COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1591.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; revaccination; virus-neutralization; antigenic cartography
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:18:07 CEST)
Rapid emergence of evasive SARS-CoV-2 variants is an on-going challenge for COVID-19 vaccinology. Traditional virus neutralization tests provide detailed datasets of neutralization titers against the viral variants. Such datasets are difficult to interpret and do not immediately inform on the sufficiency of the breadth of antibody response. Some of these issues could be tackled using the antigenic cartography approach. In this study, we created antigenic maps using neutralization titers of sera from donors who received Sputnik V booster vaccine after primary Sputnik V vaccination and compared them with the antigenic maps based on serum neutralization titers of Comirnaty-boosted donors. Traditional analysis of neutralization titers against WT, Alpha, Beta, Delta, Omicron BA.1 and BA.4/BA.5 showed a significant booster humoral response after both homologous (Sputnik V) and heterologous (Comirnaty) revaccinations against all the studied viral variants. However, despite this, a more in-depth analysis using antigenic cartography revealed that Omicron variants remain antigenically distant from WT, which is indicative of the formation of insufficient levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies. The implications of these findings may be significant when developing a new vaccine regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0100.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: influenza virus; H1N1; immunity; antigenic drift
Online: 5 October 2020 (17:24:27 CEST)
After the influenza H1N1 pandemic of 2009, the seasonal A/Brisbane/59/2007 strain was replaced by the A/California/07/2009 strain for the influenza virus vaccine composition. After several seasons with no indications on the occurrence of antigenic drift, A/Michigan/45/2015 was chosen as the H1N1 vaccine strain for season 2017/2018. Since the immune response to influenza is shaped by the history of exposure to antigenically similar strains, the potential cross-protection between seasonal human influenza vaccine strains and the emerging pandemic strains was investigated. Human serum samples were tested by haemagglutination inhibition and single radial haemolysis assays against A/Brisbane/59/2007, A/California/07/2009, and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains. Strong cross-reactions between A/California/07/2009 and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains were observed in 2009/2010, most likely induced by the start of the 2009 pandemic, and the subsequent post-pandemic seasons from 2010/2011 onwards when A/California/07/2009 becomes the predominant strain. In 2014/2015 season, population immunity against A/California/07/2009 and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains increased again, associated with strong cross-reactions. While haemagglutination inhibition assay has a higher sensitivity for detection of new seasonal drift, the single radial haemolysis assay is an excellent tool to determine the presence of pre-existing immunity, allowing a potential prediction on the booster potential of influenza vaccines against newly emerging drifted strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: allograft, xenograft, inflammation, sclerotic bone, implant failure, antigenic ossification
Online: 15 October 2018 (10:39:43 CEST)
Cadaver bone is possibly the most common transplant material used today. Common types of cadaver bone transplants are freeze dried bone allografts and xenografts. In the case of freeze dried bone allograft transplants, it was theorized that these materials mineralize by way of osteoinduction and stimulating osteogenesis. However, these theories have been proven false. It has been proposed that these materials mineralize via osteoconduction however, there are no studies to support this hypothesis. This study was undertaken to determine how these transplants mineralize and what type of bone they produce. Materials and Methods: This study is a histological analysis of human cadaver bone graft healing from the incipient stages of mineralization through completed mineralization. All cadaver bone grafts used for evaluation in this study were particulate bone graft materials in the maxilla or mandible. No block grafts were evaluated. Results: The mineralization of cadaver bone transplants was produced by an inflammatory response to the transplanted tissue. The histologic findings of the mineralized bone produced by this process was sclerotic bone. No resorption of cadaver bone graft particles was found. When loaded the sclerotic bone was found to fail through an accumulation of microfractures.Conclusions: Particulate freeze-dried bone allografts and xenografts do not heal via the normal processes of mineralization. Cadaver bone grafts produce significant inflammation and are hypothesized to mineralize by a process termed antigenic ossification. The process of antigenic ossification produces sclerotic bone that is not capable of self-repair which can ultimately lead to bone failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0466.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: influenza; serum; IgG; humoral antibody; original antigenic sin; hemagglutinin
Online: 6 July 2018 (07:53:32 CEST)
The first exposure to influenza is thought to impact subsequent immune responses later in life. The consequences of this can be seen during influenza epidemics and pandemics with differences in morbidity and mortality for different birth cohorts. There is a need for better understanding of how vaccine responses are affected by early exposures to influenza viruses. In this analysis of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses in two cohorts of military personnel we noticed differences related to age, sex, prior vaccination, deployment and birth year. These data suggest that HI antibody production, in response to influenza vaccination, is affected by these factors. The magnitude of this antibody response is associated with, among other factors, the influenza strain that circulated following birth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0956.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: therapeutic vaccines; mRNA vaccines; antigenic delivery; whole yeast vaccine; delivery vehicle
Online: 26 April 2023 (04:31:14 CEST)
In the last decades, technological advances related to RNA manipulation enabled and expanded its application in vaccine development. This approach comprises synthetic single-stranded mRNA molecules that direct the translation of the antigen responsible for activating the desired immune response. The success of RNA vaccines depends on the delivery vehicle employed. Among the systems, yeasts emerge as a new approach to a natural delivery platform. The presence of β-glucans and mannans in its wall is responsible for the adjuvant action of this system. Yeasts are already employed to deliver protein antigens, with success and efficacy demonstrated through pre-clinical and clinical trials. Yeast β-glucan capsules, microparticles, and nanoparticles are capable of modulating host immune responses and have a high capacity to carry RNA and small molecules, with bioavailability upon oral immunization and with targeting to receptors present in anti-gen-presenting cells (APCs). Besides, yeasts are interesting vehicles for the protection and specific delivery of therapeutic vaccines based on shRNA or dsRNA. In this review, we present an overview of the attributes of yeast or its derivatives for the delivery of RNA-based vaccines, discussing their current challenges and prospects for using this promising strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0559.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: porcine astroviruses; linear antigenic epitopes; recombination; glycosylation; whole genome sequences; East Africa
Online: 24 September 2020 (03:26:44 CEST)
Astroviruses (AstVs) are occurs globally and are common causes of gastroenteritis in human and animals. The genetic diversity and epidemiology of AstVs in Africa is not well known, hence, we aimed to genetically characterize astroviruses in asymptomatic smallholder piglets in East Africa. Twenty-four samples randomly selected from 446 piglets (<6 months old), initially collected for rotavirus study, was sequenced for metagenomic analysis. Thirteen (13/24) samples had contigs with high identity to genus Mamastrovirus. Analysis of 7 strains with complete (or near complete) genome revealed variable nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities with known PoAstV strains. The U083 and K321 strains had nucleotide sequence similarities ranging from 66.4 to 75.4 % to the known PoAstV2 strains, nucleotide sequence similarity of U460 strain with known PoAstV3 ranged 57.0 to 65.1 % to the, while K062, K366, K451, and K456 strains showed nucleotide sequence similarities of 63.5 to 80 % to the known PoAstV4 strains. The low sequence identities (<90 %) indicate that novel genotypes of PoAstVs are circulating in the study area. Multiple recombination events were detected in our PoAstV4 strains, indicating that the genetic diversity observed in these strains may be due to recombination. Importantly, we identified potential candidate epitopes with conserved peptides in our PoAstV strains that could aid in the design of immune diagnosis tools and subunit vaccines. Our data provide new intuitions into the genetic structure of porcine astroviruses in East African.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: T helper differentiation; T helper polarization; Cross-reactivity; Regulatory T cells; Microbiota; Original Antigenic Sin
Online: 12 August 2021 (08:46:55 CEST)
Naive CD4+ T cells engage cognate peptide MHC-II complexes (pMHC-IIs) to differentiate and acquire one of several T helper (Th) fates whose specific trajectories are guided by a dynamic cytokine milieu that develops in response to antigenic entity. This physiological process is often erroneously conflated with a pathological one termed Th polarization. Using the SPIRAL model, we argue here that unlike Th fate choice, innate signaling alone is insufficient to initiate Th polarization in naive CD4+ T cells, that it instead develops from pre-existing memory CD4+ T cells that express cross-reactive TCRs, and that it inevitably leads to immunopathology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0306.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: influenza virus; humoral response; hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus; broad neutralizing antibody(bnAb); heterosubtypic immunity of influenza; original antigenic sin "OAS"; "universal" influenza vaccine; protein microarray assay; mPLEX-Flu assay; multiple dimensional assays (MDA))
Online: 27 September 2019 (08:34:56 CEST)
The human antibody response to influenza virus infection or vaccination is as complicated as it is essential for protection against flu. The constant antigenic changes of the virus to escape human herd immunity hinder the yearly selection of vaccine strains since it is hard to predict which virus strains will circulate for the coming flu season. A "universal" influenza vaccine that could induce broad cross-influenza subtype protection would help to alleviate this burden. However, the human antibody response is intricate and often obscure, with factors like antigenic seniority or original antigenic sin "OAS", and back-boosting ensuring that each person mounts a unique immune response to infection or vaccination with any new influenza virus strain. Notably, the effects of existing antibodies on cross-protective immunity after repeated vaccinations are unclear. More research is needed to characterize the mechanisms at play, but traditional assays such as hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) are excessively limited in scope and too resource-intensive to effectively meet this challenge. In the past ten years, new multiple dimensional assays (MDAs) have been developed to help overcome these problems by simultaneously measuring antibodies against a large panel of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) proteins with a minimal amount of sample in a high throughput way. MDAs will likely be a powerful tool for accelerating the study of the humoral immune response to influenza vaccination and the development of a universal influenza vaccine.