REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: BPSD; antipsychotics; SSRIs; dementia; agitation
Online: 10 January 2022 (11:19:35 CET)
Background: The psychomotor agitation of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is one of the common issues in aged care facilities, leading to the poor functional and medical consequences. Psychotropic interventions are the preferred choice of treatment, but which medication should be the prescribers first preference? This review aims to compare pharmacological interventions for psychomotor agitation, judging them according to their effectuality and justifiability profiles. This is to be achieved by retrieving information from Randomised Control Trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. Objectives: This review evaluates evidence from RCTs, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses of BPSD patients who have taken agitation treatments. Assessing the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and antipsychotic treatments when compared to each other for the purpose of improving agitation outcomes. Methods: This review includes RCT that compared one or more active ingredient medications with another medication or with a placebo, along with systematic reviews comparing citalopram (SSRI) with antipsychotics such as quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone. Studies were extracted by searching and accessing databases, such as PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane with restrictions of date from 2000 to 2021 and English language. Conclusion: There is still limited studies of SSRIs for the treatment of agitation in BPSD. SSRIs such as citalopram were associated with a reduction in symptoms of agitation, and lower risk of adverse effects compared to antipsychotics. Future studies are required to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of SSRI treatments for agitation in BPSD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: tardive dyskinesia; schizophrenia; antipsychotics; deep brain stimulation
Online: 14 November 2022 (11:12:39 CET)
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a phenomenon predominantly observed as a result of the long-term use of dopamine receptor blockers (antipsychotics). TD is a group of involuntary, irregular hyperkinetic movements, mainly in the muscles of the face, eyelid muscles, lips, tongue, and cheeks, and less frequently in the limbs, neck, pelvis, and trunk. In some patients, TD takes on an extremely severe form, massively disrupting functioning, moreover, causing stigmatization and suffering. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a method used, among others, in Parkinson's disease, is also an effective treatment for TD and often becomes a method of last resort, especially in severe, drug-resistant forms. The procedure is relatively new in TD, so the available reliable clinical studies are few and consist mainly of case reports. Unilateral and bilateral stimulation of two sites has proven efficacy in TD treatment. Most authors describe stimulation of the globus pallidus internus (GPi); less frequent descriptions involve the hypothalamic nucleus (STN). In the present paper, we provide up-to-date information on the stimulation of both mentioned brain areas. We also compare the efficacy of the two methods by comparing the two available studies, which included the largest groups of patients. Although GPi stimulation is more frequently used clinically, our initial analysis indicates comparable results (reduction of involuntary movements) with STN DBS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: BPSD; Alzheimer’s dementia; agitation; psychosis; SSRIs; antipsychotics; brexpiprazole; dextromethorphan
Online: 10 January 2022 (11:12:38 CET)
Background: The psychomotor agitation of the BPSD is one of the common issues in aged care facilities, leading to the poor functional and medical consequences. Psychotropic interventions are the preferable choice of treatment. But which medication should be the prescribers first preference? This review aims to compare pharmacological interventions for psychomotor agitation, judging them according to their effectuality and justifiability profiles. This is to be achieved by retrieving information from RCTs and systematic reviews. Objectives: This review evaluates evidence from RCTs, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses of BPSD patients who had taken agitation treatments. Assessing the efficacy of antidepressants and antipsychotic treatments when compared to each other for the purpose of improving agitation outcomes. Methods: This narrative review includes RCTs and retrospective studies that were comparing one or more active ingredient medications with another or with a placebo, along with sys-tematic reviews comparing antidepressants with antipsychotics such as quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone. Studies extracted by searching accessing databases, such as PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane with restrictions of date from 2000 to 2021 and English language. Quality of evidence: The quality of systematic reviews was judged against AMSTAR score, and RCTs were judged according to CONSORT checklist for RCT protocols. Conclusion: There are still few studies of serotonin targeting treatment of agitation in BPSD. The SSRIs such as citalopram were associated with a reduction in symptoms of agitation, and lower risk of adverse effects compared to antipsychotics. This review also illustrates brexpiprazole as a target of multimodal neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine; and dextromethorphan, OR dextromethorphan associated with bupropion or quinidine as a blockade of NMDA receptors. The outcome of this review suggests that further studies involving more dementia/Alzheimer’s participants should be conducted. Future studies are required also to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of SSRI, brexpiprazole, dextromethorphan treatments for agitation in BPSD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; elderly; proton pump inhibitors; antipsychotics; metformin; oral antidiabetics
Online: 2 May 2020 (15:48:33 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 is a disease of the elderly as 95% of deaths related to COVID-19 occur in people over 60 years of age. Despite the urgent need for a preventive treatment there are currently no serious leads, other than the vaccination. Objective: To find a preventive treatment of COVID-19 in elderly patients. Design: Retrospective case-control study. Setting: Robertsau Geriatric Hospital of the University Hospitals of Strasbourg, France. Patients: 179 elderly patients who had been in contact with the SARS-CoV-2, of whom 89 had tested RT-PCR-positive (COVID-pos) for the virus and 90 had tested RT-PCR-negative (COVID-neg). Measurements: Treatments within 15 days prior to RT-PCR (including antihypertensive drugs, antipsychotics, antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), paracetamol, anticoagulant, oral antidiabetics (OADs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressants), comorbidities, symptoms, laboratory values, and clinical outcome were all collected using the electronic patient record. Results: COVID-pos patients more frequently had a history of diabetes (P=.016) and alcoholism (P=.023), a lower leukocyte count (P=.014) and a higher mortality rate– 29.2% versus 14.4% – (P=.014) when compared to COVID-neg patients. Patients on PPIs were 2.3 times less likely (odds ratio [OR] = 0.4381, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.2331, 0.8175], P=.0053) to develop COVID-19 infection, compared to those not on PPIs. No other treatment decreased or increased this risk. COVID-19 patients on antipsychotics (P=.0013) and OADs (P=.0166) were less likely to die. Limitations: retrospective study. Conclusion: PPIs treatment lowered the risk of development of COVID-19 infection, and antipsychotics and OADs decreased the risk of mortality in geriatric patients. If further studies confirm this finding, PPIs could be used preventatively in the elderly in this pandemic context. Moreover, OADS and antipsychotics should be tested in clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: disruptive behavior disorders; conduct disorder; oppositional defiant disorder; aggression; atypical antipsychotics; risperidone; clozapine
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:03:40 CEST)
Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) in childhood, such as conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are characterized by high levels of irritability and aggression. Though psychological management is considered the first-line approach for these disorders, many children and adolescents require adjunctive pharmacotherapy for the control of specific symptoms. Several prior systematic reviews have examined the evidence for the use of antipsychotics in the symptomatic management of DBDs, but have concluded that their efficacy is marginal and limited by significant adverse effects. This paper updates existing reviews of this field by reviewing clinical trials of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with DBDs published in the period 2-1-2017 to 2-10-2022. The PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases were searched for relevant citations. Six relevant trials were identified during this period. These trials were critically evaluated in terms of outcome measures, efficacy and safety. Overall, the data from these trials suggests that certain atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone and clozapine, are effective in the short-term management of aggression in DBDs. They have no apparent effect on cognition, but are associated with significant metabolic adverse effects. The results of these trials, and of the earlier systematic reviews, are discussed in the light of global trends towards increasing off-label prescription of antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents, and of recent literature on the neuropharmacology of aggression in this patient population. The need for rational, short-term use of these drugs is highlighted, as well as the importance of post-marketing surveillance for long-term or severe adverse events.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cholesterol; BMI; blood sugar; psychosis; LDL; HDL; antidepressants; antipsychotics; metabolism; metabolic abnormalities, platelet aggregation
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:03:41 CEST)
Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to an inherited predisposition, a sedentary life style and the use of antipsychotic medications. Several approaches have been taken to minimize this risk but results continue to be unsatisfactory. A potential alternative is prescribing Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRIs decrease platelet aggregation and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in patients with depression. We therefore aim to investigate whether there is evidence that supports the use of SSRIs to reduce the risk for CVD in SCZ. A systematic review of the literature revealed five published reports relating to the impact of SSRIs on CV risk in SCZ. Three trials assessed the influence on metabolic parameters of fluvoxamine when combined with clozapine. Two of those studies found improvements with fluvoxamine. Of the other two reports, one indicates SSRIs as a group caused minimal but statistically significant increments in total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride. The second report suggests that when SSRIs are combined with antipsychotics, the metabolic impact depends on the antipsychotic prescribed. While there are promising results, further studies are needed to establish the impact of SSRIs on CV risk in SCZ.