ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibiotics; antibiotics resistance; antimicrobial resistance; dispensing; pharmacist; prescription; Tanzania
Online: 7 November 2019 (15:03:56 CET)
Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics has been reported to contribute to the emergence and increase of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the world. Antibiotics are prescription-only medicines to be dispensed to a person with a legal prescription inscribed by a qualified medical practitioner. Enforcing the dispensing of antibiotics with prescription is a way to promote the rational use of antibiotics and preventing the development and spread of AMR. It is, therefore, the responsibility of a pharmacist to dispense or supervise the dispensing of antibiotics in pharmacies and ensure its rational use. This study aimed to assess pharmacists’ knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the dispensing of antibiotics without prescription in Tanzania. Methods: An online semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and shared with licensed pharmacists in Tanzania through an invitation link sent in their official WhatsApp groups. A list of names, contacts and emails of licensed pharmacists obtained from the Pharmacy Council was used to directly contact and request pharmacist to fill the questionnaire, in case the pharmacist contact was not on WhatsApp, a text SMS invitation was sent. Study data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data were then downloaded and exported into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 for data analysis; Chi-square test was used to test association for categorical data, where a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: More than 75% of pharmacists had excellent knowledge about the legal requirements for dispensing antibiotics and of the AMR challenge. Of the interviewed pharmacists, seventy-four percent admitted to dispensing antibiotics without prescription in their daily practice. The main reasons for administering antibiotics without prescription were the profitability nature of pharmacy business, a failure of the patient to get a prescription and lack of stringent regulatory authorities. Penicillins, macrolides and floroquinolones were the classes of antibiotics mostly dispensed without a prescription. Conclusion: The study shows that the dispensing of antibiotics without prescription is a common practice in Tanzania. The regulatory authorities should make regular inspections in pharmacies to detect this malpractice. The community should be trained on the importance of taking laboratory tests before getting medications for their sickness by a qualified medical practitioner.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Pneumonia; Timing; Antibiotics; Outcome
Online: 3 September 2020 (09:29:32 CEST)
Background: The reported associations between time to first antibiotic dose after hospital arrival and short-term mortality have varied in prior studies of CAP. It is unclear the benefit of early antibiotics in all patients given the risks of antibiotic overuse and misdiagnosis; Methods: A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed to identify articles detailing the epidemiology, prognosis, diagnosis, and preliminary management of CAP; Results: In sepsis, antibiotics should not be delayed, and should be administered as soon as possible after recognition. For moderate or severe CAP patients without sepsis, antibiotics should be administered as soon as the diagnosis of CAP is highly likely. For stable, non–critically ill patients with CAP, the timing of antibiotics is not as clear and available evidence does not recommend strict requirements. Antibiotic timing – both rapid and delayed could be used as indicators of quality care in differing clinical scenarios; Results: The dogma of starting antibiotics quickly, within a rigid timeframe of expectations and guidelines has not improved outcomes in pneumonia patients, and has led to an increase in antibiotic treatment in uninfected patients. Severity of illness is the key factor associated with poor outcomes and should more significantly guide the timing of antibiotic initiation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0687.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Ampicillin; Antibiotics prophylaxis; cefazolin; Colorectal surgery
Online: 9 August 2023 (02:59:05 CEST)
Aim The use of prophylactic antibiotics prior to colorectal surgery reduces surgical site infections. Cefazolin and metronidazole is a standard regimen. Ampicillin-sulbactam may be an alternative, but the data are limited. We compared the efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam with cefazolin and metronidazole as prophylactic antibiotics. Methods Patients who underwent colorectal surgery at Inha University Hospital between 2010 and 2020 were treated prophylactically with cefazolin and metronidazole or ampicillin-sulbactam, and observed for 30 days following surgery. The primary outcome was surgical site infections. Secondary outcomes were deep/organ infections and the need for drainage. Results SSIs occurred in 2.6% (17/646) of the ampicillin-sulbactam group and was not inferior to the occurrence in the cefazolin and metronidazole group (3.8%, 21/556). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the secondary outcomes. Conclusion Compared with the cefazolin and metronidazole combination, the ampicillin-sulbactam group is non-inferior as a preoperative prophylactic antibiotic regimen for colorectal surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0682.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: electrochemical sensor; carbon paste electrode; antibiotics
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:22:36 CEST)
In this work we successfully prepared a modified cobalt oxide (Co3O4) carbon paste electrode to detect Levofloxacin (LEV). By synthesizing Co3O4 nanoparticles through the chemical coprecipitation method, the electrochemical properties of the electrode and LEV were thoroughly investigated using CV, SWV, EIS, while material properties were scrutinized using ICP-OES, TEM, SEM, and XRD. The results showed that the prepared electrode displayed a better electrocatalytic response than the bare carbon paste electrode. After optimizing SWV, the electrode exhibited a wide linear working range from 1 to 85 μM at pH 5 of BRBS as the supporting electrolyte. The selectivity of the proposed method was satisfactory, with good repeatability and reproducibility, strongly suggesting a potential application for determining LEV in real samples, particularly in pharmaceutical formulations. The practicality of the approach was demonstrated through good recoveries, and the morphology of the materials was found to be closely related to other parameters, indicating that the developed method can provide a cost-effective, rapid, selective, and sensitive means for LEV monitoring. Overall, this project has made significant progress towards developing a reliable method for detecting LEV and has opened up new opportunities for future research in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Antibiotics; affinity; biosensing; food; interferometry; nanoparticles
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:37:12 CEST)
Aptamers are excellent choices for selective detection of small molecules. However, the previously reported aptamer for chloramphenicol suffers from low affinity, probably as a result of steric hin-drance due to its bulky nature (80 nucleotides) leading to lower sensitivity in analytical assays. The present work was aimed at improving this binding affinity by truncating the aptamer without compromising its stability and three-dimensional folding. Shorter aptamer sequences were designed by systematically removing bases from each or both ends of the original aptamer. Thermodynamic factors were evaluated computationally to give insights into the stability and folding patterns of the modified aptamers. Binding affinities were evaluated by bio-layer interferometry. Among the 11 sequences generated, one aptamer was selected based on its low dissociation constant, length and regression of model fitting with association and dissociation curves. The dissociation constant could be lowered by 86.93% by truncating 30 bases from the 3’ end of the previously reported aptamer. The selected aptamer was used for gold nanospheres based colorimetric detection of chloram-phenicol in real samples. The detection limit could be reduced 32.87 times (1.673 pg mL-1) using the modified length aptamer, indicating its improved affinity as well as suitability in real sample analysis for ultrasensitive detection of chloramphenicol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0244.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: antibiotics; β cells; streptozotocin; regioselective oxidation
Online: 15 March 2020 (13:12:33 CET)
With the increasing resistance of bacteria to current antibiotics, novel compounds are urgently needed to treat bacterial infections. Streptozotocin (STZ) is a natural product that has broad-spectrum antibiotic activity, albeit with limited use because of its toxicity to pancreatic β cells. In an attempt to derivatize STZ through structural modification at the C3 position, we performed the synthesis of three novel STZ analogues by making use of our recently developed regioselective oxidation protocol. Keto-STZ (2) shows the highest inhibition of bacterial growth (MIC and viability assays), but is also the most cytotoxic compound. Pre-sensitizing the bacteria with GlcNAc increased the antimicrobial effect, but did not result in complete killing. Interestingly, allo-STZ (3) revealed moderate concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity and no cytotoxicity towards β cells, and deoxy-STZ (4) showed no activity at all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0328.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: ZIF-8; hollow carbon; antibiotics; adsorbent
Online: 28 December 2018 (04:20:40 CET)
The harmful nature of high concentrations of antibiotics to humans and animals requires urgent development of novel materials and techniques for their absorption. In this work, CTAB (Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide)-assisted synthesis of ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazolate framework) derived hollow carbon (ZHC) was designed, prepared and used as a high-performance adsorbent, further evaluated by Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal adsorption experiments, dynamic analysis as well as theoretical calculation. The maximum capacities of ZHC on adsorbing tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NFO) and levofloxacin (OFO) are 267.3, 125.6 and 227.8 mg g-1, respectively, which delivers superior adsorptive performance when compared to widely studied inorganic adsorbates. The design concept of ZIFs-derived hollow carbon material provides guidance and insights for the efficient adsorbent of environmental antibiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0544.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: quinolone antibiotics; enrofloxacin; ciprofloxacin; Microcystis aeruginosa; microcystins
Online: 8 September 2023 (03:24:47 CEST)
Microcystis aeruginosa is a common cyanobacteria found in water blooms and often causes ecological harm. Antibiotics are also increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections in aquaculture. However, since most antibiotics cannot be fully metabolized, they enter the water environment and cause ecological impacts. In this paper, the effects of the two quinolone antibiotics (enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) on the population density and microcystins (MCs) production of Microcystis aeruginosa were studied. It is of great significance for the ecological risk assessment of antibiotics to the water environment. The results showed that the 96h EC50 values of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin to Microcystis aeruginosa were 56.10mg/L and 49.80mg/L respectively, and the toxicity of ciprofloxacin to Microcystis aeruginosa was slightly stronger than that of enrofloxacin. With the increase of the two quinolone antibiotic concentration, the growth inhibition rate (IR) increased, but when the concentration reached a certain height, the IR would reach its threshold. Long-term exposure to low concentrations of these two quinolone antibiotics is not only more likely to lead to the outbreak of Microcystis aeruginosa, but also increase its toxin production capacity. The highest contents of MCs in enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin groups were 95.539 μg/g and 93.720 μg/g, respectively. The MCs value of these three enrofloxacin treatment groups was more than above 51.8 times that of control group (CK) on the 4th day; from 8th day to 14th day, the MCs value of these three enrofloxacin treatment groups was more than above 3.2 times that of CK group. For another ciprofloxacin, the MCs value of the treatment group was more than 64.98 times that of the CK group on the 4th day, and from 8th day to 14th day, the MCs value of the treatment group was more than 2.7 times that of the CK group. These findings provide crucial management rationale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0653.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Nanostructures; Blue-TiO2 nanotubes; Antimicrobial; Antibiotics; Photocatalytic
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:25:55 CEST)
This study presents a straightforward electrochemical and plasma deposition method for producing Cobalt-doped Blue-TiO2 nanotubes with enhanced catalytic properties. After a titanium plate has been anodized, specific procedures are carried out that cause oxygen vacancies to form inside the TiO2 nanostructures. The obtained catalysts were subjected to electrochemical tests (to identify charge transfer resistance and flat band potential), optical analysis (to determine the band gap and Urbach energy) and also characterized in terms of morphology, wettability and antibacterial effect in order to understand and analyze the impact of the Co doping method on the final catalyst characteristics. A hydrophilic film with star-shaped structures and with antibacterial effect was created when cobalt was electrochemically doped to Blue-TiO2 nanotubes. By using this electrochemical doping technique, the Urbach energy was raised from 1.171 to 3.836 eV while the band gap energy was decreased from 3.04 to 2.88 eV. Additionally, photodegradation experiments using artificial doxycycline (DOX) water were conducted to determine the practical relevance of the research findings. In areas like antimicrobial applications and photodegradation of DOX, these extra experiments aimed to show the practical applicability and potential advantages of the research findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2231.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Lobosphaera; attached cultivation; antibiotics; bioremoval, arachidonic acid
Online: 31 May 2023 (11:00:11 CEST)
Pharmaceuticals including antibiotics are among hazardous micropollutants (HMP) of the environment. Incomplete degradation of the HMP leads to their persistence in water bodies causing a plethora of deleterious effects. Conventional wastewater treatment cannot remove HMP completely, and a promising alternative is comprised by biotechnologies based on microalgae. The use of immobilized microalgae in environmental biotechnology is advantageous since immobilized cultures allow recycling of the microalgal cells, support higher cell densities, and boost tolerance of microalgae to stresses including HMP. Here we report on a comparative study of HMP (exemplified by the antibiotic ceftriaxone) removal by suspended and chitosan-immobilized cells of Lobosphaera sp. IPPAS C-2047 unialgal culture. We also monitored the dynamics of photosynthetic pigments content and the physiological condition of the cells as reflected by the activity of their photosynthetic apparatus. Special attention was paid to the changes in the accumulation of valuable arachidonic acid (C20:4). In addition to this, we followed the changes in the culture microbiome induced the antibiotic exposure. Collectively, our results showed that both suspended and immobilized cultures took up ceftriaxone from the culture medium. In the case of immobilized culture, a significant amount of the antibiotic was adsorbed on the chitosan carrier itself. The dynamics of the taxonomic composition of the microbiome of the microalgae was more shifted by the immobilization on the chitosan than by exposure to 20 mg/L of ceftriaxone. The possibility and limitations of the using of chitosan-immobilized Lobosphaera sp. IPPAS C-2047 for HMP removal coupled with the production of valuable long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1380.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), Antibiotics; Surveillance; India; Taiwan
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:01:35 CEST)
Human exposure to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through food is now very imperfectly understood, creating a significant gap in the design of interventions. The interchange of AMR genes and the transfer of AMR bacteria from animals to humans through the food chain necessitate comprehensive methods to risk reduction. With a focus on AMR in bacterial species isolated from food products, foods (of both animal and non-animal origin), and ambient samples, the current meta-analysis gathered up-to-date information on the epidemiology of AMR in animal-source food chain. As a result, the combined prevalence of AMR across the various food sources was calculated. From the 18,784 food samples obtained as a result of selected publications, 7,676 (40.9%) samples were contaminated, including 4343 (56.6%) and 3363 (43.4%) samples from Taiwan and India, respectively. Meat (chicken, pork, and beef), fish and milk all have moderate to medium potential for AMR exposure to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative foodborne pathogens such S. aureus, Clostridium, E. coli, Salmonella, etc. Antibiotic resistance to β-lactam, fluoroquinolone, carbapenem etc, is present in the majority of food samples. The results of this study emphasize the persistent danger of antimicrobial residue in animal-derived foods in Taiwan, India, and other nations with comparable customs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0475.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Nutrigenomics; Antimicrobial resistance; Novel Antibiotics; gut microbiome
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:40:22 CEST)
Nutrigenomics is the study of the interaction of nutrition and genes, focusing on the influence of nutrients on the genome, proteome, and metabolome, and how nutrition affects human health. In the context of nutrigenomics, bioactive components are dietary ingredients that may transmit information from the external environment and alter gene expression in the cell, and hence the overall function of the organism. It is critical to consider food not only as a source of energy and essential nutrients necessary for life and growth, but also as a factor impacting health/disease, biochemical processes, biochemical pathway activation and affecting the diversity of the gut microbiome. Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic and commensal microorganisms has emerged as a major public health concern due to emerging antimicrobial resistance genes in E. coli isolates from pig, cattle, chicken, and turkey meat, against tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfonamides. Also, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. have shown antibiotic resistance at farms and slaughterhouses, and in animal-based food products. A correlation has been proven between a critical nutrient-responsive signaling system and catabolite control of gene expression, and a two-component signaling system that drives antibiotic resistance in E. faecalis, revealing a previously unknown integration between the nutritional status of the cell and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Moreover, different nutrigenomic approaches can be applied to mitigate possible emergence of antimicrobial resistance against novel antibiotics. However, little progress has been achieved in converting nutrigenomics information into clinical advice, so far.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: resistant bacteria; COVID-19 pandemic era; antibiotics
Online: 27 March 2023 (08:59:13 CEST)
Abstract: The overuse of antibiotic prophylaxis during the COVID-19 pandemic would have led to the devel-opment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, thereby increasing the epidemiological burden of antimicrobi-al resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacte-ria isolated in 02 referral health facilities in Yaoundé before and during the COVID-19 pandemic era. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of 03 years (from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021) in the bacteriology units of the Central and General Hospitals of Yaoundé, Cameroon. The review of the services' registers was done to record bacterial isolates (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Neisseria meningitidis and Entero-bacteriaceae) as well as their susceptibility to selected, specific and highly potent antibiotics: Cefixime, Azythromycin and Erythromycin. The relationship between each group of resistant bacteria and the antibiotic of interest was determined by simple linear regression; the comparison of the prevalences of before (2019) and during 2 consecutive years of the COVID-19 pandemic onset (2020 and 2021) was done by the Chi2 test of in-dependence. In all, 426 bacterial strains were included. It appeared that the highest number of bacteria iso-lates and lowest rate of bacterial resistance were recorded during the pre-COVID 2019 period in 2019 (160 isolates vs. 58.8% resistance rate). Conversely, lower bacteria stains but greater resistance burden were rec-orded during the pandemic era (2020 and 2021) with the lowest bacteria amount and peak of bacteria re-sistance registered in 2020, the year of COVID-19 onset (120 isolates vs. 70% resistance in 2020 and 146 iso-lates vs.58.9% resistance in 2021). In contrast to almost all others groups of bacteria where the resistance burden was quite constant over years, the Enterobacteriaceae exhibited greater resistance rate during the pandemic period [60%(48/80) in 2019 to 86.9%(60/69) in 2020 and 64.5%(61/95) in 2021)]. Concerning antibiotics, unlike Erythromycin, Azythromycin related resitance increased during the pandemic period and the resistance to Cefixim tends to decrease the year of the pandemic onset (2020) and re-increase one year therafter. A significant association was found between resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains and Cefixime (R= 0.7; P-value= 0.0001) and also, between resistant Staphylococcus strains and Erythromycin (R= 0.8; P-value= 0.0001). It could be that the more frequent use of these antibiotics has increased resistance rate especially in Enterobacteriaceae. Anticromicrobial resistance should be closely monitor during and after COVID pandemic era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: BNO 1016; antibiotics; herbal medicine; sinusitis; phytotherapy
Online: 19 December 2022 (04:05:48 CET)
(1) Background: To substantiate the clinical efficacy and investigate the real-world effectiveness of the herbal medicinal product BNO 1016 in acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) in the context of antibiotic stewardship. (2) Methods: Clinical efficacy: We performed a meta-analysis of the clinical trials ARhiSi-1 and ARhiSi-2 comprising 676 patients, analysing the reduction of the Major Symptom Score (MSS) and improvement of SNOT-20. Real-world effectiveness: In addition, we performed a retrospective cohort study including 203,382 patients, comparing the real-life effectiveness of BNO 1016 in reducing ARS-related adverse outcomes in comparison to antibiotics and several other established therapies. (3) Results: Clinical efficacy: Treatment with BNO 1016 ameliorated symptoms of ARS by reducing MSS by 1.9 points (p<0.0001) and improved quality of life (QoL) for patients by improving SNOT-20 by 3.5 points (p=0.001) in comparison to placebo. In patients with moderate/severe symptoms, the positive effects of BNO 1016 were even more pronounced (MSS: –2.3 points (p<0.0001); SNOT-20: –4.9 points (p=0.0158)) compared to placebo. Real-world effectiveness: Treatment with BNO 1016 was as effective or significantly more effective in reducing the risk for adverse ARS-related outcomes such as follow-up antibiotic prescriptions, sick leave ≥7 days or medical appointments due to ARS, especially when compared to antibiotics. (4) Conclusions: BNO 1016 is a safe and effective treatment for ARS that can help reduce the overuse of antibiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: skin infection; antibiotics; quinolone; S. aureus; geriatrics
Online: 8 November 2022 (01:57:03 CET)
INTRODUCTION: Superficial cutaneous bacterial infections have a high incidence in geriatric patients. The most implicated pathogens are gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes) while gram-negative germs are also implicated. Resistances to common topical antibiotics (mupirocin, fusidic acid) require alternatives to gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Ozenoxacin cream for topical use (non-fluorinated bactericidal quinolone), in other countries and with other galenics, is indicated in children older than 6 months and in adults as a treatment of superficial bacterial infections, such as acne. In Spain, ozenoxacin cream is indicated only for non-bullous impetigo; scientific evidence show effectiveness also in other superficial skin bacterial infections.A cases series of clinical use of ozenoxacin in bacterial superficial skin infections in geriatric patients (institutionalized or community dwelling) is presented.METHODS: Multicenter case series (March-August 2022) of bacterial superficial skin infections treated with ozenoxacin cream (10mg/g every 12h, 5days); data from medical records (controls: 1-3-5 days), after obtaining informed consent (use of data and images).RESULTS: Series of 28 patients (mean age: 84,79) from nine nursing homes and one outpatient geriatric service, including acute and subacute/chronic cases.In all cases treatment was ozenoxacin 10mg/g topical cream applied every 12 hours for 5 days according to medical prescription (except for one case in which 3 days were enough for complete healing and another case treated for 10 days).Results showed complete healing in all 20 acute cases and significant clinical improvement in all subacute/chronic cases (with complete healing in one of them). Professionals scored the effectiveness in acute cases as a mean 4.5 points (maximum score: 5, p<.0001) and in subacute/chronic cases as 3.8 points (p=.010).There was no skin irritation or other adverse effects in anyone of the patients, and clinical improvement of pain, itching and other symptoms was observed, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results seem to demonstrate the effectiveness and tolerability of ozenozacin cream in bacterial infections other than non-bullous impetigo. Ozenoxacin cream is indicated only for the treatment of non-bullous impetigo; however, it is also shown to be effective, both in the scientific evidence and in our case series, for other superficial bacterial skin infections, both acute and subacute/chronic, suggesting the opportunity for clinical studies with an experimental design to evaluate the findings of clinical practice and to be able to have a therapeutic alternative to compensate for the complications of the appearance of resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: audit; utilization; surgery; antibiotics; perception; infections; hospitals
Online: 13 June 2019 (09:52:04 CEST)
Background and objectives: The appropriate use of antibiotics is the main strategy of Antimicrobial stewardship program. This study was planned to evaluate the quality of antibiotic prescriptions, its adherence with standard guidelines and surgeons’ perception regarding antibiotic use in surgeries. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional observational and survey-based study comprised of two sections: Phase 1; to investigate the antibiotic utilization in three most common abdominal surgical procedures during 9 months (January 2017 to September 2017). The appropriateness of antibiotics was compared with evidence-based guidelines. Phase 2; the surgeon’s perspectives were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire (13 items) during the next three months (October 2017 to December 2017). Descriptive statistics, chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests analysis were used through SPSS Statistical Package 21.0. Results: A total of 866 eligible surgical cases out of 1015 were investigated. An acute appendectomy (n= 418; 48.2%) was most common surgical intervention followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n= 278; 32.1%) and inguinal hernia (n= 170; 19.7%). About 97.5% of patients received antibiotics. Among these, 9.5% adhered according to guidelines with respect to correct choice, 40% for timing, 100% for dose and route (optimal value 100%). The ceftriaxone (J01XD04; n= 503; 59.5%) was most frequently prescribed antibiotic. A 200 participants (response rate 70.6%) filled out a validated questionnaire (internal consistency; α ≥ 0.7). One hundred and thirty-eight (69%) reported the overuse of antibiotics and most of them (97%) preferred broad-spectrum antibiotics instead of narrow-spectrum. The participants reported that non-availability hospital-based guidelines (n=193; 96.5%), prescribing of antibiotics without guidelines (n=186; 93%), underestimation of infection (n=177; 88.5%), lack of consensus (n=135; 67.5%) and poor awareness about guidelines (n=122; 61%) were the main determinants in their health care settings. Conclusions: The compliance of Surgical antibiotic was far below the recommendations of guidelines. The urgent needs of awareness among surgeons and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship program were important recommended interventions for appropriate use antibiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0896.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Hospital-acquired infections, colonization; infection; risk factors; antibiotics
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:04:55 CET)
Background: Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) pose a significant danger to global public health, mainly because their numbers are growing exponentially each year. Additionally, the rise of bacterial strains resistant to current treatment options further exacerbates this threat. The study aimed to examine the occurrences of HAIs identified in public hospitals at the county level. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing data provided to the Mures Public Health Directorate from all the public hospitals within this county. We examined HAIs reported during the period spanning from 2017 to 2021, which amounted to a total of 4603 cases. Results: The medical departments reported the highest prevalence of HAIs at 48.25%. The most common infections in-cluded enterocolitis with Clostridioides difficile (32.61%), COVID-19 (19.83%), bronchopneumonia (16.90%), sepsis, surgical wound infections, and urinary tract infections. The five most frequently identified pathogens were Clostridioides difficile (32.61%), SARS-CoV-2 (19.83%), Acinetobacter baumannii (11.82%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.58%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.95%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the predominant agent causing bronchopneumonia, while Klebsiella pneumoniae was the leading cause of sepsis cases. Escherichia coli was the primary agent behind urinary tract infec-tions, and Staphylococcus aureus MRSA was identified as the main etiology for wound infections and central catheter infections. Throughout the study period, there was a significant rise in Clostridioides difficile cases, accounting for 40.36% of all reported HAIs in 2021. Conclusions: The study identifies Clostridioides difficile increase in HAI cases during COVID-19, highlighting the need for careful antibiotic use, and emphasizing the growing challenge of multi-resistant strains in post-pandemic state hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1819.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Veterinary antibiotics; translocation; phytotoxicity; bioconcentration factor; rice paddy
Online: 27 September 2023 (06:57:05 CEST)
Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) have been indiscriminately used in animal feed for the past five decades to increase and ensure profits with negligible environmental considerations. The VAs amoxicillin (AMX), chlortetracycline (CTC), and oxytetracycline (OTC), which can be unintentionally introduced by irrigation water during rice cultivation, were evaluated for their phytotoxic effects, absorption-translocation into plants, and soil residues using a randomized complete block design. It was found that exposure to VAs can severely affect the photosynthetic pathway of rice plants. The uptake and translocation of VAs by rice plants varied significantly. CTC and OTC translocated more easily than AMX, a member of the β-lactam class, which accumulated at the lowest concentration compared to CTC and OTC across all treatments. Rice yield was about 4.3 - 5.7% lower in the experimental plots that received fifty-fold the background levels of VAs compared to the control. The findings indicate that these widely used veterinary antibiotics can hamper crop production, leave residues in the soil, and constitute a risk to human health if introduced into the agro-ecosystem unintentionally.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: antibiotics; antibiotic therapy; antibiotic resistance; evolutionary medicine; ethics
Online: 5 June 2023 (05:32:00 CEST)
The first half of the 20th century was noteworthy for the introduction of a unique group of drugs – antibiotics. It drastically changed concepts of infectious diseases treatment, which for centuries remained a scourge of the human population. With improvement of the antibiotic treatment efficacy, humanity has faced the problem of a dramatic increase in antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated the problem and posed a new challenge to the medical community in finding solutions, both clinical and organizational and methodological, to fight antibiotic resistance widespread all over the globe. This publication covers some aspects of evolutionary processes in either pathogens or diseases, including ethical perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, antibiotics, resistance, drug therapy, eradication, Colombia.
Online: 2 June 2023 (04:24:18 CEST)
The current study aims to first, isolate H. pylori in cultures from gastric biopsy samples and test their susceptibility. Secondly, we aim to assess the efficacy of the standard triple therapy from patients coming of the western central region of Colombia. Patients with H. pylori positive re-ceived standard triple therapy with PPI [40 mg b.i.d.], clarithromycin [500 mg b.i.d.], amoxicillin [1g b.i.d.] for 14 days. Thereafter, antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was assessed by E-Test. From 94 patients enrolled, 67 were positive for H. pylori by histology or culture. Resistance to metronidazole, levofloxacin, rifampicin, clarithromycin and amoxicillin was 81, 26.2, 23.9, 19 and 9.5%, respectively. No resistance was found for tetracycline. 54 patients received standard triple therapy, 48 attended follow-ups testing and of them, 30 had resistance test reports. Overall eradication rate was 81.2%, 4 patients underwent second-line management and only one patient remained H. pylori positive by urea breath test during the follow-up [six weeks]. Eradication was significantly higher in patients with clarithromycin susceptible than in resistant strains [95.6% vs. 42.8% p= 0.001]. The updated percentages of resistance to clarithromycin in this geographical area have increased, so this value must be considered when choosing the treatment regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0838.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Down syndrome [DS]; microbiome; dysbiosis; antibiotics; tetracycline; penicillin
Online: 11 May 2023 (10:04:00 CEST)
Down syndrome (DS) is a leading human genomic abnormality resulting from the trisomy of chromosome 21. The genomic base of the aneuploidy behind this disease is complex, and this complexity poses formidable challenges to understanding the underlying molecular basis. In the spectrum of the classic DS risk factor associations the role of nutrients, vitamins, and in general, the foodborne associated background as part of the events leading ultimately to chromosome nondisjunction has long been recognized as a well-established clinical association. The integrity of the microbiome is a basic condition in these events, and the dysbiosis may be associated with secondary health outcomes, the possible association of DS development with maternal gut microbiota should require more attention. We have hypothesized that different classes of antibiotics might promote or inhibit the proliferation of different microbial taxa and hence, we might find associations between the use of different classes of antibiotics and the prevalence of DS through the modification of the microbiome. As antibiotics are considered major disruptors of the microbiome, it could be hypothesized that the consumption/exposure of certain classes of antibiotics might be associated with the prevalence of DS in European countries (N=30). Utilizing three different statistical methods, comparisons have been made between the average yearly antibiotic consumption (1997-2020) and the prevalence of people living with DS estimated for 2019 as a percentage of the population in European countries. We have found strong statistical correlations between the consumption of tetracycline (J01A) and the narrow-spectrum, beta-lactamase-resistant penicillin (J01CF) and the prevalence of DS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0953.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Antibacterial Agents; Antibiotics; Cyclodextrins; Inclusion Complex; Technology; Treatments
Online: 26 April 2023 (04:09:37 CEST)
Antibiotics have become a widely used drug classes worldwide. Its indiscriminate use in the clini-cal-hospital environment ended up causing antibiotic-resistance genes. Pharmaceutical technology is an essential ally for new formulation development in the antibacterial field. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are ap-proaches that can potentially improve the effectiveness of antibacterial drugs. Thus, this study aimed to review experimental models using CDs as inclusion complexes to improve antibacterial drugs’ physi-cochemical characteristics and biological activities. The review was carried out using the three online journals database PubMed, Scopus, and Embase, limited to Medical Subjects Headings Index. The search protocol was registered in the Open Science Framework database. The following terms and their com-binations were used: cyclodextrins and antibacterial agents in title or abstract, and a total of 1580 studies were identified in a period up to October 2022. Finally, 27 articles were selected for discussion in this review. The biological results reveal that the antibacterial effect of the compounds, complexed with CDs, was extensively improved when compared to the free drugs. CDs can improve the therapeutic effects of antibiotics, already existing on the market, natural products, and synthetic molecules. Therefore, these inclusion complexes using CDs increase the new pharmaceutical products development for clinical ap-plication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0591.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibiotics; antibiotic resistance; multidrug resistance genes; molecular mechanisms
Online: 19 April 2023 (10:54:50 CEST)
Antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major threat to human health worldwide. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria can also be found in the community settings, apart from hospital environment, which indicates that reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes do exist outside the hospital. The growth of antibiotic resistance is a consequence of bacterial adaptations in response to selective pressures. To survive in this hostile environment, bacteria develop defence mechanisms such as chemical modification of antibiotics, enzyme-catalysed antibiotic degradation, altered permeability, antibiotic efflux, mutation of target sites and biofilm formation, resulting in resistance to nearly all currently available antibiotics used in the clinical practice. The present review summarizes insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the antibiotic resistance which is useful for planning strategies to combat antibiotic resistance and devise innovative therapeutic tools to fight against multidrug-resistant bacterial species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: discharge antibiotics; complicated Appendicitis; nonoperative management; antimicrobial treatment
Online: 7 December 2022 (02:22:08 CET)
The standard of care for nonoperative appendicitis patients involves ongoing antibiotic therapy. Yet, there is variability regarding the decision to continue outpatient parenteral antibiotic treatment (OPAT) or transition to oral (PO) antibiotics. Methods: In our single-center retrospective study, we reviewed 46 pediatric patients who underwent nonoperative management of perforated appendicitis with Interventional Radiology (IR) percutaneous drainage. We reviewed age, ethnicity, hospitalization length, antibiotic choice, route and duration, and culture data. Results. Thirty-eight [83%] patients went home on OPAT, 6[13%] on PO, and 2[4%] completed therapy while inpatient. Based on culture susceptibilities of the 38 OPAT patients, 29[76%] had oral antibiotics as an option. The three most common organisms in those sent home on OPAT included Enterococcus faecalis (38 [100%]), Bacteroides spp (33 [87%]) and Escherichia coli (27 [71%]). All patients who grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa had an oral antibiotic as a treatment option; similarly with 93% (25/27) of E. coli, 81% (13/16) of α-hemolytic Streptococcus spp, and 76% (29/38) of Enterococcus faecalis. Conclusions: Nearly 80% of patients sent home on OPAT had PO antibiotic regimens options based on the culture susceptibility profiles. This data indicates that using cultures and susceptibility data can help guide antibiotic management, significantly reducing PICC line placement and likely reduce healthcare costs and complications associated with central lines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0289.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: layered double hydroxides; magnetic nanoparticles; phthalocyanines; antibiotics removal
Online: 16 August 2022 (11:12:42 CEST)
Considerable efforts have been made in recent years to identify an optimal treatment method for the removal of antibiotics from wastewaters. A series of supramolecular organic-inorganic magnetic composites containing Zn-modified MgAl LDHs and Cu-phthalocyanine as photosensitizer have been prepared with the scope to β-lactam antibiotics removal from aqueous solutions. The characterization of these materials confirmed the anchorage of Cu-phthalocyanine onto the edges of the LDH lamellae, with a negligible part inserted in the interlayer space. The removal of β-lactam antibiotics occurred via a concerted adsorption and photocatalytic degradation. The efficiency of the composites was depending on i) the LDH: magnetic nanoparticle (MP) ratio, that is strongly correlated to the textural properties of the catalysts, and ii) the phthalocyanine loading in the final composite. A maximum of the efficiency was achieved with a removal of ~93% of antibiotics after 2h of reaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Archaea; transcription inhibition; RNA polymerase; viruses; evolution; antibiotics
Online: 12 August 2022 (11:25:05 CEST)
Multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAP) carry out transcription in all domains of life; during vi-rus infection, RNAPs are targeted by transcription factors encoded by either the cell or the virus, resulting in the global repression of transcription with distinct outcomes for different host-virus combinations. These repressors serve as versatile molecular probes to study RNAP mechanisms, as well as they aid the exploration of druggable sites for the development of new antibiotics. Here, we review the mechanisms and structural basis of RNAP inhibition by the viral repressor RIP and the crenarchaeal negative regulator TFS4, which follow distinct strategies. RIP operates by occluding the DNA-binding channel and mimicking the initiation factor TFB/TFIIB. RIP binds tightly to the clamp and locks it into one fixed position, thereby preventing conformational oscil-lations that are critical for RNAP function as it progresses through the transcription cycle. TFS4 engages with RNAP in a similar manner to transcript cleavage factors such as TFS/TFIIS through the NTP-entry channel; TFS4 interferes with the trigger loop and bridge helix within the active site by occlusion and allosteric mechanisms, respectively. The conformational changes of RNAP described above are universally conserved and are also seen in inactive dimers of eukaryotic RNAPI and several inhibited RNAP complexes of both bacterial and eukaryotic RNA polymer-ases, including inactive states that precede transcription termination. A comparison of target sites and inhibitory mechanisms reveals that proteinaceous repressors and RNAP-specific antibiotics use surprisingly common ways to inhibit RNAP function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antibiotics; antibiotic resistance; rational drug use; community pharmacist
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:58:43 CET)
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is an emerging global threat to public health. Substantial evidence has indicated that community pharmacists (CPs) can play a critical role in managing the ever-increasing threat of antibiotic resistance. The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices of CPs (n=180) towards antibiotics and antibiotic resistance as well as to improve the rational use of antibiotics. Two phases of mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) online study were conducted in Pakistan from August 2019 to March 2020 by using validated questionnaires and semi-structured interview data. Different statistical methods were used to tabulate the quantitative data whereas inductive thematic analysis was conducted to categorize themes from the qualitative data and draw conclusions. Approximately 64.4% were male (mean: 29-33 years old). Overall, CPs had good knowledge of and were familiar with superbugs and their roles in ABR (65.6%, Median=1, IQR=1) although they were poor in differentiating some antibiotic groups with their respective ABR patterns (31.1%, Median=1, IQR=1). Most CPs have a positive attitude towards antibiotics with most (90.0%) having identified ABR as a critical issue in public health (Median=1, IQR=0). Overall, CPs' practices towards antibiotics were reasonable where they tend to educate patients about the rational use of antibiotics (52.8%, Median=1, IQR=1). Two main themes (antibiotics and counseling of patients) were related to self-medication with while educational interventions are the sub-theme. ABR is multifactorial where the subthemes related to budget, time constraints incompetent staff, the absence of CPs, the lack of training, enforcement of laws and regulations are the need of the hour in Pakistan. Effective antibiotic stewardship programs, patient education, and awareness campaigns about antibiotics and ABR along with training of the CPs are important factors that have to be addressed in a timely manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Proportionate prevalence; spatial distribution; antibiotics; supportive therapy; Jhenaidah
Online: 5 August 2020 (15:37:06 CEST)
A descriptive epidemiological study has been conducted using hospital database of Teaching Veterinary Hospital (TVH) at Jhenaidah Government Veterinary College (JGVC) from July 2018 to June 2019. The study aimed to estimate the proportionate prevalence of different livestock and poultry diseases along with their spatiotemporal distribution and drug prescribing pattern. A total of 960 clinical cases were recorded during the study period. Ectoparasitic cases were proportionately higher in cattle (25.2%), whereas Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) cases were more frequent in goat (53.4%). The proportionate prevalence of other cases in cattle was Fascioliasis (14.3%), Myiasis (11.2%) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) (7.2%). The proportionate prevalence of other cases in goats were vitamin and mineral deficiency (12.3%), bloat (5.2%), abscess (4.7%), and dog bite (1.2%). Again, the proportionate prevalence of poultry diseases was Infectious Bursal Disease (41.2%), salmonellosis (33.4%), fowl cholera (13.7%) and pox (7.8%). Most of the cattle cases were highly prevalent during the summer season except fascioliasis. In goat, PPR was predominated in the rainy season whereas myiasis was in the winter. Around 92% of disease cases were spatially located within the 2.5 km radius of the TVH of JGVC where only 0.9% of disease cases came from >10km away from TVH of JGVC. Simple linear regression identified a significant relation (p=0.01) with the distance and number of diseased animals came to the hospital. Antimicrobials belonging to b-Lactam group were most frequently prescribed for both poultry (48.6%), cattle (32.5%) followed by goat (9.2%), however sulfar drugs (34.8%) were commonly prescribed for goat cases. This type of study is very novel in Jhenaidah region of Bangladesh that might contribute to the researchers for further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0163.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Raman microspectroscopy; optical tweezers; optofluidics; E. coli; antibiotics
Online: 12 April 2018 (08:37:01 CEST)
Analyzing the cells in various body fluids can greatly deepen the understanding of the mechanisms governing the cellular physiology. Because of the variability of physiological and metabolic states, it is important to be able to perform such studies on individual cells. Therefore, we developed an optofluidic system in which we precisely manipulated and monitored individual cells of Escherichia coli. We used laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) in a microchamber chip to manipulate and analyze individual E. coli cells. We subjected the cells to antibiotic cefotaxime, and we observed the changes by the time-lapse microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. We found observable changes in the cellular morphology (cell elongation) and in Raman spectra, which were consistent with other recently published observations. We tested the capabilities of the optofluidic system and found it to be a reliable and versatile solution for this class of microbiological experiments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0337.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antibacterial agents; antibiotics; COVID-19; drug misuse; odontogenic infection
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:03:42 CEST)
This review revisits clinical use of antibiotics for most common acute oro-dental conditions; we aim to provide evidence governing antibiotics use when access to oral healthcare is not available, as during the ongoing outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In this rapid review, articles were retrieved after conducting a search on PubMed and Google Scholar. Relevant publications were selected and analyzed. Most recent systematic reviews with/without meta-analyses and societal guidelines were selected. Data were extracted, grouped, and synthesized according to the respective subtopic analysis. There were evidence supporting the use of antibiotics in common oro-dental conditions as temporary measure when immediate care is not accessible, such as in case of localized oral swellings as well as to prevent post-extraction complications. No sufficient evidence could be found in support of antibiotic use for pain resulting from pulpal origin. Consequently, antibiotic use may be justified to defer treatment temporarily or reduce risk of complications in case of localized infection and tooth extraction, when no access to immediate dental care is possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0722.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: food; safety; electrochemical biosensors; bacteria; toxins; pesticides; antibiotics; contaminants
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:02:34 CEST)
Safety and quality are key issues for the food industry. Consequently, there is a growing demand to preserve the food chain and products against substances toxic, harmful to human health such as contaminants, allergens, toxins, or pathogens. For this reason, it is mandatory to develop highly sensitive, reliable, rapid, and cost-effective sensing systems/devices such as electrochemical sensors/biosensors. Generally, conventional techniques are limited by long time of analyses, expensive and complex procedures, and they require skilled personnel. Therefore, the development of performant electrochemical biosensors can significantly support the screening of food chain and products. Here, we report some of the recent developments in this area and analyze the contributions produced by electrochemical biosensors in the food screening and the challenges to address.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: appropriate antibiotics use; primary care; quality improvement; mixed-methods
Online: 5 November 2020 (18:11:28 CET)
The cluster randomized trial ARena (Sustainable reduction of antibiotic-induced antimicrobial resistance, 2017-2020) promoted the appropriate use of antibiotics for acute non-complicated infections in primary care networks (PCNs) in Germany. A process evaluation aimed to provide insights into determinants of practice and explored factors associated with antibiotic prescribing patterns. In a nested mixed-methods approach, a three-waves survey used study-specific questionnaires for participating physicians and medical assistants to assess potential impacts and uptake of the complex intervention program. Stakeholders received a one-time online questionnaire to reflect on network-related aspects. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews with a purposive sample of physicians, medical assistants and stakeholders explored aspects regarding the acceptance of the program components for daily practice and the perceived sustainability of intervention component effects. The intervention components were perceived to be smoothly integrable into practice routines. The highest uptake was reported for the educational components: feedback reports, background information, e-learning modules, and disease specific quality circles. Participation in PCNs was seen as motivational factor for guideline-oriented patient care and the adoption of new routines Future approaches to fostering appropriate use of antibiotics by targeting health literacy competencies and clinician’s therapy decisions should combine evidence-based information sources, audit and feedback reports and QCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0416.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: multiparametric assay; rapid tests; immunochromatography; antibiotics; non-equilibrium interactions
Online: 31 December 2019 (16:25:33 CET)
The presented study is focused on the impact of binding zones locations at immunochromatographic test strips into analytical parameters of multiplex lateral flow assay. Due to non-equilibrium conditions for such assays the duration of immune reactions influences significantly on analytical parameters, and the integration of several analytes into one multiplex strip may cause essential decrease of sensitivity. To choose the best location of binding zones, we have tested reactants for immunochromatographic assays of lincomycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. The influence of the distance to the binding zones on the intensity of coloration and limit of detection (LOD) was rather different. Basing on the obtained data, the best order of binding zones was chosen. In comparison with non-optimal location the LODs were 5-10 fold improved. The final assay provides LODs 0.4, 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL for lincomycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, respectively. The proposed approach can be applied for multiassays of other analytes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0163.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: individual therapy; metabolism of antibiotics; dosage choice; inflammation; biomarkers
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:25:16 CET)
In the modern world, the problem of antibiotic therapy is acute. Despite the diversity of existing antibiotic drugs, their efficacy decreases as new, resistant forms of pathogenic microorganisms emerge. It is extremely difficult to control such processes and even more difficult to treat severe bacterial infections. In such situations, an individual approach to each patient is required and physicians need parameters to estimate the efficacy of antibiotic therapy. This review discusses the significance of monitoring the content of antibiotics in the blood for this purpose, in combination with the content of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. The basic principles of antibiotic therapy, and factors in the resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, are examined. Approaches to assess the efficacy of antibiotic therapy, as well as methods to detect antibiotics and inflammatory markers in the blood of patients, and comparative assessment of their capabilities and limitations, are described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: hospital surfaces; antibiotics; identification; bacteria; Thika Level 5 Hospital
Online: 7 August 2019 (03:37:10 CEST)
Multiple studies have shown that hospital settings are poorly cleaned during terminal cleaning. The adequacy of these cleaning methods has been undermined by presence of multi drug resistant bacteria on hospital surfaces. This case is even more serious in developing countries leading to health care- associated infections that pose a great threat to patients, visitors and health care providers in hospital settings.This study used various microbiological techniques to test for antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacteria present at Thika Level 5 Hospital surfaces, Kenya. A simple random cross sectional study was performed, with a total of 85 samples being collected from five different sites. The sites included male and female wards, health care personnel offices, latrine, and kitchen surfaces. Samples were collected using sterile swabs, dipped in normal saline, and transported to the laboratory within 2Hours for processing.Of the 85 plates cultured, 47 plates showed bacterial growth (55%) on selective media with a significant P value of 0.0357. Seven different species of bacteria were identified biochemically from all sites, Escherichia coli was the most abundant species (28%), and the least was Salmonella typhii (5%). Multiple drug resistance was common in the different bacteria identified. All isolates were resistant to chloramphenical and susceptible to gentamycin. The most resistant microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (50%), and the least resistant microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.5%). The antimicrobial resistant bacterial species identified in this study have been documented to cause serious health care associated infections. These results present a significant public health concern because there is a possibility of patients, staff and visitors contacting nosocomial infections when they come into contact with surfaces at Thika Level 5 Hospital surfaces, Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0272.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, meat, raw milk, antibiotics; antibiotic resistance genes
Online: 15 August 2018 (13:58:11 CEST)
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) occasionally threatens the life of the host as a persistent pathogen even though it is normal flora of humans and animals. We characterized drug resistance in S. aureus isolated from animal carcasses and milk samples from the abattoirs and dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province. Methods: A 1000 meat swab samples and 200 raw milk samples were collected from selected abattoirs and dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. S. aureus was isolated and positively identified using biochemical tests and confirmed by molecular methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test against 14 different antibiotics was performed against all isolates. Antibiotic resistance genes were also detected. Results: Of the 1200 samples collected, 134 (11.2%) samples were positive for S. aureus. Resistance ranged from 71.6% for penicillin G to 39.2% for tetracycline. Resistance gene (blaZ) was detected in 13 (14.9%), while msrA was found in 31 (52.5%) of S. aureus isolates. Conclusions: The present result shows the potential dissemination of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in the dairy farms and abattoirs in the Eastern Cape. Therefore, this implies that the organism may rapidly spread through food and pose serious public health risk
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibiotics; geomicrobiology; Illumina sequencing; microbiome diversity; Streptomyces; Cave microbiology
Online: 12 February 2018 (16:30:42 CET)
Moonmilk are cave carbonate deposits that host a rich microbiome including antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria making these speleothems appealing for bioprospecting. Here we investigated the taxonomic profile of the actinobacterial community of three moonmilk deposits of the cave “Grotte des Collemboles” via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Actinobacteria was the most common phylum after Proteobacteria, ranging from 9 to 23% of the total bacterial population. Next to actinobacterial OTUs attributed to uncultured organisms at the genus level (~44%), we identified 47 actinobacterial genera with Rhodoccocus (4 OTUs, 17%) and Pseudonocardia (9 OTUs, ~16%) as the most abundant in terms of absolute number of sequences. Streptomycetes presented the highest diversity (19 OTUs, 3%), with most of OTUs unlinked to the culturable Streptomyces strains previously isolated from the same deposits. 43% of OTUs were shared between the three studied collection points while 34% were exclusive to one deposit indicating that distinct speleothems host their own population despite their nearby localization. This important spatial diversity suggests that prospecting within different moonmilk deposits should result in the isolation of unique and novel Actinobacteria. These speleothems also host a wide range of non-streptomycetes antibiotic-producing genera, and should therefore be subjected to methodologies for isolating rare Actinobacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0100.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: toxin release; blue-green algae; tetracycline antibiotics; environmental toxicology
Online: 23 January 2017 (09:42:15 CET)
The global usage of veterinary antibiotics is significant. These antibiotics can be released into the aquatic environment and exert toxic effects on non-target organisms. To explore the physiological effects of tetracycline antibiotics on aquatic life, the growth characteristics of and toxin release from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) were studied. Results showed that the toxicity order of the three target antibiotics was TC (tetracycline) > CTC (chlortetracycline hydrochloride) > OTC (oxytetracycline) in terms of inhibition occurrence time and the EC10 and EC25 values. Further, the target antibiotics regulated the production of MC-LR (microcystin-LR) to different degrees. CTC destroyed the M. aeruginosa cells and resulted in a decreased MC-LR release but stimulated the ability to synthesise MC-LR. OTC had a relatively weaker toxicity compared with CTC, while TC was the most toxic among the three antibiotics. Therefore, TC is friendly to the aquatic environment because it simultaneously reduced the intracellular and extracellular MC-LR content. These results aid our understanding of the effects of tetracycline antibiotics on Microcystis aeruginosa, which is important for environmental evaluation and protection. These results are also helpful for guiding the application of veterinary antibiotics in agricultural settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1938.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: drug-induced allergy; anaphylaxis; antibiotics; local anesthetics; cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibitors
Online: 30 November 2023 (04:21:45 CET)
(1) Background: National health system databases represent one of the most obvious sources of information about epidemiology of adverse drug reactions including drug-induced allergy and anaphylaxis. (2) Methods: Retrospective analysis of data from national database of pharmacovigilance in the Russian Federation (analyzed period 02.04.2019 - 21.06.2023) was performed. The prevalence of anaphylactic reactions (ARs) was determined, the structure of drugs involved was estimated together with patients’ characteristics. (3) Results: ARs were reported in 8.3% of drug-induced allergic reactions (2304/27,727), mean age of patients was 48.2 ± 15.8 years, 53.2% were females. Main causative groups of drugs were antibiotics, ABs (44.62%), local anesthetics, (19.97%), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibitors (10.07%). Fatal ARs was reported in 9.5% (218/2304), mean age 48.0 ± 16.7 years, 56.2% females. Pediatric population accounted for 5.8% (133/2304), mean age 11.8± 4.5 years, 51.9% females. Elderly population accounted for 2.8% (65/2304), mean age 73.0±5.3 years, 43.5% (27/65) females. ABs were the leading causative groups of ARs in the elderly (40%), children (42.86%), and among fatal cases (50%). (4) Conclusions: ARs accounted for 8.3% of all drug-induced allergic reactions, and ABs were the most common causative agents. Females predominated in all groups except elderly patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0838.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: advanced oxidation processes; organic pollutants; wastewater pollution; antibiotics removal; photocatalysis
Online: 10 August 2023 (09:08:18 CEST)
Simultaneously with the development of industrial society, wastewater with organic pollutants has caused various environmental problems. The most majority of organic pollutants in water and wastewater are persistent, reason which can cause serious problems for human health, animal health, and for the whole environment. Therefore, efficient treatment methods for wastewater with highly concentration of organic compounds are immediately necessary. During the last years, the prescribed and non-prescribed consumption of antibiotics has grown a lot worldwide. Big quantities of antibiotics are discharged into wastewater because their incomplete absorption by living organisms, but at small concentrations present in aquatic environments represents a major risk for the human health and environment protection. The paper presents the main advantages and disadvantages of advanced oxidation processes, but also current state and new perspectives in the field of environment protection. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are often used in the field of treatment of different types of wastewater. AOPs are based on physicochemical processes that create significant structural changes in chemical species, their commercialization at a wide scale may result in cost reductions that are desirable for environmental applications. The majority of antibiotics may be eliminated using physicochemical processes, such as photo-Fenton, photolysis, ozonation, electrooxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, and other bio processes. In comparison to conventional chemical processes, AOPs provide superior oxidation efficiency, ideal operating costs, and zero secondary pollutants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antibiotics; conventional; microbiology; microfluidics; microscopy; mycobacterium smegmatis; population; single cell
Online: 2 June 2021 (08:32:03 CEST)
To reveal rare phenotypes in bacterial populations conventional microbiology tools should be advanced to generate rapid, quantitative, accurate and high-throughput data. The main drawbacks of widely used traditional methods for antibiotic studies include low sampling rate and averaging data for population measurements. To overcome these limitations microfluidic-microscopy systems have great promise to produce quantitative single-cell data with high sampling rates. Using Mycobacterium smegmatis cells we applied both conventional assays and a microfluidic-microscopy method to reveal antibiotic-tolerance mechanisms of wild type and the msm2570::Tnmutant cells. Our results revealed that the enhanced antibiotic tolerance mechanism of the msm2570::Tn mutant was due to the low number of lysed cells during the antibiotic exposure compared with wild-type cells. This is the first study that characterized the antibiotic-tolerance phenotype of the msm2570::Tn mutant that has a transposon insertion in the msm2570 gene encoding a putative xanthine/uracil permease, which enrolls in uptake of nitrogen compound during nitrogen limitation. The experimental results indicate that the msm2570::Tn mutant can be further interrogated to reveal antibiotic killing mechanisms, in particularly, antibiotics those targets cell wall integrity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Escherichia coli; magnetite nanoparticles; metals; antibiotics; genomics; pleiotropy; cell morphology
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:58:10 CET)
Experimental evolution was utilized to produce 5 magnetite nanoparticle-resistant (FeNP1-5) populations of Escherichia coli. The control populations were not exposed to magnetite nanoparticles. The 24-hour growth of these replicates was evaluated in the presence of increasing concentrations magnetite NPs as well as other ionic metals (gallium III, iron II, iron III, silver I) and antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline). Scanning electron microscope was utilized to determine cell size and shape in response to magnetite nanoparticle selection. Whole genome sequencing was carried out to determine if any genomic changes that resulted from magnetite nanoparticle resistance. After 25 days of selection magnetite resistance was evident in the FeNP treatment. The FeNP populations also showed a highly significantly (p < 0.0001) greater 24-growth as measured by optical density in metals (Fe (II), Fe (III), Ga (III), Ag and Cu II); as well as antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, sulfanilamide, and tetracycline). The FeNP resistant populations also showed a significantly greater cell length compared to controls (p < 0.001). Genomic analysis of FeNP identified both polymorphisms and hard selective sweeps in the RNA polymerase genes rpoA, rpoB, and rpoC. Collectively, our results show that E. coli can rapidly evolve resistance to magnetite nanoparticles and that this result is correlated resistances to other metals and antibiotics. There were also changes in cell morphology resulting from adaptation to magnetite NPs. Thus, the various applications of magnetite nanoparticles could result in unanticipated changes in resistance to both metal and antibiotics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: citation classics; top-cited articles; antibiotics; bibliometric analysis; antibacterial; antimicrobials
Online: 23 April 2020 (15:20:39 CEST)
Citation frequencies represent the most significant contributions in any respective field. This bibliometric analysis aimed to identify and analyze the 100 most-cited publications in the field of antibiotics and to highlight the trends of research in this field. “All databases” of Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science was used to identify and analyze the 100 publications. The articles were then cross-matched with Scopus and Google Scholar. The frequency of citation ranged from 940 to 11051 for the Web of Science, 1053 to 10740 for Scopus, and 1162 to 20041 for Google Scholar. Five hundred thirteen authors made contributions to the ranked list, and Robert E.W. Hancock contributed in six articles, which made it to the ranked list. Sixty-six scientific contributions originated from the United States of America. In contrast, five publications were linked to the University of Manitoba, Canada, that was identified as the educational organization, which made the most contributions (n=5). According to the methodological design, 26 of the most cited works were review-type closely followed by 23 expert opinions/perspectives. Eight articles were published in Nature journal, making it the journal with the most scientific contribution in this field. Correlation analysis between the publication age and citation frequency was found statistically significant (P = .012).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0378.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: enterobacteriaceae; antibiotics; beta-lactamases; beta-lactam resistome; whole genome sequencing
Online: 19 September 2018 (09:47:42 CEST)
Beta-lactam resistant bacteria, commonly resident in tertiary hospitals, have emerged as a worldwide health problem because of ready-to-eat vegetable intake. We aimed to characterize the genes providing resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from five commercial salad brands for human consumption in Mexico City. 25 samples were collected, grow in blood agar plates, the bacteria were biochemistry identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done, the carried family genes were identified by endpoint PCR and the specific genes were confirmed with WGS by NGS. 12 positive cultures were identified and their microbiological distribution was as follows, 8.3% for Enterobacter aerogene (n=1), 8.3% for Serratia fonricola (n=1), 16.7% for Serratia marcesens (n=2), 16.7% for Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=2), and 50% (n=6) for Enterobacter cloacae. The endpoint PCR results showed 11 colonies positive for blaBIL (91.7%), 11 for blaSHV (91.7%), 11 for blaCTX (97.7%), 12 for blaDHA (100%),4 for blaVIM (33.3%), 2 for blaOXA (16.7%), 2 for blaIMP (16.7%), 1 for blaKPC (8.3%) and 1 for blaTEM (8.3%) gene, all samples were negative blaROB, blaCMY, blaP, blaCFX and blaLAP gene. The sequencing analysis revels a specific genotypes for Enterobacter cloacae (blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1, blaKPC-2); Serratia marcescens (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M-3, blaDHA-1, blaVIM-2); Klebsiella pneumoniae (blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1); Serratia fonticola (blaSHV-12, blaVIM-1, blaDHA-1) and Enterobacter aerogene (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M-1, blaDHA-1, blaVIM-2, blaOXA-9). Our results indicate that beta-lactam resistant bacteria have acquired integrons with a different number of genes that providing panresistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, oxacillins, cefalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and imipenems.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1734.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis; Enterococcus faecium; vancomycin; prevalence; resistance; antibiotics; oral cavity; screening
Online: 25 May 2023 (04:29:13 CEST)
Enterococci are commonly found in the environment and humans as a part of the normal micro-biota Among these, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium can convert into opportunistic pathogens, making them a major cause of nosocomial infections. The rapid diffusion of vanco-mycin-resistant strains and their impact on nosocomial settings is of considerable concern. Ap-proximately one-third of the E. faecium infections in Italy are caused by vancomycin-resistant strains. This study explored the hypothesis that the oral cavity could represent a silent reservoir of virulent enterococci. A sample of 862 oral flora specimens collected from healthy human volun-teers in Central Italy was investigated by real-time PCR to detect E. faecalis and E. faecium, as well as the genetic elements that most frequently determine vancomycin resistance. The prevalence of E. faecalis was 19%, a value that was not associated with alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, or age of the subjects. Less frequently detected, with an overall prevalence of 0.7%, the E. faecium was more common among people older than 49 years of age. The genes conferring vancomycin resistance were detected in only one sample. Results indicate that the oral cavity can be considered a reservoir of clinically relevant enterococci; however, our data suggest that healthy individuals rarely carry vancomycin-resistant strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: community pharmacy practice; dispensing quality; antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; Audit Project Odense
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:26:25 CEST)
Background. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control describes the community pharmacist as gatekeeper to the quality of antibiotic use. The pharmacist has the responsibility to guard safe and effective antibiotic use; however, little is known about how this is implemented in practice. Aims. To assess the feasibility of a method to audit the quality of antibiotic dispensing in community pharmacy practice and to explore antibiotic dispensing practices in Greece, Lithuania, Poland, and Spain. Methods. The Audit Project Odense methodology to audit antibiotic dispensing practice was adapted for use in community pharmacy practice. Community pharmacists registered antibiotic dispensing on a specifically developed registration chart and were asked to provide feedback on the registration method. Results. Altogether twenty pharmacists were recruited in four countries. They registered a total of 409 dispenses of oral antibiotics. Generally, pharmacists were positive about the feasibility of implementing the registration chart in practice. The frequency of checking for allergies, contraindications and interactions differed largely between the four countries. Pharmacists provided little advice to patients. The pharmacists rarely contacted prescribers. Conclusion. This tool seems to make it possible to get a useful picture of antibiotic dispensing patterns in community pharmacies. Dispensing practice does not seem to correspond with EU guidelines according to these preliminary results.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: urinary tract infection; cystitis; D-mannose; antibiotics; acute cystitis symptom score
Online: 8 February 2022 (13:25:24 CET)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very frequent in women and can be caused by a range of pathogens. High recurrence rates and increasing antibiotic resistance of uropathogens make UTIs a severe public health problem. d-mannose is a monosaccharide that can inhibit bacterial adhesion to the urothelium after oral intake. Several clinical studies have shown the efficacy of d-mannose in the prevention of recurrent UTI; these also provided limited evidence for the efficacy of d-mannose in acute therapy. A recent prospective, non-interventional study in female patients with acute cystitis reported good success rates for treatment with d-mannose. Here we present data from a post-hoc analysis of this study to compare the cure rate of d-mannose monotherapy with that of antibiotics. The results show that d-mannose is a promising alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of acute uncomplicated UTIs in women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: AMR, Surveillance; One Health Approach; Alternative Antibiotics; Comparative Medicine; Phage Therapy
Online: 17 January 2022 (14:46:22 CET)
Antibiotics are in excessive use that has extensively increased antimicrobial resistance worldwide which has become the major public concern among the countries. To control this threat proper monitoring of the antimicrobial usage along with the increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is required. Further, surveillance of both the parameters is highly recommended for comparing the differences in distinct countries. Moreover, alternatives for antibiotics are also surveyed and are being researched for quick use in the near future. AMR is an issue that needs immense attention from various sectors. Thus, intervention of multisector is highly encouraged for better outcomes. One Health is one of the approaches that play a vital role in resolving this issue. In this research paper, six different European countries are discussed in terms of antimicrobial usage and AMR in the human and livestock sectors with the help of literature study and various reports published by different organizations. Data study has been conducted to collect the data for comparison study. Data sources of AMR and antimicrobial usage are analyzed and a thorough comparison of both antimicrobial use and AMR are conducted. Also, the application of One Health is studied for a balanced system. This article provides about various surveillance systems that are formed only to keep a track on the upcoming situation of AMR and the consumption of antimicrobials by the humans as well as animals. The article does not provide about all the details required to monitor the AMR issue but firmly allow the readers to get acknowledged with the broad information about the antimicrobial resistance across the six countries of Europe. The regular data collected by the different organizations play a vital role in monitoring the status of AMR and antimicrobial usage by humans and in live stocks. These annual reports have highly helped the government to decide for alternatives and have focused in many training activities to combat the AMR situation globally. AMR prevention is linked to the One Health concept. As antibiotic resistance genes persist on an interface between environment and animal and animal health, an approach is required in all three areas that stress the concept of 'One Approach to Health.'
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; AWaRe; Pharmacovigilance; Lareb; adverse drug reactions
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:27:02 CEST)
(1) Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires urgent multidisciplinary solutions, and Pharmacovigilance (PV) has the potential to strengthen current antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) strategies. This study aimed to characterise AMR-relevant adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports submitted to The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre (Lareb); (2) Methods: We carried out a descriptive analysis of ADR reports submitted to Lareb, coded with AMR-relevant MedDRA Preferred Terms (PTs).; (3) Results: Between 1998 and Jan 2019, 252 AMR-relevant ADR reports were submitted to Lareb. The most frequent antibiotics were tobramycin (n=89; 35%), colistin (n=30; 11,9%), ciprofloxacin (n=16; 6,35%), doxycycline (n=14; 5,5%) and aztreonam (n=12; 4,76%). The most frequently used PTs were drug ineffective (n=71; 28%), pathogen resistance (n=14; 5%) and drug resistance (n=13; 13%). A total of 119 reports (74%) suggested use-related issues. Watch antibiotics were in 54% of the reports and Reserve antibiotics were in 19%. In the Watch group, “Off label use” and “Product use in unapproved indication” were the most frequent PTs and majority of reports on Reserve antibiotics were coded as “Off label”. (4) Conclusions: Addressing AMR using the PV methods will provide an opportunity for PV expansion and could encourage further investment in both in AMS programs and PV systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0308.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Indonesia; biodiversity; novel antibiotics; drug screening; bioactivity; gene cluster networking; GNPS
Online: 13 May 2021 (14:05:00 CEST)
Indonesia is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world and a promising resource for novel natural compound producers. Actinomycetes produce about two-thirds of all clinically used antibiotics. Thus, exploiting Indonesia’s microbial diversity for actinomycetes may lead to the discovery of novel antibiotics. A total of 422 actinomycete strains were isolated from three different unique areas in Indonesia and tested for their antimicrobial activity. Nine potent bioactive strains were prioritized for further drug screening approaches. The nine strains were cultivated in different solid and liquid media and a combination of genome mining analysis and mass spectrometry (MS)-based molecular networking was employed to identify potential novel compounds. By correlating secondary metabolite gene cluster data with MS-based molecular networking results, we identified several gene cluster-encoded biosynthetic products from the nine strains, including naphthyridinomycin, amicetin, echinomycin, tirandamycin, antimycin, and desferrioxamine B. Besides, eight putative ion clusters and numerous gene clusters were detected that could not be associated with any known compound, indicating that the strains can produce novel secondary metabolites. Our results demonstrate that sampling of actinomycetes from unique and biodiversity-rich habitats, such as Indonesia, along with a combination of gene cluster networking and molecular networking approaches, accelerates natural product identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia; macrolide antibiotics; antibiotic resistance; corticosteroids; prednisolone; methylprednisolone; children
Online: 7 April 2019 (12:35:26 CEST)
Antibiotics’ effect on Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection still remains controversial. A prospective study of 257 children with MP pneumonia during a recent epidemic (2015-2016) was conducted. All MP pneumonia patients were treated with corticosteroids within 24-36 h after admission. Initially, oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg) or intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) (1-2 mg/kg) was administered for mild pneumonia patients, and IVMP (5 -10 mg/kg/day) for severe pneumonia patients. If patients showed persistent fever for 36-48 hours or disease progression, additive IVMP (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg) was given. Eighty-five patients received only a broad-spectrum antibiotic without macrolide. The mean age and the male:female ratio were 5.6 ± 3.1 years, respectively. Seventy-four percent of patients (190/257) showed immediate defervescence within 24 h, and 95.7% (246/257) of patients showed defervescence within 72 h with improvements in clinical symptoms. Eight patients who received additive IVMP also showed clinical improvement within 48 h without adverse reactions. There were no clinical or laboratory differences between patients treated with a macrolide (n = 172) and without (n = 85). Early corticosteroid therapy might reduce disease morbidity and prevent disease progression in MP pneumonia patients without side effects, and antibiotics may have limited effects on MP infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1625.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD); antibiotics; penicillin; tetracycline; microbiome; gut-brain axis (GBA)
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:15:02 CEST)
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, lifelong, neurodevelopmental conditions of largely unknown cause. The global prevalence of autism has increased twentyfold to thirtyfold since the earliest epidemiologic studies were conducted in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Recent reports agree on the association of ASD with the alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis), which raises the possible role of external factors. Our study aimed at identifying antibiotic classes that might be associated with the development of ASD-related dysbiosis either promoting or inhibiting the process. Statistical comparison was made between the average yearly consumption of different antibiotic classes (1997-2020) and the number of individuals living with ASD estimated for 2023/100000 population in 30 European countries and the results were statistically analyzed. Tetracycline (J01A) showed significant positive (promoting) association with the prevalence of ASD (Pearson r: 0.373, p: 0.043. OR: 1.312, CI95%: 0.995-1.791, p: 0.065) and narrow-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (Pearson r: 0.524, p: 0.003, OR: 3.240, CI95%: 1.710-8.853, p: 0.004, Kruskal-Wallis p: 0.032). Mild, negative (inhibitory) association was observed with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (J01CA) (Pearson r: -0.278, p: 0.157, OR: 0.808, CI95%: 0649-0957, p: 0.028) and narrow-spectrum, beta-lactamase-sensitive penicillin (J01CE) (Pearson p: -0.032, r: 0.865, OR: 0.725, CI95%: 0.543-0.885, p: 0,009). Our findings strongly support the animal experiments when penicillin-exposed newborn mice developed "autism-like" behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1547.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistant; heteroaryl-ethylene derivatives; QSAR model; Antibiotics; Antitumour compounds; Combination Therapy
Online: 24 July 2023 (09:26:48 CEST)
: Introduction: Discovering compounds with antibacterial activity is crucial in the current fight against antibiotic-resistance. Material and Methods: We generate two QSAR model to design six new heteroaryl drug candidates; we assessed the antibacterial properties of the compounds against nine ATCC strains, the majority being part of the ESKAPE group, that include Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and also Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. We performed a synergic assay in which we combined PB4, a compound that we have previously tested in published studies, with GC-VI-70, one of the new compounds with the best cytotoxicity/MIC profile. We tested sub-MIC concentrations of PB4 with five antibiotics (linezolid, gentamycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, rifampin and imipenem) to examine the synergic effect on the ATCC strains. To evaluate compounds’ cytotoxicity, we performed a 24-hour and 48-hour 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on Colorectal Adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) cells. The antibiotics were tested, alone and in combination with PB4. Results: PB4 lowered the MIC measured for GC-VI-70 and for the various antibiotics employed in clinical use, and all the compounds presented in this study have cytotoxic activity against cells. Conclusions: These compounds show promising use in combination with antibiotics to improve their effectiveness at low concentrations, to prevent unwanted cytotoxic effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0041.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Antibiotics residue; Response Surface Methodology (RSM); Quinolones; Tetracyclines; Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM)
Online: 3 July 2023 (09:45:39 CEST)
The present study employed a modifed QuEChERS method to systematically analyze the presence of fifteen Quinolones and seven Tetracyclines antibiotic residues in local animal food. Additionally, a multi-level-four-factor Box-Behnken design (BBD) within the framework of Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to evaluate the various factors affecting the detection efficiency of the sample pretreament procedure. The optimization was performed by Design Expert®, the factors including volume of the acetonitrle, the addition of formic acid, the duration of extract and the addition of EDTA were combined to experiment design until reach an optimal solution. Finally, the sample test was conducted by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry in both multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and enhanced product ion (EPI) scan modes on a QTRAP® 5500 instrument. The overall average recoveries from actual samples fortified with 22 antibiotics at three levels ranged from 74.7 to 122.6% based on the use of matrix-fortified calibration with the variation ranging from 2.1 to 18.2% (n=6). The limits of detection and quantification were 0.3 μg kg-1 and 1.0 μg kg-1, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0296.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; broad-spectrum antibiotics; antibacterial drug discovery; gram-negative bacteria; pyrrolobenzodiazepines
Online: 16 November 2022 (04:20:55 CET)
It is urgent to find new antibiotic classes to replenish the empty development pipeline of antibiotics. Recently, pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) with a C8-linked aliphatic-heterocycle have been identified as a new broad spectrum antibiotic class with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The active imine moiety of the reported lead pyrrolobenzodiazepine compounds was replaced with amide to obtain the non-DNA binding and non-cytotoxic dilactam analogues to further understand the structure activity relationship and improve the safety potential of this class. The synthesized compounds were tested against panels of multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including WHO priority pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for the dilactam analogues ranged from 4 – 32 mg/L for MDR Gram-positive bacteria, compared to 0.03 to 2 mg/L for the corresponding imine analogues while they were found to be inactive against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, with an MIC >32 mg/L, compared to an MIC of 0.5 to 32 mg/L. A molecular modelling study suggests the lack of imine functionality also affects the interaction of PBDs with DNA gyrase. This study suggests the presence of N10-C11 imine moiety is crucial for broad spectrum activity of pyrrolobenzodiazepines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0666.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: macrolide antibiotics; group recognition; hapten design; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; immunobeads assay; immunofiltration
Online: 11 September 2023 (10:40:19 CEST)
Macrolide antibiotics, effective antimicrobial agents, are intensively used in human and veterinary medicine as well as in agriculture and therefore are found all over the world as environmental pollutants, harming sensitive eco-community organisms and provoking the selection of resistant forms. A novel azithromycin derivative was synthesized and as a rationally designed hapten conjugate ensured group immunorecognition of 6 major macrolide representatives (105-41%), erythromycin, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin and dirithromycin in competitive immunoassay based on anti-clarithromycin antibodies. The heterologous hapten-based ELISA format simultaneously contributed to a 5-fold increase in sensitivity (ERY IC50 = 0.04 ng/mL). However, for the detection of trace macrolides in environmental samples, an underexploited in immunoassay field strategy was proposed in the present study to significantly improve the detectability of analytes. Unlike most approaches, it does not require special enhancers/amplifiers or additional concentration/extraction procedures, but only involves a larger volume of test samples. Gradual volume increase of samples (from 0.025 to 10 mL) analyzed in direct competitive ELISA, immunobeads, and immunofiltration assay formats based on the same reagents resulted in a significant improvement (more than 50-fold) in assay sensitivity and detection limit up to 5 and 1 pg/mL, respectively. The suitability of the test for detecting macrolide contamination of natural water was confirmed by recovery of macrolides from spiked blank samples (71.7-141.3%). A series of natural water samples from Lake Onega and its influents near Petrozavodsk were analyzed during a 2022-2023 using both the developed immunoassay and HPLC-MS/MS and revealed no macrolide antibiotic contamination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0547.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; knowledge; attitude; practice; animal health service provider; livestock farmer; Kenya.
Online: 10 July 2023 (08:35:53 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains a challenge in Kenya, while the extent remains unknown. To assess the knowledge, cultural beliefs, practices, and behavioral patterns among multisectoral stakeholders in Kenya. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in August 2021 among farmers, animal health service providers and AMR researchers. Regional digital data collection tool developed by FAO was shared and responses obtained through mail, phone calls and direct interviews. Descriptive and inferential analysis were conducted. Antimicrobials were mostly sourced from agro-veterinary shops and from veterinary professionals. Farmers, often implement self-treatment and reported overuse, unnecessary use, and sometimes fail to complete the dosage in livestock. More farmers reported to have heard about antibiotics as compared to antimicrobials, mostly from friends and radio program, however only 9.2% could correctly differentiate the two. Animal Health Service Providers (AHSP) were the source of information to farmers regarding AMR. AHSPs mainly relied on suppliers and distributors for information about antibiotics. Both farmers and AHSPs treated viral infections with antibiotics. One Health Partners (OHPs) had higher knowledge and largely favorable attitudes towards AMR. Up to 72.7% of OHPs from training institutions had AMR included in training curriculum however, they were optimistic livestock farmers and government were less concerned about AMR. Gaps in knowledge and practice on Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) were observed in all categories of stakeholders. Given the documented knowledge-practice gap, innovative solutions are needed for both AHSPs and farmers to promote good antimicrobial stewardship practices and to mitigate burdens of AMR. Outcomes of this research should deepen the understanding of critical information and trigger behavioral change in usage and stewardship of antimicrobials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2125.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: H. pylori; antibiotics resistant; Z. officinale antibacterial; biofilm suppression; anti-inflammatory; GC-MS
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:17:17 CEST)
The increased emergence of multidrug-resistant Helicobacter pylori influences the prevention of stomach cancer. Zingiber officinale is a plant usually used in folk medicine to treat a variety of diseases involving infections, nausea, vomiting, peptic ulcer, dyspepsia, and inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of Z. officinale extract to combat resistant H. pylori. The disc diffusion, microdilution, and microplate assays were performed to evaluate the susceptibility to antibiotics, and the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the Z. officinale extracts. Using the checkerboard method, the combined effects of the gentamicin and Z. officinale extract were investigated. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity and GC-MS analysis were determined by the modified protocol. According to the findings, H. pylori isolates exhibited resistance rates of 56.33, 50.0, and 45.85 for metronidazole, gentamicin, and tetracycline, respectively. The methanolic extract of Z. officinale had the strongest effectiveness against resistant H. pylori isolates with MIC of 20.0 to 50.0 µg/ml against both H. pylori isolates and the stranded strain NCTC 11637. Z. officinale extract suppress the biofilm formed by H. pylori isolates with a percentage of 92.96% at 50.0µg/ml, compared with 97.19% for gentamicin at the same concentration. According to FICI values, combination of methanolic Z. officinale extract to gentamicin increases bacterial sensitivity to such drugs. Moreover, the Z. officinale extract exhibits strong anti-inflammatory activity. The GC-MS analysis of Z. officinale extract exhibits 17 different chemical compounds. Conclusions: The Z. officinale extract contain the anti-inflammatory compound gingerol as the main constituent which inhibits the growth of H. pylori and its biofilm, are a promising natural therapeutic alternative or enhance antibiotics activity
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0555.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Antibiotics; Antimicrobial resistance; Mechanisms of resistance; Drivers of resistance; Measures to combat resistance
Online: 9 May 2023 (03:50:03 CEST)
Antibiotics are the most magnificent discovery of 20th century that have saved millions of lives from infectious diseases. Microbes have developed acquired antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to many drugs due to high selection pressure from increasing use and misuse of antibiotics over the years. The transmission and acquisition of AMR occur primarily via human–human interface both within and outside of the healthcare facilities. A huge number of interdependent factors related to healthcare and agriculture govern the development of AMR through various drug resistance mechanisms. The emergence and spread of AMR from the unrestricted use of antimicrobials in livestock feed has been a major contributing factor. The prevalence of AMR bacteria has attained its incongruous level worldwide and threatening global public health as silent pandemic, necessitating urgent intervention. Therapeutic options of AMR bacterial infections are limited resulting in significant morbidity and mortality with high financial impact. The paucity in discovery and supply of new novel antimicrobials to treat life-threatening AMR infections stands in sharp contrast to demand. Immediate interventions to contain AMR include surveillance and monitoring, minimizing over the counter antibiotics and antibiotics in food animals, access to quality and affordable medicines, vaccines and diagnostics, and enforcement of legislation. An orchestral collaborative action within and between multiple national and international organizations are required urgently, otherwise, a post-antibiotic era can be a real possibility than an apocalyptic fantasy for the 21st century. This narrative review highlights on the basis, mechanisms and factors in microbial resistance and key strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0269.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; antibiotics; immune response; mitochondria; epidemiology; health policy
Online: 16 April 2020 (12:14:30 CEST)
Italian, Spanish, French vs German, Austrian or Norwegian COVID-19 tracks? Antibiotics might have a partial impact on COVID-19 death rates in various countries. Our working hypotheses based on recent publications is that that antibiotics may be a major factor that negatively affects patients’ immune system during viral infections. We are all aware that there is no specific and effective medical treatment for COVID-19 so far. However, we know that our immune system is the only efficient weapon that fights against this syndrome right now. In fact, antibiotics are very often prescribed to prevent secondary infections following an antiviral immune response. Various antibiotic therapies have also been commonly applied to support COVID-19 treatments in China and Italy. Unfortunately, the frequent antibiotic off-site targets include mitochondria that are genetically and evolutionary closely linked to bacteria. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles responsible for bioenergetics in nearly all our cells, acting as signaling hubs in antiviral and antibacterial immune responses. Several studies have demonstrated that mitochondria are vulnerable to antibacterial treatments, interrupting their physiology. Inhibition of these processes by antibiotics might render the immune system less capable of fighting acute COVID-19 viral infections. Some antibiotics, including those prescribed for COVID-19 in Wuhan, have been shown to inhibit the synthesis of mitochondrial DNA. The question is whether antibiotics support such a treatment or weaken patient immune responses in this case. This hypothesis should be evaluated based on comparative clinical data that seem to be unavailable at the moment. Possibly the COVID-19 risk group should be extended to all patients being treated with antibiotics, including those who finished antibiotic therapies days up to several months before SARS-CoV-2 infection. We therefore urge health service response groups to evaluate the impact of antibiotics on COVID-19 recovery vs death retrospective data. We would like to motivate international, national and local health authorities to share available clinical treatment data, discuss and optimize treatment strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Garlic, Antibiotics, Lomé, Uropathogenic bacteria, Urinary Tract Infection, Multidrug resistance and alternative therapy.
Online: 5 September 2018 (01:35:46 CEST)
The urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection, especially in women. The increased incidence of UTIs, at the last decades have paralleled with the growing emergence of antibiotic resistance. The aim is to evaluate aqueous garlic extract (AGE) susceptibility against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria isolated in urine of women. The investigation of antibacterial propriety and time kill effect of AGE was performed by the well method, microdilution method and spectrophotometer assay. Antibiotics susceptibility assay revealed that the nine MDR bacteria had high resistance against Amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid (100%) and Erythromycin (100%), Cefotaxime (83.33%) and Ceftazidime (83.33%). AGE exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the nine MDR bacteria tested. In Gram-negative bacteria, the inhibition diameters ranged from 20 ± 3 to 32 ± 4 mm, with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) ranging from 10% to 12.5% (w/v) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBCs) was 12.5 % (w/v). Gram-positive bacteria exhibited diameters ranging from 38 ± 2 to 45 ± 1 mm; MIC and MBC values ranged from 05 to 10 % (w/v) and were found more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria. To conclude, this investigation shown that AGE have high potential antibacterial to use as an alternative to treat women UTIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1561.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: antibiotics; multidrug resistance; meropenem; vancomycin; ceftriaxone; pandemics; COVID-19; Candida auris; Oman; viral infections
Online: 22 September 2023 (11:44:59 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), a serious global public health challenge, may have accelerated development during the COVID-19 pandemic because antibiotics were prescribed for COVID-19. This study aimed to assess antibiotics use before and during the pandemic and correlate the results with the rate of resistant microorganisms detected in hospitalized patients during the study period. This single centre study looked retrospectively at four years of data (2018–2021) from Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman. The consumption rate was presented as the antibiotic consumption index, the ratio of defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 bed-days. Analyses were performed using the nonparametric test for trend across the study period. Correlation between antibiotic consumption indexes and the isolated microorganisms in the four-year study period was performed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. We compared data from the pre-COVID-19 to the COVID-19 period. Though more patients were admitted pre-COVID-19 (132,828 versus 119,191 during COVID-19) more antibiotics were consumed during the pandemic; vancomycin and ceftriaxone had higher consumption during than before the pandemic (p-values 0.001 and 0.036, respectively). Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and Candida. auris were detected more during the COVID-19 period with p-values of 0.026 and 0.004, respectively. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp., and C. auris were detected more often during the pandemic with p-values of 0.011, 0.002, and 0.03, respectively. Significant positive correlations between antibiotic consumption and drug resistant isolates were noted. This study confirms that the overuse of antibiotics triggers the development of bacterial resistance; our results emphasize the importance of antibiotic control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0799.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: cinnamon; clove; essential oils; E. faecalis; antibiotics; gentamycin; streptomycin; kanamycin; ampicillin; root canal infection
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:52:11 CEST)
Recurrent infections after root canal treatments often involve Enterococcus faecalis, a microorganism closely associated with therapy failures due to its biofilm production, survival in nutrient-deprived conditions, and antibiotic tolerance. Essential oils (EOs), which display anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antibacterial properties, exhibit inhibitory effects on the growth of many microorganisms including E. faecalis. This study assessed the in vitro efficacy of combining antibiotics (Gentamicin 1.5mg/ml, Streptomycin 2.5 mg/ml, Ampicillin 5 mg/ml, and Kanamycin 2.5 mg/ml) with Cinnamon (1.25% to 5%) or Clove (25% to 50%) EOs using disk diffusion tests. Disks were treated with EOs-only, antibiotics-only, or EO-antibiotic combinations, placed on BEA agar plates, incubated for 24 hours, and zones of inhibition were measured against E. faecalis. Results showed robust growth inhibition by cinnamon and clove EOs across all tested concentrations. Furthermore, there were synergistic antimicrobial effects when gentamicin, streptomycin and kanamycin were combined with 2.5% and 50% concentrations of cinnamon and clove EOs, respectively, leading to significant growth inhibition of E. faecalis by 139% to 193% compared to using antibiotics or EOs alone. Clove EO showed positive synergism with three antibiotics (gentamicin, streptomycin, and kanamycin) whereas cinnamon EO showed synergism with two antibiotics (streptomycin and kanamycin). These findings suggest that combining cinnamon and clove EOs with aminoglycoside antibiotics can significantly reduce the expansion of E. faecalis compared to antibiotics alone. Further in vivo studies should determine the safety, efficacy, and treatment duration, with the potential to reduce antibiotic dosages and associated toxicity while preventing recurrent infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0397.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: antibiotic therapy; diabetic foot infections; non-beta-lactam antibiotics; skin commensals; treatemet failures; associations with treatment failures
Online: 20 January 2023 (15:13:51 CET)
In diabetic foot infections (DFI), the clinically virulence of skin commensals are generally pre-sumed to be of low virulence. In this single-center study, we divided the wound isolates into two groups: skin commensals (coagulase-negative staphylococci, micrococci, corynebacteria, cutibacteria); and, pyogenicpathogenic pathogens, and followed the patients for ≥ 6 months. In this retrospective study among 1,018 DFI episodes (392 [39%] with osteomyelitis), we identified skin commensals as the sole culture isolates (without accompanying pyogenicpathogenic patho-gens) in 54 cases (5%). After treatment (antibiotic therapy [median of 20 days], hyperbaric oxy-gen in 98 cases [10%]), 251 episodes (25%) were clinical failures. Group comparisons between those growing only skin commensals and controls found no difference in clinical failure (17% vs 24 %, p=0.23) or microbiological recurrence (11% vs 17 %, p=0.23). The skin commensals were mostly treated with non-beta-lactam oral antibiotics. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, isolation of only skin commensals was not associated with failure (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confi-dence interval 0.1-3.8). Clinicians might wish to consider these isolates as potential pathogens when selecting a targeted antibiotic regimen, which may equally base on oral non-beta-lactam antibiotic agents susceptible to the corresponding skin pathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Community-Acquired Pneumonia; Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia; COVID-19; Antibiotics; Mes-enchymal Stem Cells; Corticosteroids
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:18:25 CEST)
Pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially during COVID-19 pandemic. With the significant global health burden that pneumonia poses, it is es-sential to improve therapeutic and management strategies. The increasing emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains limits options for effective antibiotic use. New antibiotics for treatment of pneumonia may address deficits in current antimicrobial drugs, with an ability to cover both typical, atypical, and resistance pathogen. Several of these newer drugs also have structural characteristics that allow for a decreased propensity in development of bacterial resistance. Po-tential use of stem cell therapies in place of corticosteroid treatments may also offer an im-provement in patient outcomes. Human mesenchymal stem cell treatments have shown efficacy and safety in treating COVID-19 induced pneumonia. Combined treatment with both stem cells and antibiotics in pneumonia in a rabbit model has also shown significantly increased efficacy in comparison to antibiotic treatment alone, presenting yet another possible route for a novel strategy in treating pneumonia, though additional future studies are necessary before clinical implementation. While pneumonia remains a major disease of concern, having newer approved antibiotics as well as novel therapies such as stem cell treatments in the pipeline offers clinicians more options in effectively treating pneumonia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0034.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics; health behaviour; health education; survey; development studies; rural; LMICs; Lao PDR
Online: 9 October 2018 (15:47:58 CEST)
Education and awareness raising are the primary tools of global health policy to change public behaviour. Considering the limitations of awareness agenda and the lack of social research to inform alternative approaches, our objective was to generate new empirical evidence on the consequences of antibiotic-related awareness raising in a low-income country context. We implemented an educational activity in two Lao villages to share general antibiotic-related messages, but also to learn about people’s conceptions and health behaviours. Two rounds of census survey data enabled us to assess the activity’s outputs, its knowledge outcomes, and its immediate behavioural impacts in a difference-in-difference design. Our panel data covered 1,130 adults over two rounds, including 58 activity participants and 208 villagers exposed indirectly via conversations in the village. We found that activity-related communication circulated among more privileged groups, which limited its indirect effects. Among participants, the activity influenced the awareness and understanding of “drug resistance,” while effects on attitudes were minor. Evidence on behavioural impacts was sparse and mixed, but the range of possible consequences included a disproportionate uptake of antibiotics from formal healthcare providers. Our study casts doubt on the continued dominance of awareness raising as a behavioural tool to address antibiotic resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: diabetes type-1; T1D; diabetes type-2; T2D; antibiotics; antibiotic classes; microbiome; dysbiosis; prevalence; concordance
Online: 3 December 2021 (12:45:23 CET)
Abstract: Several publications have raised the issue that the development of diabetes is preceded by alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis) and hence, the role of environmental factors, triggering dysbiosis, should be considered. Antibiotics are powerful agents inducing dysbiosis and the authors wanted to explore the possible relationship between the consumption of different major classes of antibiotics and the prevalence of diabetes (type-1, /T1D/, type-2 /T2D/) in thirty European countries. According to our hypothesis, if such association exists, the dominant use of certain major antibiotic classes might be reflected in the prevalence of T1D and T2D in different countries. Comparisons were performed between the prevalence of diabetes (T1D and T2D) estimated for 2019 and featured in the Diabetes Atlas with the average yearly consumption of major antibiotic classes of the previous 10 years (2010-19) extracted from the ECDC yearly reports on antibiotic consumption in Europe. Pearson correlation and variance analysis were used to estimate the possible relationship. Strong, positive (enhancer) associations were found between the prevalence of T1D and the consumption of tetracycline (J01A /p: 0.001/) and the narrow spectrum penicillin (J01CE /p: 0,006/, CF /p: 0.018/). Strong negative (inhibitor) association was observed with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CR /p: 0.003/), macrolide (J01F /p: 0.008/) and quinolone (J01M /p: 0.001/). T2D showed significant positive associations with cephalosporin (J01D /p: 0.048/) and quinolone (J01M /p: 0.025/), and a non-significant negative association was detected with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase-sensitive penicillin (J01CA /p: 0.67/). Countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (first 10 positions) showed concordance with the higher consumption of “enhancer” and the lower consumption of “inhibitor” antibiotics (first 10 positions) as indicated by variance analysis. Countries with high prevalence of T1D showed high consumption of tetracycline (p: 0.015), and narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (p: 0.008), and low consumption of “inhibitor” antibiotics (broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant, combination penicillin (p: 0.005), cephalosporin (p: 0.036), and quinolone (p: 0.003). Countries with a high prevalence of T2D consumed more cephalosporin (p: 0.084), quinolone (p: 0.54), and less broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (p: 0.012) than other countries. Conclusion/Interpretation: The development of diabetes-related dysbiosis might be attached to higher consumption of specific classes of antibiotics, showing positive (enhancer) associations with the prevalence of diabetes, and the low consumption of other classes of antibiotics shoving negative (inhibitory) associations. Those groups of antibiotics are different in T1D and T2D
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0491.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium; Diagnostics; Drug Discovery; Antibiotics; Antimicrobial Re-sistance; Microfluidics; Single-Cell Analysis; Bioengineered Models
Online: 29 September 2021 (11:34:04 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global healthcare crisis with an estimated 10 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths per year TB is caused by infection with the major human pathogen Mycobacte-rium tuberculosis, which is difficult to rapidly diagnose and treat. There is an urgent need for new methods of diagnosis, sufficient in vitro models which capably mimic all physiological condi-tions of the infection, and high-throughput drug screening platforms. Microfluidic-based tech-niques provide single-cell analysis which reduces experimental time, the cost of reagents, and have been extremely useful for gaining insight into monitoring microorganisms. This review out-lines the field of microfluidics and discusses the use of this novel technique so far in M. tuberculo-sis diagnostics, research methods, and drug discovery platforms. The practices of microfluidics have promising future applications for diagnosing and treating TB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0225.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: microglia; gut-brain axis; antibiotics; glutamatergic synapses; hippocampus; patch clamp; hippocampal slices.; microbiota; neurons; glutamatergic trasmission
Online: 10 August 2021 (10:04:00 CEST)
‘Dysbiosis’ of the adult gut microbiota, in response to challenges such as infection, altered diet, stress, and antibiotics treatment has been recently linked to pathological alteration of brain func-tion and behavior. Moreover, gut microbiota composition constantly controls microglia matura-tion as revealed by morphological observations and gene expression analysis. However, it is un-clear whether gut microbiota influences microglia functional properties and crosstalk with neu-rons, known to shape and modulate synaptic development and function. Here, we investigated how antibiotic mediated alteration of the gut microbiota influences microglial and neuronal functions in adult mice hippocampus. Hippocampal microglia from adult mice treated with oral antibiotics exhibited increased microglia density, altered basal patrolling activity, and impaired process rearrangement in response to damage. Patch clamp recordings at CA3-CA1 synapses revealed that antibiotics treatment alters neuronal functions, reducing spontaneous postsynaptic glutamatergic currents and decreasing synaptic connectivity, without reducing dendritic spines density. The effect of dysbiosis on neuronal functions are mediated by microglia-neuron cross-talk through the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis, as antibiotics treatment of CX3CR1 deficient mice, mod-ulates microglia density and processes rearrangement leaving unaltered synaptic function. To-gether, our findings show that the antibiotics alteration of gut microbiota impairs synaptic effi-cacy, probably through CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling supporting microglia as a major player in in the gut-brain axis, and in particular in the gut microbiota-to-neuron communication pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0369.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; gut-brain axis; motilin; serotonin; gamma-aminobutyric acid; gonadal hormones; hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis; antidepressants; macrolide antibiotics
Online: 18 August 2021 (07:39:37 CEST)
Recent research has identified the gut-brain axis as a key mechanistic pathway and potential therapeutic target in depression. In this paper, the potential role of gut hormones as potential treatments or predictors of response in depression is examined, with specific reference to the peptide hormone motilin. This possibility is explored through two methods: (a) a conceptual review of the possible links between motilin and depression, including evidence from animal and human research as well as clinical trials, and (b) an analysis of the relationship between a functional polymorphism (rs2281820) of the motilin (MLN) gene and cross-national variations in the prevalence of depression. It was observed that (a) there are several plausible mechanisms, including interactions with diet, monoamine, and neuroendocrine pathways, to suggest that motilin may be relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of depression, and (b) there was a significant correlation between rs2281820 allele frequencies and the prevalence of depression after correcting for multiple confounding factors. These results suggest that further evaluation of the utility of motilin and related gut peptides as markers of antidepressant response is required, and that these molecular pathways represent potential future mechanisms for antidepressant drug development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; AMR; Infections; antibiotics; inappropriate prescribing; healthcare pro-fessionals; education; training; antimicrobial stewardship programs; continuous professional development
Online: 2 June 2021 (09:58:36 CEST)
(1) Background: Factors reported in literature associated with inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials, such as physicians with less experience, uncertain diagnosis, and patient caregiver influences on physicians' decisions. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance is critical for identifying emerging resistance patterns, developing, and assessing the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Improvement in prescribing `antimicrobials would minimize the risk of resistance and, consequently, improve patients' clinical and health outcomes. The purpose of the study is to delineate factors associated with antimicrobial resistance, describe the factors influencing prescriber’s choice during prescribing of antimicrobial, and examine factors related to consequences of inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobial. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted among healthcare providers (190) in six tertiary hospitals in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The research panel has developed validated and piloted survey specific with closed-ended questions. A value of P <0.05 was considered for statistical significance. All data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS version 23.0). (3) Results: 72.7% of the respondents have agreed that poor skills and knowledge are key factors that contribute to the inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials. All the respondents acknowledged effectiveness and previous experience with the antimicrobial, and reading scientific materials (such as books, articles, and the internet) were key factors influencing physicians’ choice during antimicrobial prescribing. (4) Conclusion: The current study has identified comprehensive education and training needs for healthcare providers about antimicrobial resistance. Using antimicrobials unnecessarily, insufficient duration of antimicrobial use, and using broad spectrum antimicrobials, were reported to be common practices. Further, poor skills and knowledge were a key factor that contributed to the inappropriate use and overuse of antimicrobials and using antimicrobials without physician prescription (self-medication) were the key factors which contribute to AMR from participants’ perspectives. Furthermore, internal policy and guidelines are needed to ensure that the antimicrobials are prescribed in accordance with standard protocols and clinical guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: antibiotics residue; antimicrobial resistance; ethno-veterinary practices; Herbal formulations; cattle health; dairy farmers; cost effective health care model
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:56:26 CET)
This study demonstrated that antibiotic residue in milk can be reduced when dairy farmers use Ethno-veterinary Practices (EVP) based on herbal alternatives to prevent and cure common clinical conditions in cattle instead of antibiotics. Of the 220 farmers selected for the study, 140 were trained and motivated to use validated herbal formulations, 80 were kept as control. Milk samples from the selected farmers (except Thirukanurpatti milk society) tested positive for antibiotic residue in the baseline survey. One year after interventions, the milk from 123 (87.86%) farmers out of 140, were without any detectable antibiotic residue, while samples from 11 farmers (7.85%) were low positive for either Beta-lactams or sulphonamides and 6 (4.29%) were positive for Beta lactams and/or sulphonamides. These 17 (11 + 6) farmers had used antibiotics along with herbal formulations. The milk samples from the control groups were positive for beta lactam and sulphonamide. There was suggestive significance of change in knowledge, attitude and practice of EVP among the farmers from Kerala and Tamil Nadu. A progressive reduction in the incidence of mastitis, enteritis, repeat breeding and cowpox were observed from 2016 to 2019 among the cows treated with EVP. Use of herbal alternative also resulted in a significant reduction in health care expenditure of cattle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1235.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics; antibiotic use; misconceptions and knowledge gaps; general practice; out-of-hours services; nursing homes; community pharmacies
Online: 18 July 2023 (12:23:26 CEST)
Background: Misconceptions and knowledge gaps about antibiotic use contribute to inappropriate antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance. Aim: Identifying and prioritizing misconceptions and knowledge gaps about antibiotic use from a healthcare professionals’ perspective. Methods: A modified Delphi study of two rounds with an expert meeting. A literature search was conducted to create statements about misconceptions and knowledge gaps about antibiotic use. These were rated by healthcare professionals from five EU countries representing general practice, out-of-hour services, nursing homes, and pharmacies. Consensus was achieved if ≥80% of the participants rated 4+ on a five-point Likert scale during the second Delphi round. Results. In total, 44 misconceptions were identified through the literature search within four themes: 1) antimicrobial resistance in general, 2) use of antibiotics in general, 3) use of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections, and 4) use of antibiotics for urinary tract infections. Consensus was reached for more than half of the statements within each setting. Conclusions. Experts from different settings and nationalities acknowledge that multiple misconceptions and knowledge gaps can contribute to inappropriate use of antibiotics in the community. These results provide valuable information to use in educational campaigns for patients and healthcare professionals to improve the use of antibiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: multidrug resistance organism; sepsis; adequate empirical antibiotics; source of infection; APACHE II; ICU length stay; predictors; risk factors; mortality
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:45:23 CEST)
Background: Multi-drug resistance organisms (MDRO) often cause increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stays (LOS). However, there is uncertainty whether the infection of MDRO increase the morbidity, mortality, and ICU-LOS. Objective: This study performed to determine the prevalence of MDRO in ICU, site of infection and the association of MDRO or site of infection with mortality. Secondary outcome was determined by ascertaining the association of MDRO or site of infection with (ICU-LOS). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed with adult sepsis patients in ICU. Univariate and multivariate (MVA) logistic regression with cox regression modeling were performed to compute the association of MDRO on ICU-mortality. MVA modelling was performed for ICU-LOS predictors. Results: Out of 228 patients, the isolated MDRO was 97 (42.5%) of which 78% were gram-negative bacteria. The mortality rate among those with MDRO was 85 (37.3%). The hospital acquired infection (HAI) was significantly predictor for ICU-LOS in univariate linear regression (R² = 0.034, P=0.005). In MVA linear regression, both Enterococcus faecalis infection and acinetobacter baumannii (AC) -MDRO were predictors for ICU-LOS with (R² = 0.478, P<0.05). In the univariate cox regression, only the infection with AC- MDRO was a risk factor for ICU-mortality with [ HR =1.802 (95% CI: 1.2 – 2.706; P = 0.005)]. Conclusions: Identifying risk factors for MDRO highlight the appropriate administration of empirical antibiotics and effectively control of source of infection which would reduce mortality and ICU-LOS. The usage of broad- spectrum antibiotics should be limited for those having substantial risk factors to acquire MDRO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0640.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Arthroplasty; prosthetic joint replacement; prosthetic joint infection; systemic antibiotic prophylaxis; Antibiotics; chlorhexidine gluconate; coagulase-negative staphylococci; tuf gene sequencing; staphylome; microbiome
Online: 25 November 2020 (12:56:25 CET)
The aim was to study alterations of bacterial communities in patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty to assess the impact of chlorhexidine gluconate soap decolonisation and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. A Swedish multicentre, prospective collection of samples obtained from elective arthroplasty patients (n=83) by swabbing anterior nares, skin sites in the groin and the site of planned surgery, before and after arthroplasty surgery, was analysed by 16S rRNA (V3-V4) gene sequencing and a complementary targeted tuf gene sequencing approach to comprehensively characterise alterations in staphylococcal communities. Significant reductions in alpha diversity was detected for both bacterial (p=0.04) and staphylococcal (p=0.03) groin communities after arthroplasty surgery with significant reductions in relative Corynebacterium (p=0.001) abundance and S. hominis (p=0.01) relative staphylococcal abundance. In nares, significant reductions occurred for S. hominis (p=0.02), S. haemolyticus (p=0.02), and S. pasteuri (p=0.003) relative to other staphylococci. S. aureus colonised 35% of anterior nares before and 26% after arthroplasty surgery. S. epidermidis was the most abundant staphylococcal species at all sampling sites. No bacterial genus or staphylococcal species increased significantly after arthroplasty surgery. Application of a targeted tuf gene sequencing approach provided auxiliary staphylococcal community profiles and allowed species-level characterisation directly from low biomass clinical samples.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: ulcerative colitis; inflammatory bowel disease; pediatrics; FMT; probiotics; synbiotics; antibiotics; prebiotics; fecal microbiota transplant; colitis-associated cancer; colorectal cancer; CAC; CRC; dysbiosis
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:20:39 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the colonic mucosa. UC is a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease along with Crohn’s disease and presents with varying extraintestinal manifestations. No single etiology for UC has been found, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors is suspected. Research has focused on the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of UC, including the effects of dysbiosis on the integrity of the colonic mucosal barrier, priming and regulation of the host immune system, chronic inflammation, and progression to tumorigenesis. Characterization of key microbial taxa and their implications in the pathogenesis of UC and colitis-associated cancer (CAC) may present opportunities for modulating intestinal inflammation through microbial-targeted therapies. In this review, we will discuss the microbiota-immune crosstalk in UC and CAC, as well as the evolution of microbiota-based therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: access to medicines; access to antibuotics; impact of access to medicines on public health; problems associated with access; use; abuse of antibiotics resistance; aware; Africa
Online: 5 May 2020 (17:03:07 CEST)
Access to medicines is one of the essential problems in Public Health of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines access to medicines as the possibility of "having continuously accessible and affordable medicines in public or private health facilities that are within a kilometer of the place of residence." Access to medicines, as defined by the WHO, is not fully guaranteed in many LMICs and even in many regions of high-resource countries. The WHO identifies several factors as determinants of limitations in the access to medicines: rational selection, affordable prices, sustainable financing, and reliable health services. The action on these factors makes it possible to improve universal access to medicines with consequent improvement in Public Health. Adequate access to antibiotics and vaccination will avoid a large part of the deaths caused by infectious diseases in the LMICs. However, the emergence of resistance and the difficulties in vaccination campaigns due to socio-political or cultural problems make it challenging to fight many easily treatable infectious diseases. The use and abuse of antibiotics are inevitably associated with the appearance of resistances that make them ineffective. Thus, whereas limited access to antibiotics raises mortality rates from infectious diseases, generalized open access to them ends up eliminating their clinical value. Moreover, the contraction of research in this field for many years has reduced the success in discovering new drugs. Additionally, local market regulations, inadequate selection, inaccessible prices, especially for those of second and third-generation, inefficient health systems, and difficulties of administration and control of prescription compliance, especially in the case of combined therapies, are additional obstacles to universal access to antibiotics. In order to simultaneously improve access to antibiotics and keep resistances under control, it is necessary to develop training and education activities at different social levels (from patients to various Health Care Providers) to complement the national or supranational strategic plans.