ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0172.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA-dependent amplification of mammalian mRNA; physiologically occurring intracellular PCR, iPCR; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp; chimeric RNA; sense-strand RNA; antisense-strand RNA
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:21:59 CEST)
The transfer of protein-encoding genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, a process formalized as the “Central Dogma of Molecular Biology”, has undergone a significant evolution since its inception. It was amended to account for the information flow from RNA to DNA, the reverse transcription, and for the information transfer from RNA to RNA, the RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. These processes, both potentially leading to protein production, were initially described only in viral systems, and although RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity was shown to be present, and RNA-dependent RNA synthesisfound to occur, in mammalian cells, its function was presumed to be restricted to regulatory. However, recent results, obtained with multiple mRNA species in several mammalian systems, strongly indicate the occurrence of protein-encoding RNA to RNA information transfer in mammalian cells. It can result in the rapid production of the extraordinary quantities of specific proteins as was seen in cases of terminal cellular differentiation and during cellular deposition of extracellular matrix molecules. A malfunction of this process may be involved in pathologies associated either with the deficiency of a protein normally produced by this mechanism or with the abnormal abundanceof a protein or of its C-terminal fragment. It seems to be responsible for some types of familial thalassemia and may underlie the overproduction of beta amyloid in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the present article is to systematize the current knowledge and understanding of this pathway. The outlined framework introduces unexpected features of the mRNA amplification such as its ability to generate polypeptides non-contiguously encoded in the genome, its second Tier, a physiologically occurring intracellular polymerase chain reaction, iPCR, a Two-Tier Paradox and RNA Dark Matter. RNA-dependent mRNA amplification represents a new mode of genomic protein-encoding information transfer in mammalian cells. Its potential physiological impact is substantial, it appears relevant to multiple pathologies and its understanding opens new venues of therapeutic interference, it suggests powerful novel bioengineering approaches and its further rigorous investigations are highly warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA therapeutics; cardiovascular disease; mRNA therapeutics; siRNA therapeutics; antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:07:05 CET)
Abstract Purpose of review: RNA therapeutics are a new and rapidly expanding class of drugs to prevent or treat a wide spectrum of diseases. We discuss the defining characteristics of the diverse family of molecules under the RNA therapeutics umbrella. Recent findings:RNA therapeutics are designed to regulate gene expression in a transient manner. For example, depending upon the strategy employed, RNA therapies offer the versatility to replace, supplement, correct, suppress, or eliminate the expression of a targeted gene. RNA therapies include antisense nucleotides, microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, RNA aptamers, and messenger RNAs. Further, we discuss the mechanism(s) by which different RNA therapies either reduce or increase the expression of their targets. Summary: We review the RNA therapeutics approved (and those in trials) to treat cardiovascular indications. RNA-based therapeutics are a new, rapidly growing class of drugs that will offer new alternatives for an increasing array of cardiovascular conditions.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0412.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; antisense oligonucleotide; ASO; LNA GapmeR
Online: 23 April 2020 (11:30:39 CEST)
The severity of the global COVID-19 pandemic, with a high transmission rate, 2.6-4.7% lethality and a huge economic impact, poses an urgent need for efficient medical treatments and vaccines. Currently, there are only non-specific treatments to assist the patients in acute respiratory distress during the inflammatory step following the preliminary infection by SARS-CoV-2. Clinical trials of drug repurposing were quickly launched at the international level. Specific treatments such as the transfusion of plasma from patients who have recovered into infected patients or the use of specific inhibitors of the viral RNA-polymerase complex are promising strategies to block infection. To complete the therapeutic arsenal, we believe that the opportunity of targeting the SARS-CoV-2 genome by RNA therapy should be deeply investigated. In the present paper, we propose to design specific antisense oligonucleotides targeting transcripts encoding viral proteins associated to replication and transcription of SARS-CoV-2, aiming to block infection. We designed antisense oligonucleotides targeting the genomic 5’ untranslated region (5’-UTR), open reading frames 1a and 1b (ORF1a and ORF1b) governing expression of the replicase/transcriptase complex, and the gene N encoding the nucleoprotein that is genome-associated. To maximize the probability of efficiency, we predicted the antisense oligonucleotides by using two design methods: i) conventional antisense oligonucleotides with 100% phosphorothioate modifications (ASO); ii) antisense locked nucleic acids GapmeR. After binding the viral RNA target, the hetero-duplexes antisense oligonucleotide-RNA are cleaved by RNAse H1. Nine potent ASO candidates were found and we selected five of them targeting ORF1a (3), ORF1b (1) and N (1). Nine GapmeR candidates were predicted with excellent properties and we retained four of them targeting 5’-UTR (1), ORF1a (3), ORF1b (1) and N (1). The most potent GapmeR candidate targets the 5’-UTR, a key genomic domain with multiple functions in the viral cycle. By this open publication, we are pleased to share these in silico results with the scientific community in hopes of stimulating innovation in translational research in order to fight the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. These antisense oligonucleotide candidates should be now experimentally evaluated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: RNA therapeutics; skin; mRNA therapeutics; siRNA therapeutics; antisense oligonucleotide ther-apeutics; ASO; melanoma; hypertrophic scars; wound healing; dermatology
Online: 27 February 2023 (01:53:06 CET)
Despite being under development for decades, RNA therapeutics have only recently emerged as viable platform technologies. The COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated the promise and power of the platform technology. In response, novel RNA drugs are entering clinical trials at an accelerating rate. As the skin is the largest and most accessible organ, it has always been a preferred target for drug discovery. This holds true for RNA therapies as well, and multiple candidate RNA-based drugs are currently in development for an array of skin conditions. In this mini review, we catalog the RNA therapies currently in clinical trials for different dermatological diseases. We summarize the main types of RNA-related drugs and use examples of drugs currently in development to illustrate their key mechanism of action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0322.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antisense oligonucleotides; antisense therapy; DNA insecticides; RNAi; medicine; agriculture; forestry
Online: 31 May 2018 (12:11:59 CEST)
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), short single-stranded polymers based on DNA or RNA chemistries and synthesized in vitro, regulate gene expression by binding in a sequence-specific manner to an RNA target. The functional activity and selectivity in the action of ASOs largely depends on the combination of nitrogenous bases in a target sequence. This simple and natural property of nucleic acids provides an attractive route by which scientists can create different ASO-based techniques. Over the last 50 years, planned and realized applications in the field of antisense and nucleic acid nanotechnologies have produced astonishing results and posed new challenges for further developments, exemplifying the essence of the post-genomic era. Today the majority of ASOs are chemically modified and/or incorporated within nanoparticles to enhance their stability and cellular uptake. This review critically analyzes some successful cases using the antisense approach in medicine to address severe diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy, and suggests some prospective directions for future research. We also examine in detail the elaboration of unmodified insect-specific DNA insecticides and RNA preparations in the areas of agriculture and forestry, a relatively new branch of ASO that allows circumvention of the use of non-selective chemical insecticides. When considering the variety of successful ASO modifications with an efficient signal-to-noise ratio of action, coupled with the affordability of in vitro oligonucleotide synthesis and post-synthesis procedures, we predict that the next half-century will produce a fruitful yield of tools created from effective ASO-based end products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0272.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: miR-155; FUBP1; strand selection; interleukin-10
Online: 15 November 2021 (19:24:40 CET)
MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) expression promotes inflammatory responses in macrophages. Activation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elevates miR-155, while the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL10) reduces miR-155 levels. MiR-155 exists in two forms, miR-155-5p and miR-155-3p, produced from the precursor of miR-155 (pre-miR-155). MiR-155-5p is the most abundant strand in activated macrophages, but in response to LPS, the miR-155-3p level is upregulated first, followed by miR-155-5p later. We have previously identified CELF2 protein which interacts with pre-miR-155 and impairs miR-155-5p expression. We now show that CELF2 only regulates the miR-155-5p expression and that another protein FUBP1 controls miR-155-3p levels in response to LPS and IL10.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0449.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: steel strand; GUW; signal denoising; VMD; SampEn-SVD
Online: 9 October 2023 (08:54:50 CEST)
The guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) is extensively employed in non-destructive testing (NDT) for the purpose of detecting defects in aerospace vehicles, oil pipelines and mechanical equipment. The filtration of GUW signals, which often contain substantial environmental noise, is a crucial procedure in signal processing. This paper presents a novel denoising approach that combines Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) with an enhanced Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The VMD method is employed to preprocess the initial signal, thereby segregating the signal component from the noise component. Subsequently, the SampEn-SVD (Sample Entropy-SVD) method is utilized to extract the effective component from the VMD-preprocessed noise component. Finally, the VMD-preprocessed signal component and the SampEn-SVD-processed effective component are combined to yield the resultant signal, which effectively filters out the noise. The efficacy of this integrated denoising approach is substantiated through the examination of experimental signals. Furthermore, a comparative analysis is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this method in relation to other denoising techniques. The results indicate that the SampEn-SVD method yields a superior signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when processing the GUW signal transmitted through the steel strand. Moreover, the denoising procedure significantly reduces the discretization of characteristic parameters in the signal waveform, thereby addressing the issue of inadequate reproducibility in testing outcomes. Consequently, the denoised signal exhibits high fidelity and demonstrates a strong correlation between its combined eigenvector and strand stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0264.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEGDA Hydrogels; 3D recognition; diffusion; strand displacement assay.
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:45:54 CEST)
The control of the three-dimensional (3D) polymer network structure is important for permselective materials when specific biomolecules detection is needed. Here we investigate conditions to obtain a tailored hydrogel network that combine both molecular filtering and molecular capture capabilities for biosensing applications. Along this line short oligonucleotide detection in a displacement assay is set within PEGDA hydrogels synthetized by UV radical photopolymerization. To provide insights on the molecular filter capability, diffusion studies of several probes (sulforhodamine G and dextrans) with different hydrodynamic radii were carried out using NMR technique. Moreover, fluorometric analyses of hybridization of DNA oligonucleotides inside PEGDA-hydrogels shed light on the mechanisms of recognition in 3D, highlighting that mesh size and crowding effect greatly impact of hybridization mechanism onto polymer network. Finally, we found the best probe density and diffusion transport conditions to allow the specific oligonucleotide capture and detection inside PEGDA-hydrogels for oligonucleotide detection and the filtering out of higher molecular weight molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0292.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: NHEJ; double-strand breaks; mouse model; lymphocyte; neurodevelopment
Online: 24 November 2019 (15:57:38 CET)
Classical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a molecular pathway that detects, processes and ligates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) throughout the cell cycle. Mutations in several NHEJ genes result in neurological abnormalities and immunodeficiency both in humans and mice. The NHEJ pathway is required for the V(D)J recombination in developing B and T lymphocytes, and for class switch recombination in mature B cells. Ku heterodimer formed by Ku70 and Ku80 recognizes DSBs and facilitates the recruitment of accessory factors (e.g., DNA-PKcs, Artemis, Paxx and Mri/Cyren) and downstream core factors subunits XLF, XRCC4 and Lig4. Accessory factors might be dispensable for the process depending on the genetic background and DNA lesion type. To determine the physiological role of Mri in DNA repair and development, we introduced frame-shift mutation in the Mri gene in mice. We then analyzed the development of Mri-deficient mice as well as wild type and immunodeficient controls. Mice lacking Mri possessed reduced levels of class switch recombination in B lymphocytes and slow proliferation of neuronal progenitors when compared to wild type littermates. Human cell lines lacking Mri were as sensitive to DSBs as WT controls. Overall, we concluded that Mri/Cyren is largely dispensable for DNA repair and mouse development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0683.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; synovitis; cartilage; bone; antisense; oligonucleotides; therapeutics.
Online: 28 June 2021 (16:01:16 CEST)
Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are two of the most common chronic inflammatory joint diseases, for which there remains a great clinical need to develop safer and more efficacious pharmacological treatments. The pathology of both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis involves multiple tissues within the joint, including the synovial joint lining and the bone, as well as the articular cartilage in osteoarthritis. In this review, we discuss the potential for the development of oligonucleotide therapies for these disorders by examining the evidence that oligonucleotides can modulate the key cellular pathways that drive the pathology of the inflammatory diseased joint pathology as well as evidence in preclinical in vivo models that oligonucleotides can modify disease progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antisense; antibiotic resistance; RNase P; RNase H; nucleotide analogs
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:17:47 CET)
Antisense technologies consist of the utilization of oligonucleotides or oligonucleotide analogs to interfere with undesirable biological processes, commonly through inhibition of expression of selected genes. This field holds a lot of promise for the treatment of a very diverse group of diseases including viral and bacterial infections, genetic disorders, and cancer. To date, drugs approved for utilization in clinics or in clinical trials target diseases other than bacterial infections. Although several groups and companies are working on different strategies, the application of antisense technologies to prokaryotes still lags with respect to those that target other human diseases. In those cases where the focus is on bacterial pathogens, a subset of the research is dedicated to produce antisense compounds that silence or reduce expression of antibiotic resistance genes. Therefore, these compounds will be adjuvants administered with the antibiotic to which they reduce resistance levels. A varied group of oligonucleotide analogs like phosphorothioate or phosphorodiamidate morpholino residues, as well as peptide nucleic acids, locked nucleic acids and bridge nucleic acids, the latter two in gapmer configuration, have been utilized to reduce resistance levels. The major mechanisms of inhibition include eliciting cleavage of the target mRNA by the host’s RNase H or RNase P, and steric hindrance. The different approaches targeted resistance to β-lactams including carbapenems, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: oligonucleotide therapeutics; RNA interference; antisense; aptamer; decoy; pancreatic cancer
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:12:46 CEST)
Although there is a several array of diagnostic and therapeutic choices for pancreatic cancer in recent years, a crucial medical approach for the refractory disease is still needed. Oligonucleotide therapeutics, such as those based on antisense RNAs, RNA interference, aptamers and decoys, are promising agents against pancreatic cancer because they identify a specific nucleotide sequence or protein and interfere with gene expression as molecular-targeted agents. Within just the past quarter-century, the diversity and feasibility of these drugs as diagnostic or therapeutic tools have dramatically increased. Actually, there have been several clinical and preclinical studies of oligonucleotides for patients with pancreatic cancer so far. To support the discovery of effective diagnostic or therapeutic options by using oligonucleotide-based strategies in the absence of satisfactory therapies for long-term survival and the rising trend of diseases, we summarize the current clinical trials of oligonucleotide therapeutics for pancreatic cancer patients with underlying preclinical or scientific data and focus on the possibility of oligonucleotides to target pancreatic cancer in clinical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0432.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: antisense; HIV-1 nef; stop codon readthrough; selenium; thioredoxin reductase
Online: 26 May 2020 (13:16:09 CEST)
The HIV-1 nef gene terminates in a 3’-UGA stop codon, which is highly conserved in the main group of HIV-1 subtypes, along with a downstream potential coding region that could extend the nef protein by 33 amino acids, if readthrough of the stop codon occurs. Antisense tethering interactions (ATIs) between a viral mRNA and a host selenoprotein mRNA are a potential viral strategy for the capture of a host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element (Taylor et al, 2016) . This mRNA hijacking mechanism could enable the expression of virally encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine (SeC). Here we show that readthrough of the 3’-terminal UGA codon of nef occurs during translation of HIV-1 nef expression constructs in transfected cells. This was accomplished via fluorescence microscopy image analysis and flow cytometry of HEK 293 cells, transfected with engineered GFP reporter gene plasmid constructs, in which GFP can only be expressed by translational recoding of the UGA codon. SiRNA knockdown of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) mRNA resulted in a 67% decrease in GFP expression, presumably due to reduced availability of the components involved in selenocysteine incorporation for the stop codon readthrough, thus supporting the proposed ATI. Addition of 20 nM sodium selenite to the media significantly enhanced stop codon readthrough in the pNefATI1 plasmid construct, by >100%, supporting the hypothesis that selenium is involved in the UGA readthrough mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1638.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Smoke Toxicity; Large-Scale; Oriented Strand Board; ISO 9705; Flammability
Online: 28 November 2023 (01:40:57 CET)
As smoke toxicity is unregulated outside of the mass transport industry, there is no set methodology for assessing smoke toxicity of construction products, like OSB, on a large-scale. This research aims to assess the novel design of a modified ISO 9705 room corner test designed for smoke toxicity quantification. Three tests conditions will be assessed to determine if restriction of ventilation is enough to force a fire to transition to under-ventilated flaming, or if the fuel loading is much more important in affecting the fire severity and fire condition. The research found that fuel loading and test geometry has more significant impact on the fire condition than restricting the ventilation. While imposing restrictions on the test rooms ventilation did increase the equivalence ratio, it was not sufficient enough to force the transition into under-ventilated flaming. The addition of a door to the test room did not force the fire to transition to under-ventilated flaming. When doubling the fuel loading, there was sufficient fuel for the fire to transition to under-ventilated flaming. This research has provided the experimental methodologies to assess smoke toxicity at a range of ventilation conditions on a large-scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: multi-strand cable lines; ampacity; coupled electromagnetic and thermal phenomena
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:16:25 CET)
The paper is focused on numerical modeling of multi-strand cable lines placed in free air. Modeling is carried out within the framework of the so-called multi-physics approach using commercial software. The paper describes in detail the steps undertaken to develop realistic, reliable numerical models of power engineering cables, taking into account their geometries and heat exchange conditions. The results might be of interest to the designers of multi-strand cable systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0627.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: multi-strand cable lines; ampacity; skin and proximity effects; symmetry
Online: 26 September 2020 (12:17:53 CEST)
Skin and proximity effects have a considerable impact on current distribution in multi-strand cable lines. Under unfavorable heat exchange conditions some strands may be subject to excessive overheating, what may lead to serious malfunctions or even fires of the installation. The paper proposes a new criterion for a quick choice of spatial configurations, for which the effect might be minimized. A comprehensive analysis of literature cases is provided, including the recommendations of the U.S. National Code and the Canadian standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Neuromuscular disorder; NCALD; SMA; SMN2; Antisense oligonucleotide; Genetic modifier; Therapy; hiPSCs
Online: 2 February 2023 (07:54:05 CET)
Here we investigated the longer-term effect of Ncald-ASOs by additional i.c.v. bolus injection at PND28. Two weeks after injection of 500 µg Ncald-ASO in wild-type mice, NCALD was significantly reduced in brain and spinal cord and well tolerated. Next, we performed a double-blinded preclinical study combining low-dose SMN-ASO (PND1) with 2x i.c.v. Ncald-ASO or CTRL-ASO (100 µg at PND2, 500 µg at PND28). Ncald-ASO re-injection significantly ameliorated electrophysiological defects and NMJ denervation at 2 months. Moreover, we developed and identified a nontoxic and highly efficient human NCALD-ASO that significantly reduced NCALD in hiPSCs-derived MNs. This improved both neuronal activity and growth cone maturation of SMA MNs, emphasizing the additional protective effect of NCALD-ASO treatment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0334.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: essential oil plants; antisense oligoilators; secondary metabolites; oligonucleotide insecticides; green agriculture
Online: 19 December 2022 (09:48:52 CET)
Successful management of the synthesis of secondary metabolites of essential oil plants is the basis for the economic growth of the essential oil industry. Against the backdrop of a growing global population and a decrease in land available for cultivation, simple and effective ways to increase the content of certain components in essential oils are becoming increasingly important. Selection is no longer keeping pace with market needs, which stimulates the search for faster methods to control the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In this article, using the genus Lavandula as an example, we will consider the prospects for use of antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), oligoilators, to rapidly increase the concentration of valuable components in essential oil. This article discusses the use of unmodified ASOs as regulators of plant secondary metabolism to increase the synthesis of individual valuable components, presenting a completely new way to increase the yield of valuable substances based on unique nucleotide sequences. The proposed approach is effective, affordable, safe, and also significantly reduces the time needed to obtain plants that synthesize the required concentrations of target substances. Oligoilators can the used along with oligonucleotide insecticides in complex formulations used for green agriculture. Further investigation is needed to determine maximum economic efficiency of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: γ-synuclein; AAV vector; antisense oligonucleotide; cognitive dysfunction; dopamine; motor deficits
Online: 12 January 2022 (14:27:18 CET)
The synuclein family consists of α-, β-, and γ-Synuclein (α-Syn, β-Syn, and γ-Syn), expressed in the neurons and concentrated in synaptic terminals. While α-Syn is at the center of interest due to its implication in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies, limited information exists on the other members. The current study aimed at investigating the biological role of γ-Syn controlling the midbrain dopamine (DA) function. We generated two different mouse models with i) γ-Syn overexpression induced by an adeno-associated viral vector and ii) γ-Syn knockdown induced by a ligand-conjugated antisense oligonucleotide, to modify the endogenous γ-Syn transcription levels in midbrain DA neurons. The progressive overexpression of γ-Syn decreased DA neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal and mesocortical pathways. In parallel, mice evoked motor deficits in the rotarod and impaired cognitive performance as assessed by novel object recognition, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. Conversely, acute γ-Syn knockdown selectively in DA neurons facilitated forebrain DA neurotransmission. Importantly, modifications in γ-Syn expression did not induce the loss of DA neurons or changes in α-Syn expression. Collectively, our data strongly suggest that DA re-lease/re-uptake processes in the nigrostriatal and mesocortical pathways are partially dependent on SNc/VTA γ-Syn transcription levels, and are linked to modulation of DA transporter function, similar to α-Syn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0071.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: quantum electrodynamics; electron mass; fine structure constant; strand conjecture; tangle model.
Online: 4 February 2022 (10:50:03 CET)
A geometric Planck-scale model of quantum electrodynamics is tested against observations. Based on Dirac’s proposal to describe spin 1/2 particles as tethered objects, elementary fermions are conjectured to be fluctuating rational tangles with unobservable tethers. As Battey-Pratt and Racey showed, when such tangles propagate, they obey the free Dirac equation. Classifying rational tangles yields the observed spectrum of elementary fermions. Classifying deformations of tangle cores yields exactly three types of gauge interactions. They exchange three types of elementary gauge bosons and have the symmetry groups U(1), broken SU(2) and SU(3). The possible rational tangles for fermions, Higgs and gauge bosons allow only the observed Feynman diagrams. The complete Lagrangian of the standard model arises, including the Lagrangian of quantum electrodynamics. Over 50 tests of the tangle model are deduced. They include details on the perturbation expansion of the g-factor and the existence of limit values for electric and magnetic fields. Measurements agree with most tests, though this could change in the future. Some tests are genuine predictions that still need to be checked. In particular, the geometry of the process occurring at QED interaction vertices suggests an ab-initio estimate for the fine structure constant. In addition, the average geometric shapes of the elementary particle tangles suggest ab-initio lower and upper limits for the mass values of the electron and the other leptons.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0032.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: nucleic acids analogs, antisense, CRISPR, antibiotic resistance, myotonic dystrophy, cholesterol, hematologic malignancy,
Online: 5 June 2019 (08:11:12 CEST)
Oligonucleotides are key compounds widely used for research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. The rapid increase in oligonucleotide-based applications, together with the progress in nucleic acids research, led to the design of nucleotide analogs that when being part of these oligomers enhance their efficiency, bioavailability, or stability. One of the most useful nucleotide analogs are the first-generation bridge nucleic acids (BNA), also known as locked nucleic acids (LNA), which were used in combination with ribonucleotides, deoxyribonucleotides, or other analogs to construct oligomers with diverse applications. However, there is still room to improve their efficiency, bioavailability, stability, and, importantly, toxicity. A second generation BNA, BNANC (2'-O,4'-aminoethylene bridged nucleic acid), has been recently made available. Oligomers containing these analogs not only showed less toxicity when compared to LNA-containing compounds but in some cases also exhibited higher specificity. Although there are still few applications where BNANC-containing compounds were researched, the results are very promising warranting more efforts in incorporating these analogs for other applications. Furthermore, newer BNA compounds will be introduced in the near future offering great hope to oligonucleotide-based fields of research and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0621.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Auger electron; cisplatin; 191Pt; 189Pt; radio-drug; DNA double-strand break; γH2AX
Online: 25 March 2021 (14:30:14 CET)
Due to their short range (2–500 nm), Auger electrons (Auger e-) have the potential to induce nano-scale physiochemical damage to biomolecules. Although DNA is the primary target of Au-ger e-, it remains challenging to maximize the interaction between Auger e- and DNA. To assess the DNA-damaging effect of Auger e- released as close as possible to DNA without chemical damage, we radio-synthesized no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) [189, 191Pt]cisplatin and evaluated both its in vitro properties and DNA-damaging effect. Cellular uptake, intracellular distribution, and DNA binding were investigated, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were evaluated by im-munofluorescence staining of γH2AX and gel electrophoresis of plasmid DNA. Approximately 20% of intracellular radio-Pt was in a nucleus, and about 2% of intra-nucleus radio-Pt bound to DNA, although uptake of n.c.a. radio-cisplatin was low (0.6% incubated dose after 25-h incuba-tion), resulting in the frequency of cells with γH2AX foci was low (1%). Nevertheless, some cells treated with radio-cisplatin had γH2AX aggregates unlike non-radioactive cisplatin. These findings suggest n.c.a. radio-cisplatin binding to DNA causes severe DSBs by release of Auger e- very close to DNA without chemical damage by carriers. Efficient radio-drug delivery to DNA is necessary for successful clinical application of Auger e-.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1728.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP); heterotopic ossification; bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs); ACVR1; antisense therapy
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:27:10 CEST)
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is an enigmatic, ultra-rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification, wherein soft connective tissues undergo pathological transformation into bone structures. This incapacitating process severely limits patient mobility and poses formidable challenges for therapeutic intervention. Predominantly caused by missense mutations in the ACVR1 gene, the disorder has hitherto defied comprehensive mechanistic understanding and effective treatment paradigms. This write-up offers a comprehensive overview of the contemporary understanding of FOP's complex pathobiology, underscored by advances in molecular genetics and proteomic studies. We shed light on targeted therapy, spanning genetic therapeutics, enzymatic and transcriptional modulation, stem cell therapies, and innovative immunotherapies. We also focused on the intricate complexities surrounding clinical trial design for ultra-rare disorders like FOP, addressing fundamental statistical limitations, ethical conundrums, and methodological advancements essential for the success of interventional studies. We advocate for the adoption of a multi-disciplinary approach that converges bench-to-bedside research, clinical expertise, and ethical considerations to tackle the challenges of ultra-rare diseases like FOP and comparable ultra-rare diseases. Overall, this article serves a dual role: as a definitive scientific resource for ongoing and future FOP research and as a call to action for innovative solutions to address methodological and ethical challenges that impede progress in the broader field of medical research for ultra-rare conditions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy; SMN1 gene; SMN2 gene; nuclear gems; antisense oligonucleotides; splicing correction.
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:19:28 CEST)
Spinal muscular atrophy is a neuromuscular disorder caused by mutationsin both copies of the survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1) which lead to reduction in the production of the SMN protein. Currently, there are several therapies that have been approved for SMA, with much more undergoing active research. While various biomarkers have been proposed for assessing the effectiveness of SMA treatment, a universally accepted one still hasnot been identified. This study aimed to investigate whether the number of gems in cell nuclei could serve as a potential biomarker for SMA. To gain insight into whether the number of gems in cell nuclei varies based on their SMN genotype and whether the increase in gems number is associated with therapeutic response, we utilized fibroblast cell cultures obtained from a patient with SMA type II and from healthy individual. We have discovered a remarkable difference in the number of gems found in the nuclei of these cells, specifically when counting gems per 100 nuclei. Then the SMA fibroblasts were treated with antisense oligonucleotides the beneficial effects in correcting the abnormal splicing of SMN2 exon 7 have been demonstrated. It was observed that there was a significant increase in the number of gems in the treated cells compared to the intact SMA cells. The results obtained significantly correlate with an increase of full-length SMN transcripts share. Based on our findings, it is evident that the quantity of gems can be regarded as a reliable biomarker for SMA drugs development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA double-strand breaks; ionizing radiation; DNA repair pathways; homologous recombination; mathematical modeling
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:30:28 CEST)
Relative contribution of different repair pathways to the radiation-induced DNA damage responses remains a challenging issue of studying the radiation injury endpoints. Comparative manifestation of homologous recombination (HR) after application of different radiation doses greatly determines an overall effectiveness of recovery in dividing cell after irradiation, since HR is an error-free mechanism intended for repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) during S/G2 phases of cell cycle. In this article, we present an experimentally observed evidence of dose-dependent shift in relative contribution of HR in human fibroblasts after X-ray exposure at doses 20-1000 mGy, which is also supported by quantitative modeling of DNA DSB repair. Our findings indicate that the radiation dose increase leads to dose-dependent decrease in relative contribution of HR into the entire repair process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0674.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: oocyte; oxidative stress; DNA double strand break, hexavalent chromium, RAD51, microtubule, polar body extrusion
Online: 21 April 2023 (05:42:55 CEST)
Environmental and occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), causes female reproductive failures and infertility. Cr(VI) is used in more than 50 industries and is a group-A carcinogen, mutagenic and teratogenic, and a male and female reproductive toxicant. Our previous findings indicate that Cr(VI) causes follicular atresia, trophoblast cell apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction in metaphase II (MII) oocytes. However, the integrated molecular mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced oocyte defects are not understood. The current study investigates the mechanism of Cr(VI) in causing meiotic disruption of MII oocytes, leading to infertility in superovulated rats. Postnatal day (PND)-22 rats were treated with potassium dichromate (1 and 5 ppm) in drinking water from PND 22-29 and superovulated. MII oocytes were analyzed by immunofluorescence, and images were captured by confocal microscopy and quantified by Image Pro Plus software. Our data showed that Cr(VI) increased microtubule misalignment, missegregation of chromosomes, a bulged and folded actin cap, oxidative DNA and protein damage, increased DNA double-strand break, and DNA repair protein RAD51. Cr(VI) also induced incomplete cytokinesis and delayed polar body extrusion. Our study indicates that exposure to environmentally relevant doses of Cr(VI) caused severe DNA damage, distorted oocyte cytoskeletal proteins, and caused oxidative DNA and protein damage leading to infertility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0500.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: DNA repair; long non-coding RNA; microRNA; DNA damage; double-strand breaks; NHEJ; HR
Online: 26 October 2018 (10:22:45 CEST)
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are deleterious lesions that are generated in response to ionizing radiation or replication fork collapse that can lead to genomic instability and cancer. Eukaryotes have evolved two major pathways, namely homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to repair DSBs. Whereas the roles of protein-DNA interactions in HR and NHEJ have been fairly well defined, the functions of small and long non-coding RNAs and RNA-DNA hybrids in the DNA damage response is just beginning to be elucidated. This review summarizes recent discoveries on the identification of non-coding RNAs and RNA-mediated regulation of DSB repair
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1964.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Antisense Oligonucleotides; Cell Penetrating Peptides; Delivery; DG9 peptide; Phosphorodi-amidate morpholino oligomers (PMO); Pip; R6G
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:48:58 CEST)
Keywords: Antisense Oligonucleotides, Cell Penetrating Peptides, Delivery, DG9 peptide, Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO), Pip, R6G.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; antisense therapy; oligonucleotide; splice switching; mRNA knockdown; androgen receptor; AR45
Online: 20 July 2023 (09:53:18 CEST)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), also known as Kennedy’s disease, is a debilitating neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscular weakness and neuronal degeneration, affecting 1-2 individuals per 100,000 globally. While SBMA is relatively rare, recent studies have shown a significantly higher prevalence of the disease within the indigenous population of Western Canada compared to the general population. The disease is caused by a pathogenic expansion of polyglutamine residues in the androgen receptor protein, which acts as a key transcriptional regulator for numerous genes. SBMA has no cure, and current treatments are primarily supportive and focused on symptom management. Recently, a form of precision medicine known as antisense therapy has gained traction as a promising therapeutic option for numerous neuromuscular diseases. Antisense therapy uses small synthetic oligonucleotides to confer therapeutic benefit by acting on pathogenic mRNA molecules, serving to either degrade pathogenic mRNA transcripts or helping to modulate splicing. Recent studies have explored the suitability of antisense therapy for the treatment of SBMA, primarily focused on antisense-mediated mRNA knockdown approaches. Advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of SBMA and the development of targeted therapies offer hope for improved quality of life for individuals affected by this debilitating condition. Continued research is essential to optimize these genetic approaches, ensuring their safety and efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1857.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: γH2AX; Actinomycin D; Akt; DNA damage response; DNA double-strand break; DNA-PK; Etoposide; p95/NBS1
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:11:01 CEST)
DNA double-strand breakage is the most lethal damage to chromosomal DNA. It activates a series of cellular DNA damage response pathways, including DNA damage sensing, control of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and DNA repair. DNA damage response pathways are regulated by complex signaling machineries. Of the intracellular signaling cascades, diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to generate phosphatidic acid (PA). Because both DG and PA serve as second messengers, DGK activity induces a shift of signaling pathways from DG-mediated to PA-mediated cascades, thereby implicating DGK in the regulation of widely various functions. Reportedly, one member of the DGK family, DGKζ, is intimately involved in the regulation of stress responses through p53 and NF-κB. Stresses such as ischemia and infarction cause DGKζ downregulation. Experimental DGKζ depletion renders cells and mice vulnerable to various stressors such as chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing irradiation. Nevertheless, how DGKζ is involved in DNA repair, a critical event of DNA damage response for survival remains unknown. For this study, we examined how DGKζ depletion affects DNA repair mechanisms. We demonstrated that DGKζ depletion causes attenuation of Akt activation and DNA-PK protein expression upon DNA damage, which might engender downregulated BRCA1 protein synthesis and stability. Results suggest that DGKζ depletion attenuates BRCA1-mediated DNA repair machinery, thereby conferring vulnerability to DNA damage.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0607.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Hox gene collinearity; temporal collinearity; Noether theory; self similarity; double strand break; split Ηox cluster; limb growth
Online: 11 May 2023 (04:34:03 CEST)
Abstract: Hox gene clusters are crucial in Embryogenesis. It was observed that some Hox genes were located in order along the telomeric to centromeric direction of the DNA sequence: Hox1, Hox2, Hox3…. These genes were expressed in the same order in the ontogenetic units of the Drosophila embryo along the Anterior-Posterior axis. The two entities (genome and embryo) differ significantly in linear size and in-between distance. This strange phenomenon was named Spatial Collinearity (SP). Later, it was observed that, particularly in the Vertebrates, a Temporal Collinearity (TC) coexists: first is Hox1 expressed, later Hox2 and even later Hox3,…,. Hox clusters are irreversibly elongated along the force direction. According to a Biophysical Model (BM), pulling forces act at the anterior end of the cluster while a cluster fastening applies at the posterior end. During Evolution, the elongated Hox clusters are broken at variable lengths thus split clusters may be created. An Empirical Rule was formulated distinguishing development due to a complete Hox cluster from development due to split Hox clusters. BM can explain this Empirical Rule. In an accidental mutation where the cluster fastening is dismantled, a minimal pulling force can automatically shift the cluster inside the Hox activation domain. This cluster translocation can probably explain the absence of temporal collinearity in Drosophila.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0220.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel; multi-strand composite welding wire; EBSD; welding thermal cycle; mechanical property; microstructure
Online: 21 August 2019 (03:34:18 CEST)
A multi-strand composite welding wire was applied to join high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, and microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. The electrical signals demonstrate that the welding process using a multi-strand composite welding wire is highly stable. The welded joints are composed of columnar austenite and dendritic ferrite and welded joints obtained under high heat input and cooling rate have a noticeable coarse-grained heat-affected zone and larger columnar austenite in weld seam. Compared with welded joints obtained under the high heat input and cooling rate, welded joints have the higher fractions of deformed grains, high angle grain boundaries, Schmid factor and the lower dislocation density under the low heat input and cooling rate, which indicate a lower tensile strength and higher yield strength. The rotated goss (GRD) orientation of a thin plate and the cube (C) orientation of a thick plate are obvious after welding, but the S orientation at 65° sections of Euler’s space is weak. The δ-ferrite was studied based on the primary ferrite solidification mode. It is observed that low heat input and high cooing rate result in the increasing of δ-ferrite and high dislocation density was obtained in grain boundaries of δ-ferrite. M23C6 precipitates due to low cooling rate and heat input in weld seam and deteriorates the elongation of welded joints. The engineering stress-strain curves also show the low elongation and tensile strength of welded joints under low heat input and cooling rate, which is mainly caused by the high fraction of δ-ferrite and the precipitation of M23C6.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0389.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: antisense oligonucleotides; exon skipping; machine learning; ensemble learning; personalized medicine; n-of-1 therapy, splice switching; genetic disease; splicing; RNA
Online: 22 March 2023 (03:24:48 CET)
Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated exon skipping has become a valuable tool for investigating gene function and developing gene therapy. Machine learning-based computational methods such as eSkip-Finder have been developed to predict the efficacy of ASOs via exon skipping. However, these methods are computationally demanding, and the accuracy of predictions remains suboptimal. In this study, we propose a new approach to reduce computational burden and improve prediction performance by using feature selection within machine learning algorithms and ensemble learning techniques. We evaluated our approach using a dataset of experimentally validated exon skipping events, dividing it into training and testing sets. Our results demonstrate that using a 3-way voting approach with random forest, gradient boosting, and XGBoost can significantly reduce computation time to under ten seconds while improving prediction performance, as measured by R2 for both 2’-O-methyl nucleotides (2OMe) and phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs). Additionally, the feature importance ranking derived from our approach is in good agreement with previously published results. Our findings suggest that our approach has the potential to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of predicting ASO efficacy via exon skipping. It could also facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies. This study could contribute to the ongoing efforts to improve ASO design and optimize gene therapy approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: antisense oligonucleotides; exon skipping; machine learning; ensemble learning; personalized medicine; n-of-1 therapy; splice switching; genetic disease; splicing; RNA
Online: 9 March 2023 (04:43:55 CET)
Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated exon skipping has emerged as a powerful tool for examining the function of genes and exons in basic research, as well as gene therapy. Computational methods, such as eSkip-Finder, have been developed to predict the efficacy of ASOs via exon skipping using machine learning. However, these methods can be computationally demanding and the prediction accuracy of the tool is not yet optimal. In this study, we propose an approach to reduce computational burden and improve prediction performance by utilizing feature selection within machine learning algorithms and employing ensemble learning techniques. The method was evaluated using a dataset of genes with experimentally validated exon skipping events. The dataset was divided into training and testing sets to assess the accuracy of the algorithm. Our results demonstrate that using a 3-way voting approach with random forest, gradient boosting, and XGBoost can significantly reduce computation time to under ten seconds while improving prediction performance, as measured by R2 for both 2’-O-methyl nucleotides (2OMe) and phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs). Additionally, the feature importance ranking derived from our approach is in good agreement with previously published results. These findings suggest that this approach has the potential to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of predicting ASO efficacy via exon skipping, facilitating the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0744.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: long non-coding RNA (lncRNA); RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription; gene regulation; tandem transcriptional interference (tTI); antisense transcription; DNA processing
Online: 31 July 2020 (10:47:08 CEST)
RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) frequently transcribes non-protein coding DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes into long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). Here, we focus on the impact of the act of lncRNA transcription on nearby functional DNA units. Distinct molecular mechanisms linked to the position of lncRNA relative to the coding gene illustrate how non-coding transcription controls gene expression. We review the biological significance of the act of lncRNA transcription on DNA processing, highlighting common themes, such as mediating cellular responses to environmental changes. This review presents the background in chromatin signaling to appreciate examples in different organisms where we can interpret functions of non-coding DNA through the act of RNAPII transcription.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1987.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Hox gene collinearity; temporal collinearity; Noether Theory; self similarity; double strand break; split Hox clusters; chicken limb growth
Online: 1 December 2023 (03:12:17 CET)
Hox gene clusters are crucial in Embryogenesis. It was observed that some Hox genes are located in order along the telomeric to centromeric direction of the DNA sequence: Hox1, Hox2, Hox3…. These genes are expressed in the same order in the ontogenetic units of the Drosophila embryo along the Anterior-Posterior axis. The two entities (genome and embryo) differ significantly in linear size and in-between distance. This strange phenomenon was named Spatial Collinearity (SP). Later, it was observed that, particularly in the Vertebrates, a Temporal Collinearity (TC) coexists: first is Hox1 expressed, later Hox2 and even later Hox3,…,. According to a Biophysical Model (BM), pulling forces act at the anterior end of the cluster while a cluster fastening applies at the posterior end. Hox clusters are irreversibly elongated along the force direction. During Evolution, the elongated Hox clusters are broken at variable lengths thus split clusters may be created. An Empirical Rule was formulated distinguishing development due to a complete Hox cluster from development due to split Hox clusters. BM can ‘explain’ this Empirical Rule. In a spontaneous mutation where the cluster fastening is dismantled, a minimal pulling force can automatically shift the cluster inside the Hox activation domain. This cluster translocation can probably explain the absence of Temporal Collinearity in Drosophila.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Genome stability; DNA replication; DNA repair; lagging strand DNA synthesis; Okazaki fragments; initiation; DNA polymerase α; DNA primase; CTC1-STN1-TEN1 complex; SV40 T antigen; CMG complex
Online: 10 April 2023 (04:20:27 CEST)
The term ‘Hallmarks of Cancer’ was coined by Hanahan and Weinberg in their influential reviews and they described genome instability as a property of cells enabling cancer development [1, 2]. Accurate DNA replication of genomes is central to diminish genome instability. Here, the understanding of the initiation of DNA synthesis in origins of DNA replication to start leading strand synthesis and the initiation of Okazaki fragment on the lagging strand are crucial to control genome instability. Recent findings have provided new insights into the mechanism of the remodelling of the prime initiation enzyme, DNA polymerase α-primase, during primer synthesis, how the enzyme complex achieves lagging strand synthesis, and how it is linked to replication forks to achieve optimal initiation of Okazaki fragments. Moreover, the central roles of RNA primer synthesis by Pol-prim in multiple genome stability pathways such as replication fork restart and protection of DNA against degradation by exonucleases during double-strand break repair is discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chromothripsis; structural variants; DNA-repair; DNA-repair disorders; DNA-double strand breaks (DSBs); ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM); ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR); TP53; micronuclei; chromosome pulverization.
Online: 29 January 2020 (11:58:58 CET)
Chromothripsis is a mutational mechanism leading to complex and relatively clustered chromosomal rearrangements resulting in diverse phenotypic outcomes depending on the involved genomic landscapes. It may occur both in the germ and the somatic cells resulting in congenital and developmental disorders and cancer, respectively. Asymptomatic individuals may be carriers of chromotriptic rearrangements and experience recurrent reproductive failures when two or more chromosomes are involved. Several mechanisms are postulated to underly chromothripsis. The most attractive hypothesis involves chromosome pulverization in micronuclei followed by incorrect reassembly of fragments through DNA repair to explain the clustered nature of the observed complex rearrangements. Moreover, exogenous or endogenous DNA damage induction and dicentric bridge formation may be involved. Chromosome instability is commonly observed in the cells of patients with DNA-repair disorders, such as ataxia telangiectasia, Nijmegen breakage syndrome and Bloom syndrome. In addition, germline variations of TP53 have been associated with chromothripsis in Sonic-Hedgehog medulloblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia. In the present review, we focus on the underlying mechanisms of chromothripsis and the involvement of defective DNA-repair genes resulting in chromosome instability and chromothripsis-like rearrangements.