REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0204.v1
Online: 12 May 2020 (05:45:58 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly pathogenic and transmissible CoV that is presently plaguing the global human population and economy. No proven effective anti-viral therapy or vaccine currently exist, and supportive care remains to be the cornerstone treatment. Through previous lessons learned from SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV studies, scientific groups worldwide have rapidly expanded the knowledge pertaining to SARS-CoV-2 virology that included in vitro and in vivo models for testing of anti-viral therapies, and randomized clinical trials. In the present narrative, we review SARS-CoV-2 virology, clinical features, pathophysiology, and animal models with a specific focus on anti-viral and adjunctive therapies currently being tested or require testing in animal models and randomized clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0488.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Sarcophyton; Sinularia; Lobophytum; new compounds; anti-microbial; anti-inflammatory; anti-tumoral
Online: 29 August 2018 (09:03:48 CEST)
Work reviews the new isolated isolated cembranoid diterpene derivatives from species belonging to the family Alcyoniidae, which comprises the genera Sarcophyton, Sinularia, and Lobophytum as well as their biological properties, during 2016–2017. The compilation permitted to conclude that much more new cembranoid diterpenes were found in the soft corals of the genus Sarcophyton sp. (33 new compounds) than in those belonging to the genera Lobophytum (17) or Sinularia (8). Several methods have been used for identifying these new compounds, after extraction with organic solvents and fractionation. The fractions obtained, in some cases, were followed by TLC, and again subjected to chromatographic procedures, including semi-preparative HPLC. Beyond the chemical composition, the biological properties were also evaluated, namely anti-microbial against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumoral against several types of cancer cells. Although the biological activities detected in almost all samples, they were not outstanding ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0343.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: anti-apoptosis; anti-oxidant; curcumin; hyperglycemia; hyperlipidemia
Online: 27 November 2019 (09:57:14 CET)
Curcumin is the main secondary metabolites of Curcuma longa and other Curcuma spp, and has been reported to have some potential in preventing and treating some physiological disorders. This study investigated the effect curcumin in inhibiting high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats. Twenty-six male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (170-190 g) were randomly divided into a standard food pellet diet group (Control group), a high-fat diet and streptozotocin group (HF+STZ group), and a high-fat diet combined with curcumin and STZ group (HF+ Cur +STZ group). Compared with the HF+STZ group, the HF+Cur+STZ group exhibited significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (AST) and aspartate transaminase (ALT) levels, and liver coefficients; in the livers of these rats, the expression of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Bax was downregulated, whereas that of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Bcl-2 was upregulated. Moreover, the liver histology of these rats was improved and resembled that of the control rats. These results suggest that curcumin prevents high-fat diet and STZ-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, mainly via anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in the liver.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0342.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Anti-MDR strategies; anti-persistent treatments; drug repurposing
Online: 25 December 2019 (09:33:57 CET)
Antibiotic failure is one of the most worrying health problems worldwide. Nowadays we are facing an international crisis where several issues are involved: new antibiotics are not being discovered any longer, resistance mechanisms become spread in nearly every clinical isolate of bacteria and the appearance of recurrent infections caused by persistent bacteria complicates the overcoming of infections. In this context, it has been explored new anti-infectious strategies against MDR and persistent bacteria as well as the rescue of FDA-approved compounds (drug repurposing). Among the highlighted new anti-infectious strategies we find anti-microbial peptides, anti-virulence compounds, phage therapy and new molecules. On the other hand, as drugs of repurposing that have been described, we have anti-inflammatory compounds, anti-psychotics, anti-helmintic drugs, anti-cancerous and statins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0304.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Anti-counterfeiting; Anti-theft; RFID security; Tag cloning
Online: 23 December 2019 (12:17:40 CET)
Counterfeiting and theft have always been problems that incur high costs and results in considerable losses for the international markets. In this research paper, we will address the issue of counterfeiting while using RFID technology in retailer systems or other industries by presenting a new anti-counterfeiting and anti-theft system for the retailer market. This system will address the two above mentioned issues and provide a solution that can save the retailer systems millions of dollars yearly. This proposed system will achieve the objective of preventing or minimising the counterfeiting and theft of tagged products. At the same time, it will provide a strong indication for suspiciously sold or obtained items. Furthermore, we conducted a security analysis to prove the correctness of our protocol on the basis of the strand spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0077.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: anti-oxidant activity; anti-oxidant enzymes, anti-proliferative activity; maslinic acid; melanoma; Olea europaea; ROS levels
Online: 4 August 2020 (04:57:13 CEST)
Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural triterpene from Olea europaea whose pharmacological functions have been showed. The objective of this study was to examine MA effect on cell viability (by MTT assay), reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, by flow cytometry) and key anti-oxidant enzyme activities (by spectrophotometry) in murine skin melanoma (B16F10) cells compared to healthy cells (A10). MA induced cytotoxic effects in cancer cells (IC50 42 µM) whereas no effect was found in A10 cells treated with MA (up to 210 µM). In order to produce a stress situation in cells, 0.15 mM of H2O2 were added. Under stressful conditions, MA protected both cell lines against oxidative damage, decreasing intracellular ROS, being higher in B16F10 than in A10 cells. The treatment with H2O2 and without MA produced different responses in anti-oxidant enzymes activities depending on cell line. In A10 cells, all enzymes were up-regulated, but in B16F10 cells only superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase increased their activities. MA restored the enzyme activities to similar levels than control group in both cell lines, highlighting that in A10 cells the highest MA doses induced values lower than control. Overall, these findings demonstrate the great anti-oxidant capacity of MA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Phytobioactive compounds; anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidant; methotrexate; hepatotoxicity; oxidative stress
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:37:17 CEST)
Methotrexate (MTX) is a potent drug for the treatment of various diseases globally amidst being a chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressant agent. However, hepatotoxicity induced by MTX could be life-threatening if left untreated. Folate supplementation is concurrently applied to reduce the adverse effects of MTX, albeit efficacy compromise. Therefore, there is the need to understand the process for the prevention and treatment strategies for MTX induced hepatotoxicity (MIH). In recent times, preliminary preclinical and clinical findings indicate the potential of natural phytobioactive compounds for MIH prevention and treatment. This mini review therefore summarizes proposed mechanisms of MIH and recent advances in the prevention and treatment prospects of natural phytobioactive compounds on MIH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0286.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Moringa oleifera; bismuth nanoparticles; polyphenolics; anti-bacterial; anti-fungal; antioxidant
Online: 21 December 2019 (12:28:21 CET)
The use of plant extracts in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a very attractive approach in the field of green synthesis. To benefit from the potential synergy between the biological activities of the Moringa oleifera leaves extract and metallic bismuth, our study aimed at synthesizing bismuth nanoparticles using a hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves as a means of green synthesis that yields nontoxic products and reduces the production of wasteful material. To this end, the M. oleifera leaves extract was treated with a bismuth nitrate pentahydrate solution. A color change from light brown to dark brown indicates the synthesis of bismuth nanoparticles. The total phenolic content in the M. oleifera leaves extract used was 23.0 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dried M. oleifera leaves powder. Antioxidant property of MO synthesised bismuth Nanoparticles was evaluated and in line with the extract used in the synthesis of NPs. The physical properties of the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR spectrometer, TEM, SEM, and XRD. The synthesized bismuth nanoparticles have a size in the range of 40.4-57.8 nm with amorphous morphology. Using DPPH and phosphomolybdate assays, our findings revealed that the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles possess antioxidant properties. Using resazurin microtiter assay, we also demonstrate that the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles exert potent anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, similarly to the inhibition exerted by Moringa extract, especially against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC values for the extract: 500, 250, 250, and 250 µg/mL; MIC values for the bismuth nanoparticles: 500, 500, 500, and 250 µg/mL, respectively). Similarly, the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles display relatively stronger anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata (MIC values for the extract: 62.5, 62.5, 125, and 250 µg/mL; MIC values for the bismuth nanoparticles: 250, 250, 62.5, and 62.5 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, the hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves was successfully used in the synthesis of bismuth nanoparticles, showing a positive antioxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal activity. Therefore, the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles can potentially be employed in the alleviation of symptoms associated with oxidative stress and in the topic treatment of Candida infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0305.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Moringa oleifera; copper nanoparticles; polyphenolics; anti-bacterial; anti-fungal; antioxidant
Online: 26 November 2019 (03:45:52 CET)
The synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extracts is a very promising method in green synthesis. The medicinal value of Moringa oleifera leaves and the anti-microbial activity of metallic copper were combined in the present study to synthesize copper nanoparticles having a desirable added-value inorganic material. The use of a hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves for the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles is an attractive method as it leads to the production of harmless chemicals and reduces waste. The total phenolic content in the M. oleifera leaves extract was 23.0 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dried M. oleifera leaves powder. The M. oleifera leaves extract was treated with a copper sulphate solution. A color change from brown to black indicates the formation of copper nanoparticles. Characterization of the synthesized copper nanoparticles was performed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR spectrometer, TEM, SEM, and XRD. The synthesized copper nanoparticles have an amorphous nature and particle size of 35.8-49.2 nm. We demonstrate that the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized copper nanoparticles display considerable antioxidant activity. Moreover, the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized copper nanoparticles exert potent anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC values for the extract: 500, 250, 250, and 250 μg/mL; MIC values for the cooper nanoparticles: 500, 500, 500, and 250 μg/mL, respectively). Similarly, the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized copper nanoparticles exert relatively more potent anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata (MIC values for the extract: 62.5, 62.5, 125, and 250 μg/mL; MIC values for the cooper nanoparticles: 125, 125, 62.5, and 31.2 μg/mL, respectively). Our study reveals that the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using a hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves was successful. In addition, the synthesized copper nanoparticles can be potentially employed in the treatment of various microbial infections due to their potent antioxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0193.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: multi-agent system; decision support; anti-money laundering; anti-fraud
Online: 22 January 2018 (04:46:20 CET)
The anti-money laundering (AML) process has failed both in identifying suspicious cases in due time as in assisting the AML analysts in decision making. Starting from a new generic anti-fraud approach, this article presents the main aspects related to the development of a multi-agent system that goes beyond the capture of suspicious transactions, seeking to assist the human expert in the analysis of suspicious behaviour. First, a transactional behavioural profile of clients is obtained in a data mining process. A set of rules, obtained through data mining over a real database, in conjunction with specific rules based on legal aspects and in the expertise of the AML analysts make up the agents' knowledge base. The cases for which the system was unable to suggest a decision are flagged as requiring more detailed analysis. The system analysed 6 months of real transactions and indicated several suspicious profiles, a set of these suspects was investigated by the AML analysts who proved the suspicion of several cases, including some that had not been identified by the systems in execution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: SBSJ; polyphenolic constituents; antioxidants; anti-inflammatory, chemoprevention; immunomodulation; anti-aging; adaptogen
Online: 1 August 2022 (08:06:10 CEST)
Across different cultures around the globe, human beings have historically depended largely on medicinal plants for managing diseases that have hitherto threatened their optimal health, survival, and longevity. Evidently, the health-derived benefits of medicinal plants can be strongly attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites, particularly polyphenols. The health-promoting effects of Sorghum bicolor supplement Jobelyn® (SBSJ) —a unique supplement derived from the leaf sheaths of a West African variety of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench—have also been ascribed to its high levels of polyphenols. This review seeks to gather and synthesize findings from various experimental and clinical studies on the health benefits of SBSJ in arthritis, cancer, chronic viral infections, stroke, anaemia, and aging. SBSJ has been reported to contain potent bioactive polyphenolic compounds with polyvalent biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective activities. Moreover, the probable benefits of SBSJ in chronic viral infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS and COVID-19) have been attributed to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. As this supplement is increasingly becoming one of the fastest-selling herbal medicines in Nigeria, there is a need for more robust studies (including clinical trials) in order to replicate and validate the prior insights gleaned from experimental studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Cd36; mass spectrometry; NAFLD; anti-lypase activity; anti-amylase activity; insulin resistance
Online: 9 April 2018 (08:28:02 CEST)
Rhizophora mangle L. is a well-known medicinal plant found in mangroves worldwide used to treatment diabetes. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the acetonic extract from Rhizophora mangle barks (AERM), by HPLC-PDA and FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MS and the effects on high-fat diet induced obesity in mice and its mechanism of action by gene expression of inflammatory markers (Pparg, Ppara, Srebf1, Cd36, Tnf, Ccl2, Lep, Il10, Il6, Fasn, 18s). High-fat diet fed mice during 12 weeks was used as model of obesity and associated alterations. The results were very satisfactory, the extract, rich in polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids, displayed intense antioxidant activity in vitro (608 µmol Trolox/g), and showed excellent activity against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and reverse insulin resistance in a model of diet-induced obesity. We can registered a modulatory effect of AERM in liver PPAR-γ mRNA expression associated to an important inhibition of CD36 mRNA expression suggesting that AERM induces the down regulation of CD36 mRNA via PPAR-gamma inhibition. These results support the traditional knowledge about the use of R. mangle for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and reveal the potential of AERM for the treatment of NAFLD and management of obesity and comorbidities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Anti-platelets; Anti-rheumatic drugs; Bisphosphonates; Oral anticoagulants; Oral contraceptives; Vitamin K antagonist
Online: 2 May 2020 (11:50:24 CEST)
More than 15,000 prescriptions and over the counter drugs are available according to the US Food and Drug Administration website. Moreover, several herbal medicines and dietary supplements are readily available to add to the list of possible drugs, which can potentially cause adverse drug interactions. These are a pressing concern for all as they can interfere with many dental procedures. Additionally, the number of geriatric patients seen in routine dental practice has increased over time. This implies that there are more patients with multiple diseases and health conditions like hypertension, diabetes, problems associated with the cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal systems, arthritis, osteoporosis, etc. All these require patients to be on certain medications. Furthermore, advancement in the dental field has led to more complex dental procedures (implants, grafts) being carried out in a general dental practice. These advanced and slightly more invasive treatments require the use of certain drugs before, during and after the treatment like local anesthetics, vasoconstrictors, anxiolytics, analgesics and antibiotics. All of these can possibly interact with medications a patient is already taking and can also interfere with the current dental treatment and create complications. This article aims to provide necessary information about commonly encountered systemic diseases and associated treating medications, their mechanism of action, possible complications and their management. The classes of drugs discussed include anti-platelet agents, vitamin K antagonists, novel oral anticoagulants, bisphosphonates, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and oral contraceptives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0042.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: glucosinolate; sulphopharane; allyl isothiocyanate; phase II detoxification enzymes; anti-tumour agents; anti-bacterials.
Online: 27 July 2019 (08:40:12 CEST)
Abstract: This study reviewed aspects of the biology of two members of the glucosinolate family, namely sinigrin and glucoraphanin and their anti-tumour and anti-microbial properties. Sinigrin and glucoraphanin are converted by the β-sulphoglucosidase myrosinase or the gut microbiota into their bioactive forms, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and sulphoraphanin (SFN) which constitute part of a sophisticated defence system plants developed over several hundred million years of evolution to protect them from parasitic attack from aphids, ticks, bacteria or nematodes. Delivery of these components from consumption of cruciferous vegetables rich in the glucosinolates also delivers many other members of the glucosinolate family so the dietary AITCs and SFN do not act in isolation. In-vitro experiments with purified AITC and SFN have demonstrated their therapeutic utility as antimicrobials against a range of clinically important bacteria and fungi. AITC and SFN are as potent as Vancomycin in the treatment of bacteria listed by the World Health Organisation as antibiotic-resistant "priority pathogens" and also act as anti- cancer agents through the induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes which inactivate potential carcinogens. Glucosinolates may be useful in the treatment of biofilms formed on medical implants and catheters by problematic pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and are potent antimicrobials against a range of clinically important bacteria and fungi. The glucosinolates have also been applied in the prevention of bacterial and fungal spoilage of food products in advanced atmospheric packaging technology which improves the shelf-life of these products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: polyacetylenes; phytochemicals; anti-inflammatory; anticancer.
Online: 28 January 2023 (03:24:05 CET)
Polyacetylene phytochemicals are emerging as potentially responsible for the chemoprotective effects of consuming apiaceous vegetables. There is some evidence suggesting that polyacetylenes impact carcinogenesis by influencing a wide variety of signalling pathways, which are important in regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, etc. Studies have shown a correlation between human dietary intake of polyacetylene-rich vegetables with reduced risk of inflammation and cancer. Polyacetylene supplementation can influence cell growth, gene expression, and immunological responses, and reduce tumour number in rat and mouse models. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary polyacetylenes involves several mechanisms, including effects on inflammatory cytokines, the NF-κB pathway, antioxidant response elements, UPR pathway, growth factor signalling, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. This review summarises the published research on falcarinol-type polyacetylene compounds and their mechanisms of action regarding cancer chemoprevention and treatment, and also identifies some gaps in our current understanding of the health benefits of these polyacetylenes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0036.v1
Subject: Keywords: Sorghum bicolor leaf extract; SBLS; Jobelyn®; antioxidant; Immune-modulatory; anti-inflammatory; anti-anemia; HIV
Online: 7 December 2017 (04:37:20 CET)
The West-African variety of Sorghum bicolor leaf sheath (SBLS) Jobelyn® is a natural remedy, which has gained international recognition for its anti-anemic effect and energy boosting qualities in debilitating diseases. The widespread use of traditional medicine in the region usually confirms its safety, but not its efficacy or deep assessment of their pharmacological properties. The other major issue for herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of the extracts. Despite limitations, efforts have been made in isolation and characterisation of active compounds in this specie of sorghum showing various subclasses of flavonoids including apigeninidin, a stable 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and potential fungal growth inhibitor, which accounts for 84% of the total extract. Non-clinical in vitro and in vivo studies support previous indications that this variety of Sorghum bicolor possesses several biologically active compounds with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and neuro-protective properties. Clinical studies show that SBLS has the ability to boost hemoglobin concentrations in anemic conditions and most remarkably to increase CD4 count in HIV-positive patients. The multiple effects and high safety profiles of this extract may encourage its development as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of anemia, chronic inflammatory conditions or in the symptomatic management of HIV infections. This review describes the potential therapeutic aspects of SBLS extract and its potential benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Anti-inflamotry; antioxidant; oxidative stress; zebrafish
Online: 18 January 2023 (07:06:34 CET)
This work is based on identifying the analysis techniques used to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects using the zebrafish model. In this context, a literature review was performed with the Web of Science database. We used the terms zebra fish, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, model, and Danio rerio. Fifty articles were reviewed, of which thirty-three were chosen to perform this review and were classified according to the source of plant extracts, compounds extracted from plants, chemical compounds, and other sources. This paper is an effort to provide a literature review on zebrafish models and elucidate their pros and cons to evaluate anti-inflamatory and antioxidant activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Pediatrics; Gait; Rehabilitation; Anti-gravity; Treadmill
Online: 1 December 2021 (12:57:48 CET)
The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the literature on the use of anti-gravity treadmill and its effects on lower limb motor functions in children and adolescents with locomotor impairments. Four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science) were searched for articles from inception to August 2021. Inclusion criteria were: (1) experimental or quasi-experimental studies using the anti-gravity training as the primary intervention; (2) studies conducted in paediatricpediatric participants; (3) articles reporting outcomes related to the lower limb functions; and (4) studies published in French or English. Fifteen articles were included in the review. Studies included children and adolescents aged 4–18 years with locomotor impairments. The intervention duration was ranged from 2 and to 12 weeks, with 2-5 sessions per week. Included studies showed reported that anti-gravity training induces improvements in muscle strength, balance, spatiotemporal gait parameters, and walking endurance in children with locomotor impairments. This review provides relevant information about the modalities, outcomes and limits associated with the anti-gravity training protocol reported in the literature. Overall, the anti-gravity treadmill training could be viewed as a valuable training modality for children with cerebral palsy. However, more precise, and comprehensive description of anti-gravity rehabilitation protocols would be useful.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0230.v1
Online: 21 January 2020 (03:15:50 CET)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which is chiefly originated by a retrovirus named Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), has influenced about 70 million populations worldwide. Even though several advancements have been invented in the field of antiretroviral combination therapy, still HIV has become the dominant reason for death in South Africa, for example. The current antiretroviral therapies have achieved success in providing instant HIV suppression but with countless undesirable adverse effects. In the present day, the biodiversity of the plant kingdom is being explored by several researchers for the discovery of potent anti-HIV drugs with different mechanisms of action. The primary challenge is to afford a treatment that is free from any sort of risk of drug resistance and serious side effects. Hence, there is a strong demand to evaluate the drugs obtained from natural plants as well as the synthetic derivatives that have been derived from the natural compounds by various chemical reactions. Several plants such as Andrographis paniculata, Dioscorea bulbifera, Aegle marmelos, Wistaria floribunda, Lindera chunii, Xanthoceras sorbifolia and others have displayed significant anti-HIV activity showing more potent anti-HIV activity along with their structures, SARs & important key findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0060.v1
Subject: Keywords: mobile app, software quality anti-patterns
Online: 5 December 2019 (04:16:35 CET)
As the time passes the modification in technology world lead to the evaluation in mobile application as well. With evaluation in mobile industry it is an open challenge for software quality researcher that how to enhance software quality to meet the needs of changes? Quality assurance play a key role in differentiating good application from bed application. With the continuous evaluation of mobile application developing process should be quick and efficient to comply with user requirements and satisfaction. While the listed requirement leads to bad design choices known as antipatterns, which in turn affect the reliability of the code. A tool based method PAPRIKA is used in the proposed re-search to identify and monitor these antipatterns together with a two-step assessment model for software quality assurance and object oriented software quality matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Scandoside; NF-κB; MAPK; Anti-inflammation
Online: 18 January 2018 (07:03:53 CET)
The iridoids of H. diffusa play an important role in the anti-inflammatory process, but the specific iridoid with anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism is lack of study. An iridoid compound named scandoside (SCA) was isolated from H. diffusa and its anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism was confirmed by in intro experiment and molecular docking analysis. As results, SCA significantly decreased the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inhibited the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. SCA treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B alpaha (IκB-α), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The docking data suggested that SCA had great binding abilities to COX-2, iNOS and IκB. Taken together, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of SCA is due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppressing the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, which provided useful information for its application and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0174.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: steroid; metabolism; anti-inflammatory drug; inhibition
Online: 24 May 2017 (08:25:26 CEST)
In vitro studies show that diclofenac inhibits enzymatic steroid glucuronidation. This study was designed to investigate the influence of diclofenac on the excretion of stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol via analyses in hair, blood and urine in vivo in a rat study. Brown Norway rats were administered with stanozolol (weeks 1-3) and diclofenac (weeks 1-6). Weekly assessment of steroid levels in hair was complemented with spot urine and serum tests. Levels of both stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol steadily increased in hair during stanozolol treatment and decreased post-treatment, but remained readily detectable for 6 weeks. In contrast, compared to control rats, diclofenac significantly reduced urinary excretion of 3’-hydroxystanozolol which was undetectable in most samples. This is the first report of diclofenac altering steroid metabolism in vivo, detrimentally affecting detection in urine, but not in hair which holds considerable advantages over urinalysis for anti-doping tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; BBIBP-CorV; children 3-12 years old; the anti-spike; Anti-nucleocapsid; Neutralizing antibody
Online: 16 March 2022 (15:24:51 CET)
Background and Objectives: In the current Covid-19 pandemic, children below the age of 12 could manifest Covid-19 symptoms and serve as a reservoir for the virus in the community. The present study was conducted to evaluate the reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of BBIBP-CorV, prior to involving this age group in the vaccination program in the kingdom of Bahrain. Subjects and Methods: The study included 582 children from 3 to 12 years old of Bahraini and non-Bahraini nationality, all of which contributed to the reactogenicity study. Of those, 401 contributed to the immunogenicity study. All children received 2 doses of BBIBP-CorV inactivated virus 3 weeks apart. To assess reactogenicity, children were followed up for 5 weeks to evaluate any vaccine-related adverse events (AE). To assess immunogenicity, blood was collected on day 0 and day 35 to assess antibody titer against S, N, and neutralizing antibody. Results: Of the 582 participants, (45.4%) were female, (54.61%) were male, with 49% in 9-12 age group. Of the 401 children contributing to the immunogenicity study, 274 (68.3%) had no prior exposure to Covid-19. The overall incidence of AE was 27.7%. No significant difference was found among different age groups. The most frequent AE was local (at the injection site) and occurred in 16% of children, followed by fever in 9.3%. No serious adverse events were reported. The Seroconversion rate was 100% among children with no prior exposure to Covid-19. Children with previous Covid-19 exposure had higher averages of anti-S (2379 U/ml compared to 409.1), anti-N (177.6 U/ml compared to 30.9) and neutralizing antibody (93.7 U/ml compared to 77.1) than children with no prior exposure at day 35. Conclusions: Two doses of COVID-19 BBIBP-CorV on the subjects aged between 3 to 12 has good safety and tolerance and can induce an effective immune response and neutralizing antibody titer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0454.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Carica papaya; fermented papaya preparation (FPP); free radical scavenging; antioxidant; oxidative stress; anti-diabetic; anti-carcinogenic
Online: 24 July 2018 (11:39:50 CEST)
The simplistic morphological characteristics of the Carica papaya, papaya or ‘pawpaw’ should not be the cause for underestimating its potential as a nutraceutical. The market for papaya has been expanding at a staggering rate, partly due to its applicability as a biofortified product, but mostly for its phytochemical properties and traditional health benefits. Recent characterization studies have showed that the entirety of papaya or using a formulation of fermented papaya promotion (FPP) displays effective free radical scavenging abilities, thought to be influenced by its phenolic, carotenoids, flavonoid or amino acid profile. Aiming at reducing the impact of free radical-induced oxidative damage in the human system, the antioxidant properties of FPP have been found to potently target a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from neurological impairments such as senile dementia to systemic diseases, to its interference at the cellular level and support of normal biological ageing processes. FPP has thus been extensively investigated for its ability to exert cellular protective effects and reduce oxidative stress via mitigation of genetic damage, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic inactivation in diseases. Oxidative stress reduction strategies using FPP and its holistic approach in disease prevention and management, with a focus on diabetes, cancer and cognitive health, contributes unequivocally to wellness in an aging population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Tibouchina granulosa; anti-inflammatory activity; hispiduloside; cytokines
Online: 4 November 2022 (07:24:02 CET)
The ethanol extract (EE) prepared from the leaves of Tibouchina granulosa, and its fraction in ethyl acetate (fEA) were evaluated concerning their capacity to reduce inflammation in different experimental models. fEA was also studied concerning its chemical constituents. EE and fEA were assayed for their anti-inflammatory potential, using formalin-induced licking behaviour and carrageenan-induced inflammation into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP) models. Reduction in polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) activation was performed in freshly isolated PMN. Chromatographic analysis of fEA was done by HPLC. Hispiduloside was isolated as the main constituent in fEA and its quantity was estimated to be 11.75% in fEA, 3.05% in EE, and 0.2% (w/w) in the plant. EE (30 mg/kg) significantly reduced the second phase of formalin-induced licking. fEA demonstrated a reduction in leukocyte migration into the SAP. EE and fEA drastically reduced cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ), nitric oxide (NO) production, in vitro PMN migration induced by C5a and IL-8, and TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression. Taken together our data indicate that either ethanol extract or its fEA fraction from leaves of T. granulosa present an anti-inflammatory effect contributing to the pharmacological and chemical knowledge of this species and confirming the rationale behind its traditional use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0541.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Codium fragile; marine algae; anti-obesity; prebiotics
Online: 29 November 2021 (14:51:07 CET)
Polysaccharides from marine algae exhibit beneficial biological activities. In this study, we examined the effect of polysaccharides from Codium fragile (PCF) on prebiotic and anti-obesity activity. PCF increases the growth of specific beneficial microbial populations with concomitant decrease in pathogenic microbes. Further, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH activity) after fermentation with PCF as carbon source were higher than for the glucose as control. Moreover, PCF inhibited adipocyte differentiation by inducing differentiation-related factors when the induction of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes was induced. Therefore, we suggest that PCF can be used as prebiotic material with anti-obesity for human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cardiovascular; Channa striatus; diabetes
Online: 9 August 2021 (14:59:08 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus remains a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular complications. Given the burden of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications, there is a need to identify strategies, safe and effective therapeutic agents that could effectively prevent and control diabetes. Presently, many patients living with diabetes depends on traditional medicines as an alternative cure. Channa striatus (Haruan) is a freshwater fish traditionally used to treat wounds, inflammations, and pains. Several pharmacological investigations have supported the folkloric claims of C. striatus extracts, including hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-platelet aggregation activities. The therapeutic potentials of C. striatus were demonstrated to be associated with the presence of high content essential amino acids and good fatty acids known to improve cell growth and facilitate wound healing. Therefore, C. striatus bioactive compounds have great potentials to serve as lead candidates in developing novel therapeutic agents for the management of diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological properties and therapeutic potentials of C. striatus for the management of diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: adipogenesis; signaling pathways; anti-obesity treatment; obesity
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:09:51 CEST)
Abstract: As a risk factor, obesity is a threat to human well-being and related metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. adipogenesis is defined as the proliferation and maturation of adipocyte predecessor cells to adipocyte. As the adipogenesis process decides adipocyte production, it may be considered a therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related disorders. White adipose tissue abnormal expansion increases the size and number of adipocytes. For that reason, this review aims to spot the molecular mechanisms implicated in adipogenesis that lead to application in the therapeutic targets. Keywords: adipogenesis, signaling pathways, anti-obesity treatment, obesity
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: anti-globalization; economic globalization; US-dominated globalization
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:28:16 CET)
Since the financial crisis in 2008, the U.S. economy has weakened, and the world economy has slowly developed. As the world's leading country, the United States has used many methods to restore the economy. But it does work efficiently. However, there are many issues in developed countries such as domestic social, economic, immigration in the United States/United Kingdom; those are not optimistic. Developed countries have entered a dilemma. The neoliberalism financial system has been unable to move forward. Populists have pointed out that those problems have been causing by globalization. Under the leadership of the Brexit Referendum, President Trump has caused a wave of anti-globalization. Under a series of systems such as the China-US trade war and the US-Mexico border wall repairs, the anti-globalization trend is getting stronger. This article mainly analyzes the in-depth reasons and mechanism research of globalization and anti-globalization alternately—the data obtained from an international method performance study. The results show that anti-globalization is temporary, along with globalization. There are three main factors affecting globalization: the situation of the dominant country, natural disasters, and wars. After so much literature review, I believe that the United States' globalization is gradually weakening, and globalization may return to regionalization under the United States' opposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0360.v2
Online: 10 August 2020 (15:16:58 CEST)
Product counterfeiting is an on-going problem in supply chains and retail environments, Recently an anti-counterfeiting protocol to address this issue via cost-effective use of auto-identification technologies such as radio-frequency identification (RFID) was proposed by researchers.Yet the use case of re-selling the same product was not been fully addressed which might cause serious problem for the exciting and proposed schemes and transactions. This paper proposes an extended RFID-based anti-counterfeiting to address the use case of the original buyer reselling the same item to a second buyer. The extended scheme will be followed by a formal security analysis to show that the proposed protocol satisfies the requirements of security correctness and is resistant to compromise through security attacks.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0270.v1
Online: 16 May 2020 (16:51:36 CEST)
A novel approach has been suggested to use isoelectric points of viral and human proteins to quickly identify proteins that are effective in not allowing virus particles to attach to human receptor cells by virtue of their electrical charge. The method has been applied to SARS CoV-2 to suggest potentially important human proteins that can be suitable for making anti-viral drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0063.v1
Online: 5 December 2018 (07:40:27 CET)
Chaenomeles plants are adapted to diverse ecological zones particularly the temperate areas of Korea, Japan and China. In China, Chaenomeles speciosa mainly planted in Chongqing, Anhui and Hubei provinces. Most of the studies till date have been focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of C. speciosa fractions. The present study aimed to review the maximum literature reported for the presence of various phytochemicals in C. speciosa. In addition, the pharmacological properties of these chemical compounds of this plant shall also be discussed. The extracts of the various parts of the plant are rich in diversity of antioxidants, organic acids, phenolics, terpenoides and many different phytochemicals that bear strong anticancer, antioxidant, anti-viral, antibacterial properties, anti-inflammation, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-parkinson properties. C. speciosa fruits have broad scope in industry as well as in medicines. Not only the leaves and fruits of C. speciosa plant, but various other parts including roots, seeds, bark twigs, and flowers all have long history of clinical trials in curing many human ailments. However, the maximum accessible data concerning the chemical composition and their broad pharmacological properties of C. speciosa plant parts is pretty restricted that make it more appealing for indepth investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0323.v1
Online: 17 September 2018 (16:11:45 CEST)
Fracking in the UK has yet to reach full industrial development but it is still subject to significant opposition. This study uses Beck’s Risk Society theory and anti-politics to examine the views voiced by opponents to fracking in Yorkshire, England. A qualitative approach was used; local newspaper reports were evaluated alongside semi-structured interviews with protesters to provide a thematic analysis. Although there are signs of post-materialist concerns with the environment these issues did not dominate the discussion. Scientists were not held responsible for the risks involved in fracking. Instead economic greediness of politicians and austerity measures were perceived as putting the environment and people’s health at risk. Interviewees thought fossil fuel energy production was economically advantaged over more sustainable energy and jobs in the low carbon economy. Protesters’ trust in politicians had been eroded but faith in democracy remained. It is suggested a citizen-led deliberative approach to all the concerns raised, not simply those relating to scientific risk, might achieve some level of resolution over fracking in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0282.v1
Online: 16 September 2018 (10:02:14 CEST)
Background. Nanotechnology is promising field for generating new applications. A green synthesis of nanoparticles through biological methods using plant extract have a reliable and ecofriendly approach to improve our global environment. Methods. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous extract of Anagalis arvensis L and silver nitrate and were physicochemically characterized. Results. The stability of AgNPs toward acidity, alkalinity, salinity and temperature showed that they remained stable at room temperature for more than two months. The SEM and TEM analysis of the AgNPs showed that they have a uniform spherical shape with an average size in the range of 40–78 nm. Further 1-Dibhenyl-2-Picrylhydrazl radical in Anagalis arvensis L.mediated AgNPs showed a maximum activity of 98% at concentration of 200μg/mL. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay in Anagalis arvensis L. mediated AgNPs showed a maximum activity of 85% at concentration of 200μg/mL. Reducing power of Anagalis arvensis L.Ag NPs exhibited a higher activity of 330 μg/mL at concentration of 200 μg/mL. These NPs have cytotoxic effects against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii with a value of 53% LD 178.04μg/mL. Conclusion. The AgNPs synthesized using Anagalis arvensis L. extract demonstrate a broad range of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0011.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitosan; aldehydes; chalcone; MIC; anti-cancer activity
Online: 1 August 2018 (09:38:35 CEST)
Versatile hybrid organic polymers are prepared using two active intermediates such as cynuric chloride and chitosan derivatives. The prepared chalcones are characterized by using FT-IR, UV, and proton NMR, thermal analysis and Minimum inhibitory Concentration. Thermal stability of the synthesized hybrid polymer is found using TGA and the hybrid chitosan derivative chalcone is thermally stable up to 270 °C. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared chitosan containing chalcone moiety are find out using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) method. The synthesized versatile chalcone shows excellent antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and Gram-positive bacteria Chalcone containing halogen moiety shows high activity (MIC 7.8 µg/mL) than the hydroxyl containing chalcone. Cytotoxicity activity of the synthesized composites shows high activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0455.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Gonocaryum calleryanum; secoiridoid; structure identification; anti-inflammatory.
Online: 30 May 2018 (16:42:36 CEST)
Three new secoiridoid constituents Gonocarin A-C (1-3) and a new derivative Gonocarin A monoacetate (4), along with two known lignins pinoresinol (5) and paulownin (6) were isolated from the seed of Gonocaryum calleryanum (Baill.) Becc. The structures of the new metabolites were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, particularly mass spectroscopy and 2D NMR (1H–1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) spectroscopy. When mouse macrophages RAW264.7 were treated with compounds 1-6 together with LPS -stimulated, a concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) productions were detected. The results confirmed that the Gonocaryum calleryanumrrg could be a potential anti-inflammatory agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0033.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: cordycepin; adenosine A1 receptor; prolactin; anti-obesity
Online: 3 April 2018 (07:53:24 CEST)
Cordycepin is an extract from the insect fungus Cordyceps. militaris, which is a traditional medicine with various biological function. In previous studies, cordycepin had been reported with excellent anti-obesity effect, but the mechanism is unclear. A large quantity of evidences showed that prolactin plays an important part in body weight regulation, hyperprolactinemia can promote appetite and accelerate fat deposition. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of the anti-obesity effect of cordycepin by reducing prolactin release via an adenosine A1 receptor. In vivo, obese rats model was induced by high fat diet for 5 weeks, the serum and liver lipids coupling with serum prolactin were reduced by treatment of cordycepin, the results suggested that cordycepin is a potential drug for therapying obesity which could be related with prolactin. In vitro, cordycepin could inhibit prolactin secretion in GH3 cells via upregulating the expression of adenosine A1 receptor, the inhibition effect could be blocked by an antagonist of adenosine receptor A1 DPDPX, prolactin induced the upregulation of lipogenesis genes PRLR, and P-JAK2 in 3T3-L1 cells. Intriguingly, cordycepin would down-regulate the expression of prolactin receptor (PRLR). Thus, we concluded that cordycepin modulate body weight by reducing prolactin release via an adenosine A1 receptor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0208.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: oligonol; diabetes; pancreas; antioxidative stress; anti-inflammation
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:29:46 CEST)
Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit. This study was conducted to examine whether oligonol has an ameliorative effect on diabetes-induced pancreatic damage via oxidative stress-induced inflammation. Oligonol was orally administered at 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and changes in serum glucose, C-peptide, insulin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as body weight and food and water consumption were assessed. Furthermore, rat pancreases were analyzed for weight, ROS generation, TBARS level, insulin content, and protein expressions of phosphor (p)-p38, p-extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2, p-inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa Bα, nuclear factor-kappa Bp65, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Markers of diabetes were shown to be decreased by oligonol administration and histological damage in the pancreas was also ameliorated. These results indicate that oligonol exerts antidiabetic activities, which may be mediated via antioxidative, stress-related, anti-inflammatory signaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0023.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: anti-yeast; enzyme inhibitors; Terminalia mantaly; Combretaceae
Online: 3 November 2016 (09:35:17 CET)
The chemical investigation of the anti-yeast methanol extract from the stem bark of Terminalia mantaly led to the isolation of seven compounds: 3-O-methyl-4-O-α-rhamnopyranoside ellagic acid (1), 3-O-mehylellagic acid (2), arjungenin or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid (3), arjunglucoside or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid glucopyranoside (4), 2α,3α,24-trihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-28-oïc acid (5), stigmasterol (6), stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7). Their structures were established by means of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data. Compounds 1-5 were tested in vitro for activity against three pathogenic yeast isolates, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei. The activity of compounds 1, 2 and 4 were comparable to that of the reference compound fluconazole (MIC values below 32 µg/ml) against the three tested yeast isolates. They were also tested for inhibitory properties against four enzymes of metabolic significance: Glucose-6-Phosphate Deshydrogenase (G6PD), human erythrocyte Carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I and hCA II), Glutathione S-transferase (GST). Compound 4 showed highly potent inhibitory property against the four tested enzymes with overall IC50 values below 4 µM and inhibitory constant (Ki) <3 µM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0307.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; anti-PD-1/PDL-1; anti-CTLA-4; gender; sex; Nivolumab; Pembrolizumab; Atezolizumab; Ipilimumab; Durvalumab
Online: 15 November 2018 (07:02:24 CET)
Evidence has recently emerged on the influence of gender on the immune system. In this systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs), we explored the impact of gender on survival in patients with advanced cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We performed a comprehensive search of the literature updated to April 2018, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and EMBASE. We extracted data on study characteristics and risk of bias in duplicate. Of 423 unique citations, 21 RCTs were included, inherently to 12,635 patients. Both males and females showed reduced risk of death associated with ICIs use (HR 0.73, p<0.001 and HR 0.77, p<0.001, respectively). Subgroup analyses by specific ICI showed similar OS in both genders for anti-PD-1/PDL-1. Anti-CTLA-4 use was associated with longer OS in men only (HR 0.77, p<0.012), with the exception of melanoma (in women, HR 0.80, p=0.006). PFS was longer in men than in women (HR 0.67, p<0.001 and HR 0.77, p=0.100, respectively). Conclusively, ICIs use was associated with more favorable outcomes in men, particularly for anti-CTLA-4 agents. In melanoma, not gender-related factors may influence the anti-tumor immune response evoked by ICIs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: influenza; antivirals; anti-influenza; influenza drugs; the flu
Online: 1 August 2022 (05:41:34 CEST)
Antigenic drift in influenza strains allows viruses to avoid being fully suppressed by seasonal vaccines. As a result, public interest has led to increased scrutiny and reevaluation of anti-influenza antiviral drugs as possible solutions. Unfortunately, many anti-influenza drugs developed around the globe suffer from a lack of sufficient clinical trials, as well as a lack of toxicity data. This is especially true of Arbidol, a popularly used drug for the prevention and treatment of influenza strains in China and Russia. Neuraminidase inhibitors, which were developed in the United States, also fall victim to inconclusive clinical trials and adverse effects. Adamantanes, while proven to be effective in treating influenza A, are encountering rapid, widespread cross-resistance. Baloxavir marboxil, a newer anti-influenza medication, shows promise in treating acute uncomplicated influenza, and may avoid the development of resistance when coadministered with other antiviral drugs. This review explores the antivirals available for influenzas treatment at this time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0258.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Melatonin; glial scar; insertion trauma; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:08:28 CEST)
Neural electrode insertion trauma impedes the recording and stimulation capabilities of numerous diagnostic and treatment avenues. Implantation leads to the activation of inflammatory markers and cell types, which is detrimental to neural tissue health and recording capabilities. Oxidative stress and inflammation at the implant site have been shown to decrease with chronic administration of antioxidant melatonin at week 16, but its effects on the acute landscape have not been studied. To assess the effect of melatonin administration in the acute phase, specifically the first week post-implantation, we utilized histological and q-PCR methods to quantify cellular and molecular indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress as well as two-photon microscopy to track the microglial responses in real-time. Histological results indicate that melatonin effectively maintained neuron density surrounding the electrode, inhibited accumulation and activation of microglia, astrocytes, and reduced oxidative tissue damage. The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, were significantly reduced in melatonin-treated animals. Additionally, microglia encapsulation of the implant surface was inhibited by melatonin as compared to control animals following implantation. Our results combined with previous research suggest that melatonin is a particularly suitable drug for modulating inflammatory activity around neural electrode implants both acutely and chronically, translating to more stable and reliable interfaces.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Kalanchoe; antibacterial; anti-inflammatory properties; wound healing; antioxidant
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:27:24 CEST)
The Kalanchoe genus is composed of more than 100 species that usually thrive in tropical environments, which have been used in folkloric medicine to treat various illnesses, including dermatological conditions. With this, the present study assesses the pharmacognostical and pharmacological properties of different species of the Kalanchoe genus as elements for a potential treatment for dermatological-related conditions, from findings of existing literature and studies. It was analyzed that the Kalanchoe pinnata plant, or one of the most common species of Kalanchoe, have been observed to have distinct morphological and microscopic characteristics. Further, it was discovered that different species of Kalanchoe have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and wound healing properties, which enable the plant to be used for dermatological products that are available to the market. With this, it is recommended that further studies be conducted in other understudied species of Kalanchoe regarding their pharmacological properties, as well as the use of other structures of the Kalanchoe plant for treatment of various dermatological conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0625.v1
Online: 26 May 2021 (08:17:01 CEST)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) family that identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns derived from microbes and activate immune cell response. Following TLRs ligation, different adaptor and transcription molecules such as myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) are recruited that initiate inflammatory signaling pathways. The human Toll-like receptor 10 (hTLR10) is a novel member of the PRRs family with a regulatory function of immune responses because of unique cytoplasmic domains which lead to induction of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have reported the association of TLR10 polymorphisms with many inflammatory diseases and human cancer. Engagement of TLR10 on the surface of the epithelium and macrophages leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, while other studies have proven an anti-inflammatory role of TLR10. Accordingly, TLR10 suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production via negative regulation of MyD88 and the Akt (protein kinase B) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathways. This review aimed to provide answers for these conflicting findings (Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties of TLR10) to further identify distinct biological functions of TLR10.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0204.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Antioxidant; Anti-inflammatory; Chitosan; Flavonoids; Phenolics; Silybum marianum
Online: 11 January 2021 (15:59:31 CET)
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn is a rich source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory flavonolignans with great potential for use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Its biotechnological production using in vitro culture system has been proposed. Chitosan is a well-known elicitor that strongly affects both secondary metabolites and biomass production by plants. The effect of chitosan on S. marianum cell suspension is not known yet. In the present study, suspension cultures of S marianum were exploited for their in vitro potency to produce bioactive flavonolignans in the presence of chitosan. Established cell suspension culture was maintained on the same hormonal media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 1.0 mg/L NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) under photoperiod 16/8 h (light/dark) and exposed to various treatments of chitosan (ranging from 0.5 to 50.0 mg/L). The highest biomass production was observed for cell suspension treated with 5.0 mg/L chitosan, resulting in 123.3 g/L fresh weight (FW) and 17.7 g/L dry weight (DW) productions. Chitosan treatment resulted in an overall increase in the accumulation of flavonoids, phenolic compounds and silymarin. High accumulation levels of silybin B, silydianin and silybin A were recorded by HPLC analysis. The corresponding extracts displayed interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. In particular, high ABTS antioxidant activity (741.5 μM Trolox C equivalent antioxidant capacity) was recorded in extracts obtained in presence of 0.5 mg/L of chitosan. On the opposite, highest inhibitions of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, 30.5 %), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2, 33.9 %) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX-2, 31.6 %) enzymes involved in inflammation process were measured in extracts obtained in presence of 5.0 mg/L of chitosan. Taken together, these results highlight the high potential of the chitosan elicitation of the S. marianum cell suspension for enhanced production of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory silymarin-rich extracts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0340.v1
Subject: Keywords: helminth; helminthic therapy; biological therapy; inflammation; anti-inflammatory
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:40:28 CET)
The virtually complete loss of intestinal worms, known as helminths, from Western society has resulted in elimination of a range of helminth-induced morbidities. Unfortunately, that loss has also led to inflammation-associated deficiencies in immune function, ultimately contributing to widespread pandemics of allergies, autoimmunity, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Several socio-medical studies have examined the effects of intentional reworming, or self-treatment with helminths, on a variety of inflammation-related disorders. In this study, the latest results from ongoing socio-medical studies are described. The results point toward two important factors that appear to be overlooked in some if not most clinical trials. Specifically, (a) the method of preparation of the helminth can have a profound effect on its therapeutic efficacy, and (b) variation between individuals in the effective therapeutic dosage apparently covers a 10-fold range, regardless of the helminth used. These results highlight current limits in our understanding of the biology of both hosts and helminths, and suggest that information from self-treatment may be critical in moving the field forward into mainstream medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0611.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cyanobacteria; thermal mud; natural products; anti-inflammatory; bioactivity
Online: 24 November 2020 (10:53:33 CET)
Background: The Balaruc-les-Bains’ thermal mud was found to be colonized predominantly by microorganisms, with cyanobacteria constituting the primary organism in the microbial biofilm observed on the mud surface. The success of cyanobacteria in colonizing this specific ecological niche can be explained in part by their taxa-specific adaptation capacities, and also the diversity of bioactive natural products that they synthesize. This array of components has physiological and ecological properties that may be exploited for various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0446.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Alkaloids; Anti-Onchocercal; Bisindoles; Docking; Homology Modeling; Monoindoles.
Online: 17 November 2020 (11:13:54 CET)
A new iboga-vobasine-type isomeric bisindole alkaloid named voacamine A (1), along with eight known compounds, voacangine (2), voacristine (3), coronaridine (4), tabernanthine (5), iboxygaine (6), voacamine (7), voacorine (8), and conoduramine (9), were isolated from the stem bark of Voacanga africana. The structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses (1D- and 2D-NMR). Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were found to inhibit the motility of both the microfilariae (Mf) and adult male worms of Onchocerca ochengi, in a dose-dependent manner, but were only moderately active on the adult female worms upon biochemical assessment at 30 μM drug concentrations. The IC50 values of the isolates are 2.49-5.49 µM for microfilariae and 3.45-17.87 µM for adult males. Homology modeling was used to generate a 3D model of the the O. ochengi thioredoxin reductase target and docking simulation attempted to offer an explanation of the anti-onchocercal structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the isolated compounds. These alkaloids are new potential leads for the development of antifilirial drugs. The results of this study validate the traditional use of V. africana in the treatment of human onchocerciasis.
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:41:30 CEST)
Fibrosis is a condition characterized by thickening or/and scarring of various tissues. Fibrosis may develop in almost all tissues and organs, and it may be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. It provokes excessive scarring that excels the usual wound healing response to trauma in numerous organs. Currently, very little can be done to prevent tissue fibrosis, and it is almost impossible to reverse it. Therefore, fibrosis is frequently associated with premature aging. In turn, aging is associated with more frequent incidences of fibrosis. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs are among the few treatments that may be efficient in preventing fibrosis. Numerous publications suggest that cannabinoids and extracts of Cannabis sativa have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic properties. In this review, we describe the types and mechanisms of fibrosis in various tissues and discuss various strategies for prevention and dealing with tissue fibrosis. We further introduce cannabinoids and their potential for the prevention and treatment of fibrosis, and therefore for extending healthy lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0443.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: cell suspension culture; anti-inflammatory activity; phytochemical analysis
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:44:18 CEST)
Many species of the Asteraceae family are used in traditional Mexican medicine for possessing healing properties. Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) is a plant used for the treatment of gastric ulcers, deep wounds and for its antifungal effects. The aim of this study was to establish a cell suspension culture of A. pichinchensis, quantify the anti-inflammatory constituents 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran and 3-epilupeol, to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of its extracts and perform a phytochemical analysis. Cell suspension cultures were established in MS culture medium supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose and 1.0 g L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) plus 0.1 mg L-1 6-furfurylaminopurine (KIN). The ethyl acetate extracts of cell suspension cultures analyzed by GC revealed that the maximum production of compounds The anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts exhibited significant inhibition of NO production. Furthermore, the phytochemical study of EtOAc and MeOH extracts of the biomass on day 20 led to the identification of 17 known compounds. The structures of compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and the remainder by GC-MS. This is the first report of the production of the (-)-Artemesinol, (-)-Artemesinol glucoside, Encecalin and 3,5-diprenyl-acetophenone compounds by a cell suspension cultures of A. pichinchensis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0178.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: anti-oxidative properties; DPPH; grape marmalade; lactobacillus; probiotics
Online: 16 April 2019 (10:27:52 CEST)
Grape foods fermented with probiotics are sources of beneficial bacteria for the GI tract and also have a high antioxidant capacity. The addition of probiotics to ferment food has always been a traditional process; therefore, probiotic dairy and non-dairy products might contribute to a daily antioxidant diet to improve consumers’ life quality and health. This research was undertaken to determine the viability of 4 wild isolates of Lactobacillus for storage at 5 and 25ºC within 90 days in simulated synthetic grape media and a standard grape marmalade formulation. Changes in active culture numbers, pH level, glucose concentration, and antioxidant properties were evaluated. Most of the isolates demonstrated higher growth in the grape marmalade than the synthetic grape marmalade, which was greater than 7 Log cfu/g within 90 days of storage at 5ºC. In addition, most of the wild isolates grew beyond the critical count of 106 cfu/g in sampling between 60 and 90 days of storage. Moreover, fermented grape marmalade with probiotics showed a strong antioxidant capacity that failed to differ significantly with the synthetic medium. The study confirmed L. paraplantarum, L. plantarum, W. paramesenteroides, and E. feacalis were ideal probiotics for fermentation process of grape marmalade.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: beetroot; betanins; cancer chemoprevention; anti-oxidant; inflammation; apoptosis
Online: 11 March 2019 (08:00:34 CET)
Carcinogenesis is the process whereby a normal cell is transformed into a neoplastic cell. This action involves several steps starting with initiation and followed by promotion and progression. Driving these stages are oxidative stress and inflammation, which in turn encompasses a myriad of aberrant gene expressions, both within the transforming cell population and the cells within the surrounding lesion. Chemoprevention of cancer with bioreactive foods or their extracted/purified components occurs via normalizing these inappropriate gene activities. Various foods/agents have been shown to affect different gene expressions. In this review we discuss whereby the chemoprevention activities of the red beetroot itself may disrupt carcinogenesis and the activities of the water soluble betalains extracted from the plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: bufadienolides-like chemicals; molecular mechanism; anti-cancer; bioinformatics
Online: 30 November 2018 (10:14:58 CET)
Bufadienolides-like chemicals, which mostly composed the active ingredient of Chansu, had been widely discovered to possess anti-inflammatory, tumor-suppressing and antipain activity, but the mechanisms of action were not clearly illuminated. In this research, in order to explore the potential mechanism of bufadienolides-like chemicals on breast cancer, a serious of bioinformatics analysis, included (1) differentially expressed genes identification combined with gene set variation analysis, (2) tissue specific co-expression network construction, (3) differentially regulated sub-networks detection with disease phenome, (4) hub gene selection and it’s relation to survival probability, and (5) similar small molecule detection were performed with gene expression profiles of bufadienolides-like chemicals. Results indicated bufadienolides-like chemicals had the most same target with valproic, estradiol and etc, could disturbed the pathways in RNA splicing, apoptotic process, cell migration, extracellular matrix organization, adherens junction organization, synaptic transmission, Wnt signaling, AK-STAT signaling, BMP signaling pathway and unfolded protein response, and had the potential ability to be used as anticancer, hormones and vasoprotectives agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: CKD, ESKD, Death, anti-RAS, hyperkalemia, competing risk
Online: 7 November 2018 (14:48:30 CET)
Hyperkalemia burden in non-dialysis CKD under nephrology care is undefined. We prospectively followed 2443 patients with two visits (referral and control with 12-month interval) in 46 nephrology clinics. Patients were stratified in four categories of hyperkalemia (sK≥5.0 mEq/L) by sK at visit 1 and 2: Absent (no-no), Resolving (yes-no), New Onset (no-yes), Persistent (yes-yes). We assessed competing risks of ESKD and death after visit 2. Age was 65±15 y, eGFR 35±17 mL/min/1.73 m2, proteinuria 0.40 (0.14-1.21) g/24h. In the two visits sK was 4.8±0.6 and levels ≥6 mEq/L were observed in 4%. Hyperkalemia was absent in 46%, resolving 17%, new onset 15% and persistent 22%. Renin-angiotensin-system inhibitors (RASI) were prescribed in 79% patients. During 3.6-year follow-up, 567 patients reached ESKD and 349 died. Multivariable competing risk analysis [sub-hazard ratio-sHR, 95%Confidence Interval-CI] evidenced that new onset [sHR 1.34, 95%CI 1.05-1.72] and persistent [sHR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02-1.58] hyperkalemia predicted higher ESKD risk versus absent, independently from main determinants of outcome including eGFR change. Conversely, no effect on mortality was observed. Results were confirmed by testing sK as continuous variable. Therefore, in CKD under nephrology care, mild-to-moderate hyperkalemia status is common (37%) and predicts per se higher ESKD risk but not mortality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: neovascular AMD; new therapies; anti-VEGFs; AMD signalling
Online: 12 June 2018 (06:26:56 CEST)
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) accounts for one of the leading causes of blindness among the aging population. The current treatment options for nAMD include intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF). However, standardised frequent administration of anti-VEGF injections only improves the vision in approximately 30%-40% of nAMD patients. Current therapies targeting nAMD pose a significant risk of retinal fibrosis and geographic atrophy (GA) development in nAMD patients. A need exists to develop new therapies to treat nAMD with effective and long-term anti-angiogenic effects. Recent research on nAMD has discovered novel therapeutic targets and angiogenic signalling mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. For example, tissue factor, human intravenous immune globulin, interferon-β signalling, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase lipid metabolites have been identified as key players in the development of angiogenesis in AMD disease models. Furthermore, novel therapies such as NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition, targeted intraceptor nanoparticle therapy, inhibitors of integrins and tissue factor are currently being tested at the level of clinical trials to treat nAMD. The aim of this review is to discuss the scope for alternative therapies proposed to anti-VEGFs for the treatment of nAMD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: dual anti platelet therapy; acute coronary syndrome; stents
Online: 12 February 2018 (05:13:18 CET)
Percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) with stenting for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome(ACS) is the contemporary standard of care. Such treatment is followed by Dual anti-platelet therapy(DAPT) comprising of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor. The efficacy of this therapy has been well established but the optimal duration of DAPT remains elusive, and has thus far attracted a prodigious deal of scientific attention. Decision regarding DAPT duration can be challenging clinically in the modern era with the evolution of newer stents, more potent antiplatelet agents and novel anticoagulant drugs in addition to an older patient population with multiple comorbidities. Major societal guidelines have emphasized comprehensive assessment of ischemic and bleeding risk, in turn recommending individualization of DAPT duration, thus encouraging "shared decision making". The following review is aimed at critically evaluating the available evidence to help make these crucial clinical decisions regarding duration of DAPT and triple therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0221.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Tripterygium regelii; dimacrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids; anti-inflammation
Online: 29 August 2016 (10:46:49 CEST)
Two new dimacrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids (DMSPAs), dimacroregelines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the stems of Tripterygium regelii. The structures of both compounds were characterized by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, as well as HRESIMS data. Compounds 1 and 2 are two rare DMSPAs possessing unique 2-(3′-carboxybutyl)-3-furanoic acid units forming the second macrocyclic ring, representing the first example of DMSPAs bearing an extra furan ring in their second macrocyclic ring system. Compound 2 showed inhibitory effects on the proliferation of human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast cell (MH7A) at a concentration of 20 μM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0489.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: multidrug resistance MDR; EPB (Xenorhabdus, (X. budapestensis, X. szentirmaii, X. innexii) and Photorhabdus) species); CFCM (cell-free conditioned media); NR-AMP (non-ribosomal-templated antimicrobial peptides); anti-microbial, (anti-bacterial, - anti-coccidial, -anti-protist, - activity; cytotoxicity; in vitro; in situ (local) bioavailablity; XENOFOOD; allometry
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:21:56 CET)
Whether the different NR-AMPs could ever be utilized as drugs not only against prokaryotic (bacteria) pathogens but eukaryotic (fungal pathogens, and parasitic protists) depends on the side effects. To get experimental experience about the option of applying EPB-produced antimicrobials to pathogens, and parasites of veterinary significance, we present here the results of an in vitro, and an accompanying in vivo study on chicken. In the in vitro study, we tested the cytotoxic potential of the cell-free conditioned culture media (CFCM) of three entomopathogenic bacterium species, - X. budapestensis, DSM16342 (EMA); X. szentirmaii DSM16338 (EMC); Photorhabdus luminescens ssp. akhurstii TT01 - on chicken tissue culture cells, namely, on the Leghorn Male Hepatoma (LMH),  cells, (a permanent confluent hepato-carcinoma cell line). Each CFCM proved rather cytotoxic in this test. In the in vivo study, we fed freshly hatched male broiler chickens for 42 days with XENOFOOD  which contained autoclaved cultures of EMA, and EMC). These bacteria were grown on standard chicken (starter and grower) [HM3] [u4] feed, and the whole culture was used as a “food supplement”. [HM5]. It had been known that these EPB species cannot grow that is, not viable) atbody temperature (above 33 C).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: anti DENV IgM; IgG; Antibody-dependent enhancement; Cross-immunity
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:41:25 CEST)
Background: Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne sickness worldwide, impacting at least 50 million people each year. The dengue virus has four primary serotypes. Infection with one serotype confers homotypic immunity but not heterologous immunity, and secondary infections may be more severe. Although blood transfusions and organ donations have also been observed, the Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector for the transmission of dengue. Infection causes a continuum of clinical illness, from asymptomatic infection to dengue fever, DHF, and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).Aim: To assess the presence of anti DENV IgG and anti DENV IgM antibodies specific to the four dengue serotypes in blood donor service donors and the importance of pre-donation screening in routine blood collection procedures.Method: 3 mL of peripheral venous blood from 507 blood donors was collected in tubes with BD vacutainer gel tube for serum separation after epidemiological records were reviewed. After that, serum was separated and tests were performed by SD Bioline Dengue Duo. Participants in the study completed a social and epidemiological questionnaire that contained information such as age, gender, and dengue diagnosis.Result: Out of the 507 blood samples that were taken, 473 (93.3%) came from male blood donors, while the remaining 34 (6.7%) belonged to female blood donors. The ratio of males to females is 13.91 to 1. The age range is 18–60 years, and the mean and standard deviation are both 27.7 and 6.5. 183 of the 507 samples produced anti DENV IgG positivity, while 324 did not. The ratio of positive to negative was 1.25:2.Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, quantitative methods for determining the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or detecting the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic areas should be devised in order to ensure the quality of blood transfusions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0433.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Lactobacillus spp, Bacillus spp., Anti-cancer, Probiotics, Gastrointestinal, Dysbiosis.
Online: 27 December 2021 (14:50:58 CET)
Malignant neoplasm is one of the most incurable diseases among inflammatory diseases. Researchers have been studying for decades to win over this lethal disease and provide the light of hope to humankind. The gastrointestinal bacteria of human hold a complex ecosystem and maintain homeostasis. One hundred trillion microbes are residing in the gastrointestinal tract of human. Disturbances in the microbiota of human’s gastrointestinal tract can create immune response against inflammation and also can develop diseases , including cancer. The bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract of human, can secrete a variety of metabolites and bioproducts which aid in the preservation of homeostasis in the host and gut. During pathogenic dysbiosis, on the other hand, numerous microbiota subpopulations may increase and create excessive levels of toxins, which can cause inflammation and cancer. Furthermore, the immune system of host and the epithelium cell can be influenced by gut microbiota. Probiotics, which are bacteria that live in the gut, have been protected against tumor formation. Probiotics are now studied to see if they can help fight dysbiosis in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy because of their capacity to maintain gut homeostasis. Countless numbers of gut bacteria have demonstrated anti-cancer efficiency in cancer treatment, prevention, and boosting the efficiency of immunotherapy. The review article has briefly explained the anti-cancer immunity of gut microbes and their application in treating a variety of cancer. This review paper also highlights the pre-clinical studies of probiotics against cancer and the completed and ongoing clinical trials on cancers with the two most common and highly effective probiotics Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0361.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Anti-inflammation; Phlebia sp; RAW264.7 macrophages; AP-1; cytokines
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:14:09 CET)
Lichens are a life form in which algae and fungi have a symbiotic relationship. A lichen has various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Inflammation is a response caused by various factors, such as infection by pathogens or tissue damage; excessive reactions can contribute to the etiology of chronic diseases, such as asthma, brain damage, and serious tissue damage. This study demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate extract from Phlebia sp. on NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in the lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cell. Especially, Phlebia sp. extract inhibits the phosphorylation of AP-1 signaling (c-Fos and c-Jun) and its upstream MKK/MAPKs (MKK4, MKK7 and JNK), which induced a decrease in the production of the inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in downstream of AP-1 signaling. Furthermore, Phlebia sp. extract inhibited the production of final inflammatory effector molecules involved in AP-1 signaling, including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Here, we report that Phlebia sp. extract has the potential to be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: anti-inflammatory; cytotoxicity; oxidative stress; phenolic compounds; sweet cherries
Online: 16 December 2021 (08:18:44 CET)
Cherries have been largely investigated due to their high content in phenolics in order to fully ex-plore their health-promoting properties. Therefore, this work aimed to assess, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory potential of phenolic-targeted fractions of Saco cherry, using RAW 264.7 mac-rophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects on gastric ade-nocarcinoma (AGS), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells were evaluated, as well as the ability to protect these cellular models against induced oxidative stress. The obtained data revealed that cherry fractions can interfere with cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels by capturing NO radicals and decreasing inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygen-ase-2 expression. Furthermore, it was observed that all cherry fractions exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against AGS cells, presenting cytotoxic selectivity for these cancer cells when compared to SH-SY5Y and NHDF cells. Regarding their capacity to protect cancer cells against oxidative injury, in most assays, the total cherry extract was the most effective. Overall, this study reinforces the sweet cherries incorporation in new pharmaceutical products, smart foods and nutraceuticals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: allergic severe asthma; anti-IgE; Omalizumab; observational study; children
Online: 11 October 2021 (13:54:56 CEST)
Background: Asthma is the most common chronic disease affecting children and altering their quality of life. The severity of asthma is often modulated by immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergen sensitization and is associated with comorbid allergic dis-eases. Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody anti-IgE, the first biological therapy approved to treat patients aged ≥6 years with severe allergic asthma. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of Omali-zumab in Romanian paediatric patients with severe allergic asthma. Methods: In this observational real-life study, 12 children aged 6 to 18 years, (mean age 12.4 years ) with severe allergic asthma received Omalizumab as an add-on treatment. The levels of asthma control, exacerbations, lung function and adverse events were evaluated at baseline and after the first year of treatment. Results: We noticed general improvements in total asthma symptom scores and the rate of exacerbation of severe asthma. Omalizumab increased the initial variables of lung function, and no serious adverse reactions were reported. FEV1 improved statistically significant after one year of treatment with Omalizumab, [ΔFEV1 (% pred.) =18.3, and similarly, ΔMEF50 (%) = 25.8]. The mean severe exacerbation rates due to asthma decreased from 4.1 (2.8 SD) to 1.15 (0.78 SD) during the treatment year (p<0.0001) with Omalizumab. Conclusions: Treatment with Omalizumab can be an effective and safe therapeutic option for Romanian children with severe allergic asthma, providing clinically relevant in-formation on asthma control and exacerbation rate in children and adolescents. The results highlighted the effect of Omalizumab in young patients, starting from the first year of treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0341.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Edible Mushrooms; anti-cancerous; bioactive compounds; therapeutic; β-glucan
Online: 20 September 2021 (15:33:47 CEST)
Mushrooms have been an invaluable ingredient in terms of food and medicine to humanity since time immemorial. Mushrooms have been shown to be possessing properties such as anti-tumor, antiproliferative, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic. Traditional Czech republic medicine involved using Piptoporus betulinus in curing colorectal cancer; similarly, fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus were employed in Folk medicine in eastern Europe since the 16th century. The oriental practice of utilizing mushrooms has witnessed an overwhelming attentiveness from the global research fraternity in exploring its wonder substances. Cancer is one of the key problems faced by researchers in finding an efficient medicine without inducing severe health complications. Mushrooms contain a plethora of bioactive compounds involved in tumor inhibition, such as hispolon, lentinan, gannoderic acid, illudin-s, and many more. The current article briefly describes various edible mushrooms with anti-tumorigenic compounds and their effect on the cancer cells of various means.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: drug screening; monodrug or combinatorial drug screening; anti-cancer
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:46:49 CEST)
The up-and-coming microfluidic technology is the most promising platform for designing anti-cancer drugs and new point-of-care diagnostics. Compared to conventional drug screening methods based on Petri dishes and animal studies, drug delivery in microfluidic systems has many advantages. For instance, these platforms offer high throughput drug screening, require a small amount of samples, provide an in vivo-like microenvironment for cells, and eliminate ethical issues associated with animal studies. Multiple cell cultures in microfluidic chips could better mimic the 3D tumor environment using low reagents consumption. The clinical experiments have shown that combinatorial drug treatments have a better therapeutic effect than monodrug therapy. So many attempts were performed in this field in the last decade. This review highlights the applications of microfluidic chips in anti-cancer drug screening and systematically categorizes these systems as a function of sample size and combination of drug screening. Finally, it provides a perspective on the future of the clinical applications of microfluidic systems for anti-cancer drug development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Ephedra alata; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; phytochemical screening
Online: 13 August 2021 (09:23:00 CEST)
Ephedra alata Decne. (Ephedraceae) is a medicinal species commonly used to treat cancers, respiratory diseases, fever, and hypertension. The present study aimed to establish a phytochemical profile, evaluate the antioxidant potential and estimate the anti-inflammatory activities of .. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of E. alata aerial parts were phytochemically investigated using standard methods. DPPH, phosphomolybdenum total antioxidant capacity and reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was determined using total antioxidant capacity, the scavenging activity of the stable DPPH free radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using egg albumin membrane denaturation and human red blood cells membrane stabilizing assays. The anti-inflammatory potential of E. alata extracts was evaluated using human red blood cells membrane stabilization, egg albumin and BSA albumin denaturation assays. Quinones, anthraquinones, steroids, phytosteroids, phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, Cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars and anthocyanins were present in the E. alata’s aqueous extract, in addition to coumarins and proteins in the methanolic extract. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid content was recorded in the aqueous extract with 8.66 ±0.09 mg GA/g and 248.04 ±1.47 mg Q/g, respectively. On the other hand, E. alata methanolic extract had the highest tannin content of 62.12 ±0.10 mg C/g. The best radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 4.63±0.00 mg/ml) and total antioxidant capacity were exhibited by the E. alata aqueous (7.35±0.12 mg/ml AAE), whereas the methanolic extract possessed the highest reducing power activity (1.81±0.00 mg AAE/ml). Regarding the anti-inflammatory activities, E. alata methanolic extract exerted the highest HRBC stabilization of 34.72 ±0.08% whereas the aqueous extract exhibited the highest bovine serum and Egg albumin denaturation inhibition of 99.22 ±0.02% and 73.31 ±0.90, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that E. alata aerial parts aqueous and methanolic extracts can be utilized as future antioxidants and anti-inflammatory ethnomedicines owing to their rich bioactive molecules content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0589.v1
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:30:30 CEST)
The wide use of cadmium (Cd) in industry causes great environmental health problems to humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Xylopia aethiopica fruit ethanol extract (XAFEE) on cadmium-induced inflammation and dyslipidemia in male albino rats. Thirty albino rats weighing 120–180 g were randomly selected into six groups (n = 5): control rats (administered distilled water only), Cd alone group (10 mg/ kg bw), Cd + 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE, Cd + 300 mg/kgbw XAFEE, 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE and 300 mg /kgbw XAFEE groups after 2-week acclimatization. The experiment lasted for 21 days, after which blood sample was collected by cardiac puncture. Changes in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations in serum were determined. The results of the present study indicated that Cd exposure remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the TC, TAG, phospholipids, FFAs and TNF-α concentrations, and significantly decreased IL-10 concentration (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that inflammatory changes and alterations in lipid metabolism might be one of the mechanisms underlying the subtle effects of Cd toxicity, “dyslipidemia.” XAFEE expressed protective role against toxic influence of Cd on affected parameters in rats. The results raised the possibility of Xylopia aethiopica fruit being considered as a condiment in soup, local drinks, supplements or herbs preparations in areas where there are chances of Cd exposure, occupationally or environmentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0536.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Medicinal plant; spices; condiment; anti-dyslipidemic effect; Cd toxicity
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:43:35 CEST)
The wide use of cadmium (Cd) in industry causes great environmental health problems to humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Xylopia aethiopica fruit ethanol extract (XAFEE) on cadmium-induced inflammation and dyslipidemia in male albino rats. Thirty albino rats weighing 120–180 g were randomly selected into six groups (n = 5): control rats (administered distilled water only), Cd alone group (10 mg/ kg bw), Cd + 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE, Cd + 300 mg/kgbw XAFEE, 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE and 300 mg /kgbw XAFEE groups after 2-week acclimatization. The experiment lasted for 21 days, after which blood sample was collected by cardiac puncture. Changes in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFAs) and HDL-TAG concentrations in serum were determined. The results of the present study indicated that Cd exposure remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the TC, TAG, phospholipids, FFAs, HDL-TAG, TNF-α concentrations, and significantly decreased IL-10 concentration (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that inflammatory changes and alterations n lipid metabolism might be one of the mechanisms underlying the subtle effects of Cd toxicity, “dyslipidemia.” XAFEE expressed protective role against toxic influence of Cd on affected parameters in rats. The results raised the possibility of Xylopia aethiopica fruit being considered as a condiment in soup, local drinks, supplements or herbs preparations in areas where there are chances ofCd exposure, occupationally or environmentally.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cannabinoid receptor 2; epilepsy; cAMP, M-current; anti-inflammatory
Online: 6 July 2021 (17:09:20 CEST)
Epilepsy is characterized by repeated spontaneous reactions caused by hyper-excitability and neurons firing in high synchronization in the central nervous system. It seriously affects the quality of life of epileptic patients and nearly 30% of individuals are refractory to treatment of antiepileptic drugs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new medicines to manage and control the refractory epilepsy. Cannabinoid ligands including selective cannabinoid receptor subtype (CB1 or CB2 receptor) ligands and non-selective cannabinoid (synthetic and endogenous) ligands may serve as the novel candidates for this need. Cannabinoid systems appear to regulating seizure activity in the brain through the activation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R). An abundant series of cannabinoid analogues have been tested in various animal models, including a rat pilocarpine model of acquired epilepsy, in vitro hippocampal neuronal culture models of acquired epilepsy and status epilepticus, a pentylenetetrazole model of myoclonic seizures in mice and a penicillin-induced model of epileptiform activity in the rats. The accumulating lines of evidence show that cannabinoid ligands exhibit significant benefits to control seizure activity in different epileptic models. For this reason, we summarize the relationship between brain CB2 receptors and seizures, and emphasize the potential mechanisms of their therapeutic effects involving affecting neurons, astrocytes, and microglia cells. The unique features of CB2Rs, such as lower expression levels under physiological conditions and high inducibility under epileptic conditions, make it an important target for future research on drug-resistant epilepsy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0533.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: free radicals; oxidative stress; hepatocellular carcinoma; anti-oxidants; kaempferol
Online: 21 May 2021 (17:21:59 CEST)
Keywords: free radicals; oxidative stress; hepatocellular carcinoma; anti-oxidants; kaempferol
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0592.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: gastrointestinal diseases; nutraceutical; natural anti-inflammatory; natural antioxidant; watercress
Online: 25 February 2021 (17:03:03 CET)
The incidence of gastrointestinal diseases (cancer in particular) has increased progressively with considerable morbidity, mortality, and a high economic impact on the healthcare system. Dietary intake of natural bioactive phytochemicals showed to have cancer-preventing and therapeutic effects. This includes the cruciferous vegetable derivative phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a bioactive compound from watercress. PEITC antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties are of particular importance. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of PEITC as a potential natural nutraceutical or an adjuvant against oxidative/inflammatory-related disorders in the gastrointestinal tract. We also discuss the safe and recommended dose of PEITC. Besides, we establish a framework to guide the research and development of sustainable methodologies for obtaining and stabilizing this natural nutraceutical for industrial use. This is a topic that still needs more scientific development, but with the potential to lead to a viable strategy in the prevention of cancer and other associated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0305.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Malware analysis; Context-aware malware; Anti-evasion malware detection
Online: 16 November 2020 (13:40:46 CET)
Malware analysis is fundamental for defending against prevalent cyber security threats, and requires a means to deploy and study behavioural software traits as more sophisticated malware is developed. Traditionally, virtual machines are used to provide an environment that is isolated from production systems so as to not cause any adverse impact on existing infrastructure. Malware developers are fully aware of this and so will often develop evasion techniques to avoid detection within sandbox environments. In this paper, we conduct an investigation of anti-evasion malware triggers for uncovering malware that may attempt to conceal itself when deployed in a traditional sandbox environment. To facilitate our investigation, we developed a tool called MORRIGU that couples together both automated and human-driven analysis for systematic testing of anti-evasion methods using dynamic sandbox reconfiguration techniques. This is further supported by visualisation methods for performing comparative analysis of system activity when malware is deployed under different sandbox configurations. Our study reveals a variety of anti-evasion traits that are shared amongst different malware families, such as sandbox `wear-and-tear', and Reverse Turing Tests (RTT), as well as more sophisticated malware samples that require multiple anti-evasion checks to be deployed. We also perform a comparative study using Cuckoo sandbox to demonstrate the limitations of adopting only automated analysis tools, to justify the exploratory analysis provided by MORRIGU. By adopting a clearer systematic process for uncovering anti-evasion malware triggers, as supported by tools like MORRIGU, this study helps to further the research of evasive malware analysis so that we can better defend against such future attacks.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: chronic-ataxic neuropathy; anti-disialosyl; IgM monoclonal gammopathy; CANOMAD
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:07:50 CEST)
Objective: Elucidate the main clinical aspects of the CANOMAD spectrum. Methods: Bibliographical review trough databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Orphanet, Oxford Academic) of articles from 1985 (1) to 2019 and later selection of the most applicable of the above, in order to construct a non-systematic review. Conclusion: CANOMAD is a chronic-ataxic autoimmune neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. The correct diagnosis of this rare and multi-faceted disease will help optimal treatment.
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Anti-inflammation; Endotoxin shock; Atraric acid; Lichen; Heterodermia hypoleuca
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:10:17 CEST)
As symbionts of fungi and algae, lichens produce a variety of secondary products which pharmacological activities. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of Heterodermia hypoleuca and its main compound, atraric acid. The results confirmed that atraric acid could regulating induced pro-inflammatory cytokine, nitric oxide, induced nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Means while, atraric acid down-regulated expression of phosphorylated IκB, ERK and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling pathway to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Based on these results, the anti-inflammatory effect of atraric acid during LPS-induced endotoxin shock in a mouse model was confirmed. In the atraric acid treated-group, cytokine production was decreased in the peritoneum and serum, and each organ damaged by LPS-stimulation was recovered. These results show that atraric acid has an anti-inflammatory effect and its molecular mechanism may be involved in the inactivation of the ERK/NFκB signaling pathway, demonstrating its value as a potential therapeutic for inflammatory diseases.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0654.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Anti-diabetic; hyperglycaemia; hypoglycaemic; Vernonia amygdalina; Type-2 diabetes
Online: 27 July 2020 (00:32:27 CEST)
Nine components (C1-C9) were isolated from chloroform fraction of fractionated methanol extracts of Vernonia amygdalina leaves (FMEVA) by column chromatography. All the components C1 to C9 were purified and screened for hypoglycaemic activities in type-2 diabetic rats. The most potent hypoglycaemic component was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (1D-, 2D-NMR, GC-MS, FTIR) data analysis. The Component C5 was found to be the most potent hypoglycaemic in reducing blood glucose by 12.55 ± 3.55% at 4 h post-oral administration, when compared to the positive (18.07 ± 1.20%) and negative (-1.99 ± 0.43%) controls. The spectroscopic data analysis reveals that the isolated compound has a structure consistent with 11β,13-dihydrovernolide. The isolated compound is part of the hypoglycaemic components present in V. amygdalina leaves that is responsible for the anti-diabetic activities. Further research is needed in the development of this compound or its derivatives for pharmaceutical use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: carotenoids; seaweeds; antioxidants; astaxanthin; fucoxanthin; anti-obesity; oxidative stress
Online: 24 February 2020 (12:26:44 CET)
Present-day lifestyle associated with high calorie-fat intake and accumulation, as well as energy imbalance, has led to the development of obesity and its comorbidities, which have emerged as some of the major health issues globally. To combat the disease, many studies have reported the anti-obesity effects of natural compounds in foods, with some advantages over chemical treatments. Carotenoids, particularly xanthophyll derived from seaweeds, have attracted the attention of researchers due to their notable biological activities, which are associated mainly with their antioxidant properties. Their involvement in oxidative stress modulation, regulation of major transcription factors and enzymes as well as their antagonistic effects on various obesity parameters have been examined in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The present review is a collation of published research over the last decade on the anti-oxidant properties of seaweed xanthophyll carotenoids, with a focus on fucoxanthin and astaxanthin and their mechanisms of action in obesity prevention and treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0020.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: magnesium; Covalent bonds; anti-corrosion; biocompatibility; bovin serum albumin
Online: 3 November 2019 (16:01:41 CET)
Herein, we describe precisely on covalent modification of pure magnesium (Mg) surface and applied to induce in vitro osteogenic differentiation. A new concept, chemical bonding method is proposed for developing stable chemical bonds on Mg surface through serial assembly of bioactive additives including ascorbic acid (AA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The coating with such potential materials shows strong integrity to the Mg and could suitable for cell-interface interaction with the host tissue during implantation in bone tissue repair. The physicochemical and electrochemical properties of surface modified Mg assess how these nanoscales layered of biomolecules could demonstrate the significance improvement in chemical stability of coating. The modified Mg-OH-AA-BSA exhibits better anti-corrosion behavior with high corrosion potential (Ecorr ~ ‒ 0.96 V) and low corrosion current density (Icorr ~ 0.2 µA cm-2) as compared to pure Mg (Ecorr ~ ‒1.46 V, Icorr ~ 10.42 µA cm-2). Outer layer of BSA on Mg protects fast degradation rate of Mg which is the consequence of strong chemicals bonds between amine groups on BSA with carboxylic groups on AA. Collectively, the results suggest that surface modified Mg provides strong bio-interface and enhances the proliferation and differentiation of pre-osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cells through protein-lipid interaction. Owing to this fact, the cost-effective and scalable covalent functionalization of Mg surface inherits biological advantage in orthopedic and dental implants with long term stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0299.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: X-ray diffraction; bioactivities; cytotoxicity test; Anti-cancer activities
Online: 26 April 2019 (11:00:21 CEST)
Owing to fascinating applications of ZnO in modern devices, it is interesting to explore its more features for future devices. Hence, herein, we have synthesized the high quality ZnO spherical nanoparticles (SNPs) through a facile green synthesis route and robust structural and biomedical studies are carried out. Hexagonal phase with 93.2% crystallinity was confirmed through XRD analysis. ZnO nanoparticles were tested for their bioactivities both in vivo (acute cytotoxicity test) and in vitro (Anti-cancer activities on liver (HepG2) and cervical (Hela) cancer cell lines, stimulatory/inhibitory effects on normal rat splenic cells and hemolytic effects on red blood cells). Results showed that ZnO SNPs has no cytotoxic effects on vital organ like liver and has no hemolytic action on red blood cells. ZnO SNPs showed inhibitory consequence on normal rat splenic cells growth at all tested concentrations. ZnO nanoparticles showed an inhibitory effect on HepG2 cell line. While showed stimulatory effect on Hela cell line. Current study presents the synthesized ZnO SNPs as highly applicable in bio-optoelectronics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0192.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Anti-Glare; spray-coating; gloss; haze; response surface methodology
Online: 27 February 2019 (08:56:00 CET)
The process of preparing anti-glare thin films by spray-coating silica sol-gel to soda-lime glass was exclusively and statistically studied in this paper. The effects of sol-gel deliver pressure, air transport pressure, and spray gun displacement speed on the gloss, haze, arithmetic mean surface roughness, and total transmittance light were analyzed. The experimental results indicate that the factors of sol-gel deliver pressure, air transport pressure, and displacement speed exhibit significant effect on the haze, gloss, and Ra. In contrast, the variation of total transmittance light with these three factors are insignificant. Because the anti-glare property is predominantly determined by low gloss and high haze, therefore, we aim to minimize gloss and maximize haze to achieve high anti-glare. Central composite design and response rurface methodology are employed to analyze the main and interaction effects of the three factors through quadratic polynomial equations, which are confirmed by the analysis of variance and R2. The response surface methodology predict the lowest gloss and highest haze are 9.2 GU and 57.0%, corresponding to the sol-gel deliver pressure, air-transport pressure, and displacement speed of 250 kPa, 560 kPa, and 140 mm/s, and 340 kPa, 620 kPa, and 20 mm/s, respectively. Comparing the predicted optimal data with the real experimental results validates the applicability of the mathematical model. This study provides an important basis for the subsequent production of anti-glare glass with different specifications to satisfy the market demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Anti-proliferation; Brassica vegetables; Human disease; Isothiocyanates; MTT assay
Online: 3 July 2018 (17:26:00 CEST)
Sulforaphene (SFE), a major isothiocyanate in radish seeds, is a close chemical relative of sulforaphane (SFA) isolated from broccoli seeds and florets. The anti-proliferative mechanisms of SFA against cancer cells have been well investigated, but little is known about the potential anti-proliferative effects of SFE. In this study, we showed that SFE purified from radish seeds inhibited the growth of six cancer cell lines (A549, CHO, HeLa, Hepa1c1c7, HT-29, and LnCaP), with relative half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 1.37 to 3.31 g/mL. Among the six cancer cell lines evaluated, SFE showed the greatest growth inhibition against A549 lung cancer cells. In A549 cells, SFE induced apoptosis via changes in the levels of poly (adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase and caspase-3, -8, and -9. Our results indicate that SFE from radish seeds may have significant anti-proliferative potency against a broad range of human cancer cells via induction of apoptosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: anti-malaria activity; plants; natural products; ethnopharmacology; Plasmodium parasites
Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:07 CEST)
Malaria, as a major global health problem, continues to affect a large number of people each year, especially those in the developing countries. Effective drug discovery is still one of the main efforts to control malaria. As natural products are still considered as a key source for discovery and development of therapeutic agents, we have evaluated more than 2000 plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. As a result, we discovered dozens of plant leads that displayed antimalarial activity. Our phytochemical study of some of these plant extracts led to identification of several potent antimalarial compounds. The prior comprehensive review article entitled “Antimalarial activity of plant metabolites” by Schwikkard and Van Heerden (2002) reported structures of plant-derived compounds with antiplasmodial activity and covered literature up to the year 2000. As a continuation of this effort, the present review covers the antimalarial compounds isolated from plants, including marine plants, reported in the literatures from 2001 to the end of 2017. During the span of the last 17 years, 175 antiplasmodial compounds were discovered from plants. These active compounds are organized in our review article according to their plant families. In addition, we also include ethnobotanical information of the antimalarial plants discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0221.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: ultra-low anti-reflection coating; ellipsometer; optical admittance method
Online: 31 May 2017 (11:50:18 CEST)
An ultra-low anti-reflection optical coating on both surfaces of a plastic cover slip was studied for use in confocal image measurement. The optical reflectance at a wavelength of 632.8 nm was less than 0.1% when the coated sample was placed in a liquid having a refractive index of 1.34 close to the aqueous solution of the biomaterial. The high- and low-index coating films, Substance-2 (PrTiO3) and silicon dioxide (SiO2), were measured by an ellipsometer to determine their optical refraction indices and extinction coefficients. Theoretically, when the two layer thicknesses are designed using the optical admittance diagram of the cover slip to approach the equivalent index of 1.34, a reflectance of 1.6×10-5% in the liquid could be obtained. Experimentally, the reflectance of the sample deposited on the two faces of the cover slip was 4.223±0.145% as measured in the air; and 0.050±0.002% as measured by a He-Ne laser in the liquid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, anti-inflamatory cytokines, resistance exercise
Online: 23 May 2017 (07:30:43 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β during an acute bout of resistance exercise (RE) in young resistance trained men. Ten resistance-trained men in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover study, were administered a 7-day HMB supplementation (3×1 g.d-1 of HMB) and placebo (3×1 g.d-1 of Maltodextrin) with a 7 days washout period. After supplementation periods, subjects performed three sets of bench press, lat pull down, leg extension, leg curl, biceps curl, triceps curl and shoulder press to failure with 85% of one repetition to maximum (1RM). Blood samples were obtained before- (Pre), immediately post- (IP) and 1 hour-post RE (1h P) to assess serum concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1. The data were analyzed using 2 (treatment: HMB and PL) × 3 (time points: Pre, IP and 1hP) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test with a significant level of p<0.05. Serum IL-4 was significantly higher at IP resistance exercise in HMB compared to placebo. Circulating IL-4 and TGF-β1 were significantly raised at IP compared to Pre in both HMB and placebo treatments. No significant differences between treatments were observed for IL-10 and TGF-β1at any time points. In conclusion, HMB supplementation increased the circulating level of IL-4 during RE in resistance-trained men, which may attenuate inflammation and facilitate adaptation to RE.
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: oleanolic acid derivatives; synthesis; anti-tumor activity; molecular docking; computer-aided drug design
Online: 24 April 2017 (12:08:36 CEST)
Using the techniques of computer-aided drug design, the docking of Survivin and known active small molecules was simulated and then the key amino acid residue fragment of the target protein was analyzed. It led to the discovery of active groups capable of binding to the critical sites. Through the use of the natural product, Oleanolic Acid, as a lead compound, the introduction of the active groups onto the A-ring, and the modification of the carboxyl group at the C-28 position using esterification or amidation, twenty new Oleanolic acid derivatives had been designed and synthesized.A549 and SGC-7901 cells were used to screen the antitumor activity in vitro through the standard MTT method. The compounds, II3, III5 and Ⅳ4, exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than positive drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0008.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Superhydrophobic; Water-repellent; Chemical etching; Self-cleaning; Anti-fogging
Online: 2 January 2017 (17:27:05 CET)
Development of the self-cleaning and anti-fogging superhydrophobic coating for aluminum surfaces which is durable in the aggressive conditions has raised tremendous interest in materials science. In this work, by employing chemical etching technique with mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acid, followed by passivation with lauric acid, superhydrophobic aluminum surface was synthesized. The surface morphology analysis reveals the presence of rough microstructures on coated aluminium surface. Superhydrophobicity with water contact angle of 170 ± 3.9° and sliding angle of 4 ± 0.5° is achieved. Surface bounces off the high speed water jet, indicating excellent water-repellent nature of coating. It is also continuously floated on water surface for several weeks, showing excellent buoyancy nature. Additionally, coating maintains its superhydrophobicity after undergoing 100 cycles of adhesive tape peeling test. Its superhydrophobic nature withstands 90° and 180° bending, and repeated folding and de-folding. Coating exhibits the excellent self-cleaning property. In low temperature condensation test, almost no accumulation of water drops on the surface, showing the excellent anti-fogging property of coating. This approach can be applied to any size and shape of aluminium surface and hence has great industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0001.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Pump station, Sump, Anti-vortex device, Flow pattern, Vortex
Online: 3 October 2016 (11:15:07 CEST)
A pump station is a very important flood control facility for mitigating inundation of urban lowland areas. It is not easy to secure a site to increase the capacity of a pump station in an urban area because of various limitations or to maximize the discharge capacity of the pump sump. Adding a facility to improve the pump capacity of a pump station may affect the flow characteristics, such as unexpected increases in the flow velocity and vorticity, and cause severe problems with operating the pump station. To solve those problems, anti-vortex devices (AVDs) have been developed and adopted for appropriate design standards. The Korean design criteria for AVDs are based on experience and foreign standards because not enough data on the AVD are available. In this study, the flow in the sump was numerically simulated at various AVD heights to collect information on improving the design and efficiency of a pump station. Consequently, an appropriate height for the AVD and changes in the flow pattern and vortex in the pump sump were determined and compared with 12 cases of inflow conditions with respect to the vertical location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: rosmarinic acid; anti-inflammatory activity; comet assay; sunscreen; skin biocompatibility
Online: 27 June 2022 (13:22:01 CEST)
The skin acts as a protective barrier, guarding the body against microorganisms, chemicals, and several environmental factors. Accordingly, this all-important organ must be kept healthy to maintain its optimal functionality. One approach to maintain skin health is the application of multifunction bioactive sunscreens containing antioxidant molecule(s). Rosmarinic acid (RA), a phenolic compound, is known for its antioxidant activity. Herein, the safety and efficacy of a multifunction prototype sunscreen were investigated, aiming to probe putative synergies of this polyphenol with two known and widely used UV filters (bemotrizinol and octyl p-methoxycinnamate). Samples protected the DNA fragmentation compared to UV control, by the comet assay, and showed good skin compatibility in subjects. Formulations F1 and F3 were able to increase skin hydration, and, possibly, the RA interfered with this attribute. An increase in transepidermal water loss was observed for formulations F1, F2 and F4, which may be related to vehicle containing or not the RA. No decreases were observed in the inflammatory reaction caused by the ethyl nicotinate with any of the evaluated formulations. As a perspective, we suggest trials with a greater number of subjects or protocol modifications. Altering the vehicle qualitative and quantitative composition is also a pertinent perspective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Tenofovir; Pre-exposure prophylaxis; anti-retroviral therapy; cardiovascular disease; LGBT
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:11:31 CEST)
The introduction of tenofovir-derived prodrugs has revolutionised the prevention and management of HIV, which has coincided with 23% reduction in new HIV incidences globally. To date, there are two formulations of tenofovir-derived nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI): tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate/emtricitabine (TAF/FTC). Although these prodrugs have shown favourable safety profile, their effects on cardiovascular health are differ from one another: TDF/FTC exhibits potential lipid-lowering effect, TAF/FTC demonstrates potential lipid-inducing effect, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, this issue has not been previously elucidated, especially among the marginalised populations [lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) and men who have sex with men (MSM)] who are likely be the main users of these prodrugs. This is of clinically significance as the cardiovascular health in these populations is often overlooked, in addition to a lack of appropriate cardiovascular risk prediction algorithm. Therefore, this review aims to (1) highlight the cardiovascular risks of tenofovir-derived prodrugs in the marginalized populations, and also to (2) establish the importance of having a cardiovascular risk prediction model that is specific to this particular populations so that their health management could be more comprehensive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0359.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway; Meridianin derivatives; Isothiouronium; Anti-tumor activity
Online: 24 January 2022 (14:06:38 CET)
Hyperactivation of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is an attractive therapeutic target for tumor therapy. Herein, forty-eight novel meridianin derivatives were designed and synthesized, and their anti-tumor activity were evaluated in vitro both for activity optimization and structure-activity relationship (SAR) study. The results indicated that most derivatives exhibited significantly improved anti-tumor activity, especially for compound 6e. The compound 6e contains an isothiouronium linked by an alkyl chain consisting of 6 carbon atoms with IC50 ranging from 1.11 to 2.80 μM on various cancer cell lines. Consistently, 6e dose dependently induced the apoptosis of A549 and DU145 cells, in which STAT3 are constitutively active. Western blotting assays indicated that the phosphorylation levels of JAK1, JAK2 and STAT3 were inhibited by 6e at 5 μM without significant change in total STAT3 level. Moreover, 6e also suppressed the expressions of STAT3 downstream genes, including c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and Bcl-XL at 10 μM. An additional in vivo study revealed that 6e at the dose of 10 mg/kg could potently inhibit the DU145 xenograft tumor without obvious body-weight loss. These results clearly indicate that 6e could be a potential anti-tumor agent by targeting JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: obesity; diabetes mellitus; anti-obesity drugs; obesity metabolism; energy balance
Online: 1 September 2021 (17:29:05 CEST)
Obesity represents a major public health problem with a prevalence increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Continuous intensive efforts to elucidate the complex pathophysiology and improve clinical management have led to a better understanding of biomolecules like gut hormones, an-tagonists of orexigenic signals, stimulants of fat utilization, and/or inhibitors of fat absorption. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of obesity including inter-section points to the new generation of antidiabetic drugs. We provide insight into the effective-ness of currently approved anti-obesity drugs and other therapeutic avenues that can be explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0195.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: perovskite solar cells, electron transport layer, 2D perovskite, anti-solvent
Online: 7 June 2021 (16:15:59 CEST)
Surface passivation, which has been intensively studied recently, is essential for the perovskite solar cells (PSCs), due to the intrinsic defects in perovskite crystal. A series of chemical or physical methods have been published for passivating the defects of perovskite, which effectively suppressed the charge recombination and enhanced the photovoltaic performance. In this study, the n-type semiconductor of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is dissolved in chlorobenzene (CB) for the surface passivation during the spin-coating process for depositing the two-dimensional (2D) perovskite film. This approach simplifies the fabrication process of 2D PSCs and benefits the film quality. As a result, the defects of perovskite film are effectively passivated by this method. A better perovskite/PCBM heterojunction is generated, exhibiting an increased film coverage and improved film morphology of PCBM. It is found that this technology results in an improved electron transporting performance as well as suppressed charge recombination for electron transport layer. As a result, PSCs based on the one-step formed perovskite/PCBM heterojunctions exhibit the optimized power conversion efficiency of 15.69% which is about 37% higher than that of regular perovskite devices. The device environmental stability is also enhanced due to the quality-improved electron transport layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0392.v1
Subject: Keywords: Age; adherence; anti-hypertensive; Controlled hypertension; clinic; hypertension; Prevalence; Systemic
Online: 17 May 2021 (15:57:01 CEST)
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of controlled systemic hypertension and its associated risk factors among the hypertensive patients who attended the clinic at Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital in Tanzania. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was used determine the prevalence of co to 252 hypertensive patients were recruited during clinic visit from September to November 2020 and participant was randomly selected interviews using structured self-administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed using chi square test to find the risk factors associated with controlled hypertension. Results: Among 252 participants, 94(39.7%) individuals with controlled hypertension giving the prevalence of controlled hypertension. The proportion of females with controlled hypertension was slightly higher than male (49 females to 45 males). The prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension was 152(60.3%) participants. The prevalence of controlled hypertension was higher among patients who have regular clinic visit (p< .05) and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. A similar trend was observed among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic, short duration of illness, higher level of education and there was no association between age, sex, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having health insurance and having chronic illness. Conclusion: Prevalence of controlled hypertension is higher among patients who have regular clinic visit and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. Also, it is higher among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic so they can have regular clinic visit and checkup. Reinforcement on regular drug intake and clinic visit, good nutrition and reduced salt intake and modifying lifestyles of patient with hypertension is important.
Online: 17 May 2021 (10:57:06 CEST)
Smart air filters are beneficial to provide highly efficient particle removal, treat multiple contaminants simultaneously and conserve energy during air filtration processes. Herein, a type of self-supporting smart air filter (SSSAF) was fabricated by sandwiching the VOC-responsive PZT/PVDF electrospun membrane with two metal mesh electrodes. Besides the high filtration efficiency for sub-micron particles, the SSSAF showed good responses to pressure drop in the range of 0 to 500 Pa via the electroactivity of PZT/PVDF membrane. In addition, the SSSAF achieved VOC sensing function via the swelling properties of PZT/PVDF membrane in organic vapors, demonstrated by its signal to 50 to 200 ppm ethanol gases. The SSSAF based nanogenerator was employed to harvest wind energy, which was further applied to inhibit bacterial growth without the need of additional power input. The results provide new insight into development of all-in-one smart air filters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0291.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Soil anti-scourability; Soil erodibility; Artificial simulated rainfallSoil aggregates; Erodibility
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:06:26 CEST)
Purpose - Soil aggregates are of great significance to soil and water conservation and ecological environment construction in arid area of northwest district．Methods - Exploring the effects of different vegetation includes types and land use methods on the stability of soil aggregates in the Loess Plateau, and provide reference for the rational use and management of land, also the improvement of soil structure in the region. Select 9 types of samples of 0-30 cm of typical soil plots as the research objects, compare and analyze the particle size index, stability differences and anti-erodibility of soil aggregates under various vegetation cover. Results - The results show that P value, MWD value, GMD value, D value, and AI value of the 0-10cm surface soil all show the maximum value. As the depth increases, the size distribution of the above index values of each soil sample in the 10-20cm and 20-30cm layers is different; P value in the 0-30cm depth layer is linearly positively correlated with the AI value and MWD value, and linearly negatively correlated with the D value. The correlation coefficient R between each variable is in the range of 0.78-0.97, and the D value reflects the Loess Plateau area stability and erosion resistance of soil aggregates better. GMD and MWD value show an exponential relationship, the correlation coefficient R value of 10-20cm height layer is 0.46; AI and MWD value in 0-10cm, 20-30cm height layer have a power function relationship, 10-20cm height layer has a polynomial function, the correlation coefficient R value is 0.97. The scour coefficient of different soil samples has a high degree of dispersion, the maximum CV value is 1.92, and the minimum value is 0.49. Conclusions - The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis for the ecological and hydrological benefit evaluation of slope erosion control and vegetation restoration on the Loess Plateau.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Heparins; Anti-FXa Assays; Automation; Calibration Curves Superimposition; Dextran Sulfate
Online: 4 March 2021 (16:52:35 CET)
Heparins, Unfractionated or Low Molecular Weight, are permanently at the spotlight of both clinical indications and laboratory monitoring. An accurate drug dosage is necessary for an effi-cient and safe therapy. The one-stage anti-FXa kinetics’ assays are the most widely and universally used with full automation for large series, without needing exogenous Antithrombin. WHO in-ternational standards are available for UFH and LMWH, but external quality assessment surveys still report a high inter-assay variability. This heterogeneity results from: assay formulation, designed without or with dextran sulfate to measure all heparin in blood circulation; calibrators for testing UFH or LMWH with the same curve; and automation parameters. The various factors which impact heparin measurements are reviewed, and we share our experience to optimize assays for completely testing plasma heparin. Evidence is provided on the usefulness of low molecular weight dextran sulfate to mobilize all drug present in blood circulation. Other key factors concern adjustment of assay conditions to obtain fully superimposable calibration curves for UFH and LMWH, and automation parameters. The study is illustrated by the performances of the various anti-FXa assays used for testing heparin on UFH or LMWH treated patients’ plasmas and obtained using citrate or CTAD anticoagulants. Comparable results are obtained only when CTAD anti-coagulant is used. Using citrate UFH is underestimated in the absence of dextran sulfate. Heparin calibrators, adjustment of automation parameters and data treatment contribute to other smaller differences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0675.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Breast cancer; Estrogen Receptor; PI3K-AKT-mTOR; anti-estrogen resistance
Online: 28 December 2020 (09:22:17 CET)
Signaling from estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and its ligand estradiol (E2) is critical for growth of ~70% of breast cancers. Therefore, several drugs that inhibit ER functions are in clinical use for decades and new classes of anti-estrogens are continuously being developed. Although a significant number of ER+ breast cancers respond to anti-estrogen therapy, ~30% of these breast cancers recur, sometimes even after 20 years of initial diagnosis. Mechanism of resistance to anti-estrogens is one of the intensely studied disciplines in breast cancer. Several mechanisms have been proposed including mutations in ESR1, crosstalk between growth factor and ER signaling, and interplay between cell cycle machinery and ER signaling. ESR1 mutations as well as crosstalk with other signaling networks lead to ligand independent activation of ER thus rendering anti-estrogens ineffective, particularly when treatment involved anti-estrogens that do not degrade ERa. As a result of these studies, several therapies that combine anti-estrogens that degrade ER with PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors targeting growth factor signaling or CDK4/6 inhibitors targeting cell cycle machinery are used clinically to treat recurrent ER+ breast cancers. In this review, we discuss nexus between ER-PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways and how understanding of this nexus has helped to develop combination therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0182.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; comorbidity; aging; hallmarks of aging; anti-aging
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:25:28 CEST)
Within the past several decades, the emergence of new viral diseases with severe health complications and mortality is evidence of an age-dependent, compromised bodily response to abrupt stress with concomitantly reduced immunity. The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2, causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has increased morbidity and mortality in persons with underlying chronic diseases and those with a compromised immune system regardless of age and in older adults who are more likely to have these conditions. While SARS-CoV-2 is highly virulent, there is variability in the severity of the disease and its complications in humans. Severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung fibrosis, cardiovascular events, acute kidney injury, stroke, hospitalization, and mortality have been reported that result from pathogen–host interactions. Hallmarks of aging, interacting with one another, have been proposed to influence health span in older adults, possibly via mechanisms regulating the immune system. Here, we review the potential roles of the hallmarks of aging coupled with host–coronavirus interactions. Of these hallmarks, we focused on those that directly or indirectly interact with viral infections, including immunosenescence, inflammation and inflammasomes, adaptive immunosenescence, genomic instability, mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, and impaired autophagy. These hallmarks likely contribute to the increased pathophysiological responses to SARS-CoV-2 among older adults and may play roles as an additive risk of accelerated biological aging even after recovery. We also briefly discuss the role of anti-aging drug candidates that require paramount attention in COVID-19 research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; Cytokine Storm; Lung Injury; Thalidomide; Anti-inflammatory Drug
Online: 3 May 2020 (07:31:53 CEST)
The new pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide threatening health issue. Early progression of this disease starts in the lung airways with an exaggerated inflammation, triggered by the viral infection and characterized by a “cytokine storm” that can lead to lethal lung injuries. In the absence of an effective anti-viral molecule and until the formulation of a successful vaccine, anti-inflammatory drugs might offer a complementary tool for controlling the associated complications and thus decreasing the subsequent fatalities. Drug repurposing for several molecules has emerged as a rapid temporary solution for COVID-19. Among these drugs, Thalidomide, a historically emblematic controversial molecule that harbors an FDA approval for treating Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) and multiple myeloma (MM). Based on only one-case report of positive outcomes in a patient treated amongst others with Thalidomide, two clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of Thalidomide in treating severe respiratory complications in COVID-19 patients were registered. Conversely, the absence of any substantial, promising evidence on Thalidomide usage in that context along with the discontinued studies on the efficiency of this drug in similar pulmonary diseases might cause a significant obstacle for carrying on clinical studies. In this review, we will discuss the theoretical effectiveness of this drug in attenuating inflammatory complications that are encountered in patients with COVID-19 while pinpointing the lack of evidence that is needed to move forward with this drug.
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Anti-viral; Carrageenan; Coronavirus; COVID-19; Porphyridium; sulfated polysaccharides (SPs)
Online: 10 April 2020 (07:49:11 CEST)
COVID 19, a pandemic spread without any solid anti-viral antidote. Researchers worldwide are currently giving their best to make antidote for this virus with all available literatures and knowledge. Research carried out indicates sulfated polysaccharides (carrageenan) are selective inhibitors of several enveloped and non-enveloped viruses and act predominantly by inhibiting the binding or internalization of virus into the host cells. Polysaccharides produced from Porphyridium sp. are sulfated polysaccharides which are promising antiviral agents against respiratory viruses from the family of coronavirus. These biocompatible compounds can be used as a coating material on the sanitary items for COVID-19 prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0081.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Berberine; Lipophilic substituent; Anti-cancer activity; Photocytotoxicity; Reactive oxygen species
Online: 9 January 2020 (11:30:40 CET)
The objective of this study was to synthesize 9-/13-position substituted berberine derivatives and evaluated their cytotoxic and photocytotoxic effects against three human cancer cell lines. Among all the synthesized compounds, 9-O-dodecyl- (5e), 13-dodecyl- (6e) and 13-O-dodecyl-berberine (7e) exhibited stronger growth inhibition against three human cancer cell lines, (HepG2, HT-29 and BFTC905), in compare with structurally related berberine (1). These three compounds also showed the photocytotoxicity in human cancer cells in a concentration-dependent and light dose-dependent manner. Through flow cytometry analysis, we found out a lipophilic group at 9-/13-position of berberine may have facilitated its penetration into test cell and hence enhanced its photocytotoxicity on human liver cancer cell HepG2. Further, in cell cycle analysis, 5e, 6e and 7e induced HepG2 cells to arrest at S phase and caused apoptosis upon irradiation. In addition, photodynamic treatment of berberine (1) and its derivatives 5e, 6e and 7e again showed a significant photocytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells, induced remarkable cell apoptosis, greatly increased intracellular ROS level and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results over and again confirmed that berberine derivatives 5e, 6e and 7e greatly enhanced photocytotoxicity. Taking together, the test data led us to conclude that berberine derivatives with a dodecyl group at 9-/13-position could be great candidates for the anti-liver cancer medicines developments.