COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0493.v1
Online: 25 August 2021 (12:42:20 CEST)
Increased awareness of the multiple roles of RNA molecules has led to the realization that, in addition to their structural and functional roles, RNAs can be drug targets for small molecular therapy. The aim of this study was to identify multivalent amikacin specific RNA aptamers that can be a new target sites for aminoglycoside antibiotics, including amikacin using the systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method. Amikacin, a member of the aminoglycoside group of antibiotics, binds to specific sites in bacterial 16S ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and interferes with protein synthesis, leading to cell death. Here, we used the SELEX method to isolate high affinity RNA fragments (aptamers) that bind to amikacin. After five rounds of SELEX selection, in which a linear N25 DNA template was used for the first selection cycle, the resulting RNA was cloned and sequenced. Among the 38 clones generated, five groups of sequences (groups A through E) containing nine conserved motifs were identified. The sequences of groups A and B were almost identical, indicating that the selected RNA was enriched. Subsequently, the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool program was used to search for the conserved motifs in bacterial 16S rRNA sequences. Strikingly, no sequence homology was observed, suggesting that the conserved sequences (motifs) identified in this study may be novel target sites for amikacin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Glioblastoma; Tumour microenvironment; Aptamer; Therapeutic
Online: 15 August 2023 (05:05:31 CEST)
The key challenges to treating glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are the heterogenous and complex nature of the GBM tumour microenvironment (TME) and difficulty of drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The TME is composed of various neuronal and immune cells, as well as non-cellular components including metabolic products, cellular interactions, and chemical compositions, all of which play a critical role in GBM development and therapeutic resistance. In this review, we aim to unravel the complexity of the GBM TME, evaluate current therapeutics targeting this microenvironment, and lastly identify potential targets and therapeutic delivery vehicles for the treatment of GBM. Specifically, we explore the potential of aptamer-targeted delivery as a successful approach to treating brain cancers. Aptamers have emerged as promising therapeutic drug delivery vehicles with the potential to cross the BBB and deliver payloads to GBM and brain metastases. By targeting specific ligands within the TME, aptamers could potentially improve treatment outcomes and overcome the challenges associated with larger therapies such as antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0841.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HCVcoreAg; antibody; aptamer; nanoribbon biosensor; diagnostics
Online: 13 October 2023 (04:34:39 CEST)
The performance of the nanoribbon biosensor upon the use of two different types of molecular probes — the antibodies and the aptamers against HCVcoreAg — has been tested. The sensor chips employed are based on “silicon-on-insulator structures”. Two different HCVcoreAg preparations have been tested: recombinant b-galactosidase-conjugated HCVcoreAg (“Virogen”, USA) and recombinant HCVcoreAg (“Vector-Best”, Russia). Upon the detection of either type of the antigen preparation, the lowest concentration of the antigen detectable in buffer with pH 5.1 has been found to be approximately equal, amounting to ~10–14 M. This value has been found to be similar upon the use of either type of molecular probes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0217.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: aptamer: acoustophoresis; microfluidics; gram-negative bacteria
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:41:41 CEST)
Here, we report a simple and effective method for separation of gram-negative bacteria using aptamer-modified microbeads and acoustophoresis. As acoustophoresis allows for simultaneous washing and size-dependent separation in continuous flow mode, we efficiently obtained gram-negative bacteria that showed high affinity without any additional washing steps. The proposed device has a simple and efficient channel design, utilizing a long, square-shaped microchannel that shows excellent separation performance in terms of the purity, recovery, and concentration factor. Microbeads (10 µm) coated with the GN6 aptamer can specifically bind gram-negative bacteria. Using acoustophoresis, gram-negative bacteria-bound microbeads and other unbound/contaminants can be separated by size with high purity and recovery. The device demonstrated excellent separation performance, with high recovery (up to 98%), high purity (up to 99%), and a high volume rate (500 µL/min), and a concentration factor of up to 20×. The acoustophoresis microfluidic device also showed binding affinity to multiple strains of gram-negative bacteria, but not to gram-positive bacteria. This study presents a new paradigm for early diagnosis of bacterial infectious diseases. In addition to detecting living bacteria or bacteria-derived biomarkers, this protocol can be extended to monitoring the contamination of water resources, and may aid quick responses to bioterrorism and pathogenic bacterial infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0134.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Chemical Physics Keywords: aptamer; aptasensor; electrical properties; networks; proteotronics
Online: 16 March 2018 (11:12:17 CET)
Selected by in vitro techniques (SELEX, cell-SELEX), aptamers are strands of DNA or RNA molecules able to bind a wide range of targets, from small molecules to live cells, and even tissues, with high affinity and specificity. Due to their efficient targeting ability, aptamers are extensively used in different fields of applications. For example, they ensure high performance as cancer-related markers or in recognizing cancer cells. Actually, they represent a promising way for early diagnosis (biosensors) and to deliver imaging agents and drugs, in both cancer imaging and therapy (therapeutic aptamers). Aptamer-based biosensors (aptasensors) have attracted particular attention over the last decades, so as the possibility of using aptamers in disease therapy in substitution of monoclonal antibodies. The paper briefly reviews the most recent literature on this topic, both concerning the advances in biomedical applications and in the development of electrical aptasensors. The investigation concerning the bioelectronics features of aptamers, to be implemented in the development of electrical nanobiosensors, is also reviewed. To this aim, some recent results of a theoretical/computational framework for modelling the electrical properties of biomolecules (Proteotronics) are reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1318.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: anti-thrombin aptamer; complex network; electrical response
Online: 18 August 2023 (08:30:24 CEST)
Food and drinks can be contaminated with pollutants such as lead and strontium and this poses a serious danger to human health. For this reason, a number of effective sensors have been developed for the rapid and highly selective detection of such contaminants. TBA, a well-known aptamer developed to selectively target and thereby inhibit the protein of clinical interest -thrombin, is receiving increasing attention for sensing applications, particularly for the sensing of different cations. Indeed, TBA, in the presence of these cations, folds into the stable G-quadruplex structure. Furthermore, different cations produce small but significant changes in this structure that result in changes in the electrical responses that TBA can produce. In this article we produce an overview of the expected data regarding the use of TBA in the detection of lead and strontium, calculating the expected electrical response using different measurement techniques. Finally, we conclude that the TBA should perform better as a detector of strontium rather than lead.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0009.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Glyphosate; Aptamer; qPCR; SYBR Green I; sensor
Online: 1 December 2022 (04:00:13 CET)
Glyphosate (GLYP) is a broad-spectrum, non-selective, organic phosphine post emergence herbicide registered for use on many food and non-food field. Herein, we developed a biosensor (Mbs@dsDNA) based on carboxylated modified magnetic beads incubated with NH2-polyA and then hybridized with polyT-glyphosate aptamer and complementary DNA. Afterward, a quantitative detection method based on qPCR was established. When the glyphosate aptamer on Mbs@dsDNA specifically recognized glyphosate, a complementary DNA is released and then enters the qPCR signal amplification process. The linear range of the method was 0.1-5 μg/mL, and the detection limit was set at 0.1 μg/mL. The recoveries in tap water were ranged from 103.4 ~ 104.9%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were < 1%. The aptamer proposed in this study has a good potential for recognizing glyphosate. The detection method combined with qPCR might have a good application prospect in detecting and supervising other pesticide residues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Paper based sensor; whole virus; Zika; Aptamer
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:30:18 CET)
Paper-based sensors, microfluidic platforms and electronic devices have attracted attention in the past couple of decades because they are flexible, can be recycled easily, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. Here we report a paper aptamer-based potentiometric sensor to detect the whole Zika virus for the first time with a minimum sensitivity of 2.6 nV/Zika and the minimum detectable signal (MDS) of 0.8x1e6 Zika. Our paper sensor works very similar to a P-N junction where a junction is formed between two different wet regions with different electrochemical potentials near each other on the paper. These two regions with slightly different ionic contents, ionic species and concentrations, produce a potential difference given by the Nernst equation. Our paper sensor consisted of a 2-3 mm x 10 mm segments of a paper with a conducting silver paint contact patches on its two ends. The paper is soaked in a buffer solution containing aptamers designed to bind to the capsid proteins on Zika. Atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to show both the aptamer and Zika become immobilized in the paper. We then added the Zika (in its own buffer or simulant Urine) to the region close to one of the silver-paint contacts. The Zika virus (40 nm diameter with 43 kDa or 7.1x10-20 gm weight), became immobilized in the paper’s pores and bonded with the resident aptamers creating a concentration gradient. The potential measured between the two silver paint contacts reproducibly became more negative as upon adding the Zika. We also showed that an LCD powered by the sensor, can be used to detect the sensor output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0291.v1
Online: 20 February 2020 (07:24:39 CET)
Paper-based sensors, microfluidic platforms and electronic devices have attracted attention in the past couple of decades because they are flexible, can be recycled easily, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. Here we report a paper aptamer-based potentiometric sensor to detect the whole Zika virus for the first time with a minimum sensitivity of 2.6 nV/Zika and the minimum detectable signal (MDS) of 1.2x106 Zika. Our paper sensor works very similar to a P-N junction where a junction is formed between two different wet regions with different electrochemical potentials near each other on the paper. These two regions with slightly different ionic contents, ionic species and concentrations, produce a potential difference given by the Nernst equation. Our paper sensor consisted of a 2-3 mm x 10 mm segments of a paper with a conducting silver paint contact patches on its two ends. The paper is soaked in a buffer solution containing aptamers designed to bind to the capsid proteins on Zika. Atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to show both the aptamer and Zika become immobilized in the paper. We then added the Zika (in its own buffer) to the region close to one of the silver-paint contacts. The Zika virus (40 nm diameter with 43 kDa or 7.1x10-20 gm weight), became immobilized in the paper’s pores and bonded with the resident aptamers creating a concentration gradient. The potential measured between the two silver paint contacts reproducibly became more negative as upon adding the Zika. We also showed that an LCD powered by the sensor, can be used to detect the sensor output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1254.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Aptamer; Blood Clot; Three dimensional; Scaffold; Hydrogel; Osteogenesis.
Online: 17 August 2023 (13:14:36 CEST)
Background: Scaffold (SCA) functionalization with aptamers (APT) provides adsorption of specific bioactive molecules on biomaterials surface. The aim of this study was to observe if SCA enriched with anti-fibronectin APT can favor coagulum (PhC) and osteoblasts (OSB) differentiation. Methods: 20 ug of APT was functionalized on SCA by simple adsorption. For PhC formation, SCAs were inserted into rat calvaria defects for 17 hours. Following proper transportation (Buffer solution-PB), OSB (UMR-106 lineage) were seeded over PhC + SCAs with and without APT. Cells and PhC morphology, PhC cell population, protein labelling and gene expression were observed in different time points. Results: The APT induced higher ALP and BSP immunolabeling in OSB. CD90, CD45 and CD44 expression was more detected in APT group than when scaffolds were not functionalized. Additionally, an enriched and dense fibrin network and different cell types were observed, with more OSB and white blood cells in PhC formed on SCA with APT. The gene expression showed higher TGF-β1 detection in SCA with APT. Conclusions: The SCA functionalization with fibronectin aptamers provides a selective expression of proteins related to coagulation pattern and osteo differentiation. Additionally, aptamers increase TGF-β1 gene expression, which is highly associated with improvements in regenerative therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0100.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aptamer; neuroscience; neurological diseases; neurological disorders; neurotoxins; cancer
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:49:50 CET)
Being the predominant cause of disability, neurological diseases have received much attention from the global health community. Over a billion people suffer from one of the following neurological disorders: dementia, epilepsy, stroke, migraine, meningitis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, prion dis-ease, or brain tumors. Diagnosis and treatment options are limited for many of these diseases. Aptamers, being small and non-immunogenic nucleic acid molecules that are easy to chemically modify, offer potential diagnostic and theranostic applications to meet these needs. This review covers pioneer studies to apply aptamers, which show promise for future diagnostics and treatments of neurological disorders that pose increasingly dire worldwide health challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; proteomics; aptamer; cardiovascular disease; myectomy surgery
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:18:59 CET)
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract (LVOT) obstruction occurs in approximately 70% of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients and currently requires imaging or invasive testing for diagnosis, sometimes in conjunction with provocative physiological or pharmaceutical stimuli. To identify potential biomarkers of LVOT obstruction, we performed proteomics profiling of 1305 plasma proteins in 12 HCM patients with documented LVOT obstruction referred for surgical myectomy. Plasma was collected at the surgical preoperative visit approximately one month prior to surgery and then at the post surgical visit approximately 3 months later. Proteomic profiles were generated using the aptamer-based SOMAscan assay. Principal Component Analysis using the highest statistically significant proteins separated all preoperative samples from all postoperative samples. Further analysis revealed a set of 25 proteins that distinguished the preoperative and postoperative states with a paired t-test p value of <0.01. Ingenuity Pathway analysis facilitated the generation of protein interaction networks and the elucidation of key upstream regulators of the differentially expressed proteins such as interferon-, TGF-1 and TNF. Biological pathways affected by the surgery included organ inflammation, migration and motility of leukocytes, fibrosis, vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, acute coronary events, endothelial proliferation, eicosanoid metabolism, calcium flux, apoptosis and morphology of the cardiovascular system. Our results indicate that surgical relief of dynamic outflow tract obstruction in HCM patients is associated with unique alterations in plasma proteomic profiles that likely reflect improvement in organ inflammation and physiological function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: oligonucleotide therapeutics; RNA interference; antisense; aptamer; decoy; pancreatic cancer
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:12:46 CEST)
Although there is a several array of diagnostic and therapeutic choices for pancreatic cancer in recent years, a crucial medical approach for the refractory disease is still needed. Oligonucleotide therapeutics, such as those based on antisense RNAs, RNA interference, aptamers and decoys, are promising agents against pancreatic cancer because they identify a specific nucleotide sequence or protein and interfere with gene expression as molecular-targeted agents. Within just the past quarter-century, the diversity and feasibility of these drugs as diagnostic or therapeutic tools have dramatically increased. Actually, there have been several clinical and preclinical studies of oligonucleotides for patients with pancreatic cancer so far. To support the discovery of effective diagnostic or therapeutic options by using oligonucleotide-based strategies in the absence of satisfactory therapies for long-term survival and the rising trend of diseases, we summarize the current clinical trials of oligonucleotide therapeutics for pancreatic cancer patients with underlying preclinical or scientific data and focus on the possibility of oligonucleotides to target pancreatic cancer in clinical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0023.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation; 17β-estradiol; DNA-aptamer; GROMACS; modeling
Online: 12 July 2018 (11:29:54 CEST)
Micro-pollutants such as 17β-Estradiol (E2) have been detected in different water resources and their negative effects on the environment and organisms have been observed. Aptamers are established as a possible detection tool, but the underlying ligand binding is largely unexplored. In this study, a previously described 35-mer E2-specific aptamer was used to analyse the binding characteristics between E2 and the aptamer with a MD simulation in an aqueous medium. Because there is no 3D structure information available for this aptamer, it was modeled using coarse-grained modeling method. The E2 ligand was positioned inside a potential binding area of the predicted aptamer structure, the complex was used for an 25 ns MD simulation, and the interactions were examined for each time step. We identified E2-specific bases within the interior loop of the aptamer and also demonstrated the influence of frequently underestimated water-mediated hydrogen bonds. The study contributes to the understanding of the behavior of ligands binding with aptamer structure in an aqueous solution. The developed workflow allows generating and examining further appealing ligand-aptamer complexes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: DNA aptamer; biosensor; Cell-SELEX; in vitro diagnostic; Rikenella microfusus
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:42:24 CEST)
Rikenella microfusus is an essential intestinal probiotic with great potential. The latest research shows that its imbalance in the intestinal flora is related to the occurrence of various diseases, such as intestinal diseases, immune diseases, and metabolic diseases. Rikenella may be a target or biomarker for some diseases, providing a new possibility for preventing and treating these diseas-es by monitoring and changing the abundance of Rikenella in the intestine. However, the current detection methods have disadvantages such as long detection time, complicated operation, and high cost, which seriously limit the possibility of clinical application of this new treatment method. Therefore, developing rapid and low-cost detection methods has become an urgent problem to be solved. In this study, we used Rikenella as the target bacterium, meanwhile including five other prominent gut bacteria Akkermansia muciniphila, Allobaculum stercoricanis, Blautia producta, Rose-buria intestinalis and Parabacteroides distasonis as control organisms. The aptamer library R.m-R13 was evolved with high specificity and strong affinity (Kd = 9.597 nM) in an iterative Cell-SELEX process after 13 rounds of selection. R. microfusus can efficiently be discriminated from other major gut bacteria in complex mixtures in different analysis techniques including fluorescence micros-copy or fluorometric suspension assays and even in human stool samples. These preliminary re-sults open new avenues towards the development of aptamer-based microbiome bio-sensing ap-plications for fast and reliable R. microfusus monitoring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0084.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: microdevice; aptamer; biosensor; SELEX; lab-on-chip; point-of-care
Online: 7 April 2018 (12:10:02 CEST)
Since the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method was developed, aptamers have made significant contributions as bio-recognition sensors. Microdevice systems allow for low reagent consumption, high-throughput of samples, and disposability. Due to these advantages, there has been an increasing demand to develop microfluidic-based aptasensors for analytical technique applications. This review introduces the principal concepts of aptasensors and then presents some advanced applications of microdevice-based aptasensors on several platforms. Highly sensitive detection techniques such as electrochemical and optical detection have been integrated into lab-on-a-chip devices and researchers have moved towards the goal of establishing point-of-care diagnoses for target analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0106.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: DNA Aptamer; Interdigitated Sensor; Impedance Spectroscopy; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF).
Online: 1 June 2023 (15:34:11 CEST)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a important biomarker with significant clinical importance. It plays a key role in angiogenesis, would healing, tumor growth, lung development, and in retinal diseases. Hence, detecting and quantifying VEGF is crucial in clinical diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases. In this work, a simple but highly cost-effective platform is developed for VEGF protein detection by using commercially available interdigitated sensors that are modified through surface chemistry tagged with DNA aptamer grafting. The dielectric characteristics between the fingers of sensor is modulated by the negatively charged aptamer-VEGF capture and the impedance is estimated using impedance analyzer. Impedance spectra tests was compared between pristine unmodified, functionalized monolayer surfaces and aptamer-grafted surfaces in order to evaluate the efficacy of VEGF detection. In our results, the sensitivity experiments as conducted had shown the ability of the interdigitated sensor to detect VEGF at a low concentration of 5 pM. The specificity of the functionalized sensor in detecting VEGF is further studied by comparing the impedance to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and the results confirm the specificity of the sensor. Finally, an alternative illustration of impedance spectra is also proposed to improve the data visualization, and such presentation may be potential for intelligent VEGF detection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0988.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Electrochemical biosensor; animal virus; detection; diagnostic assay, nucleic acid; antigen; antibody; aptamer
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:19:15 CEST)
Animal viruses are a significant threat to animal health and are easily spread across the globe with the rise of globalization. The limitations in diagnosing and treating animal virus infections have made the transmission of diseases and animal deaths unpredictable. Therefore, early diagnosis of animal virus infections is crucial to prevent the spread of diseases and reduce economic losses. To address the need for rapid diagnosis, electrochemical sensors have emerged as a promising tool. Electrochemical methods present numerous benefits, including heightened sensitivity and selectivity, affordability, ease of use, portability, and rapid analysis, making them suitable for real-time virus detection. This paper focuses on the construction of electrochemical biosensor, as well as promising biosensor models, and expounds its advantages in virus detection, which is a promising research direction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aggregation-induced emission (AIE); RNA labeling; RNA aptamer; GFP; CRISPR/Cas; click chemistry
Online: 22 November 2023 (10:30:11 CET)
RNA, as an important substance for regulating biological growth and development, has significant implications for visualization research. However, many spontaneously fluorescent substances in plants greatly interfere with the effectiveness of plant bioimaging. Aggregetion- induced emission luminogens (AIEgens), due to their luminescent properties, tunable molecular size, high fluorescence intensity, good photostability, and low cell toxicity, have been widely applied in the animal and medical fields. We have found that AIEgens have great potential as RNA fluorescent probes for efficient imaging in plants. In this review, we first introduce several common RNA labeling forms and point out their pros and cons. We briefly describe the development of AIEgens and the AIE mechanism, and then present various practical applications of AIEgens, including detailed examples of their use as biological markers. To further promote the application of AIE in the field of RNA, we suggest the use of AIEgens to modify target RNA via techniques such as click chemistry or CRISPR/Cas, to achieve RNA visualization in plants. highly possible to modify target RNA with AIEgens in vivo for RNA visualization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Aptamer; Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer; Heavy Metal Ions; Graphene Oxide; Microfluidic Device; Sensor.
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:29:50 CEST)
Heavy metal contaminants have serious consequences for the environment and human health. Consequently, effective methods for detecting their presence, particularly in water and food, are urgently required. Accordingly, the present study proposes a sensor for the detection of mercury Hg(II) and lead Pb(II) ions using graphene oxide (GO) as a quenching agent and aptamer solu-tion as a reagent. In the proposed device, the aptamer sequences are labeled by FAM and HEX fluorescent dyes, respectively, and are mixed with 500 ppm GO solution in a microfluidic device. The presence of Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions is then detected by measuring the change in the fluores-cence intensity of the GO/aptamer suspension as the aptamer molecules undergo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The experimental results show that the aptamer sensors have a linear range of 10~250 nM (i.e., 2.0~50 ppb) for Hg(II) ions and 10~100 nM (i.e., 2.1~20.7 ppb) for Pb(II) ions. Furthermore, the limit of detection is around 2 ppb for both metals, which is signifi-cantly lower than the maximum limits of 6 ppb and 10 ppb prescribed by the World Health Or-ganization (WHO) for Hg(II) and Pb(II) in drinking water, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0471.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aptamer; aptasensor; diagnosis; imaging; sequencing; therapeutics; probes; fluorescence; pathogenic bacteria; cancer cells; monoclonal antibodies; SELEX; nucleic acids
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:18:16 CET)
Issues presented by the application of monoclonal antibodies in diagnostic assays and as curative agents can make the use of such molecules cost-prohibitive and sometimes even unsafe. This has warranted the development of short single-stranded oligonucleotides known as Aptamers. The structural malleability of these short DNA or RNA nucleotide segments allows them to exist in distinct conformations. SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) is a multi-step process for synthesis of aptamers. Each step of this procedure is governed by a diverse set of factors that influence production efficiency, binding affinity, and specificity of the oligonucleotides. Headway in aptamer research has been made in recent years by the introduction of newer iterations of the SELEX process. A greater number of studies are now being carried out to incorporate aptamers into existing disease detection tools and therapies. An overview has been given first on the key aptamer properties and the process of their production (with its newer iterations), contrasting each of them with that of monoclonal antibodies. Possible manifold applications afforded due to unique aptamer characteristics are also discussed. A keen review is further provided on the design, development and use of fluorescent aptamers in bioimaging, sequencing or profiling, and treatment of pathogenic bacteria and tumor cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0204.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: DNA origami; aptamer; DNA nanotechnology; protein nano array; biosensor; logic gate; enzyme cascade; drug delivery system; targeted therapy; molecular robotics
Online: 22 October 2018 (10:57:21 CEST)
DNA origami has emerged in recent years as a powerful technique for designing and building 2D and 3D nanostructures. While the breadth of structures that have been produced is impressive, one of the remaining challenges, especially for DNA origami structures intended to carry out useful biomedical tasks in vivo, is to endow them with the ability to detect and respond to molecules of interest. Target molecules may be disease indicators or cell surface receptors, and the responses may include conformational changes leading to release of therapeutically relevant cargo. Nucleic acid aptamers are ideally suited to this task and are beginning to be used in DNA origami designs. In this review we consider examples of uses of DNA aptamers in DNA origami structures and summarise what is currently understood regarding aptamer-origami integration. We review three major roles for aptamers in such applications: protein immobilisation, triggering of structural transformation, and cell targeting. Finally, we consider future perspectives for DNA aptamer integration with DNA origami.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0343.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biosensor; aptasensor; aptamer; antibiotic; ampicillin; penicillin; gentamicin; kanamycin; neomycin; tobramycin; streptomycin; daunomycin; chloramphenicol; ciprofloxacin; danofloxacin; enrofloxacin; ofloxacin; lincomycin; oxytetracycline; tetracycline; sulfadimethoxine
Online: 27 April 2018 (16:11:09 CEST)
Antibiotic resistance and accordingly their pollution because of uncontrolled usage has emerged as a serious problem in recent years. Hence, there is an increased demand to develope robust, easy, and sensitive methods for rapid evaluation of antibiotic and their residues. Among different analytical methods, the aptamer-based biosensors (aptasensors) have attracted considerable attention because of good selectivity, specificity, and sensitivity. This review gives an overview about recent developed aptasensors for antibiotic detection. The use of various aptamer assays to determine different groups of antibiotics like β-lactams, Aminoglycosides, Anthracyclines, Chloramphenicol, (Fluoro)Quinolones, Lincosamide, Tetracyclines and Sulfonamides are presented in this paper.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aptamer; calf-intestinal alkaline phosphatase; course-based undergraduate research experience; in vitro selection; Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment; SELEX; CURE; Freshman Research Initiative; 21st Century Skills
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:48:36 CEST)
Aptamers have a well-earned place in therapeutic, diagnostic, and sensor applications, and we now show that they provide an excellent foundation for education, as well. Within the context of the Freshman Research Initiative (FRI) at The University of Texas at Austin, students have used aptamer selection and development technologies in a teaching laboratory to build technical and 21st century skills appropriate for research scientists. One of the unique aspects of this course-based undergraduate research experience is that students develop their own projects, and take ownership of their own science in what would otherwise be a traditional teaching lab setting. Of the many successes, this work includes the isolation and characterization of novel calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (anti-CIAP) RNA aptamers by an undergraduate researcher. Further, preliminary survey data suggest that students who participate in the aptamer research experience express significant gains in their self-efficacy to conduct research, and their perceived ability to communicate scientific results, as well as organize and interpret data. This work will describe the use of aptamers in an educational setting, highlight the positive student outcomes of the aptamer research experience, and more particularly present the research findings relative to the anti-CIAP aptamer.