-based instantiation validated the proposed architecture's privacy-preserving patient data exchange. The instantiation proved that the proposed architecture allows sharing healthcare information without violating the privacy of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: effector proteins; genome-wide analysis; Ganoderma boninense; basal stem rot; genome architecture
Online: 28 June 2022 (04:59:14 CEST)
Ganoderma boninense is the major causal agent for the basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm, causing the progressive rot of the basal part of the stem. Despite its prominence, key pathogenicity determinants for the aggressive nature of hemibiotrophic infection remain unknown. In this study, genome sequencing and annotation of G. boninense T10 were carried out using the Illumina sequencing platform and comparative genome analysis was performed with previously reported G. boninense strains (NJ3 and G3). The pan-secretome of G. boninense was constructed and comprised of 937 core orthogroups, 243 accessory orthogroups, and 84 strain-specific orthogroups. A set of core candidate effector proteins (CEPs) were found to be enriched with catalytic protein classified as the carbohydrate-active enzymes, hydrolases as well as non-catalytic proteins. Differential expression analysis revealed an upregulation of CEP genes which was linked to the suppression of PTI signaling cascade while the downregulation of CEP genes was linked to the inhibition of PTI by preventing host defense elicitation. Genome architecture analysis revealed the one-speed architecture of the G. boninense genome and the lack of preferential association of CEP genes to the transposable elements. The findings obtained from this study would aid in the characterization of pathogenicity determinants and molecular biomarkers of BSR disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0634.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: genetic load; purging; drift load; pseudo-overdominance; heterozygosity-fitness correlation; genomic architecture
Online: 30 October 2020 (10:18:40 CET)
Upon inbreeding, the architecture of the inbreeding load shifts as selection purges strongly deleterious recessive mutations and drift fixes many milder ones. Most small inbred populations show limited genetic variation while crosses between such populations commonly express pronounced heterosis, confirming fixation. In contrast, purging appears to be limited in that inbred populations often retain substantial inbreeding depression. In addition we have the enigma Darwin noted: purely selfing taxa are unknown. Because both purging and fixation reduce inbreeding depression and load, another mechanism must exist to sustain these. Background selection and the associations that develop among alleles in small inbred populations will shift the architecture of the load potentially creating blocks of recessive mutations linked in repulsion. This would generate pseudo-overdominance that could sustain these “PODs” and inbreeding load. Recombination and crosses between lineages could erode PODs. Crosses between populations fixed for different mutations would generate high pseudo-overdominance, enhancing heterosis and potentially POD formation. New recessive mutations arising within PODs would reinforce overdominance. PODs should generate clear genetic signatures including genomic hotspots of heterozygosity and linkage disequilibrium containing alleles at intermediate frequency generating segregating load. Results from several simulation and empirical studies match these predictions. Further simulations and comparative genomic analyses are needed to rigorously test whether PODs exist in sufficient strength and number to generate persistent inbreeding depression and load in inbred lineages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0438.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: structure-function relationships; enrichment analysis; antifungal activities; knottin; two-layer sandwich architecture
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:03:47 CEST)
Whether there is any inclination between structures and functions of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is a mystery yet to be unraveled. AMPs have various structures associated with many different antimicrobial functions, including antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, antiparasitic and antiviral activities. However, none has yet reported any antimicrobial functional tendency within a specific category of protein/peptide structures nor any structural tendency of a specific antimicrobial function with respect to AMPs. Here we examine the relationships between structures categorized by three structural classification methods (CATH, SCOP and TM) and seven antimicrobial functions with respect to AMPs using an enrichment analysis. The results show that antifungal activities of AMPs were tightly related to two-layer sandwich structure of CATH, knottin fold of SCOP, and the first structural cluster of TM. The associations with knottin and TM cluster 1 even sustained through the AMPs with a low sequence identity. Besides, another significant mutual enrichment was observed between the third cluster of TM and anti-gram-positive-bacterial/anti-gram-negative-bacterial activities. The findings of the structure-function inclination further our understanding of AMPs and could help us design or discover new therapeutic potential AMPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0474.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network; Encoder-Decoder Architecture; Semantic Segmentation; Feature Silencing; Crack Detection
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:54:13 CEST)
An autonomous concrete crack inspection system is necessary for preventing hazardous incidents arising from deteriorated concrete surfaces. In this paper, we represent a concrete crack detection framework to aid the process of automated inspection. The proposed approach employs a deep convolutional neural network architecture for crack segmentation from concrete image. The proposed network alleviates the effect of gradient vanishing problem present in deep neural network architectures. A feature silencing module is incorporated in the crack detection framework, for eliminating unnecessary feature maps from the network. The overall performance of the network significantly improves as a result. Experimental results support the benefit of incorporating feature silencing within a convolutional neural network architecture for improving the network’s robustness, sensitivity, and specificity. An added benefit of the proposed architecture is its ability to accommodate for the trade-off between specificity (positive class detection accuracy) and sensitivity (negative class detection accuracy) with respect to the target application. Furthermore, the proposed framework achieves a high precision rate and processing time than crack detection architectures present in literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0323.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: biophilia; biophilic design; sustainability; sustainable architecture; built environment; well-being; restorative environment
Online: 28 July 2019 (17:24:11 CEST)
Can ‘restoration and therapy in design’ signify something more than the places like hospitals and healing gardens? Can those restorative environments be brought inside the working and living environments to mitigate the psychological problem at the source? The main objective of this paper is to look at the strategies and developments of Biophilic design with respect to therapy and restoration in order to achieve sustainability in terms of quality of life within the immediate built-environment. The paper explores the mental health issues under the domains of built-environment and indoor environment with respect to their connection with nature. Biophilic design has gained a favourable momentum within the last four decades and is now visualised as a medium that bridges the gap between humans and the nature. Out of a variety of measures of sustainable environmental design, biophilic design focuses on the end-results of naturally nurtured or inspired habitats and workplaces. It embodies strategies of Green and Intelligent buildings, works as a mitigation strategy for foul indoor environment and establishes the vision that veristic sustainability can only be achieved if there is qualitative control over human physiological prosperity and psychological health. In context of work efficiency, preference and productivity within the indoor environment, it is seen as a promoter of constructive thoughts and enhancer of creativity. The paper aims to enlist biophilic design and retrofitting strategies, which can improve cognitive function, reduce stress and provide mental peace within the built environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0252.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: multi-agent; HTN; distributed architecture; command and control model; algorithm performance comparison
Online: 23 April 2019 (11:01:03 CEST)
For the task planning problem of the command and control architecture, the existing algorithms have problems such as low efficiency and poor re-planning quality under abnormal conditions. Based on the requirements of the current accusation architecture, this paper constructs a distributed command and control architecture model based on multi-agents, which makes use of the superiority of multi-agents in dealing with complex tasks. The concept of MultiAgents-HTN is proposed under the framework. The original hierarchical task network planning algorithm is optimized, the multi-agent collaboration framework is redefined, and the coordination mechanism of local conflict is designed. Taking the classical resource scheduling problem as the experimental background, the comparison between the proposed algorithm and the classical HTN algorithm is carried out. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher quality and higher efficiency than the existing algorithm, and the space anomaly is heavy during processing. The planning is more efficient, and the time is more complicated and superior in dealing with the same problem, with good convergence and adaptability. The conclusion proves that the distributed command and control architecture proposed in this paper has high practicability in related fields and can solve the problem of distributed command and control architecture in multi-agent environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain strategy; supply chain formulation; supply chain architecture; supply chain design
Online: 10 April 2019 (06:05:59 CEST)
The focus of this paper is on supply chain strategy formulation. A conceptual theory approach is used for investigating and identifying the relationship between multiple elements, dimensions, forces and factors that influence and affect the supply chain strategy formulation in Greenfield context, specific to the slate mining industry. The research study involved secondary data review and series of 20 qualitative interviews, followed by 2 group discussions, one with mining and transportation experts external to the supply chain and one group discussion with supply chain internal experts. Through critical analysis, a number of problems emerge and the process of addressing these problems, results in a new framework for evaluating the relationship between business and supply chain strategy, specific to Greenfield project and integration design context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0155.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: architecture; 19th century; 20th century; Nordic countries; natural stone; national romanticism; geology
Online: 25 April 2017 (04:56:44 CEST)
In the second half of the 19th century new methods for quarrying and processing natural stone are developed. In the Nordic countries Sweden, Norway and Finland this technological progress goes hand in hand with a systematic geological mapping and large-scale exploitation of natural stone deposits. As a result, new constructions are developed—changing the building practice in these countries. With the end of historicism a new architecture arises that particularly in Norway and Finland acquires a national-romantic character. This paper examines the interaction between geological exploration, commercial development, technical inventions and the development of a national-romantic architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0565.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Contemporary Museums; Egyptian Museums; Museum Architecture; Museum Design Criteria; Socio-economic Sustainability; SDGs
Online: 8 September 2023 (04:43:50 CEST)
Over the last few decades, contemporary museums have undergone a radical change into public places that promote socio-economic sustainability by impeding recreation, commercial, and cultural activities. This shift altered public perception of museums globally and had a profound impact on today's museums, resulting in new prototypes that differed significantly from prior ones. The study tries to answer the following questions: How far have Egyptian museums been evolving over the last decade? To what degree the radical transformation in the museum design can assist in fulfilling Egypt’s SDGs? To answer these questions the study attempts to explore how far Egyptian museums have adapted to this fundamental change by tracing the evolution of Egyptian museum design compared with the findings of the author's previous thesis in 2012 and Egypt’s SDGs The study used qualitative methods which began with a thorough literature review followed by a comparative analysis of the selected case studies. . The findings revealed that the contemporary design of the recent Egyptian museums by including the social and economic activities, significantly support the national and global agenda in term of SDG. The article provides architects, designers, and policy makers with clear design criteria to enhance the social and economic role of museums towards fulfilling SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1652.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digital economy; perspective area; components; fourth industrial revolution; digital analytics architecture; smart Bangladesh
Online: 25 July 2023 (05:33:28 CEST)
This study aims to determine the present and future scopes of the digital economy in Bangladesh to build a developed and prosperous country by 2041. Simultaneously, it analyses the components of the Digital Economy from numerous perspectives from contributing to Bangladeshi economy with an adaptation of the 4th Industrial Revolution and emerging technologies. In the methodology section, qualitative approach is conducted to determine the research objectives where secondary data is used. Around 100 papers are collected and 51 articles are used for conducting this study. The findings of the study are to present the current state of the digital economy which is developing trends that contribute to national GDP for the adaptation of the 4IR for the transformation of smart Bangladesh. From the conceptual implication, companies and individuals are aware of the digital economy, which would lessen digital divide and create a strong link between technology and the economy. Furthermore, establishing customer confidence and trust would be a big issue for Bangladesh's digital platform economy in the future days. From a practical standpoint, IT industries and commercial organizations would have to deal with emerging 4IR and its technologies. The job market would also be expanded in a variety of areas, which would ultimately benefit the national economy. According to the study's conclusions, the digital economy is predicted to expand its commercial and corporate opportunities. Future research might be extended based on qualitative approach towards a digital Bangladesh and create a better developing economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0819.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable Construction; Landscape Architecture; Monitoring and Evaluation; Life Cycle Assessment; Green Building
Online: 13 July 2023 (02:44:25 CEST)
Kenya’s construction industry is experiencing exponential growth in tandem with construction trends globally. With the growth experienced in the industry, there has been significant growth in the economy and a 50% contribution to the world’s landfill waste and pollution to the adjacent environment. Globally, the construction industry is among the largest consumers of natural resources and significant contributors to pollution. This has given rise to high pressure to adopt environmentally sensitive approaches in the construction industry to present a competitive advantage. It is, therefore, crucial to address the need for sustainability measures for Landscape Architecture projects to increase knowledge and awareness, create incentives geared towards supporting sustainable practices, and leverage legal instruments and policies. Green construction practices and strategies have positively impacted the environment and the Kenyan construction industry’s social and economic performance. However, there are several barriers to the adoption and improvement of monitoring and evaluation of sustainable practices, thus slowing down the industry in taking charge of sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0083.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: urbanism; surrealism; literary devices; maps and plans; violence; harassment; cities; gender; painting; architecture
Online: 6 March 2023 (02:39:27 CET)
The purpose of this study is to analyse the ways of visualization of hidden violence through a map of the city of violence called La Manada City, in its transformation from defensive to artistic strategies. For this analysis, firstly we propose the contextualization of the artwork and its authorship, and later, the research about the artistic and visual resources of the 257 items that make up the map and its guide street, in a sort of rustic hypertext of the emotions linked to the violence in the territory. The main findings of this study demonstrate the strength of the strategy used as a survival method in cases of bullying. As a conclusion, in spite of the therapeutic effects, this work cannot be understood as Art Therapy, but as combat art: it provides an understanding of the emotional city, of the disadvantaged groups that inhabit it, from the most local (as a transcript of the city of Seville) to global and universal effects on community life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0517.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: city trees; landscape design; landscape architecture; socio-ecological system; urban ecosystem; urban forest
Online: 30 August 2022 (09:54:35 CEST)
Despite the abundance of tree diversity in the natural world, and generally high tree species richness in urban areas, urban forests continue to be dominated by a limited number of species. As socio-ecological systems, urban forests are shaped by historical and current management efforts and decision-making of a wide range of human actors. Drawing on past research, we offer a conceptual framework for describing the complex interactions among tree producers and consumers as trees are selected, grown, specified, and planted in private and public urban areas. We illustrate how multiple layers of selection criteria filter down the entirety of potential local tree diversity to a handful of commonly used and accepted tree species. We detail the actors and decision makers who impact tree composition and diversity across several land types. Finally, we identify research, education and outreach needs as they relate to creating more diverse and resilient urban forest ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0116.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biomass partitioning; Digital root phenotyping; Image analysis; Rhizotron; Root architecture; Root phenes; RootSnap
Online: 5 August 2022 (04:23:44 CEST)
Citron watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an extremely drought-tolerant cucurbit crop widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa in arid and semi-arid environments characterized by drought. The species is a C3 xerophyte used for multiple purposes, including intercropping with maize and has a deep taproot system. The deep taproot system plays a key role in the species’ adaptation to dry conditions. Understanding root system development of this crop could be useful in identifying traits for breeding water-use efficient and drought-tolerant varieties. This study compared root system architecture of citron watermelon accessions under water-stress conditions. Nine selected and drought-tolerant citron watermelon accessions were grown under non-stress (NS) and water stress (WS) conditions using the root rhizotron procedure in a glasshouse. The following root system architecture (RSA) traits were measured, namely: root system width (RSW), root system depth (RSD), convex hull area (CHA), total root length (TRL), root branch count (RBC), total root volume (TRV), leaf area (LA), leaf number (LN), first seminal root length (FSRL), seminal root angle (SRA), root dry mass (RDM), shoot dry mass (SDM), root–shoot mass ratio (RSM), root mass ratio (RMR), shoot mass ratio (SMR) and root tissue density (RTD). The data collected on RSA traits were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and principal component analyses. ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0.05) accession × water stress interaction effect for studied RSA traits. Under WS, RDM exhibited significant and positive correlations with RSM (r = 0.65), RMR (r = 0.66), RSD (r = 0.66), TRL (r = 0.60), RBC (r = 0.72), FSRL (r = 0.73) and LN (r = 0.70). Principal component analysis revealed high loading scores for the following RSA traits: RSW (0.89), RSD (0.97), TRL (0.99), TRV (0.90), TRL (0.99), RMR (0.96) and RDM (0.76). In conclusion, the study has shown that the identified RSA traits could be useful in crop improvement programmes for citron watermelon genotypes with enhanced drought adaptation for improved yield performance under drought-prone environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0429.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Botnets; Bots; bot controller; botnet detection; network; botnet architecture; botnet attacks; detection techniques
Online: 30 June 2022 (14:09:31 CEST)
Botnets, a prominent threat to IoT security. ‘botnet’ this word is the composition of robot and network. A network of robots used to commit cybercrime. A bot means a compromised end-host or a device which is a member of a botnet.  Governments have become a popular target for malicious attacks. This is due to them holding mass confidential data on their network.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0129.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Digital Design; Digital Architecture; Image Processing; Machine learning; FPGA; Dedicated Design; Image Processor
Online: 14 April 2022 (05:09:47 CEST)
Many dedicated designs for real-time operations provide functionality on fixed-sized operators, but where speed, scalability, and flexibility are required, extensive research is demanded. Dedicated designs can provide real-time processing for many applications. This paper presents an FPGA-based design of a general image processor. The proposed design is based on a fixed-point representation of binary numbers. The proposed design provides a mechanism to manage matrices on-chip along with matrix arithmetic. The matrices are represented with simple identifiers and microinstruction that assist in the computation of many operations which are useful for solving complex problems. The design was successfully implemented and tested using VHDL language. The proposed design is an efficient architecture as a standalone processor with all embedding computational resources necessary for an embedded image processing application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart sensor; multi-agent system; modular architecture; Blade Health Monitoring; system on chip
Online: 1 July 2021 (12:33:59 CEST)
Blade Health Monitoring (BHM) is often necessary in power plants and in aviation to prevent excessive blade vibration and cracks. This article proposes a network of blade tip timing sensors operated in a distributed BHM system. A number of cooperating agents is implemented in smart conditioning units which can autonomously operate in an adverse environment and communicate with other nodes via a serial interface. The project uses special versions of reduced instruction set chips that are able to operate near the hot section of the engine. Due to the limited number of types of microprocessors available in the extended temperature range grading, it was necessary to fully utilize the limited hardware resources and implement preemptive multitasking. For this purpose, a custom operating system and communication protocol were designed. The protocol hosts the middle layer which hides the implementation of the distributed system. The presented architecture ensures the sufficient computational capacity in individual nodes of the network operated in adverse conditions. It is scalable and resistant to transmission errors.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant architecture determination; graph theoretic approach; leaf detection; leaf tracking; leaf status report.
Online: 22 January 2021 (14:01:50 CET)
Rigid-body visual tracking is an active research field with many practical applications including visual surveillance and intelligent transport system. In this paper, we define a new problem domain, called visual growth tracking, to track different parts of an object that grow non-uniformly over space and time for application in image-based plant phenotyping. The paper introduces a novel method to detect and track each leaf of a plant for automated leaf stage monitoring. The method has four phases: optimal view selection, plant architecture determination, leaf tracking and generation of a leaf status report. The proposed method uses a graph theoretic approach to reliably detect and track individual leaves by overcoming the challenge of leaf-losses based on temporal image sequence analysis for automatically generating the leaf status report containing the following phenotypes, i.e., the emergence timing of each leaf, total number of leaves present at any time, the day on which a particular leaf stopped growing, and the length and relative growth rate of individual leaves. The proposed method demonstrates high accuracy in detecting leaves and tracking them through the early vegetative stages of maize plants based on experimental evaluation on a publicly available benchmark dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: data governance; data sovereignty; urban data spaces; ICT reference architecture; open urban platform
Online: 6 December 2018 (05:09:54 CET)
This paper presents the results of a recent study that was conducted with a number of German municipalities/cities. Based on the obtained and briefly presented recommendations emerging from the study, the authors propose the concept of an Urban Data Space (UDS), which facilitates an eco-system for data exchange and added value creation thereby utilizing the various types of data within a smart city/municipality. Looking at an Urban Data Space from within a German context and considering the current situation and developments in German municipalities, this paper proposes a reasonable classification of urban data that allows to relate the various data types to legal aspects and to conduct solid considerations regarding technical implementation designs and decisions. Furthermore, the Urban Data Space is described/analyzed in detail, and relevant stakeholders are identified, as well as corresponding technical artifacts are introduced. The authors propose to setup Urban Data Spaces based on emerging standards from the area of ICT reference architectures for Smart Cities, such as DIN SPEC 91357 “Open Urban Platform” and EIP SCC. Thereby, the paper walks the reader through the construction of an UDS based on the above mentioned architectures and outlines all the goals, recommendations and potentials, which an Urban Data Space can reveal to a municipality/city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: life-cycle analysis (LCA); sustainable materials; sustainability climate impact; bioclimatic architecture; green buildings
Online: 4 July 2018 (10:27:22 CEST)
The construction industry is responsible for 40 to 45% of primary energy consumption in Europe alone. Therefore, it is essential to find new materials with a lower environmental impact in order to attain sustainable housing. This study aims to determine and compare the environmental impact of two clay samples forming a basis for the manufacture of traditional brick, a standard material in building construction; traditional red clay brick and a brick based on clay mixed with a biological ingredient. The samples of fired clay were manufactured at the laboratory scale, the results being valid exclusively as indicators for the extrapolation of the analysis to other studies. The results of the environmental impact of these formulations have been examined through an evaluation of life-cycle analysis (LCA), observing that the incorporation of biological pore forming agents led to a decrease of around 15 to 20% of all impact categories studied. Thus, the suitability of using biological-based additives in clay bricks was confirmed both for their constructive characteristics (lighter material) and increased energy efficiency (better thermal insulation) considering the environmental point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: model-based system engineering (MBSE); model-based systems architecting (MBSA); model-based pattern language (MBPL); system architecture; logical architecture; SysML patterns; pattern library; systems engineering (SE); pattern language; logical decomposition
Online: 9 August 2022 (09:26:54 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to the application of the Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Model-Based Systems Architecting (MBSA) principles to develop a Model-Based Pattern Language (MBPL). It takes too long for systems engineers and architects to develop a new system from scratch, particularly new space-based systems derived from the existing space systems architectures. A pattern language is a holistic view of reusable logical model artifacts; many are interdisciplinary and introductory, if at all. The results are mostly a combination of the application-specific logical solution, which further results in the best possible overall solution. The main benefit of the pattern language is reducing the time and validation required to generate a new space-based system architecture; this approach will develop top-level requirements in the initial phase of the system development. The rationale of the methodology proposed by the paper is as follows, collect, and decompose published literature and other open-source information available on space system architectures and system models; develop SysML models for systems, subsystems, products, assembly, subassembly level, and mission-specific requirements using CAMEO SysML software. Arrange these patterns to develop a functional ontology and construct a logical architecture pattern library. This approach created, updated, and managed SysML pattern language, which evaluated the expedited new model construction. Again, our objective is to develop a logical pattern language using public domain information and evaluate patterns by constructing a new space mission concept—for example, planetary surface habitat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2142.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: llama 2; llama2; llama 2 projects; llama 2 model architecture; llama 2 fine-tuning
Online: 2 August 2023 (04:30:51 CEST)
The rapidly evolving field of artificial intelligence (AI) continues to witness the introduction of innovative open-source pre-trained models, fostering advancements in various applications. One such model is Llama 2, an open-source pre-trained model released by Meta, which has garnered significant attention among early adopters. In addition to exploring the foundational elements of the Llama v2 model, this paper investigates how these early adopters leverage the capabilities of Llama 2 in their AI projects. Through a qualitative study, we delve into the perspectives, experiences, and strategies employed by early adopters to leverage Llama 2's capabilities. For the purpose of data analysis, the capabilities inherent in the Llama 2 model were employed to conduct keyword extraction from the context of the early adopters' case studies. The findings shed light on the model's strengths, weaknesses, and areas of improvement, offering valuable insights for the AI community and Meta to enhance future model iterations. Additionally, we discuss the implications of Llama 2's adoption on the broader open-source AI landscape, addressing challenges and opportunities for developers and researchers in the pursuit of cutting-edge AI solutions. The present study constitutes an early exploration of the Llama 2 pre-trained model, holding promise as a foundational basis for forthcoming research investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0731.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: urbanism; surrealism; literary devices; maps and plans; cities; gender; painting; architecture; literary genre; poetry.
Online: 23 April 2023 (02:43:05 CEST)
The aim of this study is to analyse the names given to streets, monuments, spots of interest, et cetera in a street guide of an imaginary city called The Manada, whose map is constructed as a painting. For this analysis, we start from the 257 entries of the Street Guide, select their possible antecedents in literature and contextualize this street guide with respect to these antecedents. Our methodology is focused on two specific aspects of the Street guide: (1) to detect the semantic fields that emerge (with a methodology inverse to the creative one, that is, asking ourselves what key questions would result in the names of the streets) and (2) to detect the literary devices that are put into practice in the names of the places on the map, in order to determine how the relationship with the viewer-reader is established from a connotative level. The main findings of this study demonstrate that this is a unique piece, a new format both pictorial and literary, and that it has transcendence in the theme it deals with: the concealment of systemic violence. Comments about feminism, apotropaic devices and surrealism end our text.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0370.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: building materials; rural architecture; Ischia Island; radiological characterization; radon; radiological risk assessment; sustainable buildings
Online: 17 September 2020 (04:16:06 CEST)
Radiological risk affect the quality of the environment in buildings since population and workers can be potentially exposed to high level of dose. Radon gas emanated from both subsoil and building materials represents the most important source of radiation exposure for people. This study investigates the sustainability concept of a small rural village of Ischia Island, named Ciglio, in relation to the radiological risk. Radon activity concentration was measured in typical green tuff dwellings and in water samples collected from a local spring using E-Perm devices. Moreover, for green-tuff as building material, the radon emanation coefficient was calculated by gamma spectroscopy. The results highlight the importance to perform environmental radon monitoring and to investigate the radon content of building materials, especially in geographical areas characterized by traditional use of typical stones for constructions. In conclusion, the sustainability development of rural buildings is possible if the radiological risk for inhabitants and workers was assessed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: networked driving simulation; high-level architecture; network data traffic; data distribution management; interest manager
Online: 20 April 2017 (03:42:39 CEST)
In networked driving simulation, two or more human drivers participate interactively within a shared virtual environment. Thereby, typical applications of driving simulation can be extended to consider multi-driver scenarios, where a much closer approximation of reality with its unpredictability is achieved. However, the utilized network is typically prone to a considerable amount of message traffic. In addition to restricted system scalability, the resulting degradation of network performance leads to invalid simulation outcomes or unacceptable system behavior. High-level architecture (HLA) is an IEEE standard for networked simulation. Data distribution management (DDM) is one of the service groups provided by HLA standard. The aim of the DDM service is to reduce network traffic and to save effort required to process unnecessary received data. However, different approaches for current DDM implementations show major drawbacks in terms of utilization complexity, inefficiency, and yet added network overhead. This paper presents a concept of an interest manager that takes over the DDM functionality and avoids these drawbacks. Simulation data is exchanged between the participating driving simulators only when it is necessary according to the driving situations. The concept is validated by analyzing the network load of two driving maneuvers with and without the interest manager.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Data, DWH, Data Warehouse, Architecture, Data Lake, Storage, Analysis, Data Mesh, Analytical, Architectural, Data Vault
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:28:55 CEST)
In the rapidly evolving field of data management, numerous terminologies, such as data warehouse, data lake, data lakehouse, and data mesh , have emerged, each representing a unique analytical data architecture. However, the distinctions and similarities among these paradigms often remain unclear. The present paper aimed to navigate the data architecture landscape by conducting a comparative analysis of these paradigms. The analysis a identified and elucidated the differences and similari- ties in features, capabilities, and limitations of these architectural constructs. The study outcome serves as a comprehensive guide, assisting practitioners in selecting the most suitable analytical data architecture for their specific applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0143.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: passive continental margin basin; lithofacies paleogeography; basin structural architecture; hydrocarbon accumulation model; deepwater hydrocarbon exploration
Online: 5 September 2023 (07:08:01 CEST)
Based on the plate tectonic theory, using seismic, geology, and public literature data, the proto-type basins and lithofacies paleogeography during the main geological periods of the passive continental margin of East Africa are restored, and the architecture characteristics of the basins and the differences in sedimentary fillings are analyzed. Combined with the dissection of discovered oil and gas reservoirs, four types of hydrocarbon accumulation models are established, the favorable hydrocarbon accumulation combinations (plays), and the next exploration directions in this region are explored. The passive continental margin basins in East Africa experienced three proto-type stages: intracontinental aborted rift during the Late Carboniferous-Triassic Karoo period, intracontinental-intercontinental rift during the Jurassic period, and passive continental margin basin since the Cretaceous period. Affected by the difference in sedimentary filling thickness between the rift period and depression period, four types of passive continental margin basins are formed: rifted type, depressed type, faulted depression type, and reformed delta type. The maximum sedimentary thickness of the rifted basins during the rift period is greater than 3500 m, and that during the depression period is less than 4000 m, forming a "single-source structure type" hydrocarbon accumulation model. The exploration of rifted basins should focus on giant structural traps at the top of the rifted sequences. The maximum sedimentary thickness of the depressed basins during the depression period exceeds 4000 m, forming a "single-source fan group type" hydrocarbon accumulation model. The dominant exploration directions of depressed basins are sedimentary sand bodies and structural-lithologic traps during the depression and drift periods. The maximum sedimentary thickness of the faulted depression basins during the rift period is greater than 3500 m, and that during the depression period is greater than 4000 m, forming a "double-source and double-combination type" hydrocarbon accumulation model. The exploration of rifted basins should focus on giant slip-collapse-debris flow sedimentary sand bodies on the upper and middle slopes. In addition to the large sedimentary thickness of the early rift and the central depression, the delta thickness of the reformed delta basins during the late depression period since the Miocene is more than 4000 m, and four structural belts (growth fault, mud diapir, thrust fold, and foredeep gentle slope) were formed from onshore to offshore, forming a "three-source and multi-combination type" hydrocarbon accumulation model. All four structural belts can form giant oil and gas fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1030.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: CNN architecture; Single Ingredient Classification model; Food Ingredients segmentation; evaluation metrics; Hierarchical Multi-level learning
Online: 14 August 2023 (11:20:25 CEST)
It is important for food recognition to separate each ingredient within a food image at the pixel level. In this paper, we propose a new approach to segment ingredients by utilizing a CNN-based Single-Ingredient Classification Model. In detail, we firstly introduce a standardized biological-based hierarchical ingredient structure and construct a single-ingredient image dataset based on this structure. Then, we build a single-ingredient classification model based on a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture that utilizes an attention mechanism. Afterwards, we propose a new framework for segmentation using the above single-ingredient classification model as the backbone. In this framework, two methods are involved in segmenting ingredients in the food images. We introduce five evaluation metrics (IoU, Dice, Purity, Entirety, Loss of GTs) to assess the performance of ingredient segmentation in terms of ingredient classification. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, achieving an maximal mIoU of 0.65, mDice of 0.77, mPurity of 0.83, mEntirety of 0.80, and mLoGTs of 0.06 on the FoodSeg103 dataset. The results confirm that our CNN-based architecture achieves higher segmentation performance compared to ResNet18 and EfficientNet-B0 when used as the backbone for ingredient segmentation. We believe that our ingredient segmentation approach lays the foundation for subsequent ingredient recognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: VIPV; passenger car; life cycle assessment; mileage; electrical architecture; thresholds; model; losses; shading; carbon footprint
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:25:22 CEST)
Among the explored solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the transport sector, Vehicle Integrated Photovoltaics. Thus, we developed a simulation tool of the distance covered by VIPV. It considers various usage patterns and vehicle types, several characteristics of the PV system and all the losses that may decrease energy yield. Focusing on passenger car, simulations indicate the order of influence of the parameters on the outputs of the model: geographic locality, shading, thresholds due to extra-consumption to charge the vehicle battery from PV and frequency of recharge with the grid. With projections of the technology in 2030, with 30 % shading, VIPV cover up to 1444 km yearly distance. This represents up to 12 % of the driven mileage. For the best month, it can get up to 14 km/day. For average Europe and worst-case conditions, VIPV cover only 293 km per year. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of solarized passenger car shows negative balance for low-carbon electricity mix and average solar irradiance. In favorable conditions, the carbon footprint is up to 489 kg CO2-equivalent avoided emissions on 13 years lifespan. Beyond km and LCA focus, VIPV may provide useful functions in non-interconnected zones and for resilience in disaster zones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Korean Heritage; Asian Architecture; Tadao Ando; Hypogeal Chambers; Architectural Proportions; Ashlar Construction; Innovative Architectural Projects.
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:23:12 CET)
The purpose of this article is to disclose the architectural proportions and nature of the Korean national treasure in Seokguram Grotto, Gyeongju. The authors compare its features with those of other ancient hypogeal or ashlar constructions and intend to rediscover its relevant hidden configuration and latent structural properties to show its uniqueness. The methods employed in the research belong initially to architectural design and composition to advance at a later stage, into the nuances of stone masonry, lighting effects or cohesive construction. In this discussion and thorough analysis, different philosophical and scientific subtleties come afloat. The results demonstrate a significant potential capable to be applied in part to recent architectural developments like Tadao Ando’s Buddha Hill in Hokkaido (2017) and the authors’ own project for a Buddhist monument.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: spatial genome architecture; 3D chromatin organization; DNA loops; noncoding mutations; enhancer; blood cancer; hematopoietic malignancies
Online: 2 August 2020 (09:33:40 CEST)
Associations between blood cancer and genetic predisposition, including both inherited variants and acquired mutations and epimutations, have been well characterized. However, the majority of these variants affect noncoding regions, making their mechanisms difficult to hypothesize and hindering the translation of these insights into patient benefits. Fueled by unprecedented progress in next-generation sequencing and computational integrative analysis, studies have started applying combinations of epigenetic, genome architecture and functional assays to bridge the gap between noncoding variants and blood cancer. These complementary tools have not only allowed us to understand the potential malignant role of these variants but also to differentiate key variants, cell types and conditions from misleading ones. Here, we briefly review recent studies that have provided fundamental insights into our understanding of how noncoding mutations at enhancers predispose and promote blood malignancies in the context of spatial genome architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0326.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: complex systems modeling; systems architecture; system’s model complexity; visualization; agent-based systems; system’s model evolution
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:15:20 CEST)
This work presents some characteristics of MoNet, a computerized platform for the modeling and visualization of complex systems. Emphasis is on the ideas that allowed the successful progressive development of this modeling platform, which goes along with the implementation of applications to the modeling of several studied systems. The platform has the capacity to represent different aspects of systems modeled at different observation scales. This tool offers advantages in the sense of favoring the perception of the phenomenon of the emergence of information, associated with changes of scale. Some criteria used for the construction of this modeling platform are included. The power of current computers has made practical representing graphic resources such as shapes, line thickness, overlaying-text tags, colors and transparencies, in the graphical modeling of systems made up of many elements. By visualizing diagrams conveniently designed to highlight contrasts, these modeling platforms allow the recognition of patterns that drive our understanding of systems and their structure. Graphs that reflect the benefits of the tool regarding the visualization of systems at different scales of observation are presented to illustrate the application of the platform.