ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0249.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: anti-infective; antimicrobial; antimicrobial resistance; behaviour change; healthcare workers; antimicrobial stewardship
Online: 18 July 2022 (05:42:12 CEST)
Background: Using the COM-B model as a framework, an EU-wide survey aimed to ascertain multidisciplinary healthcare workers’ (HCWs) knowledge, attitudes and behaviours on antibiotics, antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. The UK findings are presented. Methods: A 43-item questionnaire was developed through a two-round modified Delphi consensus process. The UK target quota was 1,315 respondents. Results: 2,404 participants responded. The highest proportion were nursing and midwifery professionals (42%), pharmacists (23%) and medical doctors (18%). HCWs correctly answered that antibiotics are not effective against viruses (97%), they have associated side effects (97%), unnecessary use makes antibiotics ineffective (97%) and healthy people can carry antibiotic resistant bacteria (90%). However, fewer than 80% correctly answered that using antibiotics increases a patient’s risk of antimicrobial resistant infection or that resistant bacteria can spread from person to person. Whilst the majority of HCWs (81%) agreed there is a connection between their antibiotic prescribing behaviour and the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria, only 64% felt that they have a key role in controlling antibiotic resistance. The top three barriers to providing advice or resources were lack of resources (19%), insufficient time (11%) and the patient being uninterested in the information (7%). Approximately 35% of UK respondents who were prescribers prescribed an antibiotic at least once in the last week due to fear of patient deterioration or complications. Conclusion: These findings highlight that a multifaceted approach to tackling the barriers to prudent antibiotic use in the UK is required and provides evidence for guiding targeted policy, intervention development and future research. Education and training should focus on patient communication, information on spreading resistant bacteria and increased risk for individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0632.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antimicrobial use; antimicrobial residues; antimicrobial resistance; food and agriculture sectors; Tanzania
Online: 24 December 2020 (14:18:09 CET)
All infections are potentially curable as long as the etiological agents are susceptible to antimicrobials. The increased rate at which antimicrobials are becoming ineffective is a global health risk of increasing concern that threatens withdrawal of beneficial antimicrobials for disease control. Increased demand for food of animal origin, in particular eggs, meat and milk has led to intensification and commercial production systems where excessive use and misuse of antimicrobials may prevail. Antimicrobials, handled and used by farmers and animal attendants with no formal education may predispose to incorrect dosages, misuse, incorrect applications and non-adherence to withdrawal periods. A multimethod approach (desk review, field study and interviews) was used. Relevant establishments were also visited. High levels of resistance to penicillin G, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and oxytetracycline have been reported especially for Actinobacter pyogenes, Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus aureus from dairy cattle with mastitis and in humans. Similar trends were found in poultry where eggs and meat are contaminated with Escherichia coli strains resistant to amoxicillin + clavulanate, sulphamethoxazole and neomycin. An increasing trend of emerging multidrug resistant E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella was also found in food animals. An in-crease in methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in the livestock sector in Tanzania have been reported. Specific antimicrobials resistant to were ampicillin, augmentin, gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, tylosin, erythromycin, cefuroxime, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. An in-creased usage of antimicrobials for prophylaxis, anaphylaxis and therapeutics against pathogens and for growth promotion in livestock, aquaculture and crops production were observed. One Health strategic approach is advocated to combat AMR in the food and agriculture sectors in Tanzania. Practical recommendations include a) legislation review and implementation, b) AMU, AMR and AR awareness and advocacy among stakeholders along the value chain, c) strengthening of surveillance and monitoring programs for AMU, AMR and AR, d) enhance development and use of rapid and innovative diagnostic tests and promotion biosecurity principles and e) good husbandry practices. The utilization of this information to improve public health policies and reduce the burden of AMR will be beneficial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0255.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; One Health; agriculture; biosecurity
Online: 13 January 2023 (13:50:48 CET)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the capacity of microbial pathogens to survive in the presence of antimicrobials, is considered one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide and is growing rapidly in importance. AMR is thought to be driven in part by the use of antimicrobials (AMU) in livestock production. AMU reduction in agriculture is therefore important, but doing so may endanger farmers’ incomes and hamper broader food security. Understanding drivers for farmers' antibiotics use is essential to designing interventions which avoid harming agricultural output and safeguard farmers’ economic security. In this study, we analyse AMUSE survey data from poultry farmers in Senegal to explore the effects of vaccination, attitudes towards AMR, and biosecurity practices on: AMU, animal mortality, and farm productivity. We found that farmers with more “AMR-aware” attitudes may be less likely to use antibiotics in healthy birds. Stronger on-farm biosecurity was associated with less use of antibiotics in healthy birds, and in some specifications was linked to higher broiler productivity. Vaccination and AMU were both linked with higher disease prevalence, and both factors appeared conducive to higher broiler productivity. Overall, there is evidence that awareness-raising and biosecurity improvements could encourage prudent use of antibiotics, and that biosecurity and vaccination could to some extent replace antibiotic use as productivity-enhancing and disease-management tools in broiler farms. Finally, issues of farm antimicrobial stewardship must be considered at the structural level, with farm behaviours contingent on interaction with state and private stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; Antimicrobial Resistance; Community pharmacist; Qualitative research; Jordan
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:05:40 CET)
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization issued a practical approach and Global Action Plan to control the threatening emerging antibacterial resistance. One of the main basis of this plan is the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASPs). This study aimed to evaluate community pharmacists’ awareness and perception towards antimicrobial resistance and ASPs in Jordan. Thus, a qualitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with twenty community pharmacists. Convienience sampling was used in the study. Qualitative analysis of the data yielded four themes and eleven sub-themes. All the respondents showed good understanding about the causes of antimicrobial resistance. The most important causes reported by them was the non-restricted prescription of antimicrobials. Most of the pharmacists believed that they are competent to provide ASPs, however, they believed that there are several barriers against the implementation of ASPs in community pharmacies in Jordan. Barriers demonstrated by the pharmacists, including organizational obstacles, resources obstacles, and personal obstacles. As a conclusion, this study revealed several barriers against the implementation of ASPs in community pharmacies in Jordan. Incorporating ASPs in the community pharmacy settings requires proper pharmacist training, several academic disciplines team efforts, and good pharmacy practice of antimicrobial guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; barriers; perception; survey; veterinary practitioners
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:41:43 CEST)
Usage of antimicrobials in veterinary practices has always been under scrutiny due to the perceived risk of resulting in antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. This creates the necessity for understanding the role of the prescriber group. Hence, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among veterinary practitioners from August to November 2019 in the Chattogram district of Bangladesh, aiming to assess the practitioner’s perceptions regarding antimicrobial prescribing and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) issue. We collected responses from 100 veterinarians engaged in the treatment of the large animal, poultry, and pet animal through a self-administrated questionnaire. Proportions were calculated for categorical variables and the results are presented using visual aids. Our study revealed two key barriers - scarcity of enough information on antimicrobial used, and the lack of training in the proper prescription of antimicrobials. Participants recognized that prescribing too many varieties of antimicrobials and the use of an incomplete course of drugs as two very important causes for the development of antimicrobial resistance. In addition, prescription of inappropriate doses and incentives from pharmaceutical companies were dubbed as important causes. We also found that along with clinical features and types of organisms, the availability of drugs in the local market and the economic conditions of farmers have potential impacts on the antimicrobials prescribing decision of the veterinarians. However, all participants recognized the emerging threats of AMR. Results suggested that capacity building of veterinarians and the maintenance of strong coordination are crucial in ensuring the proper engagement of veterinarians as the front-line fighters for tackling the AMR issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Pasteurella multocida; antimicrobial resistance genes; antimicrobial susceptibility patterns; swine
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:47:26 CEST)
Forty-eight Pasteurella multocida isolates were recovered from porcine pneumonic lungs collected in Norwestern Spain (2017- 2019). These isolates were characterized for their minimal inhibition concentrations to twelve antimicrobial agents and for the appearance of eight resistance genes: tetA, tetB, blaROB1, blaTEM, ermA, ermC, mphE and msrE. Relevant resistance percentages were shown to teracyclines, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and tiamulin, thus suggesting that P. multocida isolates were mostly susceptible to amoxicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, marbofloxacin and macrolides. 29.2% of isolates were resistant to more than two antimicrobials. The tetracycline resistance genes (tetA and tetB) were detected in 22.9% of the isolates, but none was positive to both simultaneously; blaROB1 and blaTEM genes were found in one third of isolates but both genes were detected simultaneously in only one isolate. ermC gene was observed in 41.7% of isolates, a percentage that decreased until 22.9% for msrE; finally, ermA was harboured by 16.7% and mphE was not found in any of them. Six clusters were established based on hierarchical clustering analysis on antimicrobial susceptibility for the twelve antimicrobials. Generally, it was unable to foresee the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for each family and the association of each particular isolate inside the clusters established from the presence or absence of the resistance genes analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0263.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial; antimicrobial use; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotic utilization; Tanzania; defined daily dose, Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical Classification
Online: 11 August 2021 (14:42:57 CEST)
Antimicrobial use (AMU) is one of the major drivers of emerging antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Surveillance of AMU, a pillar of AMR stewardship (AMS), helps devise strategies to mitigate AMR. This descriptive, longitudinal retrospective study quantified the trends in human antibiotic utilization between 2010 and 2016 using data on all antibiotics imported for systemic human use into Tanzania's mainland. Regression and time series analyses were used to establish trends in antibiotics use. A total of 12,073 records for antibiotics were retrieved, totaling 154.51Daily Defined Doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) with a mean (± standard deviation) of 22.07 (±48.85) DID. The private sector contributed 93.76%% of utilized antibiotics. The top-ranking antibiotics were amoxicillin, metronidazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and cefalexin. The DDIs and percentage contribution of these antibiotics were 53.78 (34.81%), 23.86 (15.44), 20.53 (13.29), 9.27 (6.0) and 6.94 (4.49), respectively. The time series model predicted significant increase in utilization(p-value =0.002). The model forecasted that by 2022, the total antibiotics consumed would reach 89.6 DIDs, corresponding to a 13-fold increase compared to 2010. Government intervention to curb inappropriate antibiotic utilization to mitigate the rising threat of antibiotic resistance should focus on implementing AMS programs in pharmacies and hospitals in Tanzania.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; AWaRe; Pharmacovigilance; Lareb; adverse drug reactions
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:27:02 CEST)
(1) Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires urgent multidisciplinary solutions, and Pharmacovigilance (PV) has the potential to strengthen current antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) strategies. This study aimed to characterise AMR-relevant adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports submitted to The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre (Lareb); (2) Methods: We carried out a descriptive analysis of ADR reports submitted to Lareb, coded with AMR-relevant MedDRA Preferred Terms (PTs).; (3) Results: Between 1998 and Jan 2019, 252 AMR-relevant ADR reports were submitted to Lareb. The most frequent antibiotics were tobramycin (n=89; 35%), colistin (n=30; 11,9%), ciprofloxacin (n=16; 6,35%), doxycycline (n=14; 5,5%) and aztreonam (n=12; 4,76%). The most frequently used PTs were drug ineffective (n=71; 28%), pathogen resistance (n=14; 5%) and drug resistance (n=13; 13%). A total of 119 reports (74%) suggested use-related issues. Watch antibiotics were in 54% of the reports and Reserve antibiotics were in 19%. In the Watch group, “Off label use” and “Product use in unapproved indication” were the most frequent PTs and majority of reports on Reserve antibiotics were coded as “Off label”. (4) Conclusions: Addressing AMR using the PV methods will provide an opportunity for PV expansion and could encourage further investment in both in AMS programs and PV systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0296.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: melanin; antimicrobial; antioxidant; photoprotection
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:32:55 CEST)
Melanins are phenolic polymers synthesized by most of the living organisms. This pigment is mainly attributed to provide photoprotection to the organism while it was found that pigment have immense bioactivities which could be utilized in day-to-day life ranging from sun screens lotions to solar cells. This pigment produced mainly via DOPA or homogentisate in bacteria. Melanin production is usually triggered by stress condition in bacteria. Marine bacteria have been reported as good melanin producers. In this study marine bacteria capable of melanin production were isolated from sea water of Kutch region, Gujarat using tyrosine basal media. The bacteria were identified using microscopic, biochemical and molecular techniques. Melanin produced by the bacteria is extracted and purified and further characterized using physicochemical techniques. Cosmetic properties of melanin like photoprotection, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties are evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial; resistance; plasmids; sequencing
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:29:09 CET)
Klebsiella pneumoniae, a major cause of both hospital and community-acquired infections, is listed by the World Health Organization as a critical priority antibiotic- resistant bacterial pathogen. With the appearance of sequencing techniques such as Next-generation Sequencing (NGS), there is the possibility to obtain the whole genome of the bacteria, getting to know all antimicrobial resistance determinants. The purpose of this study has been to apply this new technology to clinical microbiology, in order to characterize the resistome present in carbapenem-resistant K.pneumoniae strains isolated in a tertiary hospital in Valencia, Spain. A total of 234 isolates were prepared for whole-genome sequencing with Ilumina MiSeq, and sequences were later studied for antimicrobial resistance genes, sequence-typing and plasmids. Sequence-typing showed four major circulating clones in our hospital settings: ST11, ST307, ST101 and ST147, carrying different plasmids and different resistance determinants such as OXA-48 and NDM-1 carbapenemase. Application of new technologies such as whole-genome sequencing in clinical microbiology gives advantages when it comes to rapid therapy adjustment, consequently improving the patient’s clinical outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0440.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; Point prevalence survey; Antimicrobial resistance; Ghana; CwPAMS; Antibiotic use; THET
Online: 23 December 2022 (03:53:09 CET)
Commonwealth Partnerships for Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) uses a health partnership model to establish AMS in Commonwealth countries. The University Hospital of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partnership with Ulster University, in Northern Ireland undertook an AMS project from November 2021 to May 2022. We report on the implementation and its effect on antibiotic use and infections management at the University Hospital. The Global-Point Prevalence Survey (PPS) protocol was used to assess antibiotics use at the hospital at the beginning, midpoint and end of the project. Feedback on each PPS was given to staff to inform behaviour change and improve antibiotic prescribing. Antibiotic use reduced from 65% at baseline to 59.7% at the end of the project. The rate of health-associated infections also reduced from 17.5% at baseline to 6.5%. In addition, the use of antibiotics belonging to the WHO Access group at the hospital was 40% initially but increased to 50% at the project endpoint. Culture and antibiotic susceptibility requests increased from the beginning of the project from 111 total requests to 330 requests over 7 months. The AMS model implemented improved antibiotic use as well as requests for culture and susceptibility test which must be sustained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0231.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid); oligomer; polyethylene glycol; antimicrobial agent; synergistic antimicrobial effect
Online: 12 October 2020 (11:41:21 CEST)
We reported previously that poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) oligomer is an effective antimicrobial agent against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi and multi-drug resistant bacteria. In this work, it was further found that polyethylene glycol (PEG) can promote the antimicrobial effect of PHB oligomer synergistically. Three hypothetic mechanisms were proposed, that is, generation of new antimicrobial components, degradation of PHB macromolecules and dissolution/dispersion of PHB oligomer by PEG. With a series of systematic experiments and characterizations of HPLC-MS, it was deducted that dissolution/dispersion of PHB oligomer dominated the synergistic antimicrobial effect between PHB oligomer and PEG. This work demonstrates a way for promoting antimicrobial effect of PHB oligomer and other antimicrobial agents through improving hydrophilicity.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0889.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Antimicrobials; antimicrobial resistance; antibiograms; dogs
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:14:29 CEST)
Non-judicious antimicrobial use (AMU) is a major driver of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In human hospitals, cumulative antibiograms are often used by clinicians to evaluate local susceptibility rates and to select the most appropriate empiric therapy with the aim of minimizing inappropriate AMU. However, use of cumulative antibiograms to guide empiric antimicrobial therapy in veterinary hospitals in the United States is limited, and there are no specific guidelines or standardized methods available for the construction of antibiograms in veterinary clinical settings. The objective of this methods article is to describe the approaches that were used to construct antibiograms from clinical samples collected from dogs seen at a veterinary teaching hospital. Laboratory data for 563 dogs for the period January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015 was utilized. We used the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines for use in the construction of the antibiograms in human healthcare settings as the basis for the veterinary antibiograms. One general antibiogram, and antibiograms, stratified by hospital section, anatomic region of sample collection/ by sample type, were created and the challenges encountered in preparing these antibiograms are highlighted. The approaches described could be useful in guiding veterinary antibiogram development for empiric therapy.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0729.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: handshake; carbapenem; antimicrobial stewardship programs
Online: 23 April 2023 (02:35:08 CEST)
The appropriate carbapenem use is a critical concern for patient safety, public health, and a national priority. We investigated the nationwide status of carbapenem prescription in patients within their last 14 days of life to guide judicious-use protocols from the previous study comprising of 1,350 decedents. Carbapenem use was universally restricted by computerised authorisation at all centres during the study period. Carbapenem prescribing patterns and their optimality were evaluated. A total of 1201 patients received antimicrobial agents within the last 2 weeks of their lives, of whom 533 (44.4%) received at least one carbapenem. The median carbapenem treatment duration was 7 days. Of the 533 patients receiving carbapenems, 510 (95.7%) patients had microbiological samples drawn and 196 (36.8%) yielded carbapenem-resistant pathogens. A total of 200 (37.5%) were referred to infectious disease (ID) specialists. Of the 333 patients (62.5%) without ID consults, 194 (58.2%) were assessed as “not optimal”: 79 (23.7%) required escalation, 100 (30.0%) required de-escalation, and 15 (4.5%) discontinued. Notwithstanding the existing antibiotic restriction program system, carbapenems are commonly prescribed to patients within their last days of life, a majority of whom do not require it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: beta-lactamase; carbapenemase; antimicrobial resistance
Online: 12 January 2022 (00:10:49 CET)
Antibiotic resistance, particularly beta-lactam resistance, is a major problem worldwide. Imipenemase or IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) has become a more prominent enzyme, especially in Asia, since it was discovered in the 1990s in Japan. There are currently more than 91 variants of IMP-type enzymes. The most commonly identified variant of IMP-type enzymes is IMP-1 variant. IMP-type MBLs have been identified in more than 10 species in Enterobacterales. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent carrier of IMP-type enzymes worldwide. In Asia, IMP-type MBLs have been distributed in many countries in the region. This work investigated a variety of currently available IMP-type MBLs in both global level and regional level. Out of 88 variants of IMP-type MBLs reported worldwide, only 32 variants were found to have susceptibility profiles. Most of the IMP-type MBLs were resistant to Carbapenems, especially Imipenem and Meropenem, followed by the 3rd generation cephalosporins, and interestingly, monobactams. Our results comprehensively indicated the distribution of IMP-type MBLs in Asia and raised the awareness of the situation of antimicrobial resistance in the region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0358.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: multidrug-resistant (MDR); Nanotechnology; Antimicrobial
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:31:33 CET)
The global spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) microbial infections is currently one of the most severe risks to global public health, with 10 million fatalities expected by 2050 unless action is taken. Nanotechnology has revolutionized science and medicine. The reliance on nanotechnology is growing. Nanoparticles have distinct properties that improve biological, chemical, and physical properties studied for various uses. A significant area of attention in the synthesis of nanoscale modulators is the utilization of crude formulations, retro-synthesized, and pure chemicals, mainly from herbal sources, with fewer adverse effects. Green chemistry has devised a tangential technique for synthesizing metals and metal oxides to produce nanoparticles. Plant extracts (leaves, stems, and shoots) and microorganisms (bacteria, fungus, and yeast) are used as reducing intermediates to make nanoparticles. Studies in microbiology have shown that nanoparticles kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. These green nanoparticles contain antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory effects. Most nanoparticles have high antibacterial properties, indicating they may be used to combat diseases and biological contaminants. These nanoparticles have antibacterial action against pathogenic microorganisms that cause serious illnesses, including multidrug-resistant pathogens. The current research will pave the way for future applications and improved methods for producing nanoparticles, paving the way for an innovative route in nano-life sciences with widespread recognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; veterinary; complex intervention
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:49:09 CET)
Antimicrobial use in agriculture has been identified as an area of focus for reducing overall antimicrobial use and improving stewardship. In this paper, we outline the design of a complex antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) intervention aimed at developing a national Veterinary Prescribing Champion programme for Welsh farm animal veterinary practices. We describe the process by which participants were encouraged to design and deliver bespoke individualised AMS activities at practice level by forging participant ‘champion’ identities and Communities of Practice through participatory and educational online activities. We describe the key phases identified as important when designing this complex intervention, namely (i) involving key collaborators in government and industry to stimulate project engagement; (ii) grounding the design in the literature, the results of stakeholder engagement, expert panel input and veterinary clinician feedback to promote contextual relevance and appropriateness; and (iii) taking a theoretical approach to implementing intervention design to foster critical psychological needs for participant motivation and scheme involvement. With recruitment of over 80% of all farm animal practices in Wales to the programme, we also describe demographic data of the participating Welsh Veterinary Prescribing Champions in order to inform recruitment and design of future AMS programmes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0307.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: molecular docking; fluoroquinolones; antimicrobial activity
Online: 30 January 2019 (09:31:52 CET)
An important parameter in the development of a new drug is the drug's affinity to the identified target (protein/enzyme). Predicting the ligand binding to the target (protein/enzyme) by molecular simulation would allow the synthesis to be restricted to the most promising compounds.A restricted hybrid HF-DFT calculation was performed in order to obtain the most stable conformer of each ligand and a series of DFT calculations using the B3LYP levels with 6-31G* basis set has been conducted. The docking studies of the quinolone compounds will be performed with the CLC Drug Discovery Workbench to identify and visualize the ligand-receptor interaction mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0417.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: nanoparticles; biological; stability; antimicrobial activity
Online: 19 November 2018 (05:10:11 CET)
Previously the nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical methods which were costly and toxic to bio-systems. Plant extracts provides simpler, eco-friendly and cost efficient method for synthesizing nanoparticles. Lemon peel extract (LPE) was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects after optimizing the pH of extract and concentration of both extract and synthesized AgNPs. The characterization of synthesized AgNPs was carried out using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Well diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial activities of synthesized AgNPs. The presence of phenols and proteins was assumed to reduce the Ag+ ion into silver nanoparticles. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance frequency was observed at 405–425 nm for all varying condition of silver nanoparticles synthesis. Furthermore, results revealed that the synthesized AgNPs remains stable upto 75 days. The average particle size was 2–5 nm, calculated with the help of scherrer’s equation by using XRD data. LPE mediated AgNPs (200 µg/mL) showed significant antimicrobial activity, compared to commercially available nanoparticles while LPE (50 mg/ml) showed no effect. LPE mediated AgNPs might get attention of pharmacists in order to design medicines against different diseases including the infections of bacteria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: biofilm; antimicrobial; high-throughput analysis
Online: 9 August 2018 (00:20:24 CEST)
The oral cavity harbors hundreds of microbial species that are present either as planktonic cells, or incorporated into biofilms. The majority of the oral microbes are commensal organisms. Those that are pathogenic microbes can result in oral infections, and at times initiate systemic diseases. Biofilms that contain pathogens have been challenging to control. Many conventional antimicrobials have proven to be ineffective. Recent advances in science and technology are providing new approaches for pathogen control and containment and methods to characterize biofilms. This perspective provides: 1) A general understanding of biofilm development; 2) A description of emerging chemical and biological methods to control oral biofilms; 3) An overview of high-throughput analytical approaches to analyze biofilms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0249.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: cationic polymers; blends; surfaces; antimicrobial
Online: 26 January 2018 (05:31:49 CET)
The aim of this work is the preparation of contact active antimicrobial films by blending copolymers with quaternary ammonium salts and polyacrylonitrile as matrix material. A series of copolymers based on acrylonitrile and methacrylic monomers with quaternizable groups were designed with the purpose of investigating the influence of their chemical and structural characteristics on the antimicrobial activity of these surfaces. The biocide activity of these systems was studied against different microorganisms, such as the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomona aeruginosa and the yeast Candida parapsilosis. The results confirmed that parameters such as flexibility and polarity of the antimicrobial polymers immobilized on the surfaces strongly affect the efficiency against microorganisms. In contrast to the behavior of copolymers in water solutions, when they are tethered to the surface, the active cationic groups are less accessible and then the mobility of the side chain is critical for a good contact with the microorganism. Blend films composed of copolymers with high positive charge density and chain mobility present up to a more than 99.999% killing efficiency against the studied microorganisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0047.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: azo-compound; antimicrobial; synthesis; QSAR.
Online: 5 May 2017 (13:38:51 CEST)
Some novel (phenyl-diazenyl)phenols (3a–g) were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. A previously synthesized molecule, active against bacteria and fungi, was used as lead for modifications and optimization of the structure, by introduction/removal or displacement of hydroxyl groups on the azobenzene rings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the consequent changes of the antimicrobial activity and to validate the hypothesis that, for these compounds, a plausible mechanism could involve an interaction with protein receptors, rather than an interaction with membrane. All newly synthesized compounds were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), DSC thermal analysis and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each compound was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Compounds 3b and 3g showed the highest activity against S. aureus and C. albicans, with remarkable MIC values of 10 µg/mL and 3 µg/mL, respectively. Structure- activity relationship studies were capable to rationalize the effect of different substitutions on the phenyl ring of the azobenzene on antimicrobial activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0141.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ciprofloxacin; MIC; vorinostat; antimicrobial susceptibility
Online: 13 August 2016 (11:05:38 CEST)
The mechanism of ciprofloxacin action involves interference with transcription and replication of bacterial DNA, which results in elevated oxidative stress, and bacterial cell death. Vorinostat was shown to induce oxidative DNA damage. In the current work, the possibility for interactive effect of vorinotat on ciprofloxacin-induced cytotoxicity against a number of reference bacteria was investigated. Standard bacterial strains were Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43300), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 25923). The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin with or without pretreatment of bacterial cells by vorinostat was examined using disc diffusion procedure and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zones of inhibition of bacterial growth. All tested bacterial strains showed sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. When pretreated with vorinostat, significantly larger zones of inhibition and smaller MIC values were observed in all bacterial strains compared ciprofloxacin alone. As a conclusion, current results showed the possible agonistic properties for vorinostat when it is used together with ciprofloxacin. Future research will be focus on molecular mechanisms possible for such interactive effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Antibiogram; Burns; Critical Care; Trauma; Antimicrobial Stewardship; Rule-based Technology; Artificial Intelligence; antimicrobial resistance
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:32:06 CEST)
The objective of this study was to compare the pathogens and susceptibilities of the current automated rule-based technology (RBT) antibiogram with one manually collected through chart review with additional rules applied. This study was a 2-year, retrospective cohort study and included all bacterial cultures within the first 30 days from patients admitted to a single Burn Center. The current RBT antibiogram served as the control and new antibiogram versions were created using additional rules and compared to the control. Six-hundred fifty-seven patients were admitted (61% excluded for lack of cultures). Fifty-nine percent had at least one hospital acquired risk factor with over one-third having recent illicit drug use and one-third having a recent hospitalization. Of the 410 cultures included, 57% were Gram-negative and half were from wound infections. Sensitivities were significantly different when comparing manual and the RBT version after including factors, such as days since admission, presence of hospital acquired risk factors, or previous antibiotic courses. Recommended empiric Gram-negative antibiotics changed from double coverage to a single β-lactam with > 90% susceptibility. The susceptibilities between first and subsequent courses were dramatically different. Before developing an antibiogram or interpreting the output, it is important to consider which automated criteria are utilized, especially for units with extended lengths of stay.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; antiviral resistance; antibacterial resistance; antimalarial resistance; antifungal resistance; One Health; Uganda
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:57:40 CEST)
The global burden of antimicrobial resistance is on the rise, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality in our communities. The spread of antimicrobial resistance in the environment and development of resistant microbes is a challenge to the control of antimicrobial resistance. Approaches, such as antimicrobial stewardship programmes, and enhanced surveillance, have been devised to curb its spread. However, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries, the overall extent of antimicrobial resistance, and knowledge on on-going surveillance, stewardship or investigation efforts, re often poorly understood. This study aimed to look at the efforts that have been undertaken to combat antimicrobial resistance in Uganda as a means of establishing an overview of the situation, to help inform future decisions. We conducted a systematic literature review of the PubMed database to assess the efforts that have been done in Uganda to investigate and combat antimicrobial resistance. A search combining keywords associated with antimicrobial resistance were used to look up relevant studies between 1995 and 2020 on surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Uganda, and susceptibility of microbes to different drugs. The search yielded 430 records, 163 of which met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The studies were categorized according to country and region, the type of antimicrobial resistance, context of the study, study design and outcome of the study. Antibacterial resistance and antimalarial resistance had the most published studies while antiviral and antifungal resistance each were represented by very few studies. Most studies were conducted in humans and hospital settings, with very few in veterinary and One Health contexts. The results from our work can inform public health policy on antimicrobial stewardship as it contributes to understanding the status of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Uganda, and can also help to guide future research efforts. Notably, a One Health approach needs to be followed with re-spect to surveillance of antimicrobial resistance to better understand the mechanisms of resistance transfer across the human-animal–environment interface, including additional investigation in antiviral and antifungal resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0559.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Pneumonia; Amoxicillin; Randomized Trial; Antimicrobial-Resistance.
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:12:01 CEST)
Pneumonia kills over two million children under-age of five every year. Oral amoxicillin was recommended by WHO as the first drug of choice for treatment of non-severe pneumonia. The study aimed to determine the clinical failure rate of amoxycillin for the treatment of childhood non-severe pneumonia at Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs). A randomized controlled multicenter-trial study was conducted in Sana’a. IMCI strategy was used to enrollments the cases where randomly allocated to receive amoxicillin or co-trimoxazole orally for five days. Multivariate logistic regression was used for identified risk factors associated with clinical failure. A total of 254 children were enrolled, of whom 128 cases were treated with amoxicillin while 126 with co-trimoxazole. The clinical failure for amoxicillin was significantly more than co-trimoxazole (30% vs 10%) p value > 0.001. the most risk factor which significantly associated to amoxicillin failure were pre-infection in the last 6 months, while abnormal CBC and literate mothers were associated with clinical failure of co-trimoxazole (p value > 0.05). The use of co-trimoxazole as an alternative to amoxicillin for the treatment of non-severe pneumonia in the PHCCs and conducting further studies to determine the appropriate antibiotic as the first line of defense are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Food preservation; Biodiversity; Antimicrobial; Paenibacillus dendritiformis
Online: 3 May 2023 (04:38:47 CEST)
Paenibacillus dendritiformis UJA2219 isolated from carrot produces broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of partially-purified cell-culture extracts of strain UJA2219 on the microbial load and bacterial diversity of a home-made vegetable puree. The puree was challenged with an overnight culture of strain UJA2219 or with cultured broth extracts partially purified by cation exchange (CE) chromatog-raphy or reversed-phase (RP) chromatography and incubated for 7 days at temperatures of 4 °C or 25 °C. Best results were obtained at 25 °C with the RP extract, decreasing counts of presump-tive Enterobacteriaceae below detectable levels. The bacterial diversity of control and treated puree was studied by Illumina paired-end sequencing using DNA extracted from the puree samples incubated at 25 °C for 24 h. The controls and the puree inoculated with the UJA2219 strain showed an almost-identical bacterial diversity profile, with Proteobacteria (mainly Fam. Pseudo-monadaceae -gen. Pseudomonas- and Enterobacteriace as most abundant groups). Greatest differences in bacterial diversity were obtained in the puree treated with RP extract, showing a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (especially gen. Pseudomonas) and an increase of Firmicutes (mainly of the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus and Lactococcus). Results from the study suggest that the antimicrobial preparations from strain UJA2219 have a potential for application in food bio-preservation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Natural product; bioactive compounds; antimicrobial; antioxidant
Online: 16 May 2022 (05:07:30 CEST)
Natural compounds have diverse structures and are present in different forms of life. Metabolites such as tannins, anthocyanins, and alkaloids, among others, serve as a defense mechanism in live organisms and are undoubtedly compounds of interest for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Plants, bacteria, and insects represent a source of biomolecules with diverse activities, poorly studied in many cases. To use these molecules for different applications, it is essential to know their structure, concentrations, and biological activity potential. In vitro techniques that evaluate the biological activity of the molecules of interest have been developed since the 1950s. Currently, different methodologies have emerged to overcome some of the limitations of these traditional techniques, mainly the reduction of time and costs. However, emerging technologies continue to appear due to the urgent need to expand the analysis capacity of a growing number of reported biomolecules and the lack of therapeutic options to treat various diseases. This review presents an updated summary of the conventional and current methods to evaluate natural compounds' biological activity, including a diagram that summarizes the minimum techniques essential for correctly assessing molecules with biological potential.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial; bacteriocins; halocin; Chlorellin; killer yeast.
Online: 12 July 2021 (09:38:48 CEST)
Microorganisms including actinomycetes, archaea, bacteria, fungi, yeast, and micro algae are the auspicious source of vital bioactive compounds. In this review, the existing state of the art re-garding antimicrobial molecules from microorganisms has been summarized. The potential an-timicrobial compounds from actinomycetes, particularly Streptomyces sp.; archaea; fungi including endophytic and marine-derived fungi, mushroom; yeast, and microalgae were briefly described. Furthermore, this review briefly summarized the activity and mode of action of bacteriocins, a ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides product of Eurotium sp., Streptomyces parvulus, S. thermophiles, Lactococcus lactis, etc. Bacteriocins have inherent properties such as targeting multi-ple-drug resistant pathogens, which allows them to be considered next-generation antibiotics. Similarly, Glarea lozoyensis derived antifungal lipohexpeptides i.e., pneumocandins, inhibits 1,3-β-glucan synthase of the fungal cell wall and acts as a precursor for the synthesis of caspo-fungin, is also elaborated. In conclusion, this review highlights the possibility of using microor-ganisms as an antimicrobial resource for biotechnological, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical ap-plications. However, more investigations are still required to separate, purify, and characterize these bioactive compounds and transfer these primary drugs into clinically approved antibiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0478.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: biopolymers; paper packaging; antimicrobial activity; nanoparticles
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:30:46 CEST)
Here, we designed the composition of the coating of the paper sheets composed of chitosan, bacterial cellulose (nanofibres), and ZnO with boosted antibacterial and mechanical activity. We investigated the compositions with ZnO exhibiting two different sizes/shapes: (1) rods and (2) irregular sphere-like particles. The proposed processing of bacterial cellulose resulted in the formation of nanofibers. Antimicrobial behavior was tested using E. coli ATCC® 25922™ following ASTM E2149-13a standard. Mechanical properties of the paper sheets were measured by comparison of tearing resistance, tensile strength, and bursting strength according to ISO 5270 standard. The increased antibacterial response is assigned to the combination of chitosan and ZnO (independently of its shape and size), while the boosted mechanical behavior is due to bacterial cellulose nanofibers. Therefore, the proposed composition is an interesting multifunctional mixture for coatings in food packaging applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 impacts; Antimicrobial resistance; Africa
Online: 7 May 2021 (16:21:37 CEST)
Objective In this study, we aim to synthesize some evidence on the impacts that COVID-19 is having on the epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in Africa since it was declared global pandemic by WHO in March 2020. Methodology A scoping review was undertaken by collecting and curating relevant resources from peer-reviewed articles and also from the gray literature. Mixed approaches of extracting data (qualitative and quantitative) were employed in synthesizing evidence, as suggested by Health Evidence Network (HEN). Findings A model constructed based on the synthesis of early evidences available on the effects of factors linked to COVID-19 in impacting the evolution of AMR in Africa predicted that, in cumulative terms, those factors favoring the evolution of AMR outpace those disfavoring it by no less than three folds. Conclusion COVID-19 is fueling the evolution of AMR almost unhindered in Africa. Due recognition of this crisis, concerted efforts for resource mobilization and global cooperation are needed to tackle it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0623.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Antimicrobial; berries; cytotoxic; cyanidine; elderberry; lyophilization
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:26:39 CET)
Natural phytochemicals in foods, including anthocyanins, can play an important role in human health. Anthocyanins have been reported to cause many various useful effects, such as reducing cancer cell proliferation, regulating blood pressure, preventing tumour formation, improving eyesight, and preventing diabetes. In this study, we aimed to reveal the qualitative anthocyanin content, antiproliferative and antimicrobial effects of different extracts derived from Vaccinium myrtillus, V. corymbosum, Sambucus nigra and Aronia melanocarpa. The anthocyanin content of the plants mentioned in the study was characterized after the freeze-drying process. MTT assay was used to determine the antiproliferative effect of extracts on cancer cells. Antimicrobial effects of extracts were studied on typical and clinical strains of 5 different bacteria. As a result, the anthocyanin content in the extracts obtained was determined to be quite good with the freeze-drying method, and it was also determined that the extracts had various levels of antiproliferative and antibacterial effects.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Bacterial cellulose; Nisin; Antimicrobial activity; Stability
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:52:11 CEST)
Nisin is a 3.4 kDa antimicrobial peptide, produced by Lactococcus lactis (ATCC 11454). This bacteriocin can inhibit spores gemination and gram-positive bacteria development and has gained visibility in therapeutic use. The bacterial cellulose (CB) has been considered an ideal material and with high quality applied in food and medical-pharmaceutical inputs. Because of all this benefits, it is important to know the system proceeding of CB with nisin. Therefore, it was realize nisin release profile analysis of CBs was performed; analysis of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa ATCC 9721 and Staphylococus aureus ATCC 10390; antimicrobial stability test, for 100 days at different temperatures of 4º, 25º and 37 ° C against microorganisms: S. aureus e L. sakei. The results show that nisin is released by the CB in 4 hours of contact with medium and the MIC of nisin is 78 µg/mL for S. aureus, doesn’t have gram-negative inhibition. It had stability until 100 days against L. sakei and 60 days for S. aureus. The system proved to be efficient and CB potentiated the antimicrobial action of nisin, acting as a selective barrier for other compounds present in the standard solution, serving as protection of the peptide at different temperatures. The CB loading system can be an ideal antimicrobial stability system for nisin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Antibiotic prescription; Outpatients; AWaRe classification; Ghana; SORT IT; Antimicrobial stewardship; Electronic Medical Records; Operational research; Antimicrobial resistance
Online: 26 July 2022 (07:47:52 CEST)
Background: Monitoring of antibiotic prescription practices in hospitals is essential to assess and facilitate appropriate use. This is relevant to halt the progression of antimicrobial resistance. Methods: Assessment of antibiotic prescribing patterns and completeness of antibiotic prescriptions among out-patients in 2021 was conducted at the University Hospital of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in the Ashanti region of Ghana. We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 49,660 patients who had 110,280 encounters in the year. Results: The patient encounters yielded 350,149 prescriptions. Every month, 33-36% of patient encounters resulted in antibiotic prescription, higher than the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended optimum of 27%. Almost half of the antibiotics prescribed belonged to WHO’s Watch group. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (50%), azithromycin (29%), ciprofloxacin (28%), metronidazole (21%), and cefuroxime (20%) were the most prescribed antibiotics. Antibiotic prescribing parameters (indication, name of drug, duration, dose, route and frequency) were documented in almost all prescriptions. Conclusions: Extending antimicrobial stewardship to the out-patient settings by developing standard treatment guidelines, an out-patient specific drug formulary and antibiograms can promote rational antibiotic use at the hospital. The EMR system of the hospital is a valuable tool for monitoring prescriptions that can be leveraged for future audits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Bacillus licheniformis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; bacteriocin; antimicrobial peptides
Online: 29 May 2023 (10:47:59 CEST)
Bacillus licheniformis produce several classes of antimicrobial substances which are mainly either peptides or proteins. Among of them bacteriocins - peptides or proteins of different structural composition including synthesized by bacteria ribosomally; non-ribosomally synthesized peptides and cyclic lipopeptides; exopolysaccharides. Different representatives of these classes act against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, fungal pathogens and amoebae cells. In this review, a detailed classification of antimicrobial substances produced by B. licheniformis based on their chemical structure and mode of the synthesis and activity is presented. For some (rather limited number) of secreted antimicrobials mechanism of their harmful effect on the target cells is established, however, for many of them it remains unknown. The antimicrobial activity for most substances was studied in vitro only, however some substances were characterized in vivo and are found practical applications in medicine and veterinary. The cyclic lipopeptides with surfactant properties are applied in industry. In this review, a special attention on antimycobacterials produced by B. licheniformis is made as a possible approach to combat multidrug resistant and latent tuberculosis. Indeed, a number of peptides and proteins revealed strong antimycobacterial activity. However, medical application of some bacteriocins with promising in vitro antimycobacterial activity is limited by their toxicity for animals and humans. In this connection, similarly with the enhancement of the antimycobacterial activity of natural bacteriocins using genetic engineering, reduction of the toxicity by the same approach looks feasible. A unique capability of B. licheniformis to synthesize and produce a bouquet of different antibacterial compounds allow to consider this organism as a universal natural vehicle for antibiotic substances in form of probiotic cultures strains to combat various types of pathogens including mycobacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1380.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), Antibiotics; Surveillance; India; Taiwan
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:01:35 CEST)
Human exposure to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through food is now very imperfectly understood, creating a significant gap in the design of interventions. The interchange of AMR genes and the transfer of AMR bacteria from animals to humans through the food chain necessitate comprehensive methods to risk reduction. With a focus on AMR in bacterial species isolated from food products, foods (of both animal and non-animal origin), and ambient samples, the current meta-analysis gathered up-to-date information on the epidemiology of AMR in animal-source food chain. As a result, the combined prevalence of AMR across the various food sources was calculated. From the 18,784 food samples obtained as a result of selected publications, 7,676 (40.9%) samples were contaminated, including 4343 (56.6%) and 3363 (43.4%) samples from Taiwan and India, respectively. Meat (chicken, pork, and beef), fish and milk all have moderate to medium potential for AMR exposure to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative foodborne pathogens such S. aureus, Clostridium, E. coli, Salmonella, etc. Antibiotic resistance to β-lactam, fluoroquinolone, carbapenem etc, is present in the majority of food samples. The results of this study emphasize the persistent danger of antimicrobial residue in animal-derived foods in Taiwan, India, and other nations with comparable customs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0771.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance; Phage engineering; endolysins; phage therapy
Online: 10 May 2023 (15:11:24 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global concern; antibiotics and other regular treatment methods have failed to overcome the increasing number of infectious diseases. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that specifically target/ kill bacterial hosts without affecting other human microbiome. Phage therapy provides optimism in the current global healthcare scenario with a long history of its applications in humans that has now reached various clinical trials. Phages in clinical trials have specific requirements of being exclusively lytic, free from toxic genes with an enhanced host range that adds an advantage to this requisite. This review explains in detail the various phage engineering methods and their potential applications in therapy. To make phages more efficient, engineering has been attempted using techniques like conventional homologous recombination, Bacteriophage Recombineering of Electroporated DNA (BRED), clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas, CRISPY-BRED/Bacteriophage Recombineering with Infectious Particles (BRIP), chemically accelerated viral evolution (CAVE), and phage genome rebooting. Phages are administered in cocktail form in combination with antibiotics, vaccines, and purified proteins, such as endolysins. Thus, phage therapy is proving to be a better alternative for treating life-threatening infections, with more specificity and fewer detrimental consequences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0475.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Nutrigenomics; Antimicrobial resistance; Novel Antibiotics; gut microbiome
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:40:22 CEST)
Nutrigenomics is the study of the interaction of nutrition and genes, focusing on the influence of nutrients on the genome, proteome, and metabolome, and how nutrition affects human health. In the context of nutrigenomics, bioactive components are dietary ingredients that may transmit information from the external environment and alter gene expression in the cell, and hence the overall function of the organism. It is critical to consider food not only as a source of energy and essential nutrients necessary for life and growth, but also as a factor impacting health/disease, biochemical processes, biochemical pathway activation and affecting the diversity of the gut microbiome. Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic and commensal microorganisms has emerged as a major public health concern due to emerging antimicrobial resistance genes in E. coli isolates from pig, cattle, chicken, and turkey meat, against tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfonamides. Also, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. have shown antibiotic resistance at farms and slaughterhouses, and in animal-based food products. A correlation has been proven between a critical nutrient-responsive signaling system and catabolite control of gene expression, and a two-component signaling system that drives antibiotic resistance in E. faecalis, revealing a previously unknown integration between the nutritional status of the cell and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Moreover, different nutrigenomic approaches can be applied to mitigate possible emergence of antimicrobial resistance against novel antibiotics. However, little progress has been achieved in converting nutrigenomics information into clinical advice, so far.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0532.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Carbapenem, Antimicrobial Resistance, Klebsiella pneumoniae, genomic context
Online: 30 March 2023 (13:02:47 CEST)
Carbapenems are considered for treating Klebsiella pneumoniae and other Enterobacteriaceae infections, especially if they are not susceptible to other generally prescribed antibiotics, i.e., if they show resistance. In such cases, antibiotic activity decreases, and most patients succumb to the infection. A better understanding of the disease pattern and resistance mechanisms could be gained by magnifying the genes that confer resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, studying the genes that confer resistance to carbapenems and any other antibiotics for that matter is indispensable for coming up with improved treatment options. This study included the analyses of co-resistance patterns between resistance genes-between drug classes and within the carbapenem-resistant genes, genomic context analysis of highly expressed carbapenem-resistant genes, and phylogenetic study of OXA-producing genes, plasmid incompatibility identification, and sequence type identification using MLST. The presence of ESBLs, MBLs, and SBLs across the downloaded genomes was studied. SHV-producing genes were found to co-occur with most of the resistant genes belonging to different drug classes. The plasmid incompatibility type IncFIB was found to be common among the highly expressed genes, and most of these genes were flanked by different families of insertion sequence (IS) elements. MLST study suggested that the presence of sequence types ST-11, ST-14, and ST-147 was common in the downloaded set of genomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Virus-fortification; antimicrobial; active packaging films; bacteriophages
Online: 6 March 2023 (02:20:53 CET)
Research and development on innovative packaging materials have advanced significantly to safeguard packaged food against microbial contamination and oxidation. To combat demanding issues, active packaging has evolved as a viable method for minimizing oxidation/microbial growth in packaged goods, extending their shelf life, and ensuring the consumer's safety. Active food packaging includes O2, CO2 scavengers, moisture absorbers, U.V. barriers, and carriers of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Various antimicrobial agents are carried and/or incorporated into food packaging formulations. Consumers demand natural antimicrobials over chemical/synthetic ones, such as bacteriocins, bacteriophages, and essential oils. Bacteriophages (viruses) have emerged as a feasible option for decontaminating and eliminating infections from food sources. These viruses can target specific food-borne pathogens without impairing beneficial bacteria and, most critically, without causing disease in humans or animals. Fortifying bacteriophages into food packaging films will not only kill specific food microorganisms but has evolved as a new weapon to combat antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) issues. The present review summarises recent developments in active antimicrobial packaging focused particularly on bacteriophage-food packaging applications and advantages, drawbacks, and future trends for active food packaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0450.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Stimuli responsive; hydrogels; slow release; antimicrobial activit
Online: 25 January 2023 (09:36:56 CET)
Herein, we report a stimuli responsive hydrogel with inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli prepared by chemical crosslinking of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCs) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). The hydrogels were prepared by esterification of chitosan (Cs) with monochloroacetic acid to produce CMCs which was then chemically crosslinked to HEC using citric acid as the crosslinking agent. To impart a stimuli responsiveness property to the hydrogels, polydiacetylene-zinc oxide (PDA-ZnO) nanosheets were synthesized in-situ during the crosslinking reaction followed by photopolymerization of the resultant composite. To achieve this, ZnO was anchored on carboxylic groups in 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) layers to restrict movement of alkyl portion of PCDA during crosslinking CMCs and HEC hydrogels. This was followed by irradiating the composite with UV radiation to photopolymerize the PCDA to PDA within the hydrogel matrix so as to impart thermal and pH responsiveness to the hydrogel. From the results obtained, the prepared hydrogel had a pH dependant swelling capacity as it absorbed more water in acidic media as compared to basic media. Incorporation of PDA-ZnO resulted in a thermochromic composite responsive to pH evidenced by a visible colour transition from pale purple to pale pink. Upon swelling, PDA-ZnO-CMCs-HEC hydrogels had inhibitory activity against E. coli attributed to the slow release of the ZnO nanoparticles as compared to CMCs-HEC hydrogels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0205.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: antimicrobial peptides; host defense peptides; zinc; metalloAMPs
Online: 12 January 2023 (02:27:32 CET)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential components of innate immunity across all species. AMPs have become the focus of attention in recent years as scientists are addressing antibiotic resistance, a public health crisis that has reached epidemic proportions. This family of peptides are a promising alternative to current antibiotics due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and tendency to avoid resistance development. A subfamily of AMPs interact with metal ions to potentiate their antimicrobial effectiveness, as such they have been termed metalloAMPs. In this work, we review the scientific literature of metalloAMPs that enhance their antimicrobial efficacy when combined with the essential metal ion, zinc (II). Beyond the role played by Zn(II) as a cofactor in different systems, it is well-known that this metal ion plays an important role in innate immunity. Here, we classify the different types of synergistic interactions between AMPs and Zn(II) into three distinct classes. By better understanding how each class of metalloAMPs uses Zn(II) to potentiate their activity, researchers can begin to exploit these interactions in the development of new antimicrobial agents and accelerate their use as therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: antimicrobial multidrug resistance; foodborne pathogens; food safety
Online: 6 July 2022 (04:32:25 CEST)
Due to nutritional benefits and perceived humane ways of treating the animals, the demand for antibiotic-free pastured poultry chicken has continued to be on a steady rise. However, despite non-usage of antibiotics in pastured poultry broiler production, antibiotic resistance (AR) is reported in zoonotic poultry pathogens. However, actors that drive multidrug resistance (MDR) in pastured poultry are not known. In this study, we used machine learning and deep learning approaches to predict farm management practices, and physicochemical properties of feces and soil that drive MDR in zoonotic poultry pathogens. Antibiotic use in agroecosystems is known to contribute to resistance. Evaluation of the development of resistance in environments that are free of antibiotics such as the all-natural antibiotic-free, pastured poultry production systems described here is critical to understand the background AR. We analyzed 1,635 preharvest (feces and soil) samples collected from forty-two pastured poultry flocks and eleven farms in the Southeastern United States. CDC National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System guidelines were used to determine antimicrobial/multidrug resistance profiles of Salmonella, Listeria and Campylobacter. A combination of two traditional machine learning (RandomForest and XGBoost) and three deep learning (Multi-layer Perceptron, Generative Adversarial Network, and Auto-Encoder) approaches, identified critical farm/environmental variables that drive multidrug resistance in poultry pathogens, in broiler production systems that represents background resistance. This study enumerates management practices that contribute to AR and recommendations to potentially mitigate multidrug resistance and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in pastured poultry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ESKAPE; heteroaryl-ethylenes; clinical strains; antimicrobial activity
Online: 13 May 2022 (03:30:57 CEST)
The World Health Organization has identified antimicrobial resistance as a public health emergency and developed a global priority pathogens list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can be summarized in the acronym ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacterales species), reminding us of their ability to escape the effect of antibacterial drugs. We previously tested new heteroaryl-ethylene compounds in order to define their spectrum of activity and antibacterial capability. Now, we focus our attention on PB4, a compound with promising MIC and MBC values in all conditions tested. In the present study, we evaluate the activity of PB4 on selected samples of ESKAPE isolates from nosocomial infections: 14 S. aureus, 6 E. faecalis, 7 E. faecium, 12 E. coli and 14 A. baumanii. Furthermore, an ATCC control strain was selected for all species tested. MICs were performed according to the standard method, with some modifications. PB4 MIC values were within very low ranges regardless of bacterial species and resistance profiles: from 0,12 to 2 mg/L for S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. faecium and A. baumannii. For E. coli, the MIC values obtained were slightly higher (4-64 mg/L), butstill promising. The PB4 heteroaryl-ethylenic compound was able to counteract the bacterial growth of both high-priority Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical strains. In the future, it would be interesting to evaluate the activity of PB4 in animal models to test for its toxicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; bacterial vaginosis; refractory; recurrent; treatment
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:11:03 CET)
Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common cause of vaginal discharge, is characterized by a shift in the vaginal microbiota from lactobacillus dominance to a diverse array of facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria which form a multi-species biofilm on vaginal epithelial cells. The rate of recurrence after therapy is high, often >60%. While the BV biofilm itself likely contributes to recurrent and/or refractory disease after treatment by reducing antimicrobial penetration, antimicrobial resistance in BV-associated bacteria including those, both within the biofilm and the vaginal canal, may be the result of independent, unrelated bacterial properties which are discussed in this paper. Our current recommendations for the treatment of refractory and recurrent BV are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: antimicrobial peptide prediction; sequence analysis; random forest
Online: 14 February 2022 (11:57:01 CET)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics in order to overcome the growing problems of antibiotic resistance. Computational prediction approaches receive an increasing interest to identify and design the best candidate AMPs prior to the in-vitro tests. In this study, we focused on the linear cationic peptides with non-hemolytic activity, which are downloaded from the Database of Antimicrobial Activity and Structure of Peptides (DBAASP). Referring to the MIC (Minimum inhibition concentration) values, we have assigned a positive label to a peptide if it shows antimicrobial activity; otherwise the peptide is labeled as negative. Here, we focused on the peptides showing antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and against Gram-positive bacteria separately, and we created two datasets accordingly. Ten different physico-chemical properties of the peptides are calculated and used as features in our study. Following data exploration and data preprocessing steps, a variety of classification algorithms are used with 100-fold Monte Carlo Cross Validation to build models and to predict the antimicrobial activity of the peptides. Among the generated models, Random Forest has resulted in the best performance metrics for both Gram-negative dataset (Accuracy: 0.98, Recall: 0.99, Specificity: 0.97, Precision: 0.97, AUC: 0.99, F1: 0.98) and Gram-positive dataset (Accuracy: 0.95, Recall: 0.95, Specificity: 0.95, Precision: 0.90, AUC: 0.97, F1: 0.92) after outlier elimination is applied. This prediction approach might be useful to evaluate the antibacterial potential of a candidate peptide sequence before moving to the experimental studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0109.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: magnetization; photoluminescence; carbon dots; magnetic nanoparticles; antimicrobial
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:21:24 CET)
We present a simple strategy to generate a family of carbon dot/iron oxide nanoparticles (C/Fe-NPs) that relies on the thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in the presence of a highly fluorescent carbon-rich precursor, while polyethylene glycol serves as the passivation agent. By varying the molar ratio of the reactants, a series of C/Fe-NPs have been synthesized with tuneable elemental composition in terms of C, H, O, N, Fe. The quantum yield is enhanced from 6% to 9% as the carbon content increases from 27% to 36%, while the room temperature saturation magnetization is improved from 4.1 emu/g to 17.7 emu/g as the iron content is enriched from 17 to 31%. In addition, the C/Fe-NPs show excellent antimicrobial properties, minimal cytotoxicity and demonstrate promising bioimaging capabilities, thus showing great potential for the development of advanced diagnostic tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Antimicrobial activities; Medicinal plants; Herbal medicines; WHO
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:40:36 CET)
Medicinal plants have antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. More or less all plants have medicinal properties. In this research article, we have selected four economically important plants (three fruit plants and an economically important plant), Malus domestica Borkh., Prunus persica L., Ricinus communis L., and Carica papaya L. found in several areas of Indian state Uttarakhand. Using the methanolic extract of leaves, we have screened those four plants against four human pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. For our experiment we have screened the methanolic leaf extracts of four plants against the above-mentioned bacteria. Statistical analysis was also performed for validation. Result revealed the said bacteria have potential antibacterial activities. So, these leaves can be used for clinical trial. These plants can also be used for making herbal medicines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0085.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: antimicrobial coating; photodynamic inactivation; public transportation; AMC
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:26:24 CET)
Millions of people use public transportation daily worldwide and frequently touch surfaces, thereby producing a reservoir of microorganisms on surfaces increasing the risk of transmission. Constant occupation makes sufficient cleaning difficult to achieve. Thus, an autonomous, perma-nent antimicrobial coating (AMC) could keep down the microbial burden on such surfaces. A photodynamic AMC was applied to frequently touched surfaces in buses. The microbial burden (colony forming units, cfu) was determined weekly and compared to equivalent surfaces in buses without AMC (references). The microbial burden ranged from 0 – 209 cfu/cm² on references and from 0 – 54 cfu/cm² on AMC. The means were 13.4 ± 29.6 cfu/cm² on references and 4.5 ± 8.4 cfu/cm² on AMC (p<0.001). The difference of microbial burden on AMC and references was al-most constant throughout the study. Considering a hygiene benchmark of 5 cfu/cm², the data yield an absolute risk reduction of 22.6 % and a relative risk reduction of 50.7 %. In conclusion, photo-dynamic AMC kept down the microbial burden, reducing the risk of transmission of microor-ganisms. AMC permanently and autonomously contributes to hygienic conditions on surfaces in public transportation. Photodynamic AMC therefore are suitable for reducing the microbial load and closing hygiene gaps in public transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0474.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: probiotic; Enterococcus faecium; antimicrobial resistance; environmental change
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:49:29 CET)
In two sequential replicates (n=90 and n=96 feedlot finisher cattle, respectively) we measured the impact of an Enterococcus faecium-based probiotic (DFM) and an altered feedlot pen environment on antimicrobial resistance among fecal enterococci in cattle fed (or, not fed) the macrolide tylosin. Diluted fecal samples were spiral-plated on plain and antibiotic-supplemented m-Enterococcus agar. In the first replicate, tylosin significantly (p<0.05) increased the relative quantity of erythromycin-resistant enterococci. This effect was diminished in cattle fed the DFM in conjunction with tylosin. A similar observed effect was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) in the second replicate. Isolates were speciated and resistance phenotypes were obtained for E. faecium and E. hirae. E. faecium isolates were whole-genome sequenced, which yielded sequence types (ST), resistance genes and phylogeny. Samples of the DFM were sequenced and found to contain E. faecium ST296, which was not present on Day 0 of either replicate. This DFM sequence type was found in fecal samples after Day 0, the majority of which were isolated from cattle in one of the DFM-fed pens. Increased prevalence of ST296 occurred with a concomitant decrease in ST240; of importance, the latter typically harbored both ermB and tet(M) genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Bacteriophage therapy; antimicrobial resistance; Salmonella; antibiotic synergy
Online: 15 November 2021 (10:44:07 CET)
The prevalence of multidrug resistant bacterial diseases is a major global health risk. Multidrug resistant bacterial diseases are prevalent, and the need for novel methods of treatment is essential to the preservation of public health. Annually foodborne pathogens cause 1.35 million infections and 26,500 hospitalizations in the United States alone. Foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. are a major threat to public health. Bacteriophages offer a unique method for the treatment of these multidrug resistant bacteria. We studied the infection dynamics of a potential mono-phage therapy of Salmonella typhimurium under various pathophysiological conditions. Furthermore, we determined the resistance dynamics of Salmonella typhimurium against P22 phage treatment. We also determined synergy with antibiotics such as ampicillin and kanamycin. This research helps to further define and show the versatility of bacteriophages as potential novel treatment methods.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: hosue fly,; falling,; dipping,; antimicrobial,; milk,; water
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:48:42 CET)
Background: The study describes the comparison of different microbial load results of natural falling and dipping of the house fly (Musca domestica) in water and milk to investigate the possibilities of preventing the effect of the transferred pathogens from the house fly to our sources by pointing out the existence of antimicrobial factors within the house fly. Methods: Samples of house fly were collected from Jeddah and Makkah (Makkah region) and were directly transferred to the laboratory. Each house fly was packed in sterile test tubes. Each tube was opened oppositely to a larger test tube containing 10 ml of sterile tap water, and sterile water at pH 4.0 in other similar series of treatments to represent the reactions of stomach fluids. Later, the house flies were left for 20 seconds after reaching the water surface, and then cultured on different microbial media to evaluate the microbial load of the natural falling of the house fly. To evaluate the complete dipping of house flies in the water, two methods were tested by one complete dip for the flies for 20 seconds, and three times complete dipping for 20 seconds in water before evaluating the microbial load. The same methods were achieved on milk in a series of experiments and the microbial load was evaluated after the incubation at room temperature for three hours. Results: It was found that dipping treatments of house flies gave lower microbial contamination in water at pH 4.0 than neutral pH. The lower microbial load was also observed when dipping the house flies three times in water as compared to once dipping and natural falling treatments. It was also found that the complete dipping of house flies’ treatments in milk will reduce the microbial contamination as compared to natural falling treatments. Conclusion: The observed results support the presence of antimicrobial factors on the house fly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance; Biosecurity; Egg; Nigeria; Poultry; Salmonella
Online: 5 May 2021 (15:04:41 CEST)
Salmonella remains one of the notable food-borne bacterial pathogens. It is associated with poultry and poultry products including eggs. This study investigated Salmonella distribution in eggshell and content, their antimicrobial resistance pattern, and the possible risk factors driving contamination in Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 500 eggs (5 eggs pooled into one sample) were collected and culturally examined for the presence of Salmonella serovars. Isolates were further characterized biochemically using Microbact 20E (Oxoid) and Antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. A total of 14 Salmonella isolates spread across 10 serovars were recovered from the 100 pooled egg samples; 10 (10%) from the market and 4 (4%) farms, 13(13%) eggshell, and 1(1%) egg content. All tested serovars were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, and kanamycin. Resistance was mostly observed in sulfamethoxazole 8 (80%), followed by ciprofloxacin 5 (50%) and tetracycline 3 (30%). Sales of eggs in the market appears to be a strong factor encouraging contamination in addition to poor biosecurity and unhygienic handling of eggs on the farm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Campylobacter; Antimicrobial Resistance; Foodborne Pathogen; Animal Source
Online: 5 May 2021 (11:05:37 CEST)
Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens of concern in its growing trend of antimicrobial resistance. C. jejuni and C. coli are the major causative agents, with C. jejuni contributing to most of the cases in approximately 90% in the world. Infection is transmitted to humans due to consumption of contaminated food and water. Campylobacteriosis caused by C. jejuni is commonly presented with severe diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting with some extreme cases resulting in Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and acute flaccid paralysis. Symptoms are severe in cases of children below 5 years, elderly and individuals who are immunocompromised. The infection is usually sporadic, and self-limiting and thus does not require antibiotics for treatment. Still, the antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter is a major concern because of the transmission of resistance from animal sources to humans. This review highlights the recent epidemiology, geographical impact, resistance mechanisms, spread of Campylobacter spp. and the strategies to control the transmission of Campylobacter from veterinary sources and its antimicrobial resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0522.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Commensal bacteria; Neisseria; antimicrobial resistance; multidrug resistance
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:37:13 CET)
Pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually-transmitted infection gonorrhea. N. gonorrhoeae has evolved high levels of antimicrobial resistance (AR) leading to therapeutic failures even in dual-therapy treatment with azithromycin and ceftriaxone. AR mechanisms can be acquired by genetic transfer from closely related species, such as naturally-competent commensal Neisseria species. At present, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance profiles of commensal Neisseria. Here, we characterized the phenotypic resistance profile of four commensal Neisseria species (N. lactamica, N. cinerea, N. mucosa, and N. elongata) against 10 commonly used antibiotics, and compared their profiles to 4 N. gonorrhoeae strains, using disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration assays. Overall, we observed that 3 of the 4 commensals were more resistant to several antibiotics than pathogenic N. gonorrhoeae strains. Next, we compared the penicillin-binding-protein 2 (PBP2) sequences between commensal and N. gonorrhoeae strains. We found mutations in PBP2 known to confer resistance in N. gonorrhoeae also present in commensal Neisseria sequences. Our results suggest that commensal Neisseria have unexplored antibiotic resistance gene pools that may be exchanged with pathogenic N. gonorrhoeae, possibly impairing drug development and clinical treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0635.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; Beta-lactamase gene; Nigeria; Review
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:28:20 CEST)
This review was carried out to identify different beta-lactamase resistance genes reported in published literature from Nigeria and to determine the proportion estimates of the important beta-lactamase resistance genes in Nigeria. Sixty-three (63) articles were included in this review based on the eligibility criteria. All the beta-lactamases reported were detected from the Gram-negative bacteria, most especially from Enterobacteriaceae (n=53). Thirty-six different beta-lactamase genes have been reported from Nigeria. These genes belong to the narrow-spectrum, AmpC, extended-spectrum, and carbapenemase beta-lactamase resistance genes. Eight (8) genes (blaDHA, blaCTXM-1, blaCTXM-14, blaGES-1, blaVEB-1, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-2, and blaTEM-1) were shared between animals and humans, 5 genes (blaSHV-1, blaSHV-2, blaSHV-11, blaSHV-12, and blaNDM-1) were common to both humans and environment while none of the genes was unique to both animals and environment. Four genes including blaCMY, blaTEM-1, blaAmpC, and internationally pandemic blaCTXM-15 gene were unique to animals, humans, and the environment. No carbapenemase gene was reported from animals yet. The pooled proportion estimate of ESBL genes in Nigeria was 31% (95% CI: 26-36%, P<0.0001), while the estimate of blaCTXM-15 gene in Nigeria was 46% (95% CI: 36-57%, P<0.0001). The proportion estimate of AmpC genes was 32% (95% CI: 11-52%, P<0.001), while the estimate for carbapenemases was 8% (95% CI: 5-12%, P<0.001). This study has provided information on the beta-lactamases distribution in Nigeria. This is necessary for a better understanding of molecular epidemiology of clinically important beta-lactamases especially the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0419.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Biofilm; Silver Gel; Betadine; Providone-Iodine; Antimicrobial
Online: 28 February 2020 (11:45:13 CET)
Betadine (Providone-Iodine) solution is a topically applied antiseptic, which has been used for wound care and surgery for decades for the prevention and treatment of skin and wound infections. However, several studies have documented the ineffectiveness of Betadine solution. Other topical antimicrobial dressings, including those that contain silver, have been used in the management of infected wounds. The present study was undertaken to determine if the combination of 5% Betadine solutions and silver colloidal gel (Ag-gel), is more effective than the individual materials in inhibiting the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. These determinations were carried out by both the colony forming unit (CFU) assay, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Ag-gel showed complete inhibition on all the bacteria, except Klebsiella pneumoniae CI strain while 5% Betadine concentrations did not completely kill any of the tested bacteria. However, K. pneumoniae was completely eliminated in the presence of the combination of 5% Betadine solution plus Ag-gel. Confocal laser microscopy confirmed the CFU results. Thus this study demonstrated that while the individual treatments are not effective in killing all the bacteria tested, the combination of 5% Betadine solution and Ag-gel completely kill all bacteria tested, including K. penumoniae CI.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial; antioxidant; bioprospecting; lapachol; Tabebuia aurea; toxicity
Online: 22 January 2020 (02:41:05 CET)
Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso) Benth. & Hook. f. The ex S.Moore (yellow ipe), belonging to the Bignoniaceae family, used in the popular for fever, inflammation and healing of skin wounds. The extract was prepared by maceration, using 70% ethanol. Through HPLC analysis, it was possible to identify substances, mainly phenolic, such as lapachol, present in Bignoniaceae. The phenolic content was 21.36 mg / Eag in the antioxidant activity, the effective concentration of 50% was 53.03 ± 1.14 µg / mL. The antimicrobial activity against S.aureus, E. coli and C. albicans was evaluated by microdilution in broth, which verified action against the tested microorganisms. Cell viability has been inhibited for tumor cells, although this has not been observed for normal cells. The LD50 against A.aegypti mosquito larvae was 3504.6 mg / L and there was no mortality in the concentration tested for the snail B.glabrata. Nontoxic or low toxicity for A. salina and T. molitor, respectively, and did not exhibit hemolytic action at concentrations of antibacterial effect. Given the above, it was concluded that the bark extract of the studied species has bioprospecting potential for the future development of antimicrobial products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Pinus; needle; Himalayas; phenolics; flavonoids; antimicrobial; antioxidant
Online: 1 September 2019 (10:41:37 CEST)
Environmental interventions and ecological adaptations harbor millions of valued substances and metabolites in plants which can be employed and commercialized for human benefits. Present study encompasses the untapped potential of pine needles of Indo-Himalayan region for the production of different metabolites and their pharmacological significance in terms of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid content from the needles of ten pine species was quantified using three different solvent systems. Results revealed that out of 10 different selected Pinus species, Pinus taeda showed highest concentration of total phenolics, soluble-F phenolics and flavonoids content (approx.147.02 mg/g, 141.08 mg/g and 21.91mg/g respectively) as compared to other species. On the other hand P. greggii showed highest Bound-W phenolic content (approx.3.62mg/g). Among all the selected plant species, the needles of P.echinata exhibited the highest and P.thunbergii had the lowest ratio of total flavonoids to total phenolics. Most of these compounds were found to have effective antioxidant activities as well as antimicrobial activity, as estimated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and disk diffusion test respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0222.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; biocuration; microbial nomenclature; molecular epidemiology
Online: 19 July 2019 (08:23:38 CEST)
With the increasing use of genome sequencing as a surveillance tool for molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance, we are seeing an increased intersection of genomics, microbiology, and clinical epidemiology. Clear nomenclature for AMR gene families and pathogens is critical for communication. For CARD release version 3.0.3 (July 2019), we updated the entire CARD database to reflect the latest pathogen names. In total, we detected 48 name changes or updates, some of which reflect major changes in familiar names.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: antimicrobial activity; essential oils; Salvia officinalis; Sudan
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:15:06 CEST)
This study aimed to screen the antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts (leave and stem) of Salvia officinalis against some Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria using agar disc diffusion test, then the extracts were prepared by hydro distillation to extract the essential oils. Maceration and hexane extraction by Soxhlet were used to obtain crude extracts from the leave and stem. Essential oils from the leaves and the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves showed higher antimicrobial activity, while hexane extract of leaves and stems showed moderate antibacterial activity. In contrast the essential oil from the stems showed very low antibacterial activity. It was observed that the results gram positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus) was more sensitive than Gram negative (Echerichia coli).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0066.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Escherichia coli; antimicrobial resistance; infection; molecular epidemiology
Online: 7 February 2019 (09:15:44 CET)
Background: Infections caused by E. coli cause considerable disease burden and range from frequently occurring and relatively innocent urinary tract infection (UTI) to severe bloodstream infection (BSI). The incidence of infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-PEc) is increasing, justifying surveillance and development of preventive strategies in several domains. Faecal carriage is universal and believed to be the most important reservoir for E. coli from which infections can originate. It is currently unknown to what extent Dutch E. coli carriage strains in the community reflect isolates causing disease. In this study, we will perform comparative genomics to infer the population structures of human-derived ESBL-PEc from community- and hospital-acquired infections and from community-based faecal carriage samples in the Netherlands. Furthermore, we will describe the molecular epidemiology of E. coli isolates causing invasive disease (BSI). Methods: This study uses four different microbiological data sources: 1) ESBL-PEc from patients with community-acquired UTI tested in primary care between May and November 2017, 2) ESBL-PEc from urine cultures obtained from patients hospitalized between January 2014 and December 2016, 3) E. coli from blood cultures obtained from patients hospitalized between January 2014 and December 2016, and 4) ESBL-PEc from faecal samples collected in a national population- prevalence study performed between January 2014 and January 2017. Clinical epidemiological data was collected from all patients and all isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Discussion: The EPIGENEC study (EPIdemiology and GENetics of E. coli) will describe the molecular epidemiology of E. coli BSI and assess the genomic population structure of ESBL-PEc strains from community-acquired and nosocomial infections, and of ESBL-PEc reflecting community-based faecal carriage. Information from these studies may assist in optimizing surveillance strategies and determining targets and potential impact of future new preventive measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; AMR; Infections; antibiotics; inappropriate prescribing; healthcare pro-fessionals; education; training; antimicrobial stewardship programs; continuous professional development
Online: 2 June 2021 (09:58:36 CEST)
(1) Background: Factors reported in literature associated with inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials, such as physicians with less experience, uncertain diagnosis, and patient caregiver influences on physicians' decisions. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance is critical for identifying emerging resistance patterns, developing, and assessing the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Improvement in prescribing `antimicrobials would minimize the risk of resistance and, consequently, improve patients' clinical and health outcomes. The purpose of the study is to delineate factors associated with antimicrobial resistance, describe the factors influencing prescriber’s choice during prescribing of antimicrobial, and examine factors related to consequences of inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobial. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted among healthcare providers (190) in six tertiary hospitals in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The research panel has developed validated and piloted survey specific with closed-ended questions. A value of P <0.05 was considered for statistical significance. All data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS version 23.0). (3) Results: 72.7% of the respondents have agreed that poor skills and knowledge are key factors that contribute to the inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials. All the respondents acknowledged effectiveness and previous experience with the antimicrobial, and reading scientific materials (such as books, articles, and the internet) were key factors influencing physicians’ choice during antimicrobial prescribing. (4) Conclusion: The current study has identified comprehensive education and training needs for healthcare providers about antimicrobial resistance. Using antimicrobials unnecessarily, insufficient duration of antimicrobial use, and using broad spectrum antimicrobials, were reported to be common practices. Further, poor skills and knowledge were a key factor that contributed to the inappropriate use and overuse of antimicrobials and using antimicrobials without physician prescription (self-medication) were the key factors which contribute to AMR from participants’ perspectives. Furthermore, internal policy and guidelines are needed to ensure that the antimicrobials are prescribed in accordance with standard protocols and clinical guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR); Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS); delayed/back-up prescribing; upper respiratory tract infections; developing countries; LMICs; Ghana
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:29:47 CEST)
This service improvement project was carried out at LEKMA Hospital, Ghana. Ghana has high levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). There is an urgent need to introduce models of care that optimize antibiotic prescribing. Methods Delayed / back-up prescribing is a strategy that could reduce antibiotic use in suspected upper respiratory tract infections. Four different models of delayed / back-up prescribing [no prescription; post-dated prescription (given to patient); post-dated prescription (forwarded to pharmacy); and follow-up appointment for reassessment after 3 days] were implemented in discussion between clinician and patient. Patients were contacted 10 days after their appointment to record compliance, check on their wellbeing, and rate their experience. Results Over a 3-month period (12/2019-02/2020), 142 patients were eligible for delayed / back-up prescribing. The most common clinical diagnoses were sore throat (102/140, 73%), common cold (22/140, 16%) and sinusitis (10/140, 7%). In total, 12 (9%) patients remained symptomatic at day 10, and only one individual in the entire cohort took antibiotics. Most patients (95%) rated their experience as good or very good. Conclusions Delayed / back-up prescribing models can lead to substantial reduction in antibiotic consumption amongst outpatient department patients with suspected upper respiratory tract infections. Delayed / back-up prescribing can be implemented safely in low and middle-income countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0375.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: bacterial infection; non-healing wounds; antimicrobial resistance; multidrug resistance; antimicrobial peptides (AMPs); AMP conjugates; AMP carriers and delivery systems
Online: 17 July 2020 (09:26:21 CEST)
Bacterial infections occur when wound healing fails to reach the final stage of healing, usually hindered by the presence of different pathogens. Different topical antimicrobial agents are used to inhibit bacterial growth due to antibiotic failure in reaching the infected site accompanied very often by an increased drug resistance and other side effects. In this review, we focus on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), especially those with a high potential of efficacy against multidrug-resistant and biofilm-forming bacteria and fungi present in wound infections. Currently, different AMPs undergo preclinical and clinical phase to combat infection-related diseases. AMP dendrimers (AMPDs) have been mentioned as potent microbial agents. Various AMP delivery strategies, such as polymers, scaffolds, films and wound dressings, organic and inorganic nanoparticles, to combat infection and modulate the healing rate have been discussed as well. New technologies such as CRISPR-Cas are taken into consideration as potential future tools for AMP delivery in skin therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0791.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: SCFA; MCFA; broilers; poultry; gut health; antimicrobial effect
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:07:26 CEST)
The non-therapeutic use of antimicrobials in poultry production contribute to the spread of drug-resistant pathogens in both birds and humans. Antibiotics are known to enhance feed effi-ciency and promote growth and weight gain of poultry. New regulatory requirements and con-sumer preferences have led to a reduced use of antibiotics in poultry production and discover natural alternatives to the antibiotic growth promoters. This interest is not just focused on the di-rect removal or inhibition of the causative microorganisms but also the prevention diseases caused by enteric pathogens using a range of feed additives. A group of promising feed additives is short- and medium-chain fatty acids and their derivatives. MCFAs possess antibacterial, anticoccidial and antiviral effects. Also, it has been proven that these acids act synergistically if they are used together with organic acids, essential oils, or probiotics. These fatty acids also benefit intestinal health integrity and homeostasis in broilers. Other effects have also been documented, including increases in intestinal angiogenesis and gene expression of tight junctions. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SCFA, MCFA as alternatives of antibiotic growth promoters and by sum-marizing the current finding in the literature, to show their possible benefits on production, meat quality and gut health in poultry.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: 8-hydroxyquinoline; PBT2; amyloid; copper; terdentate; ternary; antimicrobial
Online: 5 May 2023 (02:36:19 CEST)
The metal chelator PBT2 (5,7-dichloro-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline) acts as a terdentate ligand capable of forming binary and ternary Cu2+ complexes. It was clinically trialed as an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapeutic but failed to progress beyond phase II. The β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide associated with AD was recently concluded to form a unique Cu(Aβ) complex that is inaccessible to PBT2. Herein, it is shown that the species ascribed to this binary Cu(Aβ) complex in fact corresponds to ternary Cu(PBT2)NIm[Aβ] complexes formed by anchoring of Cu(PBT2) on imine nitrogen (NIm) donors of His side chains. The primary site of ternary complex formation is His6, having a conditional stepwise formation constant at pH 7.4 (K [M−1] ) of log K = 6.4 ± 0.1, and a second site is supplied by His13 or His14 (log K = 4.4 ± 0.1). The stability of Cu(PBT2)NIm[H13/14] is comparable with that of the simplest ternary complexes involving free imidazole (log K = 4.22 ± 0.09) and histamine (log K = 4.00 ± 0.05). The 100-fold larger formation constant for Cu(PBT2)NIm[H6] indicates that outer-sphere ligand–peptide interactions strongly stabilize its structure. Despite the relatively high stability of Cu(PBT2)NImH6, PBT2 is a promiscuous Cu2+-binding ligand capable of forming a ternary Cu(PBT2)NIm complex with any ligand containing NIm donor. These ligands include histamine, L-His, and ubiquitous His side chains of peptides and proteins in the extracellular milieu, whose combined effect should outweigh that of a single Cu(PBT2)NIm[H6] complex regardless of its stability. We therefore conclude that PBT2 is capable of accessing Cu(Aβ) complexes with high stability but not specificity. The results have implications for future AD therapeutic strategies and understanding the role of PBT2 in the bulk transport of transition metal ions. Given the repurposing of PBT2 as a drug for breaking antibiotic resistance, ternary Cu(PBT2)NIm and analogous Zn(PBT2)NIm complexes may be relevant to its antimicrobial properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: discharge antibiotics; complicated Appendicitis; nonoperative management; antimicrobial treatment
Online: 7 December 2022 (02:22:08 CET)
The standard of care for nonoperative appendicitis patients involves ongoing antibiotic therapy. Yet, there is variability regarding the decision to continue outpatient parenteral antibiotic treatment (OPAT) or transition to oral (PO) antibiotics. Methods: In our single-center retrospective study, we reviewed 46 pediatric patients who underwent nonoperative management of perforated appendicitis with Interventional Radiology (IR) percutaneous drainage. We reviewed age, ethnicity, hospitalization length, antibiotic choice, route and duration, and culture data. Results. Thirty-eight [83%] patients went home on OPAT, 6[13%] on PO, and 2[4%] completed therapy while inpatient. Based on culture susceptibilities of the 38 OPAT patients, 29[76%] had oral antibiotics as an option. The three most common organisms in those sent home on OPAT included Enterococcus faecalis (38 [100%]), Bacteroides spp (33 [87%]) and Escherichia coli (27 [71%]). All patients who grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa had an oral antibiotic as a treatment option; similarly with 93% (25/27) of E. coli, 81% (13/16) of α-hemolytic Streptococcus spp, and 76% (29/38) of Enterococcus faecalis. Conclusions: Nearly 80% of patients sent home on OPAT had PO antibiotic regimens options based on the culture susceptibility profiles. This data indicates that using cultures and susceptibility data can help guide antibiotic management, significantly reducing PICC line placement and likely reduce healthcare costs and complications associated with central lines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0382.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Bacillus; bacterial antagonist; genome sequence; antimicrobial peptide; biologicals
Online: 21 November 2022 (07:43:01 CET)
Plant diseases are among the major factors affecting plant productivity. Biological control of plant diseases is preferred over chemical control as it is environment-friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable. Among many microbes capable of providing biological control of plant diseases, probiotic Bacillus species are most promising as they can survive in adverse conditions, provide plants with a wide range of benefits including protection from phytopathogens. Wheat blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (MoT) has emerged as a potential threat to global wheat production. Due to unreliability of fungicides and limited cultivar resistance, we aimed to screen and identify potential antagonist bacteria collected from internal tissues of rice and wheat seeds to determine their in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects against MoT. Dual culture and seedling assays were performed to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic bacteria. Out of 170 bacterial isolates, three bacteria (BTS-3, BTS-4, and BTLK6A) were screened as potential antagonists against MoT in vitro. Artificial inoculation at the seedling stage showed that the isolates BTS-4, BTS–3, and BTLK6A reduced 89, 88, and 85% of wheat blast disease severity, respectively, compared to mock-inoculated control. The bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis (BTS-3) and B. velezensis (BTS-4 and BTLK6A) through genome phylogeny. The whole genome sequence of these three bacterial strains decoded a number of orthologs to intrinsic genes of antimicrobial peptides, antioxidant defense enzymes, cell wall degrading enzymes, compounds involved in the induction of systemic resistance (ISR) in host plants, and volatile compounds to make them promising biologicals to control MoT in wheat. Combined data of in vitro and in vivo along with genome analysis suggest that Bacillus spp. suppress the destructive wheat blast disease likely through antibiosis and ISR in the host plants. Further field evaluation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds are needed for a better understanding of the mode of action and practical recommendation of these bacteria for wheat blast control in the farmers’ fields.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Bactericidal; Bacteriostatic; Antibiotic(s); Antimicrobial Therapy; Narrative review
Online: 17 October 2022 (02:05:28 CEST)
Sepsis is a serious and life-threatening medical emergency associated with dysregulated host immune responses to infection. Like cerebral vascular or acute cardiovascular incidents, sepsis is considered a time-dependent condition having severe and long-term consequences on human health. Apart from organ support, prompt administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial to limit the burden of complications related to sepsis in ICU patients. The management of septic patients requires comprehensive and multi-disciplinary strategies for an adequate diagnosis. Most of the ICU population receives empirical antibiotic therapy without having a confirmed diagnosis. The misuse of antibiotics in intensive care units may increase the possibility of developing multidrug resistance along with considerable ecological side effects. The first doses of empirical anti-microbial therapy are slightly higher, regardless of the presence or absence of organ dysfunction, which may upregulate the production of circulating pro-and-anti-inflammatory mediators, having negative effects on the general well-being of the patients. This notion supports the introduction of individualized antimicrobial approaches based on local patterns of resistance to ensure the appropriate dosage of empirical therapy, as well as to limit the emergence of multidrug resistance in advanced-care patients. The adequacy and treatment duration must be viewed at regular intervals for effective de-escalation, and novel diagnostic approaches must be introduced to improve the quality of care in the ICU population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0046.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: infectious keratitis; corneal infection; antibiotic susceptibility; antimicrobial resistance
Online: 4 July 2022 (09:41:43 CEST)
Infectious keratitis (IK) represents a major cause of corneal blindness. This study aims to investigate the demographics, risk factors, microbiological characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of IK in Taiwan over the past 15 years. A retrospective population-based study was conducted using the Chang Gung Research Database. Patients with IK were identified by diagnostic codes for corneal ulcer from 2004 to 2019. Of 7807 included subjects, 45.2% of patients had positive corneal cultures. The proportion of contact lens-related IK declined, while that of IK related to systemic diseases grew. The percentage of isolated gram-positive bacteria surpassed that of gram-negative bacteria in the 15-year period. The prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a decreasing trend (p = 0.004), whereas coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) and Propionibacterium species were increasingly detected (p < 0.001). Overall, the trend of antibiotic susceptibility of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria did not change throughout the study period. The susceptibility to the test antibiotics maintained over 90% in gram-negative isolates during 15 years. Vancomycin preserved 100% susceptibility to all gram-positive isolates. Since most tested antibiotics exhibited stable susceptibility over decades, this study reinforced that fluoroquinolones and fortified vancomycin continue to be good empiric therapies for treating bacterial keratitis in Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0140.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Streptococcus uberis; mastitis; typing; antimicrobial susceptibility; resistance genes
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:12:44 CET)
Intrammary infections are a major problem for dairy sheep farms, and Streptococcus uberis is one of the main etiological agents of ovine mastitis. Surveys on antimicrobial resistance are still limited in sheep and characterization of isolates is important for acquiring information on resistance and for optimizing therapy. In this study, a sampling of 124 S. uberis isolates collected in Sardinia (Italy) from sheep milk was analysed by multilocus-sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for genetic relatedness. All isolates were also subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility analysis by the disk diffusion test using a panel of 14 antimicrobials. Resistance genes were detected by PCR assays. MLST analysis revealed that the isolates were grouped into 86 sequence types (STs), of which 73 were new genotypes, indicating a highly diverse population of S. uberis. The most frequently detected lineage was the clonal complex (CC)143, although representing only 13.7% of all characterized isolates. A high level of heterogeneity was also observed among the SmaI PFGE profiles, with 121 unique patterns. Almost all (96.8%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, while all exhibited phenotypic susceptibility to oxacillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ceftiofur. Of the antimicrobials tested, the highest resistance rate was found against streptomycin (93.5%), kanamycin (79.8%) and gentamicin (64.5%), followed by novobiocin (25%) and tetracycline-TE (19.3%). Seventy-four (59.7%) isolates were simultaneously resistant to all aminoglycosides tested. Seventeen isolates (13.7%) exhibited multidrug resistance. All aminoglycosides-resistant isolates were PCR negative for aad-6 and aphA-3’ genes. Among the TE-resistant isolates, the tetM gene was predominant, indicating that the resistance mechanism is mainly mediated by the protection of ribosomes and not through the efflux pump. Three isolates were resistant to erythromycin, and two of them harboured the ermB gene. This is the first study reporting a detailed characterization of the S. uberis strains circulating in Sardinian sheep. Further investigations will be needed to understand the relationships between S. uberis genotypes, mastitis severity, and intra-mammary infection dynamics in the flock, as well as to monitor the evolution of antimicrobial resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0405.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Sheep; E. coli; shiga-toxin; antimicrobial resistance genes
Online: 19 July 2021 (11:12:01 CEST)
Inappropriate antimicrobial treatment can pose a risk for developing resistance against antimi-crobial drugs in bacteria. Close human contact might have a higher chance of being transmitted to humans from sheep if the sheep population is a potential reservoir of zoonotic pathogens such as shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) (STEC). Therefore, this study aimed to exam-ine the sheep population in rural Bangladesh for antimicrobial resistant STEC. We screened 200 faecal samples collected from sheep in three Upazila from the Chattogram district. Phenotypical-ly positive E. coli isolates were examined for two shiga toxin-producing genes – stx1 and stx2. PCR positive STEC isolates were investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes- blaTEM, sul1 and sul2. In total, 123 of the 200 tested samples were confirmed positive E. coli by cul-tured based methods. PCR results show 17(13.8%) E. coli isolates harboured ≥ one virulent gene (stx1 or/and stx2) of STEC. Six of the tested STEC isolates exhibited blaTEM gene; eight STEC isolates had sul1 gene, and sul2 gene was detected in ten STEC isolates. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal a significant proportion of STEC isolated from sheep in rural Bangla-desh harbouring antimicrobial resistance genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0588.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Antimicrobial use; knowledge; farmer-attitude; dairy-farmer; sheep
Online: 23 June 2021 (13:26:05 CEST)
This work examines dairy and sheep farmer attitudes toward antimicrobial use (AMU) in New Zealand. There is increasing public demand on livestock producers to reduce AMU in livestock. The demand stems from concerns about potential antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that could originate from food animals. There is limited practical data on farmer knowledge of AMU. An electronic survey was sent to dairy (n= 378) and sheep farmers (n= 551). Seventy-six dairy farmers (20%, n=76/378) returned the survey. Dairy farmers (69%) showed low levels of concern about antimicrobial resistance and awareness of the need to reduce AMU. Additionally, 76% of dairy farmers didn’t think it was possible to reduce AMU. Thirty-nine sheep farmers (7%, 39/551) returned the survey. 76% of sheep farmers were supportive of restricted use of AMU. The dairy and sheep farmers sourced most of the advice from veterinarians (>90%), the livestock industry (>80%) and their colleagues (>70%). This study shows that farmers showed varied concerns about AMR and AMU. Moreover, sheep farmers were more amenable to increased restriction on AMU than dairy farmers. This study suggests that knowledge gaps in farmers may best be filled by veterinarian input.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0679.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; Salmonella species; E.coli; Broiler chickens; Malaysia
Online: 28 December 2020 (10:49:17 CET)
Abstract:Salmonella species (spp) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are the most common infectious pathogens in poultry. Antimicrobials were given either for the treatment or growth promoters that can increase the possibility of emergence of bacterial resistance towards antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Salmonella spp and E. coli isolated from a sample of broiler farms in East Coast Malaysia from 2018-2019. A total of 384 cloacal swabs were collected from broilers farms in Kelantan, Terengganu, and Pahang. The bacteria were isolated and confirmed by bacteriological and serological methods. Following that, confirmed isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test. Salmonella spp and E. coli were recovered from the cloacal swabs samples with the overall prevalence of 6.5% and 51.8% respectively. In Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang, the prevalence of Salmonella spp were 7%, 6.5% and 5.8% respectively, while the prevalence for E. coli were 50%, 48.3% and 58% respectively. Salmonella spp and E. coli displayed resistance towards the following antimicrobials: erythromycin (100% for both pathogens), chloramphenicol (76.2%, 84.5%), tetracycline (62%, 94.6%), ampicillin (47.7%, 87%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (42.9%, 83.3%), ciprofloxacin (4.8%, 23.8%), nalidixic acid (9.6%, 60.7%), streptomycin (19%,66%), and kanamycin (28.6%,57%), cephalotin (0%, 11%), gentamicin (0%, 20.2%) respectively. No resistance were recorded towards colistin for both pathogens. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was recorded in 82% of Salmonella spp and 100% of E. coli. These findings demonstrate the high prevalence of MDR Salmonella spp. and E. coli in broiler farms in East coast Malaysia. This could be attributed to the excessive use of antimicrobial agents by the poultry farm owners. Enhanced control measures and a strong monitoring system should be urgently implemented to reduce the emergence of antimicrobial resistance that is harmful to public health.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: intramammary infection; spa typing; antimicrobial susceptibility; dairy cow
Online: 5 September 2020 (04:51:45 CEST)
In the present study, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance and genetic structure of a population of S. aureus recovered from transient and persistent intramammary infections and nares/muzzles. We investigated the antimicrobial resistance of 189 S. aureus strains using a broad antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Furthermore, 107 S. aureus isolates were strain-typed using staphylococcal protein-A (spa) typing. Here, a great proportion of strains exhibited multidrug resistance to antimicrobials, including resistance to critically important antimicrobials, although no methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains were found. Our study did not strengthen the idea that extramammary niches (i.e., nares/muzzles) are an important source for S. aureus. A discrepancy in the antimicrobial resistance between S. aureus strains isolated from nasal/muzzles and milk samples was observed. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates from transient and persistent IMIs did not differ by spa typing, suggesting that the persistence of bovine IMIs was determined by cow factors. Thus, the high level of multidrug-resistant S. aureus found in the two herds studied together with the predominance of a well udder-adapted S. aureus strain may contribute to the history of the high prevalence of mastitis caused by S. aureus, leading to great animal and public health concerns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0347.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: L. plantarum subsp. plantarum; ETEC K88; antimicrobial; probiotics
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:50:52 CEST)
For screening excellent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to inhibit Escherichia (E.) coli (ETEC) K88, inhibitory activities of more than 1100 LAB strains isolated from different materials and kept in the lab were evaluated in this study. Nine strains with inhibition zone at least 22.00 mm (including that of hole puncher 10.00 mm) and good physiological and biochemical characteristics identified by 16S DNA gene sequencing and recA gene multiple detection, were assigned to Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum (5), L. fermentum (1), L. reuteri (1), W. cibaria (1) and E. faecalis (1), respectively. As investigated for their tolerance abilities and safety, only strain ZA3 possessed high hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation abilities, had high survival rate in low pH, bile salt environment and GI fluids, sensitive to ampicillin, resistant to norfloxacin and amikacin, without hemolytic activity and didn’t carry antibiotic resistance genes, exhibited broad spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms, and antibacterial substance may attribute to organic acids, especially lactic acid and acetic acid. The results indicated that the selected strain L. plantarum subsp. plantarum ZA3 could be considered a potential probiotic to inhibit ETEC K88 for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0137.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolatereductases, antimicrobial resistance, biocuration, nomenclature, phylogeny
Online: 10 May 2019 (15:14:41 CEST)
With the increasing use of genome sequencing as a surveillance tool for molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), databases and clear nomenclature for AMR gene families are critical. Due to the convoluted nomenclatural history of the integron-associated trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolatereductase (dfr) gene family, we decided to conduct a literature review, comparative sequence analysis, and phylogenetic investigation of the dfr family, the results of which are presented here and available at the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD). Overall, literature review and phylogenetic analysis resolved gene name synonyms based on sequence. We recommend adoption of phylogenetic methods to help guide AMR gene naming efforts and relegation of misleading names to synonyms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0225.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gelatin; nanofibers; cinnamaldehyde; solution blow spinning; antimicrobial activity
Online: 24 January 2018 (09:03:09 CET)
Cinnamaldehyde, a natural preservative that can non-specifically deactivate foodborne pathogens, was successfully incorporated into fish skin gelatin (FSG) solutions and blow spun into uniform nanofibers. The effects of cinnamaldehyde ratios (5-30%, w/w FSG) on physicochemical properties of fiber-forming emulsions (FFEs) and their nanofibers were investigated. Higher ratios resulted in higher values in particle size and viscosity of FFEs, as well as higher values in diameter of nanofibers. Loss of cinnamaldehyde was observed during solution blow spinning (SBS) process and cinnamaldehyde was mainly located on the surface of resultant nanofibers. Nanofibers all showed antibacterial activity by direct diffusion and vapor release against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes. Inhibition zones increased as cinnamaldehyde ratio increased. Nanofibers showed larger inhibition effects than films prepared by casting method when S. typhimurium was exposed to the released cinnamaldehyde vapor, although films had higher remaining cinnamaldehyde than nanofibers after preparation. Lower temperature was favorable for cinnamaldehyde retention, and nanofibers added with 10% cinnamaldehyde ratio showed the highest retention over eight-weeks of storage. Results suggest that FSG nanofibers can be prepared by SBS as carriers for antimicrobials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biocomposite films; gelatin; oleoresins; antimicrobial compounds; food quality
Online: 29 November 2017 (10:23:11 CET)
This study developed gelatin-based films with incorporation of microcrystalline cellulose as reinforcement material. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) oleoresins containing antimicrobial compounds of natural origin were incorporated into films. The mechanical, thermal, optical, and structural properties, as well as color, resistance to sealing and permeability to water vapor, light, and oil of the films were determined. Adding oleoresins to the gelatin matrix increased elongation of the material and significantly diminished its permeability to water vapor and oil. Evaluation of the potential use of films containing different oleoresins as bread packaging material was influenced by the film properties. The biocomposite film containing oleoresin from black pepper was the most effective packaging material for maintaining the bread’s quality characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1964.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: 3D printing; silver nanoparticles; titanium dioxide; hydrogels; antimicrobial activity
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:41:53 CEST)
Two antimicrobial agents such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been formulated with natural polysaccharides (chitosan or alginate) to develop innovative inks for the rapid, customizable, and extremely accurate manufacturing of 3D printed scaffolds useful as dressings in the treatment of infected skin wounds. Suitable chemical-physical properties for the applicability of these innovative devices were demonstrated through the evaluation of water content (88-93%), mechanical strength (Young’s modulus 0.23-0.6 MPa), elasticity, and morphology. The antimicrobial tests performed against Staphylococcus Aureus and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa demonstrated the antimicrobial activities against Gram+ and Gram– bacteria of AgNPs and TiO2 agents embedded in the CH or ALG macroporous 3D hydrogels (AgNPs MIC starting from 5 µg/ml). The biocompatibility of chitosan was widely demonstrated by cell viability tests and was higher than that observed for alginate. Constructs containing AgNPs at 10 µg/ml concentration level did not significantly alter cell viability as well as the presence of titanium dioxide; cytotoxicity towards human fibroblasts was observed starting with AgNPs concentration of 100 µg/ml. In conclusions, the 3D printed dressings here developed own the features to be cheap, highly defined, easy to be manufactured and further applied in personalized antimicrobial medicine applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1848.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Copper; Nanomaterials; Organic pollutants; Sensors; Antimicrobial; Photocatalysts; Environmnetal remediation.
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:31:47 CEST)
Copper-based nanomaterials in the last decade attracted many researchers due to their extensive practical applications, unique, inexpensiveness, and wide availability. In addition to this, copper-based nanomaterials possess good thermal stability, and selectivity and also possess high activity. This review emphasis on the recent advances in the synthesis of copper nanomaterials and their wide applications in the field of environmental catalysis. This review aims to fill a significant knowledge gap in the different areas of environmental pollution management. Also, the paper concentrates on the recent applications of copper-based nanomaterials for environmental remediation, including the removal of heavy metals, and degradation of organic pollutants such as pharmaceuticals, and other environmental contaminants. Also, it will be helpful to young researchers in improving the suitability of implementing the Copper nanomaterials in the right way establishing and achieving sustainable goals for environmental remediation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1510.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Antibiotic; antimicrobial resistance (AMR); One-Health; economic; nanotechnology; policy
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:55:31 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing public health concern worldwide, and it poses a significant threat to human, animal, and environmental health. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics have contributed significantly to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, which may lead to significant economic consequences like reduced productivity and increased healthcare costs. Nanotechnology offers a promising platform for addressing this challenge. Nanoparticles have unique properties that make them highly effective in combating bacterial infections by inhibiting the growth and survival of multidrug-resistant bacteria in three areas of health: human, animal, and environmental. To conduct an economic evaluation of surveillance in this context, it is crucial to have a comprehension of the connections to be addressed by several nations by implementing national action policies based on the One Health strategy. This review provides an overview of the progress made thus far and presents potential future directions to optimize the impact of nanobiotics on AMR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0553.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: sea buckthorn; chemical compositions; carotenoids; antimicrobial activity; Bacillus pumilus
Online: 19 April 2023 (07:10:08 CEST)
Due to the content of biologically active substances, sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is of growing interest to scientists, the food industry, pharmaceuticals, cosmetology and consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the chemical composition (Carotenoid content (CC), Ascorbic acid content (AAC), Total dry matters (TDM), Titratable acidity (TA), pH, Organic acids (OA)) and the Antibacterial effect (AA) (Diameter of the inhibition zone in mm of Bacillus pumilus) of four species of sea buckthorn (Clara, Dora, Cora, Mara), cultivated in the Republic of Moldova. The sea buckthorn species tested was found to have a different Carotenoid content (1.79±0.43 … 48.92±0.61 mg/100g), Ascorbic acid content (74.36±0.60 … 373.38±2.29 mg/100g), Organic acids (malic acid 5.8±0.02 ... 13.4±0.01 mg/100g, citric acid 0.08±0.00 ... 0.32±0.01 mg/100g, succinic acid 0.03±0.00 ... 1.1±0.00 mg/100g), Total dry matters (16.71±0.05 … 24.54±0.09 %), Total acidity (2.15±0.05 ... 8.76±0.00 %), and pH value (2.73±0.02 ... 3.00±0.07). The microbial activity of sea buckthorn, evaluated by the diameter of the inhibition zone, constituted for Bacillus pumilus (3.70…15.91mm/g-1 for whole sea buckthorn fruits and respectively 13.33…26.67 mm/g-1 for sea buckthorn puree).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Antibiotic, Prescribing Pattern, Prescription, Antimicrobial Resistance, WHO AWaRe classification
Online: 18 April 2023 (02:54:31 CEST)
Background: The AWaRe tool was set up by the World Health Organization (WHO) to promote the rational use of antimicrobials. Indeed, this tool classifies antibiotics into four groups, Access, Watch, Reserve and not-recommended antibiotics. In Republic Democratic of Congo, data on antibiotic dispensing (prescribing) by health professionals according to the AWaRe classification are scarce. In this research work, we aimed to explore antibiotic dispensing pattern from health professionals according to the WHO AWaRe classification to strengthen the national antimicrobial resistance plan. Methods: For this purpose, a survey was conducted from July to December 2022 in the district of Tshangu in Kinshasa. From randomly selected drugstores, drug-sellers were interviewed and randomly selected customers attending those drugstores were included in the study for medical prescriptions collection. The prescribed antibiotics were classified into the Access, Watch, Reserve and not recommended antibiotics group and by antibiotics number by prescription among pharmacies surveyed. Results: Of 400 medical prescriptions collected, 301 (75.25%) contained antibiotics. Of 301 prescriptions containing antibiotics, 164 (164/301; 54.5%) contained one antibiotic, 117 (117/301; 38.9%) two antibiotics, 15 (15/301; 5%) three antibiotics and 5 (5/301; 1.6%) 4 antibiotics. Out of the total of 463 antibiotics prescribed, 169 (169/463; 36.5%) were from the Access group, 200 (200/463; 43.2%) from the Watch group and 94 (94/463; 20.3%) from not recommended antibiotics group, respectively. Based on the anatomical, therapeutic and chemical (ATC) classification, it can be seen that third generation cephalosporins contained 34.33% of the prescribed antibiotics, followed by penicillins 17.17%, macrolides 7.63%, aminoglycosides 7. 36% and Imidazoles 7.36%, thus accounting approximately for 74% of the classes of antibiotics prescribed. Of the 463 antibiotics prescribed, the most frequently prescribed antibiotics were Ceftriaxone (21.38%), Amoxicillin (11.01%), Gentamycin (5.61%), Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (5 .61%), Azithromycin (4.97%) and Metronidazole (4.75%), thus accounting for approximately 54% of all antibiotics prescribed. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of strict implementation of the national plan to combat antimicrobial resistance and the need to train health workers in the correct application of the WHO AWaRe classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics; Antimicrobials; Antimicrobial resistance; Combination therapy; Mathematical modeling
Online: 13 April 2023 (09:36:01 CEST)
Rapid in vitro assessment of antimicrobial drug efficacy under clinically relevant pharmacokinetic conditions is an essential element of both drug development and clinical use. Here we present an overview of a novel integrated methodology for rapid assessment of such efficacy, particularly against emergence of resistant bacterial strains, as jointly researched by the authors in recent years. This methodology enables rapid in vitro assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of a single or multiple drugs in combination, following clinically relevant pharmacokinetics. The proposed methodology entails (a) automated collection of longitudinal time-kill data in an optical-density instrument; (b) processing of collected time-kill data with the aid of a mathematical model to de-termine optimal dosing regimens under clinically relevant pharmacokinetics for a single or mul-tiple drugs; and (c) in vitro validation of promising dosing regimens in a hollow fiber system. Proof-of-concept of this methodology through a number of in vitro studies is discussed. Future directions for refinement of optimal data collection and processing are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0314.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial peptides; Synthetic peptides; multidrug resistant bacteria; proteomic analysis
Online: 16 November 2022 (13:15:11 CET)
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a multidrug-resistant opportunistic human pathogen related to various infections. As such, synthetic peptides have emerged as potential alternative molecules. Mo-CBP3-PepI has presented great activity against K. pneumoniae by presenting an MIC50 at a very low concentration (31.25 µg mL-1). Here, fluorescence microscopy and proteomic analysis revealed the alteration in cell membrane permeability, ROS overproduction, and protein profile of K. pneumoniae cells treated with Mo-CBP3-PepI. Mo-CBP3-PepI led to ROS overaccumulation and membrane pore formation in K. pneumoniae cells. Furthermore, the proteomic analysis highlighted changes in essential metabolic pathways. For example, after treatment of K. pneumoniae cells with Mo-CBP3-PepI, it was seen a reduction in the abundance of protein related to DNA and protein metabolism, cytoskeleton and cell wall organization, redox metabolism, regulation factors, ribosomal proteins, and resistance to antibiotics. These reductions lead to the inhibition of DNA repair, inhibition of cell wall turnover, protein turnover, and ROS accumulation leading to cell death. Our findings indicated that Mo-CBP3-PepI might have mechanisms of action against K. pneumoniae cells, mitigating the development of resistance and thus being a potent molecule to be employed in producing new drugs against K. pneumoniae infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0138.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate change, antimicrobial resistance, earth science, risk mapping, transdisciplinarity
Online: 8 November 2022 (02:27:23 CET)
Antibiotic resistance is a pressing global and planetary health challenge. Links between climate change, antibiotic use and the emergence of antibiotic resistance have been well documented, but less attention has been given to the impact(s) of earth systems on specific bacterial livestock diseases at a more granular level. Understanding the precise impacts of climate change on livestock health – and in turn the use of antibiotics to address that ill-health – is important in providing an evidence base to tackle such impacts and to develop practical, implementable and locally acceptable solutions within and beyond current antibiotic stewardship programmes. In this paper, we set out the case for better integration of earth scientists and their specific disciplinary skill set (specifically, problem-solving with incomplete/fragmentary data; the ability to work across four dimensions and at the interface between the present and deep/geological time) into planetary health research. We then discuss a methodology that makes use of risk mapping, a common methodology in earth science but less frequently used in health science, to map disease risk against changing climatic conditions at a granular level. This will enable predictions of future disease risk and risk impacts based on predicted future climate conditions, and thus provide an evidence base for planetary health activists to influence policy and develop mitigations. Our case study – of climate conditions’ impact on livestock health in Karnataka, India – clearly evidences the benefit of integrating earth scientists into planetary health research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; implementation model; GP-pharmacist collaboration; primary care
Online: 15 August 2022 (10:29:33 CEST)
Interprofessional collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) is central to implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs in primary care. This study aimed to design a GP-pharmacist antimicrobial stewardship (GPPAS) model in Australian primary care. A seven-component exploratory study was conducted since 2017 to 2021 to inform a GPPAS model. We generated both secondary and primary evidence through a systematic review, a scoping review, a rapid review, nationwide surveys of Australian GPs and CPs including qualitative components and a pilot study of a GPPAS model. All study evidence was synthesised, reviewed, merged and triangulated to design a prototype GPPAS model using a Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety theoretical framework. Secondary evidence informed effective GPPAS interventions, and primary evidence captured interprofessional issues, challenges and future needs to implement GPPAS interventions by GPs and CPs. A GPPAS model framework involving GP-pharmacist team-based five GPPAS sub-models were successfully designed to foster AMS education, antimicrobial audits, diagnostic stewardship, delayed prescribing, and routine review of antimicrobial prescription by improved GP-CP collaboration. A GPPAS model could be used as a guide to collaboratively optimise antimicrobial use by GPs and CPs. Implementation studies on GPPAS model and sub-models are required to integrate GPPAS model into GP-pharmacist interprofessional care models in Australia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Antimicrobial; Prescribing; Drug Resistance; Knowledge; Perception; Medical Students; Malaysia
Online: 16 March 2022 (14:44:53 CET)
Background: Worldwide, microbes are becoming more dangerous by acquiring virulent skills to adapt and develop antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This is a concern as this increases morbidity, mortality, and costs. Consequently, physicians need to be trained inappropriate prescribing, starting with medical students. Objective: Evaluate medical students' confidence in antimicrobial agent prescribing and drug resistance Methods: Cross-sectional study assessing medical students' knowledge, perception, and confidence in prescribing antimicrobial agents and drug resistance in a Malaysian University. A universal sampling method was used. Results: Most respondents believe that educational input regarding overall prescribing was sufficient. Regarding the principle of appropriate and accurate prescriptions, female medical students had less knowledge [Odds Ratio (OR)=0.51; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.25-0.99; p=0.050]. Year-IV and Year-V students had more excellent knowledge than Year-III students regarding confidence in antibiotic prescribing. Year-V students also showed appreciably higher confidence in the broad principles of prescribing, including infectious diseases, compared to those in other years. Conclusion: Overall, medical students, gain more excellent knowledge and confidence regarding prescribing, including antimicrobials, as their academic careers progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Rivers; one-health; E. coli; fluoroquinolones; antimicrobial resistance; AMR
Online: 24 February 2022 (10:03:48 CET)
Extremely low concentrations of ciprofloxacin may select for antimicrobial resistance. A recent global survey found that ciprofloxacin concentrations exceded safe levels at 64 sites. We assessed if national median ciprofloxacin concentrations in rivers were associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. Methods Spearman’s regression was used to assess the country-level association between the national prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli and the median ciprofloxacin concentration in the countries rivers. Results The prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli was positively correlated with the concentration of ciprofloxacin in rivers (ρ=0.36; P=0.011; N=48). Conclusions Steps to reducing the concentrations of fluoroquinolones in rivers may help prevent the emergence of resistance in E. coli and other bacterial species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0091.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant extracts; VEG’LYS; antimicrobial effects; curative and preventive treatment
Online: 6 January 2022 (14:06:53 CET)
The objective of this work was to determine the antimicrobial properties of an allium-based antimicrobial formulation named VEG’LYS (https://phytoauxilium.com/) on the growth of plant pathogenic microorganisms such as fungi, oomycetes, and bacteria. Two anthracnose-related species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum, C. gloeosporioides, and C. fragariae, the oomycete Phytophthora cactorum and the bacterium Xanthomonas fragariae associated with strawberry plants and two fungi Alternaria dauci and Botrytis cinerea, associated with carrot plants were tested in vitro. In in planta experiments, A. dauci and B. cinerea were used.. VEG’LYS inhibited the growth of all plant pathogens tested. We found that both curative and preventive in planta treatments with VEG’LYS inhibited the growth of A. dauci and B. cinerea in carrot. Furthermore, after spraying VEG’LYS on carrot plants the expression of the Pathogenesis-related (PR) 10 gene correlated with the magnitude of infection both in treated and untreated plants. Additionally, it has been shown, that the field application of VEG’LYS on strawberry plants results in a reduction of bacterial and fungal pathogens of strawberry fruits stored in refrigerator. In summary, VEG’LYS is a potential resistance inducer that seems to be suitable for use in both curative and preventive treatments to reduce the diseases and rotting of fruits and vegetables caused by different plant pathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0129.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: HOCl; hypochlorous; antimicrobial; antiinflammatory; SARS-CoV-2; infections; sanitisation
Online: 3 December 2021 (10:13:20 CET)
Sanitisation has become a major component of everyday life, with emphasis on the hands and surfaces. The face remains unsanitised due to the lack of an acceptable sanitiser. The use of masks has been mandated to reduce the spread of the pathogens by covering the face, however, there remain issues with the use of personal protective equipment. The face remains a harbour for upper respiratory tract infections, with constant deposition of microbes. By reducing microbial load, the risk of both infection and severity are reduced. HOCl has proven antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, including efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. A facial sanitiser, alongside hand sanitisers and masks, improves protection against SARS-CoV-2. The advantages of regular sanitising of the face and mask include reduced level of microbial contamination, risk of biofilm formation, and respiratory tract and skin infections. HOCl was reviewed as a face and mask sanitiser, concluding that it was an ideal product.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0500.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: anticancer; antimicrobial; antioxidants; cancer signalling; citral; Cymbopogon; essential oil
Online: 21 June 2021 (10:31:35 CEST)
The prominent cultivation of lemongrass relies on the pharmacological incentives of its essential oil. The lemongrass essential oil (LEO) has a significant amount of citral (mixture of geranial and neral), isoneral, isogeranial, geraniol, geranyl acetate, citronellal, citronellol, germacrene-D, and elemol in addition to numerous other bioactive compounds. These components confer various medicinal activities to LEO including antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. These attributes are commercially exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food preservations industries. Furthermore, the employment of LEO in the treatment of cancer opens a new vista in the field of therapeutics. Although different LEO components have shown promising anticancer activities in vitro, these effects have not been assessed yet in humans. Further studies on the anticancer mechanisms exerted by lemongrass components are required. The present review intends to provide a timely discussion on the relevance of lemongrass extracts in cancer and health treatment, and in food industry applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Prosthodontics; Edentulism; Elderly; Complete Denture; Candida Albicans; Antimicrobial activity
Online: 8 February 2021 (21:38:48 CET)
To assess the clinical efficacy of a novel organic olive oil-based denture adhesive and its effect on Candida Albicans growth in maxillary edentulous individuals wearing complete dentures. Individuals were selected from two Dental Schools in Portugal and Spain. Twenty-eight complete dentures were relined, following a standardized protocol. The novel product (Test) was compared with a commercialized adhesive (Control) and Vaseline (Placebo) randomly assigned in a cross-study design. The retention resistance was measured with a Gnathometer and a dynamometer, the patient related outcome evaluations with a 5-points questionnaire and the Candida albicans growth in a Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) medium in order to evaluate differences between the placebo and experimental product. Twenty-three participants were included. Dynamometer evaluation showed significant differences between not using a denture adhesive and using either (experimental, p = .03; control, p = .04), no significant differences between the two adhesives (p > .05). In the subjective analysis, the experimental adhesive showed a significantly longer effectiveness (p = .001); the control reported better results at taste (p = .03) in chewing (p = .001). The test adhesive showed better (p < .001) Candida albicans growth inhibition. The experimental adhesive showed longer effectiveness than the control and placebo with a better inhibition capacity for the growth of Candida albicans, patients reported better abilities for speech, chewing, taste and retirement in the control adhesive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Antimicrobial peptide; BP100; Model membranes; Spectroscopy; Calorimetry; Biological activity
Online: 2 February 2021 (19:14:58 CET)
In a large variety of organisms, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are primary defences against pathogens. BP100 (KKLFKKILKYL-NH2), a short, synthetic, and cationic AMP, is active against bacteria and displays low toxicity towards eukaryotic cells. BP100 acquires an α-helical conformation upon interaction with membranes and increases membrane permeability. Despite the volume of information available, the mechanism of action of BP100, the selectivity of its biological effects, and its applications are far from consensual. In this work, we synthesized a fluorescent BP100 analog containing naphthalimide linked to its N-terminal end, Napht-BP100 (Napht-AAKKLFKKILKYL-NH2). The fluorescence properties of naphthalimides, especially their spectral sensitivity to microenvironment changes, are well established, and their biological activities against different types of cells are known. A wide variety of techniques were used to demonstrate that a-helical Napht-BP100 was bound and permeabilized POPC and POPG LUV. Napht-BP100, different from that observed for BP100, was bound to, and permeabilized POPC LUV. With zwitterionic (POPC) and negatively charged (POPG) containing LUVs, membrane surface high peptide/lipid ratios triggered complete disruption of the liposomes in a detergent-like manner. This disruption was driven by charge neutralization, lipid aggregation, and membrane destabilization. Napht-BP100 also interacted with double-stranded DNA, indicating that this peptide could also affect other cellular processes in addition to membrane destabilization. Napht-BP100 showed superior antibacterial activity, increased hemolytic activity compared to BP100, and may constitute an efficient antimicrobial agent for dermatological use. By conjugating BP100 and naphthalimide antimicrobial properties, Napht-BP100 was bound more efficiently to the bacterial membrane and could destabilize the membrane and enter the cell by interacting with its cytoplasm- exposed DNA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Antimicrobial polymers; dental materials; cranio-maxilifacial regeneration; tissue engineering
Online: 4 November 2020 (12:47:55 CET)
Cranio-maxillofacial structure is a region of particular interest in the field of regenerative medicine due to both its anatomical complexity and the numerous abnormalities affecting this area. However, this anatomical complexity is what makes possible the coexistence of different microbial ecosystems in the oral cavity and the maxillofacial region, contributing to the increased risk of bacterial infections. In this regard, different materials have been used for their application in this field. These materials can be obtained from natural and renewable feedstocks or by synthetic routes with desired mechanical properties, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity. Hence, in this review, we have focused on bio-based polymers, which by their own nature, by chemical modifications of their structure, or by their combination with other elements, provide a useful antibacterial activity as well as the suitable conditions for cranio-maxillofacial tissue regeneration. This approach has not been reviewed previously, and we have specifically arranged the content of this article according to the resulting material and its corresponding application, reviewing guided bone regeneration membranes; bone cements; and devices and scaffolds for both soft and hard maxillofacial tissue regeneration, including hybrid scaffolds, dental implants, hydrogels and composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: cross-sectional survey; antibiotic use; antimicrobial resistance; knowledge; brunei
Online: 23 May 2020 (05:54:43 CEST)
Background: Public misconception and demand for the indication of antibiotics could lead to inappropriate prescribing and consumption. Successful treatment can only be achieved when the public and industrial users have knowledge on antibiotic use and resistance. This survey is aimed to assess antibiotic usage and knowledge regarding antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among undergraduate students of Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), public university located in Brunei Darussalam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO) Antibiotic Resistance, Multi-country public awareness survey distributed online. Students at UBD were invited to participate in the online survey through internal email. The questionnaire consisted of 5 sections: demographic information, antibiotic usage, knowledge on antibiotics, antibiotic resistance (AMR) and use of antibiotics in agriculture. Data were analyzed descriptively and appropriate inferential statistics was used accordingly. Cronbach’s alpha was also done to determine the internal consistency. The section on antibiotic use and knowledge showed good internal consistency of Cronbach’s alpha 0.66 and 0.86 respectively. Research ethics approval was obtained from the PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD). Results: A total of 145 students returned the complete questionnaire. The result of the study found that 50% of the students had good level of knowledge of antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance with a mean total knowledge score of 11.4 out of 14. Respondents reported the use of antibiotic in the past (69%). Many of the students could identify the use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infection. However, there were also students who incorrectly thought that antibiotics can be used for cold and flu (43%) and fever (41%). Moreover, 76% of the respondents mistakenly believed that antibiotic resistance is the result of the body becoming resistant to antibiotics. Only 12% of the respondents were found to have poor knowledge in the study. Conclusions: Misconceptions in regards to the use of antibiotics for conditions related to viral illnesses was noticed among the respondents in our study. Thus, improving knowledge on antibiotics is crucial to address those beliefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibiotics; antibiotics resistance; antimicrobial resistance; dispensing; pharmacist; prescription; Tanzania
Online: 7 November 2019 (15:03:56 CET)
Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics has been reported to contribute to the emergence and increase of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the world. Antibiotics are prescription-only medicines to be dispensed to a person with a legal prescription inscribed by a qualified medical practitioner. Enforcing the dispensing of antibiotics with prescription is a way to promote the rational use of antibiotics and preventing the development and spread of AMR. It is, therefore, the responsibility of a pharmacist to dispense or supervise the dispensing of antibiotics in pharmacies and ensure its rational use. This study aimed to assess pharmacists’ knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the dispensing of antibiotics without prescription in Tanzania. Methods: An online semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and shared with licensed pharmacists in Tanzania through an invitation link sent in their official WhatsApp groups. A list of names, contacts and emails of licensed pharmacists obtained from the Pharmacy Council was used to directly contact and request pharmacist to fill the questionnaire, in case the pharmacist contact was not on WhatsApp, a text SMS invitation was sent. Study data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data were then downloaded and exported into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 for data analysis; Chi-square test was used to test association for categorical data, where a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: More than 75% of pharmacists had excellent knowledge about the legal requirements for dispensing antibiotics and of the AMR challenge. Of the interviewed pharmacists, seventy-four percent admitted to dispensing antibiotics without prescription in their daily practice. The main reasons for administering antibiotics without prescription were the profitability nature of pharmacy business, a failure of the patient to get a prescription and lack of stringent regulatory authorities. Penicillins, macrolides and floroquinolones were the classes of antibiotics mostly dispensed without a prescription. Conclusion: The study shows that the dispensing of antibiotics without prescription is a common practice in Tanzania. The regulatory authorities should make regular inspections in pharmacies to detect this malpractice. The community should be trained on the importance of taking laboratory tests before getting medications for their sickness by a qualified medical practitioner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: essential oils; Bartonella henselae; persisters; stationary phase; antimicrobial activity
Online: 16 October 2019 (05:18:55 CEST)
Bartonella henselae is a fastidious Gram-negative intracellular bacterium which can cause cat scratch disease, endocarditis in humans and animals as well as other complications, leading to acute or chronic infections. The current treatment for Bartonella infections is not very effective due to antibiotic resistance and also persistence. To develop better therapies for persistent and chronic Bartonella infections, in this study, with the help of SYBR Green I/PI viability assay, we performed a high-throughput screening of an essential oil library against stationary phase B. henselae. We successfully identified 32 essential oils that had high activity, including four essential oils extracted from Citrus plants, three from Origanum, three from Cinnamomum, two from Pelargonium and two from Melaleuca, as well as frankincense, ylang ylang, fir needle, mountain savory (winter), citronella, spearmint, elemi, vetiver, clove bud, allspice and cedarwood essential oils. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination of these 32 top hits indicated they were not only active against stationary phase non-growing B. henselae but also had good activity against log phase growing B. henselae. The time-kill curve by drug exposure assay showed 13 active hits, including essential oils of oregano, cinnamon bark, mountain savory (winter), cinnamon leaf, geranium, clove bud, allspice, geranium bourbon, ylang ylang, citronella, elemi and vetiver, could eradicate all stationary phase B. henselae cells within 7 days at the concentration of 0.032% (v/v). Two active ingredients, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, of oregano and cinnamon bark essential oils, respectively, were shown to be very active against stationary phase B. henselae such that they were able to eradicate all the bacterial cells even at the concentration ≤ 0.01% (v/v). Our finding of active essential oils may help to develop more effective treatments for persistent Bartonella infections.