ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0088.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: migraine; cortical spreading deapression (CSD); calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP); trigeminal ganglion; in situ hybridization
Online: 3 May 2023 (02:31:59 CEST)
Migraine is a debilitating neurovascular disorder characterized by recurrent headache attacks of moderate to severe intensity. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (GGRP), which is abundantly expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, plays a crucial role in migraine pathogenesis. Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD), the biological correlate of migraine aura, activates the trigeminovascular system. In the present study, we investigated CGRP mRNA expression in TG neurons in a CSD-based mouse migraine model. Our in situ hybridization analysis showed that CGRP mRNA expression was observed in smaller neuronal populations. CSD did not significantly change the density of CGRP mRNA-synthesizing neurons in the ipsilateral TG. However, the cell sizes of CGRP mRNA-synthesizing TG neurons were significantly larger in the 48 h and 72 h post-CSD groups than in the control group. The proportions of CGRP mRNA-synthesizing TG neurons bearing cell diameters less than 14 μm became significantly less at several time points after CSD. In contrast, we found significantly greater proportions of CGRP mRNA-synthesizing TG neurons bearing cell diameters of 14–18 μm at 24 h, 48, and 72 h post-CSD. We deduce that the CSD-induced upward cell size shift in CGRP mRNA-synthesizing TG neurons might be causative of greater disease activity and/or less responsiveness to CGRP-based therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1459.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: TLR (toll-like receptor) 9; cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide; CAMP; TNFα; adipocyte; adipose tissue; innate immunity
Online: 22 May 2023 (03:55:19 CEST)
Understanding the complex interactions between metabolism and the immune system (“meta-flammation”) is crucial for the identification of key immunomodulatory factors as potential therapeutic targets in obesity and in cardiovascular diseases. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) is an important factor of innate immunity and is expressed in adipocytes. CAMP therefore might play a role as an adipokine in metaflammation and adipose inflammation. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 is another component of the innate immune system that is expressed and functionally active in adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of TLR9 signaling on CAMP expression in adipocytes and in adipose tissue. CAMP gene expression in murine 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes and in murine and human adipose tissues was quantified by real-time PCR. TLR9 knockdown was applied in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes via siRNA transfection. Adipocyte inflammation was induced in vitro by TNFα stimulation. Serum CAMP concentrations in TLR9 knockout (KO) and in wildtype mice were quantified by ELISA. CAMP gene expression was considerably increased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes during differentiation. TNFα significantly induced CAMP gene expression in mature adipocytes, which was antagonized by inhibitors of NF-κB and PI3K signaling. Cell-free nucleic acids (cfDNA) as endogenous TLR9 ligand significantly impaired CAMP gene expression, whereas synthetic agonistic and antagonistic TLR9 ligands had no effect. Cellular TLR9 knockdown reduced adipocyte CAMP gene expression in vitro and male TLR9 knockout mice exhibited lower systemic CAMP concentrations than wildtype mice. CAMP and TLR9 gene expression were correlated positively in murine and human subcutaneous but not in intraabdominal/visceral adipose tissues. These findings suggest a regulatory role of TRL9 in adipocytic CAMP expression as a novel putative molecular mechanism in adipose tissue innate immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0991.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; antiphospholipid syndrome; vascular thrombosis; antiphospholipid antibodies; anticardiolipin antibodies (aCLA); anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-β2GPI); anti phosphatidylserine-prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:22:52 CEST)
Background: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are a laboratory criterion for the classification of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), and are known to cause clinical symptoms: vascular thrombosis or obstetric complications. It is suggested that aPL may be associated with thromboembolism in severe COVID-19 cases. Aim: to combine clinical data with aPL findings at 4 time points (admission, worsening, discharge, 3-month follow-up) in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: current and past history of thrombosis and obstetric complications; aPL determined at 4 time points: anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-β2-glycoprotein I (anti- β2GPI) and antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) of the IgM, IgG or IgA isotypes. Results: 111 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were enrolled. During hospitalization, 7 patients died, 3 of them due to pulmonary artery thromboembolism (none was aPL positive). Only one of the five who developed pulmonary artery thrombosis was aPL positive. Of 9/101 patients with a history of thrombosis, 5 had arterial thrombosis and none was aPL positive at admission and follow-up; 4 had venous thrombosis and one was aPL positive at all time points (newly diagnosed APS). Of these 9/101 patients, 55.6% were transiently aPL positive at discharge only, compared to 26.1% without history of thrombosis (p=0.05). Conclusions: aPL were not associated with fatal outcomes and vascular thrombosis; aPL were transiently positive in more than half of patients with a history of thrombosis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibodies; cluster headache; migraine; real-world; galcanezumab; fremanezumab; comorbidity
Online: 26 January 2023 (04:24:39 CET)
A new treatment option for cluster headache (CH) prevention is needed. Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ligands are used as a preventative treatment for migraine. Considering the CGRP’s role in the CH attack’s ignition and upkeep, fremanezumab and galcanezumab have been evaluated for CH preventative treatment. However, only high-dose (300 mg) galcanezumab was proven for episodic CH prevention. We herein report 3 cases of migraine and comorbid CH with previous failures of preventive treatments. The 2 cases were treated with fremanezumab and the one with non-high-dose galcanezumab. All 3 cases showed good results not only on migraine but also on CH attacks. Our report suggested the efficacy of CGRP-mABs for CH prevention. Our cases differed from the cases in the phase 3 trials of CGRP-mABs for CH prevention in the following 2 points. First, the patients had both migraine and comorbid CH. Second, the combined use of CGRP-mABs with preventative drugs for CH, such as verapamil and/or prednisolone, was performed. Future accumulation of real-world data may prove the efficacy of CGRP-mABs for CH prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: allergic severe asthma; anti-IgE; Omalizumab; observational study; children
Online: 11 October 2021 (13:54:56 CEST)
Background: Asthma is the most common chronic disease affecting children and altering their quality of life. The severity of asthma is often modulated by immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergen sensitization and is associated with comorbid allergic dis-eases. Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody anti-IgE, the first biological therapy approved to treat patients aged ≥6 years with severe allergic asthma. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of Omali-zumab in Romanian paediatric patients with severe allergic asthma. Methods: In this observational real-life study, 12 children aged 6 to 18 years, (mean age 12.4 years ) with severe allergic asthma received Omalizumab as an add-on treatment. The levels of asthma control, exacerbations, lung function and adverse events were evaluated at baseline and after the first year of treatment. Results: We noticed general improvements in total asthma symptom scores and the rate of exacerbation of severe asthma. Omalizumab increased the initial variables of lung function, and no serious adverse reactions were reported. FEV1 improved statistically significant after one year of treatment with Omalizumab, [ΔFEV1 (% pred.) =18.3, and similarly, ΔMEF50 (%) = 25.8]. The mean severe exacerbation rates due to asthma decreased from 4.1 (2.8 SD) to 1.15 (0.78 SD) during the treatment year (p<0.0001) with Omalizumab. Conclusions: Treatment with Omalizumab can be an effective and safe therapeutic option for Romanian children with severe allergic asthma, providing clinically relevant in-formation on asthma control and exacerbation rate in children and adolescents. The results highlighted the effect of Omalizumab in young patients, starting from the first year of treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0055.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: IgA vasculitis; antiphospholipid antibodies; lupus anticoagulant; anticardiolipin antibodies; anti-b2 glycoprotein antibodies
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:36:58 CET)
IgA vasculitis is a hypersensitivity vasculitis, which is usually self-limiting. Renal involvement is the most damaging long-term complication of IgA vasculitis, happening in 20% - 100% of cases. Some factors have been reported to be associated with renal involvement in IgA vasculitis; however, no biomarker has been proved as a risk factor for renal involvement and its severity yet. We followed 48 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of IgA vasculitis for six months. We checked these patients for renal involvement by microscopic urine examination. We checked aPL antibodies in all patients on admission and 12 weeks later. Urinalysis showed renal involvement in 14 of 48 patients with IgA vasculitis (29.16%). Antiphospholipid antibodies were positive in 9 patients with IgA vasculitis and renal involvement (9 out of 14, 64.28%), while they were positive in only six patients with IgA vasculitis without renal involvement (6 out of 34, 17.64%), showing a moderate correlation between positive aLP and renal involvement in patients with IgA vasculitis, with a kappa index of 0.457. Serum aPL antibodies, as a tool to predict renal involvement in IgA vasculitis, show a sensitivity of 64.3%, a specificity of 82.4%, PPV of 60.0%, and NPV of 84.8%, demonstrating that a positive serum aPL antibody can be used to positively predict the renal involvement, while a negative result is not strong enough to rule out future renal involvement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: autoimmune inflamation with antibodies,; anti-NMDAR antibodies,; anti-AMPAR antibodies,; anti-GQ1b antibodies,; anti-DPPX antibodies,; anti-CASPR2 antibodies,; anti-LGI1 antibodies,; encephalitis,; psychoses
Online: 1 August 2023 (11:37:28 CEST)
Encephalitis is a condition with a variety of etiologies, clinical presentations and degrees of severity. The causes of these disorders include both neuroinfections and autoimmune diseases in which host antibodies are pathologically directed against self antigens. In autoimmune encephalitis, autoantibodies are expressed in the central nervous system. The incidence of this disease is approximately 4% of all reported cases of encephalitis. Autoimmune encephalitis can be induced by antibodies against neuronal surface antigens such as N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated glutamate receptors (NMDAR), ⍺-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPAR) or gangliosides GQ1b, DPPX, CASPR2, LGI1, as well as by antibodies against neuronal intracellular antigens. The paper presents a number of both mental and neurological symptoms of autoimmune encephalitis. Moreover, the coexistence of psychoses, neoplastic diseases and the methods of diagnosing autoimmune encephalitis are discussed. Attention was also drawn to the fact that early diagnosis, as well as early initiation of targeted treatment, increases the chance of a successful course of the therapeutic process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2067.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: anti-DNA antibodies; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); penetration; endocytosis; neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs); NETosis; pathogenesis
Online: 31 October 2023 (12:34:43 CET)
Anti-DNA antibodies are hallmark autoantibodies produced in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but their pathogenetic roll is not fully understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that some anti-DNA antibodies enter different types of live cells and affect the pathophysiology of SLE by stimulating or impairing these cells. Circulating neutrophils in SLE are activated by type I interferon or other stimuli and primed to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) on additional stimulation. Anti-DNA antibodies are also involved in this process and may induce NET release. Thereafter, they bind and protect extracellular DNA in the NETs from digestion by nucleases, resulting in increased NET immunogenicity. This review discusses the pathogenetic role of anti-DNA antibodies in SLE, mainly focusing on recent progress in the two research fields concerning antibody penetration into live cells and NETosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0347.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: choroidal neovascularization; neovascular age-related macular degeneration; calreticulin anti-angiogenic domain
Online: 18 September 2018 (06:27:47 CEST)
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a key pathological feature of several of the leading causes of vision loss including neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Here we show that a calreticulin anti-angiogenic domain (CAD)-like peptide 27, CAD27, inhibited in vitro angiogenic activities, including tube formation and migration of endothelial cells, and suppressed vascular sprouting from rat aortic ring explants. In rat model of laser-induced CNV, we demonstrate that intravitreal injection of CAD27 significantly attenuated the formation of CNV lesions as measured via fundus fluorescein angiography and choroid flat-mounts (19.5% and 22.4% reductions at 10μg and 20μg of CAD27 injected, respectively). Similarly, the reduction of CNV lesions was observed in the groups of rats that had received topical applications of CAD27 (choroid flat-mounts: 17.9% and 32.5% reductions at 10μg/mL and 20μg/mL of CAD27 installed, respectively). Retinal function was unaffected, as measured using electroretinography in both groups received interareal injection or topical applications of CAD27 at least for 9 days. These findings show that CAD27 can be used as a potential therapeutic alternative for targeting CNV in the diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0219.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections; vaccines; anti-spike antibody levels; humoral response; IgG specific salivary antibodies
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:28:02 CET)
SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections, associated with waning immunity, increase systemic antibody levels. In this study, we analyzed the impact of the infection timing on the magnitude of the systemic humoral response and whether breakthrough infections also boost antibody levels in the salivary compartment. We observed that the combination of infection plus vaccination, regardless of infection timing, produced a sharp increase of systemic antibodies, being higher in subjects infected after third doses. Moreover, despite high systemic antibody levels, breakthrough infections after dose 3 occurred and boosted antibody levels in the salivary compartment. These results lead to rethink the current vaccination strategies against COVID-19 and the use of salivary anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies for disease surveillance and vaccination follow-up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0396.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: macular degeneration; adherence; treatment; anti-VEGF
Online: 7 November 2023 (08:22:26 CET)
Background The evolution of treatment patterns in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) warrants investigation into the impact of patients’ adherence to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment on visual outcomes. This retrospective, non-randomized, non-comparative study aimed to investigate real-world adherence to anti-VEGF treatment. Methods Patients (eyes) (≥ 50 years) with a diagnosis of nAMD who had a first injection of aflibercept or ranibizumab between January 2016 and December 2018 and 12 months of follow-up were included. Visual acuity (VA; logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution letters) and duration of injection intervals were recorded. Adherence was defined as < 20% of visits deviating from the schedule by ≥ 14 days. Results Overall, 133 patient eyes were included: 129 adherent, 4 non-adherent. Mean (± standard deviation) baseline VA was 57.0 (± 23.6) and 53.8 (± 35.3) letters in adherent and non-adherent patient eyes, respectively. Mean change in VA by month 12 was higher in adherent (6.3 letters) than non-adherent patient eyes (−11 letters). In non-adherent patient eyes, no improvement in VA was recorded following completion of the loading period (month 3). Compared with the previous visit, adherent visits were associated with a mean increase in VA of 0.67 letters and non-adherent visits with a decrease of 2.30 letters. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of adherence to appropriate dosing regimens to optimize visual outcomes in patients with nAMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1992.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Feta cheese; Metsovone cheese; antioxidant activity; peptide content; anti-inflammatory activity
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:32:13 CET)
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and peptide levels of Feta cheese and other brined cheeses, and Metsovone cheese, and other smoked cheeses. The antioxidant activity was determined by Folin and FRAP assays, while the peptide content was determined by Bradford and Lowry assays. The assays were applied in the water soluble extract of cheeses. The results showed that Feta cheese and brined cow cheese differ in antioxidant activity. Feta cheese and brined goat cheese also differ in both antioxidant activity and peptide levels. Results also showed that Metsovone cheese and other smoked cheeses exhibit antioxidant activity and significant peptide levels. Moreover, the water soluble extracts of all cheeses show some anti-inflammatory activity, suggesting that may peptides exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0229.v7
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Anti-aging; Hydra vulgaris; TFEB; telomerase; FluidFM
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:36:15 CEST)
Lipofuscin is indigestible garbage that accumulates in the autophagic vesicles and cytosol of post-mitotic cells with age. Drs. Brunk and Terman postulated that lipofuscin accumulation is the main or at least a major driving factor in aging. They even posited that the evolution of memory is the reason why we get lipofuscin at all, as stable synaptic connections must be maintained over time, meaning that the somas of neurons must also remain in the same locale. In other words, they cannot dilute out their garbage over time through cell division. Mechanistically, their position certainly makes sense given that rendering a large percentage of a post-mitotic cell’s lysosomes useless must almost certainly negatively affect that cell and the surrounding microenvironment. Here, I explore the possibility that the accumulation of lipofuscin may to some extent exacerbate every other kind of age-related damage. I do not think that lipofuscin removal will reverse/prevent all forms of aging, just the major component facing us currently. In this piece, I will review what is known about lipofuscin accumulation from evolutionary and mechanistic standpoints and discuss a method of removing it from single cells in vitro.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Kalanchoe; antibacterial; anti-inflammatory properties; wound healing; antioxidant
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:27:24 CEST)
The Kalanchoe genus is composed of more than 100 species that usually thrive in tropical environments, which have been used in folkloric medicine to treat various illnesses, including dermatological conditions. With this, the present study assesses the pharmacognostical and pharmacological properties of different species of the Kalanchoe genus as elements for a potential treatment for dermatological-related conditions, from findings of existing literature and studies. It was analyzed that the Kalanchoe pinnata plant, or one of the most common species of Kalanchoe, have been observed to have distinct morphological and microscopic characteristics. Further, it was discovered that different species of Kalanchoe have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and wound healing properties, which enable the plant to be used for dermatological products that are available to the market. With this, it is recommended that further studies be conducted in other understudied species of Kalanchoe regarding their pharmacological properties, as well as the use of other structures of the Kalanchoe plant for treatment of various dermatological conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1201.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; poly-amidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM); anti-virulence agent, accessory gene regulator; histidine kinase inhibitor.
Online: 16 August 2023 (20:32:54 CEST)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) exerts a considerable concern in healthcare and the community. Globally MRSA strains cause numerous infections with high morbidity and mortality rates. The success of MRSA is a result of the extensive production of virulence factors. With the limited treatment options for the MRSA infection and growing resistance problem, an urgent call is needed to search for an alternative to antibiotics. One of the promising strategies is targeting the quorum sensing (QS) system, of the MRSA, by using a dendrimer loaded with kinase inhibitor peptide. This study formulates a poly-amidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM) G4 dendrimers loaded with Quorum Quencher (QQ), QQ3 peptide which is a Histidine Kinase inhibitor. The physicochemical properties of the formula were characterized using different in-vitro analysis method such as Zetasizer and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The antibacterial activity and anti-virulence effect of the formula was tested against MRSA and different mutant stains using growth assay, haemolysis assay and biofilm assay. Overall, QQ3-G4 complex showed antibacterial and anti-virulence activity and it can be a potential alternative treatment to overcome antimicrobial resistance and treat MRSA infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0301.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Qianlie Tongli decoction; chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS); anti-inflammation; therapeutic effects; immunization
Online: 24 April 2020 (04:30:56 CEST)
Objectives: This study was undertaken to reveal therapeutic effects and the preliminary mechanism of Chinese medicine formula Qianlie Tongli decoction (QTD) in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Methods: A total of 50 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups. All groups except the control group were injected subcutaneously T2 peptide emulsion, which induced the CP/CPPS model. After the induction of CP/CPPS, the model group was given 0.9% NaCl by oral gavage while low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups were treated with Chinese medicine formula. Micturition habits and pain behavior of mice were analyzed for each group. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to investigate prostate inflammation. The serum level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Key findings: Chinese medicine formula significantly reduced the number of urine spots and improved pain response frequency in the medium-dose and high-dose group. The high-dose group showed reduced considerably inflammatory lesion and inflammatory cell infiltration than the low-dose and medium-dose groups. Serum levels of TNF-α in the high-dose group were significantly reduced compared with the model group. Conclusions: The results demonstrated the therapeutic effects of Qianlie Tongli decoction in CP/CPPS mice by analyzing clinically relevant symptoms (urinary tract system, pelvic pain, and prostate inflammation), and preliminary explored the inflammatory-related treatment mechanisms by measuring TNF-α.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0670.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; aflibercept; faricimab; anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy; exudative change
Online: 10 November 2023 (07:30:39 CET)
We compared the functional and morphologic effects in the loading dose between patients with treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with either intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) or intravitreal faricimab (IVF) injection in clinical settings. This retrospective study included 30 eyes from 28 patients who started IVA treatment between June and September 2022 and 30 eyes from 29 patients who started IVF treatment between October 2022 and March 2023. The mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) significantly improved from pre-treatment after loading dose in the IVA group (from 0.46 ± 0.46 to 0.36 ± 0.37, p=0.0047) and not in the IVF group (from 0.46 ± 0.41 to 0.44 ± 0.45, p=0.60). The mean central retinal thickness (CRT) significantly improved in both groups. The proportion of eyes with residual exudative change was greater in the IVF group than in the IVA group at 2 months after the first treatment. (p=0.026) We further analyzed the patients who obtained complete resolution of exudative changes after the loading dose. The IVA group had a significant improvement in BCVA, whereas the IVF group did not p=0.0047 and 0.20, respectively) Although IVA and IVF significantly improved the CRT, the BCVA improved significantly in IVA group and not in IVF group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tumor microenvironment; biomarkers; solid cancers; computational biology; cancer stem cells; anti-cancer stem cell therapy; chemotherapy
Online: 4 May 2020 (10:00:51 CEST)
Solid tumors display complex biology and most therapies including chemotherapy cannot prevent therapy resistance and relapse. Most therapeutics target cancer cells, but recent data suggest the presence of cancer stem cells as cells with self-renewal and tumorigenic abilities. Cancer stem cell markers have been suggested to have prognostic value and can be targeted during cancer treatment and in resistant disease. CSCs have been postulated to play significant contextual roles in tumor initiation, progression, therapy resistance and metastasis. CSCs have thus been targeted by new generation cancer drugs. The transcriptional expression of several CSC markers in different cancers was evaluated by searching publicly available The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) databases. We report here new findings on expression and prognostic significance of CSC markers in several cancers by examining the expression of CSCs markers in tumor tissues versus the adjacent normal tissues. We found that CSC markers were mostly highly expressed various tumors such as colon, lung, pancreatic and esophageal cancers. No CSC marker is expressed in the same pattern in all cancers and individual CSC marker expression was not linked to patient survival. This analysis calls for continued research on CSCs and clinical evaluation of the CSC markers in relation to prognosis of cancers in large population samples. Novel cancer drugs ought to target CSCs, cancer cells and tumor microenvironment variations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: activated inflammatory macrophages; quercetin; pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine genes; STAT3 protein phosphorylation; TLR2
Online: 20 November 2019 (16:04:42 CET)
Our previous studies demonstrated that quercetin (Q) could be ingested and metabolized by macrophages and exerted prophylactic immuno-stimulatory activity and therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages ex vivo. To further clarify its possible anti-inflammatory mechanism, Q was selected to treat mouse peritoneal macrophages that obtained from female BALB/c mice exposed to LPS i.p. for 12 h. Relative gene expression of pro-/anti-inflammatory (TNF-α/IL-10) cytokines and components of inflammation-related intracellular signaling pathways (TLR2, TLR4, NF-κB, JAK2 and STAT3) was analyzed using two-step reverse transcription (RT) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). STAT3 protein phosphorylation was determined using an in-cell ELISA method. As a result, Q and its metabolite quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (Q3G) decreased TNF-α gene expression amounts and ratios of pro-/anti-inflammatory (TNF-α/IL-10) cytokine gene expressions, but increased IL-10 gene expression amounts in activated inflammatory macrophages, supporting a substantial anti-inflammatory potential of Q and Q3G treatments. However, Q3G had lower effects than those of Q. Importantly, Q inhibited TLR2 gene expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 protein in the inflamed cells. Our results are the first report to suggest that Q inhibits LPS-induced inflammation ex vivo through suppressing TLR2 gene expression and STAT3 protein phosphorylation in activated inflammatory macrophages. Q has potential to further apply for treating inflammation-associated diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0028.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Chenopodium formosanum; human dermal fibroblast; UV exposure; antioxidant activity; anti-aging; red djulis
Online: 13 November 2019 (11:02:35 CET)
Red djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) is a native cereal plant in Taiwan; it contains abundant polyphenols, betalian and dietary fiber. The appearance of red djulis is bright red. Therefore, it is also called the “ruby of cereals”. The antioxidative activity of red djulis extract is well-understood. However, the antiaging function still remains unclear. This study examined the potential of red djulis extract for enhancing collagen secretion and preventing cutaneous aging using red djulis extracts. The red djulis extracts are comprised of an abundant active component that can effectively enhance the ability of collagen secretion of dermal fibroblasts, prevent the glycation of collagen and resist the damage of ultraviolet light exposure. After fibroblast treatment with red djulis extracts, TGM1, KRT1, KRT10 and SOD2 genes were up-regulated significantly by 2.3, 4.3, 4.4 and 27.3 times, respectively, compared to those of the control group. Additionally, it can increase COL1A2 gene expression by 43% and decrease MMP9 gene expression 33%. Therefore, it was demonstrated that red djulis extracts affect gene expressions related to the skin barrier, antioxidation and collagen. Moreover, we found positive effects on skin barrier integrity, endogenous antioxidant activity and skin collagen-preservation. The preparation of the red djulis extracts is environmental friendly and can promote the economic value of Chenopodium formosanum; thus, the proposed extract is suitable for applications in the development of food products, especially beverages, skin care and cosmetic products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: neovascular age-related macular degeneration; visual outcomes; anti-VEGF; visual impairment; population-based cohort
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:10:15 CEST)
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) leads to visual impairment if not treated timely. Intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs have revolutionized nAMD treatment in two decades. We evaluated visual outcomes of anti-VEGF treatment in nAMD. A real-life population-based cohort study. Data included parameters for age, sex, age at the diagnosis, laterality, chronicity, symptoms, visual outcomes, lens status, and history of intravitreal injections. A total of 1088 eyes (827 patients) with nAMD were included. Visual acuity was stable or improved in 984 eyes (90%) after an average 36±25 months follow-up. Bevacitzumab was the first-line drug in 1083 (99.5%) eyes. Vision improved ≥15 ETDRS letters in 377 (35%), > 5 ETDRS letters in 309 (28%) and was stable (±5 ETDRS letters) in 298 (27%) eyes after anti-VEGF treatment. The loss of 5-<15 ETDRS letters in 44 (4%) and ≥15 ETDRS letters in 60 (6%) eyes was noted. At the diagnosis of nAMD, 110 out of 827 patients (13%) fulfilled the criteria of visual impairment, whereas 179 patients (22%) were visually impaired after the follow-up. Improvement or stabilization in vision was noted in 90% of the anti-VEGF-treated eyes with nAMD. In addition, anti-VEGF agents are crucial in diminishing nAMD-related visual impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1440.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Anti-Müllerian hormone; Cyclopterus lumpus; Male-specific marker; Genetic sex identification
Online: 19 May 2023 (11:36:20 CEST)
Production of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) has become crucial in controlling sea lice levels in salmonid aquaculture. To improve their breeding, there is a need for early sex identification. The genomic region containing anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) gene was suggested as the candidate sex-determining gene in lumpfish. However, the genome of lumpfish contains three copies of amh with ambiguous sex specificity, designated amh1, amh2, and amh3. The study aims to analyse the male-specific region between these amh paralogues, for its application as a sex marker. In this study, we utilised polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays to identify the male-specific amh markers in lumpfish and estimate the length of the male-specific region in the lumpfish genome. Our results suggest that a region of approximately 26 kilobase (kb) region containing amh1 and amh2 is male-specific, while both sexes share amh3. The developed PCR-based genetic sex identification assays targeting amh1 and amh2 exhibited more than 97% accuracy. Further experiments in other members of the Cyclopteridae: Aptocyclus ventricosus, Eumicrotremus taranetzi, and E. asperrimus revealed male-specific amh fragments only in A. ventricosus. Phylogenetic analyses using the available Cyclopteridae amh sequences suggest that male-specific amh arose early in the Cyclopteridae lineage. These findings and development of the PCR test will be of service to lumpfish aquaculture as well as to future studies attempting to further elucidate the sex-determination system and sex chromosome evolution in lumpfish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence; Vaccination Status; SARS-CoV-2; anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; Albanian population
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:10:13 CEST)
Understanding the dynamics of humoral immune responses throughout the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial for optimizing vaccine strategies. This study aimed to investigate the impact of infection and vaccine-induced immunity on the Albanian population from August 2021 to August 2022. Two independent samples from the Albanian general population were analyzed using an ELISA method to assess IgG class anti-Spike (S1) and anti-Nucleocapsid (N) SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The results revealed a robust immune response among vaccinated individuals with prior COVID-19 infection who received only one vaccine dose. In the 2022 cohort, most individuals who received one vaccine dose achieved comparable seropositivity and antibody levels to those who received two doses. However, individuals aged 61 and over required two or three vaccine doses to reach the same level of immune response as the younger population. Notably, the time elapsed since infection or vaccination did not significantly impact the immune response. These findings highlight the importance of hybrid immunity and suggest that one vaccine dose may be sufficient for most individuals with prior COVID-19 infection. However, additional doses are necessary for optimal protection in older individuals. This study provides unique insights into humoral immune response dynamics that can be used to refine ongoing COVID-19 population vaccination strategies for middle-income countries with low vaccination coverage.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: MTC; calcitonin; parafollicular C cells; secretory granules; immunofluorescence; ultrastructure; transmission electron microscopy; ERBB1; ERBB2
Online: 26 March 2018 (09:05:18 CEST)
Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) are rare thyroid tumors occurring in both sporadic and hereditary forms and whose pathogenesis is related to RET proto-oncogene alterations. MTCs originate from parafollicular cells, which produce calcitonin that represents the biochemical activity of MTC. Total thyroidectomy is the main treatment for MTC and often cures patients with confined diseases. In cases of metastasis, the approach depends on the rate of progression of disease. We report a case of a 54 years old female with a single, incidentally discovered, thyroid nodule of 1 cm, classified as suspicious MTC after a stimulation test with i.v. calcium. After surgery, we examined the nodule using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. In addition to calcitonin, we found that it expressed intracellular positivity for the RTK receptors ERBB1 and ERBB2. Consistently with MTC features, ultrastructural examination of the tumor displayed heterogeneous spindle-shaped cells containing two groups of secretory granules. Due to the significant correlation found between high ERBB1/ERBB2 levels in MTCs and extrathyroidal growth, the detection of ERBB1 and ERBB2 expression suggests that the two oncoproteins may possibly be involved in tumor proliferative responses and/or differentiation of C-cells. The biological, prognostic and therapeutic significance of these patterns would merits further investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1961.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: fremanezumab; monoclonal antibody; calcitonin gene-related peptide; trigeminal ganglion; CGRP receptor; immunofluorescence; rat; migraine pain
Online: 28 July 2023 (09:27:07 CEST)
Treatment with the anti-CGRP antibody fremanezumab is successful in the prevention of chronic migraine. In preclinical rat experiments, fremanezumab has been shown to reduce calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from trigeminal tissues and the aversive behaviour to noxious facial stimuli, which are characteristic pathophysiological changes accompanying severe primary headaches. To further decipher the effects of fremanezumab underlying these antinociceptive effects in rats, immunohistochemistry and ELISA techniques were used to analyse the content and concentration of CGRP in the trigeminal ganglion as well as the ratio of trigeminal ganglion neurons immunoreactive to CGRP and CGRP receptor components 1-10 days after subcutaneous injection of fremanezumab (30 mg/kg) compared to an isotype control antibody. After fremanezumab treatment, the fraction of trigeminal ganglion neurons immunoreactive to CGRP and the CGRP receptor components calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) was significantly lowered compared to the control. The content and concentration of CGRP in trigeminal ganglia were not significantly changed. A long-lasting reduction of CGRP receptors expressed in trigeminal afferents may contribute to the attenuation of CGRP signalling and antinociceptive effects of monoclonal anti-CGRP antibodies in rats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; anti-inflammatory agents; dry AMD; geographic atrophy; intravitreal injection; complement inhibitors; neuroprotective agents; non-exudative AMD
Online: 12 February 2019 (11:00:52 CET)
The present review focuses on recent clinical trials that analyze the efficacy of intravitreal therapeutic agents for the treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as neuroprotective drugs, and complement inhibitors, also called immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory. A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials published prior to January 2019. Patients affected by dry AMD treated with intravitreal therapeutic agents were included. The changes in the correct visual acuity and the reduction in geographic atrophy progression were evaluated. Several new drugs have shown some promising results, including those targeting the complement cascade and agents called neuroprotective. The action potential of the two groups of drugs is to block the complement cascade model for immunomodulating agents, and prevent the degeneration and apoptosis of ganglion cells for the neuroprotectors, respectively. To the best of knowledge, and after extensive studies on the matter, there are still many investigations to be carried out on dry AMD in collaboration between researchers. They will have to identify truly effective molecules, understand the practical potential of pluripotent stem cells, and refine gene therapies. Only in-depth clinical trials will be able to allow the most appropriate and personalized treatments for each dry AMD patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0205.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: C-scorpionate; anti-cancer drug; anti-proliferation; anti-migration; metabolomics
Online: 2 June 2023 (12:38:19 CEST)
The growing worldwide cancer incidence, coupled to the increasing occurrence of multidrug cancer resistance, requires a continuous effort towards the identification of new leads for cancer management. In this work, two C-scorpionate complexes, [FeCl2(κ3-Tpm)] (1) and [Co(κ3-TpmOH)2] (2), (Tpm = hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)methane and TpmOH = 2,2,2-tris(pyrazol-1-yl)ethanol), are studied as potential scaffolds for future anti-cancer drug development. Their cytotoxicity and cell migration inhibitory activity are analyzed, and an untargeted metabolomics approach is em-ployed to elucidate the biological processes significantly affected by these two complexes, using two tumoral cell lines (B16 and HCT116) and a non-tumoral cell line (HaCaT). While [FeCl2(κ3-Tpm)] did not display a significant cytotoxicity, [Co(κ3-TpmOH)2] was particularly cy-totoxic against the B16 cell line. While [Co(κ3-TpmOH)2] significantly inhibited cell migration in all tested cell lines, [FeCl2(κ3-Tpm)] displayed a mixed activity. From a metabolomics perspective, exposure to [FeCl2(κ3-Tpm)] is associated with changes in various metabolic pathways involving tyrosine, where iron-dependent enzymes are particularly relevant. On the other hand, [Co(κ3-TpmOH)2] is associated with dysregulation of cell adhesion and membrane structural pathways, suggesting its antiproliferative and anti-migration properties can be due to changes in the overall cellular adhesion mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0488.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Sarcophyton; Sinularia; Lobophytum; new compounds; anti-microbial; anti-inflammatory; anti-tumoral
Online: 29 August 2018 (09:03:48 CEST)
Work reviews the new isolated isolated cembranoid diterpene derivatives from species belonging to the family Alcyoniidae, which comprises the genera Sarcophyton, Sinularia, and Lobophytum as well as their biological properties, during 2016–2017. The compilation permitted to conclude that much more new cembranoid diterpenes were found in the soft corals of the genus Sarcophyton sp. (33 new compounds) than in those belonging to the genera Lobophytum (17) or Sinularia (8). Several methods have been used for identifying these new compounds, after extraction with organic solvents and fractionation. The fractions obtained, in some cases, were followed by TLC, and again subjected to chromatographic procedures, including semi-preparative HPLC. Beyond the chemical composition, the biological properties were also evaluated, namely anti-microbial against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumoral against several types of cancer cells. Although the biological activities detected in almost all samples, they were not outstanding ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: anti-apoptosis; anti-oxidant; curcumin; hyperglycemia; hyperlipidemia
Online: 27 November 2019 (09:57:14 CET)
Curcumin is the main secondary metabolites of Curcuma longa and other Curcuma spp, and has been reported to have some potential in preventing and treating some physiological disorders. This study investigated the effect curcumin in inhibiting high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats. Twenty-six male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (170-190 g) were randomly divided into a standard food pellet diet group (Control group), a high-fat diet and streptozotocin group (HF+STZ group), and a high-fat diet combined with curcumin and STZ group (HF+ Cur +STZ group). Compared with the HF+STZ group, the HF+Cur+STZ group exhibited significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (AST) and aspartate transaminase (ALT) levels, and liver coefficients; in the livers of these rats, the expression of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Bax was downregulated, whereas that of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Bcl-2 was upregulated. Moreover, the liver histology of these rats was improved and resembled that of the control rats. These results suggest that curcumin prevents high-fat diet and STZ-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, mainly via anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in the liver.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: lanostane teriterpenoid; inotodiol; keratinocyte; anti-aging; anti-inflammation
Online: 4 July 2023 (02:09:04 CEST)
Inotodiol, a lanostane-type triterpenoid, and many phytochemicals from Chaga mushroom have been investigated for various allergic diseases. However, antiaging and anti-inflammatory activities of inotodiol under different types of oxidative stress and impact of inotodiol on collagen and hyaluronan synthesis are not sufficiently studied. Lanostane triterpenoids-rich concentrate, which contained 10% inotodiol as major (the inotodiol concentrate), was prepared from Chaga and compared with pure inotodiol in terms of anti-inflammatory activities on a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT cells, under various stimulation such as stimulation with ultraviolet (UV) B or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In stimulation with TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 genes were significantly repressed by 0.44~4.0 μg/mL of pure inotodiol. UVB irradiation induced overexpressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but those genes were significantly suppressed by pure inotodiol or inotodiol concentrate. Moreover, pure inotodiol/inotodiol concentrate could also modulate synthesis of collagen and hyaluronic acid by controlling COL1A2 and HAS2/3 expression, which implies a crucial role of pure inotodiol/inotodiol concentrate in prevention of skin aging. These results enlighten anti-inflammatory and anti-aging effect of pure inotodiol/inotodiol concentrate, and it is highly conceivable that pure inotodiol and inotodiol concentrate could be promising natural bioactive substances to be incorporated in therapeutic and beautifying applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Anti-MDR strategies; anti-persistent treatments; drug repurposing
Online: 25 December 2019 (09:33:57 CET)
Antibiotic failure is one of the most worrying health problems worldwide. Nowadays we are facing an international crisis where several issues are involved: new antibiotics are not being discovered any longer, resistance mechanisms become spread in nearly every clinical isolate of bacteria and the appearance of recurrent infections caused by persistent bacteria complicates the overcoming of infections. In this context, it has been explored new anti-infectious strategies against MDR and persistent bacteria as well as the rescue of FDA-approved compounds (drug repurposing). Among the highlighted new anti-infectious strategies we find anti-microbial peptides, anti-virulence compounds, phage therapy and new molecules. On the other hand, as drugs of repurposing that have been described, we have anti-inflammatory compounds, anti-psychotics, anti-helmintic drugs, anti-cancerous and statins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0304.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Anti-counterfeiting; Anti-theft; RFID security; Tag cloning
Online: 23 December 2019 (12:17:40 CET)
Counterfeiting and theft have always been problems that incur high costs and results in considerable losses for the international markets. In this research paper, we will address the issue of counterfeiting while using RFID technology in retailer systems or other industries by presenting a new anti-counterfeiting and anti-theft system for the retailer market. This system will address the two above mentioned issues and provide a solution that can save the retailer systems millions of dollars yearly. This proposed system will achieve the objective of preventing or minimising the counterfeiting and theft of tagged products. At the same time, it will provide a strong indication for suspiciously sold or obtained items. Furthermore, we conducted a security analysis to prove the correctness of our protocol on the basis of the strand spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0548.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; hepatocellular carcinoma; farnesyltransferase inhibitor; hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; anti-inflammatory response; nuclear factor-κB; transforming growth factor-β; Warburg effect; reactive oxygen species; interleukin-6
Online: 7 June 2023 (12:05:28 CEST)
Inflammatory processes play major roles in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) derived from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). But there are no therapies for NASH related HCC, especially focusing on these critical steps. Previous studies reported that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, the influence of FTIs on NASH-related HCC has not been elucidated. In HCC cell lines, HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh-7, we confirmed expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, an accelerator of tumor aggressiveness and the inflammatory response. We established NASH-related HCC models under inflammation and free fatty acid burden and confirmed that HIF-1α expression was increased under both conditions. Tipifarnib, which is an FTI, strongly suppressed increased HIF-1α, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis. Simultaneously, intracellular interleukin-6 as an inflammation marker was increased under both conditions and significantly suppressed by tipifarnib. Additionally, tipifarnib suppressed expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB and transforming growth factor-β. Finally, in a NASH-related HCC mouse model burdened with diethylnitrosamine and a high fat diet, tipifarnib significantly reduced tumor nodule formation in association with decreased serum interleukin-6. In conclusion, tipifarnib has anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects in a NASH-related HCC model and may be a promising new agent to treat this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: migraine; neuropathic pain; calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP); kynurenine; glia; cytokines; neuroinflammation; transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels; endocannabinoids
Online: 4 January 2023 (01:53:45 CET)
Migraine and neuropathic pain (NP) are evocative of painful, disabling, chronic conditions which exhibit resembling symptoms and thus considered to share a common etiology. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has gained credit as a target for migraine management; nevertheless, the efficacy and the applicability of CGRP modifiers warrant search for more effective therapeutic targets for pain management. This scoping review overviews human studies of common pathogenic factors in migraine and NP to explore potential novel therapeutic targets. CGRP causes inflammation in the meninges; monoclonal antibodies and inhibitors target CGRP. Gluta-mate-induced hyperexcitability and subsequent sensitization are closely linked to an alteration of the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic system; the Trp-KYN system may serve as a potential target. Microglial overaction is observed in migraine and NP; modifying the microglial activity may be a possible approach. Cytokine-induced inflammation is a leading hypothesis of the pathogenesis of the conditions; alleviating neuroinflammation may complement a pain-relieving armamentarium. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels evoke the release of several substances; TRP ion channels may potentially emerge as new targets. The endocannabinoid system plays a major role in the pain trafficking pathway; modification of the system may open a new path toward discovery of new analgesics. Here we highlight the mechanism of those common pathogenic factors to explore therapeutic targets for innovative pain management in migraine and NP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0077.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: anti-oxidant activity; anti-oxidant enzymes, anti-proliferative activity; maslinic acid; melanoma; Olea europaea; ROS levels
Online: 4 August 2020 (04:57:13 CEST)
Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural triterpene from Olea europaea whose pharmacological functions have been showed. The objective of this study was to examine MA effect on cell viability (by MTT assay), reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, by flow cytometry) and key anti-oxidant enzyme activities (by spectrophotometry) in murine skin melanoma (B16F10) cells compared to healthy cells (A10). MA induced cytotoxic effects in cancer cells (IC50 42 µM) whereas no effect was found in A10 cells treated with MA (up to 210 µM). In order to produce a stress situation in cells, 0.15 mM of H2O2 were added. Under stressful conditions, MA protected both cell lines against oxidative damage, decreasing intracellular ROS, being higher in B16F10 than in A10 cells. The treatment with H2O2 and without MA produced different responses in anti-oxidant enzymes activities depending on cell line. In A10 cells, all enzymes were up-regulated, but in B16F10 cells only superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase increased their activities. MA restored the enzyme activities to similar levels than control group in both cell lines, highlighting that in A10 cells the highest MA doses induced values lower than control. Overall, these findings demonstrate the great anti-oxidant capacity of MA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1663.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: deep-sea; fungus; Penicillium citrinum; polyketides; anti-osteoporosis; anti-inflammation.
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:36:29 CEST)
Three new polyketides (penidihydrocitrinins A–C, 1–3) and 14 known compounds (4–17) were isolated from the deep-sea-derived Penicillium citrinum W17. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and ECD calculations. Compounds 1–17 were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoporotic bioactivities. All isolates exhibited significant inhibitory effects on microglial activation in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells in a dose-response manner. Notably, compound 14 displayed the strongest effect with the IC50 value of 4.7 µM. Moreover, compounds 6, 7, and 8 not only suppressed osteoclastogenesis, but also promoted osteoblast mineralization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1217.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Cissus antractica; ZnO NPs; anti-lung cancer; anti-inflammation; apoptosis
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:32:04 CEST)
Green products have excellent potential for discovering and producing new medicinal products. In recent years, there is a growing interest towards the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles, particularly from plants sources. This eco-friendly approach was used in the recent research to biosynthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) from Cissus antractica plant. The present study aims to examine the cell cytotoxicity, cell death, and pathways of apoptosis in lung cancer cells (A549) and inflammation properties treated with biosynthesized ZnO NPs. Additionally, synthe-sized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The XRD and TEM analyses exhibited 31 nm as the size of synthesized nanoparticles, the pure crystal form of ZnO NPs, and the shape of the NPs as nearly spherical and hexagonal quartzite. The MTT assay used for cytotoxicity evaluation de-picted the significant toxic effect of CA-ZnONPs against the A549 lung cancer cells at concentra-tions up to 20 µg/mL than non-cancerous cells. Furthermore, we observed an elevated ROS level in cancer cells. These NPs also demonstrated dose-dependent ability to suppress colony for-mation and cell migration, which increases their potential as a lung cancer treatment. Further-more, The NPs formulation's ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells was further supported by Hoechst and propidium iodide dye. Further, CA ZnO NPs increased the gene expression of BAX, Cyto-c, Caspase 3 and 9, but decreased the expression of Bcl-2, indicating that the nanoformulation triggered mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Besides, this study showed that NPs suppressed in-flammatory responses by subsequently decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, downregulating the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-8, and NO. Moreover, the study's findings imply that Cissus antractica are a potential source with biosynthesize nanoparticles that can might be further investigated for the progress of an-ti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drugs with further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0179.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Acmella oleracea; Anti-oxidant; In vitro; Anti-bacterial; Methanol extract
Online: 11 April 2023 (03:09:50 CEST)
Acemella oleracea is known as toothache plant belongs to the family of Asteraceae. It is treated as a medicinal remedy like tuberculosis, illness, cough, rheumatism, and illness. This study was concentrated on the antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial & thrombolytic activities of methanol extract of Acmella oleracea leaves using in vitro model. The antioxidant activity was estimated as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity utilizing the DPPH and reducing power tests. The plant extract was tested for its cytotoxic action using a brine shrimp lethality bioassay, thrombolytic activity using clot disruption, and antibacterial activity using a disc diffusion assay technique against four distinct gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. IC50 value of standard ascorbic acid for DPPH was 7.8µg/ml and the IC50 of the methanol extract of Acmella oleracea leaves was 198.34µg/ml that was moderate effect at all compare with ascorbic acid. Thrombolytic assay of Streptokinase as a positive control showed 88.49% where the extract shows 18.69% lytic activity shows the assay. In this study, the sample of LC50 results of cytotoxicity assay was 1.431 µg/mL which can be treated as less activity. Moreover, the extracts showed low to moderate antibacterial activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial stains (zone of inhibition-10-26 mm). Vibrio Mimicus bacteria stains exhibited the highest level of activity, with a range of 23 for the diameter of the growth inhibition zone. The current review shows leaf extracts of Acmella oleracea may be used as a source of antioxidant and thrombolytic activity, as well as a significant source of antibacterial and anticancer substances. Further research is required to evaluate in-vivo the pharmacological activity of Acmella oleracea leaves in order to identify the essential metabolites and potential mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Phytobioactive compounds; anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidant; methotrexate; hepatotoxicity; oxidative stress
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:37:17 CEST)
Methotrexate (MTX) is a potent drug for the treatment of various diseases globally amidst being a chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressant agent. However, hepatotoxicity induced by MTX could be life-threatening if left untreated. Folate supplementation is concurrently applied to reduce the adverse effects of MTX, albeit efficacy compromise. Therefore, there is the need to understand the process for the prevention and treatment strategies for MTX induced hepatotoxicity (MIH). In recent times, preliminary preclinical and clinical findings indicate the potential of natural phytobioactive compounds for MIH prevention and treatment. This mini review therefore summarizes proposed mechanisms of MIH and recent advances in the prevention and treatment prospects of natural phytobioactive compounds on MIH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0286.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Moringa oleifera; bismuth nanoparticles; polyphenolics; anti-bacterial; anti-fungal; antioxidant
Online: 21 December 2019 (12:28:21 CET)
The use of plant extracts in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a very attractive approach in the field of green synthesis. To benefit from the potential synergy between the biological activities of the Moringa oleifera leaves extract and metallic bismuth, our study aimed at synthesizing bismuth nanoparticles using a hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves as a means of green synthesis that yields nontoxic products and reduces the production of wasteful material. To this end, the M. oleifera leaves extract was treated with a bismuth nitrate pentahydrate solution. A color change from light brown to dark brown indicates the synthesis of bismuth nanoparticles. The total phenolic content in the M. oleifera leaves extract used was 23.0 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dried M. oleifera leaves powder. Antioxidant property of MO synthesised bismuth Nanoparticles was evaluated and in line with the extract used in the synthesis of NPs. The physical properties of the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR spectrometer, TEM, SEM, and XRD. The synthesized bismuth nanoparticles have a size in the range of 40.4-57.8 nm with amorphous morphology. Using DPPH and phosphomolybdate assays, our findings revealed that the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles possess antioxidant properties. Using resazurin microtiter assay, we also demonstrate that the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles exert potent anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, similarly to the inhibition exerted by Moringa extract, especially against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC values for the extract: 500, 250, 250, and 250 µg/mL; MIC values for the bismuth nanoparticles: 500, 500, 500, and 250 µg/mL, respectively). Similarly, the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles display relatively stronger anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata (MIC values for the extract: 62.5, 62.5, 125, and 250 µg/mL; MIC values for the bismuth nanoparticles: 250, 250, 62.5, and 62.5 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, the hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves was successfully used in the synthesis of bismuth nanoparticles, showing a positive antioxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal activity. Therefore, the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles can potentially be employed in the alleviation of symptoms associated with oxidative stress and in the topic treatment of Candida infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Moringa oleifera; copper nanoparticles; polyphenolics; anti-bacterial; anti-fungal; antioxidant
Online: 26 November 2019 (03:45:52 CET)
The synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extracts is a very promising method in green synthesis. The medicinal value of Moringa oleifera leaves and the anti-microbial activity of metallic copper were combined in the present study to synthesize copper nanoparticles having a desirable added-value inorganic material. The use of a hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves for the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles is an attractive method as it leads to the production of harmless chemicals and reduces waste. The total phenolic content in the M. oleifera leaves extract was 23.0 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dried M. oleifera leaves powder. The M. oleifera leaves extract was treated with a copper sulphate solution. A color change from brown to black indicates the formation of copper nanoparticles. Characterization of the synthesized copper nanoparticles was performed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR spectrometer, TEM, SEM, and XRD. The synthesized copper nanoparticles have an amorphous nature and particle size of 35.8-49.2 nm. We demonstrate that the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized copper nanoparticles display considerable antioxidant activity. Moreover, the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized copper nanoparticles exert potent anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC values for the extract: 500, 250, 250, and 250 μg/mL; MIC values for the cooper nanoparticles: 500, 500, 500, and 250 μg/mL, respectively). Similarly, the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized copper nanoparticles exert relatively more potent anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata (MIC values for the extract: 62.5, 62.5, 125, and 250 μg/mL; MIC values for the cooper nanoparticles: 125, 125, 62.5, and 31.2 μg/mL, respectively). Our study reveals that the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using a hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves was successful. In addition, the synthesized copper nanoparticles can be potentially employed in the treatment of various microbial infections due to their potent antioxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0193.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: multi-agent system; decision support; anti-money laundering; anti-fraud
Online: 22 January 2018 (04:46:20 CET)
The anti-money laundering (AML) process has failed both in identifying suspicious cases in due time as in assisting the AML analysts in decision making. Starting from a new generic anti-fraud approach, this article presents the main aspects related to the development of a multi-agent system that goes beyond the capture of suspicious transactions, seeking to assist the human expert in the analysis of suspicious behaviour. First, a transactional behavioural profile of clients is obtained in a data mining process. A set of rules, obtained through data mining over a real database, in conjunction with specific rules based on legal aspects and in the expertise of the AML analysts make up the agents' knowledge base. The cases for which the system was unable to suggest a decision are flagged as requiring more detailed analysis. The system analysed 6 months of real transactions and indicated several suspicious profiles, a set of these suspects was investigated by the AML analysts who proved the suspicion of several cases, including some that had not been identified by the systems in execution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0313.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; Sinopharm vaccine; neutralizing antibodies; anti-S1 IgG antibodies; anti-RBD IgM antibodies; anti-N IgM antibodies; anti-N IgG antibodies; interferon γ.
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:31:08 CEST)
Several vaccines against COVID -19 have been developed and licenced to enhance the immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Similarly, infection with SARS-CoV-2 before vaccination has been shown to provide significant protection against severe infection and hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three doses of Sinopharm vaccine and SARS-CoV-2 infection on the specific immune response in 103 volunteers, measuring neutralizing antibodies, anti-S1 IgG, anti-RBD IgM, anti-N IgM, anti-N IgG antibodies and interferon γ. Our results showed that the presence of cardiovascular diseases increased the level of anti-N-IgG antibodies, while endocrinological diseases decreased the level of neutralizing antibodies and anti-N-IgG antibodies, suggesting that these diseases alter the effect of vaccine immunity. In addition, there was a significant decrease in anti-S1 IgG levels 6 months and in anti-N IgG levels 18 months post-infection, while neutralizing antibody and interferon γ levels were constant at 3, 6 and 18 months post-infection. Therefore, our results confirm the importance of hybrid immunity as the strongest and most durable compared to exclusively natural or vaccine-induced immunity. Significant positive correlations were found between humoral and cellular immunity markers: neutralizing antibodies, anti-S1 IgG, anti-N IgG and interferon γ, indicating a unique coordinated response specific to COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0011.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: SBSJ; polyphenolic constituents; antioxidants; anti-inflammatory, chemoprevention; immunomodulation; anti-aging; adaptogen
Online: 1 August 2022 (08:06:10 CEST)
Across different cultures around the globe, human beings have historically depended largely on medicinal plants for managing diseases that have hitherto threatened their optimal health, survival, and longevity. Evidently, the health-derived benefits of medicinal plants can be strongly attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites, particularly polyphenols. The health-promoting effects of Sorghum bicolor supplement Jobelyn® (SBSJ) —a unique supplement derived from the leaf sheaths of a West African variety of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench—have also been ascribed to its high levels of polyphenols. This review seeks to gather and synthesize findings from various experimental and clinical studies on the health benefits of SBSJ in arthritis, cancer, chronic viral infections, stroke, anaemia, and aging. SBSJ has been reported to contain potent bioactive polyphenolic compounds with polyvalent biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective activities. Moreover, the probable benefits of SBSJ in chronic viral infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS and COVID-19) have been attributed to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. As this supplement is increasingly becoming one of the fastest-selling herbal medicines in Nigeria, there is a need for more robust studies (including clinical trials) in order to replicate and validate the prior insights gleaned from experimental studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1973.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: cornea; neovascularization; steroids; anti-VEGF drugs; keratoplasty; angiogenic factors; anti-angiogenic factors
Online: 30 October 2023 (17:25:56 CET)
A healthy cornea is a nonvascularized, transparent tissue. It is nourished by diffusion through the tear film, aqueous fluid and neurotrophins supplied by the corneal innervation. The cornea is devoid of both blood and lymphatic vessels, which makes it an immunologi-cally privileged tissue. Corneal neovascularization develops due to an imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors and can lead to a significant decrease in visual acui-ty. It may cause scarring, lipid keratopathy, and corneal edema. The resulting pathological vascularization of the cornea reduces its immune privilege and significantly worsens the prognosis after subsequent penetrating keratoplasty, increasing the risk of rejection of the transplanted flap. Neovascularization is favored by many disease processes, including auto-immune diseases, viral inflammations, mainly herpes and varicella-zoster, and blepharitis . There are several options to treat corneal neovascularization, both pharmacological and surgical. Angiostatic treatment involves inhibiting the growth of new vessels by suppressing inflammatory responses. VEGF inhibitors, steroids, cyclosporine A, and amniotic membrane grafts secured to the cornea work this way. VEGF inhibitors are the agents with the direct and most potent angiostatic effect. Angioregressive treatment, on the other hand, results in the regression of already existing pathological vessels. This therapy is also based on VEGF inhibitors, which, however, have the most potent effect on newly formed and small vessels but are less effective in reducing large-caliber and mature vessels. A more effective method for such vessels is ablation, which involves surgical closure. The most commonly used an-gio-occlusive method is needle diathermy and argon or yellow laser therapy. In advanced corneal neovascularization, corneal transplant surgery may be necessary. It is best performed after pretreatment with anti-VEGF preparations, often continued after corneal transplanta-tion to reduce the risk of transplant rejection . This paper discusses the pathogenesis of corneal neovascularization and the current and future trends in its treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1805.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: quinoa polysaccharides; chemical composition; antioxidant activity; anti-proliferation activity; anti-microbial activity
Online: 27 October 2023 (12:15:48 CEST)
Quinoa, known as the "golden grain" for its high nutritional value, is a significant source of essential nutrients, including proteins, minerals, vitamins, polyphenols, phytosterols, and flavonoids. However, the biological functions of quinoa polysaccharides remain understudied. In this research, two crude quinoa polysaccharides extracts (Q-40 and Q-60) were obtained extracting by 40% and 60% alcohol. The purity of Q-40 and Q-60 was 58.29% and 62.15%, with protein contents of 8.27% and 9.60%, respectively. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that Q-40 contained glucose (Glc), galacturonic acid (GalA), and arabinose (Ara) in a molar ratio of 0.967:0.027:0.006. Q-60 was composed of xylose (xyl), arabinose (Ara), galactose, and galacturonic acid (GalA) with a molar ratio of 0.889:0.036:0.034:0.020. The average molecular weight of Q-40 ranged from 47484 to 626488 Da, while Q-60 showed a range of 10025 to 47990 Da. Rheological experiments showed that Q-40 exhibited higher viscosity, while Q-60 demonstrated more elastic properties. Remarkably, Q-60 showed potent antioxidant abilities, with scavenging rates of 98.49% for DPPH and 57.5% for ABTS. Antibacterial experiments using the microdilution method revealed that Q-40 inhibited the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and E. coli, while Q-60 specifically inhibited MRSA. At lower concentrations, both polysaccharides inhibited MDA cell proliferation, but at higher concentrations, they promoted proliferation. Similar proliferation-promoting effects were observed in HepG2 cells. The research provides important information in application of quinoa in food and functional food industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Cd36; mass spectrometry; NAFLD; anti-lypase activity; anti-amylase activity; insulin resistance
Online: 9 April 2018 (08:28:02 CEST)
Rhizophora mangle L. is a well-known medicinal plant found in mangroves worldwide used to treatment diabetes. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the acetonic extract from Rhizophora mangle barks (AERM), by HPLC-PDA and FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MS and the effects on high-fat diet induced obesity in mice and its mechanism of action by gene expression of inflammatory markers (Pparg, Ppara, Srebf1, Cd36, Tnf, Ccl2, Lep, Il10, Il6, Fasn, 18s). High-fat diet fed mice during 12 weeks was used as model of obesity and associated alterations. The results were very satisfactory, the extract, rich in polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids, displayed intense antioxidant activity in vitro (608 µmol Trolox/g), and showed excellent activity against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and reverse insulin resistance in a model of diet-induced obesity. We can registered a modulatory effect of AERM in liver PPAR-γ mRNA expression associated to an important inhibition of CD36 mRNA expression suggesting that AERM induces the down regulation of CD36 mRNA via PPAR-gamma inhibition. These results support the traditional knowledge about the use of R. mangle for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and reveal the potential of AERM for the treatment of NAFLD and management of obesity and comorbidities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Anti-platelets; Anti-rheumatic drugs; Bisphosphonates; Oral anticoagulants; Oral contraceptives; Vitamin K antagonist
Online: 2 May 2020 (11:50:24 CEST)
More than 15,000 prescriptions and over the counter drugs are available according to the US Food and Drug Administration website. Moreover, several herbal medicines and dietary supplements are readily available to add to the list of possible drugs, which can potentially cause adverse drug interactions. These are a pressing concern for all as they can interfere with many dental procedures. Additionally, the number of geriatric patients seen in routine dental practice has increased over time. This implies that there are more patients with multiple diseases and health conditions like hypertension, diabetes, problems associated with the cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal systems, arthritis, osteoporosis, etc. All these require patients to be on certain medications. Furthermore, advancement in the dental field has led to more complex dental procedures (implants, grafts) being carried out in a general dental practice. These advanced and slightly more invasive treatments require the use of certain drugs before, during and after the treatment like local anesthetics, vasoconstrictors, anxiolytics, analgesics and antibiotics. All of these can possibly interact with medications a patient is already taking and can also interfere with the current dental treatment and create complications. This article aims to provide necessary information about commonly encountered systemic diseases and associated treating medications, their mechanism of action, possible complications and their management. The classes of drugs discussed include anti-platelet agents, vitamin K antagonists, novel oral anticoagulants, bisphosphonates, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and oral contraceptives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0042.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: glucosinolate; sulphopharane; allyl isothiocyanate; phase II detoxification enzymes; anti-tumour agents; anti-bacterials.
Online: 27 July 2019 (08:40:12 CEST)
Abstract: This study reviewed aspects of the biology of two members of the glucosinolate family, namely sinigrin and glucoraphanin and their anti-tumour and anti-microbial properties. Sinigrin and glucoraphanin are converted by the β-sulphoglucosidase myrosinase or the gut microbiota into their bioactive forms, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and sulphoraphanin (SFN) which constitute part of a sophisticated defence system plants developed over several hundred million years of evolution to protect them from parasitic attack from aphids, ticks, bacteria or nematodes. Delivery of these components from consumption of cruciferous vegetables rich in the glucosinolates also delivers many other members of the glucosinolate family so the dietary AITCs and SFN do not act in isolation. In-vitro experiments with purified AITC and SFN have demonstrated their therapeutic utility as antimicrobials against a range of clinically important bacteria and fungi. AITC and SFN are as potent as Vancomycin in the treatment of bacteria listed by the World Health Organisation as antibiotic-resistant "priority pathogens" and also act as anti- cancer agents through the induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes which inactivate potential carcinogens. Glucosinolates may be useful in the treatment of biofilms formed on medical implants and catheters by problematic pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and are potent antimicrobials against a range of clinically important bacteria and fungi. The glucosinolates have also been applied in the prevention of bacterial and fungal spoilage of food products in advanced atmospheric packaging technology which improves the shelf-life of these products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1671.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: pentacyclic triterpenes; gypsogenin; anti-cancer
Online: 10 July 2023 (14:23:12 CEST)
Abstract: In the last decade, gypsogenin has widely grabbed the attention of medicinal chemists by virtue of its prominent anti-cancer potential. Despite its late identification, gypsogenin proved itself as a new an-ti-proliferative player battling for a front position among other classic pentacyclic triterpenes such as oleanolic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid, ursolic acid, betulinic acid, and celastrol. Herein, we present insights into the anti-cancer activity of gypsogenin and its semisynthetic derivatives and go further by introducing our perspective to judiciously guide the prospect rational design. The present article opens a new venue for better exploitation of gypsogenin chemical entity as a lead compound in cancer chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review article exploring the anti-cancer activity of gypsogenin derivatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1064.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Benzothiazole; Docking; Analgesic; Anti-inflammatory
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:34:06 CEST)
The synthesis of the presented benzo[d]thiazol-2-amine derivatives was performed by condensing-(4-chlorobenzylidene) benzo[d]thiazol-2-amine with a number of substituted phenols in the presence of potassium iodide and anhydrous potassium carbonate in dry acetone. IR spectroscopy, 1HNMRspectroscopy and spectroscopy methods were used to characterize the structural properties of newly synthesized derivatives. In order to observe the attributes of drug-like candidates of these derivatives, the number of their molecular properties was estimated. Benzo[d]thiazol-2-amine derivatives were molecularly docked with selective enzymes COX-1 and COX-2. Findings suggested that Compounds G3, G4, G6, G8 and G11 possess higher binding affinity than diclofenac sodium, when docking was performed with enzyme COX-1. Compounds G1, G3, G6, G8and G10 showed lower binding affinity than Indomethacin when docking performed with enzyme COX-2.In vitro evaluation of the COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme inhibitory activities were performed for synthesized compounds. Compounds 10 and 11 exhibited significant COX-1 and COX- enzyme inhibitory action with IC50 values of 5.0 and 10 µM, respectively. Using the hot plate method and the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, the synthesized compounds were screened for their biological activities, including analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The highest analgesic action was exhibited by derivative G11and the compound G10 showed the highest anti-inflammatory response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0513.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: polyacetylenes; phytochemicals; anti-inflammatory; anticancer.
Online: 28 January 2023 (03:24:05 CET)
Polyacetylene phytochemicals are emerging as potentially responsible for the chemoprotective effects of consuming apiaceous vegetables. There is some evidence suggesting that polyacetylenes impact carcinogenesis by influencing a wide variety of signalling pathways, which are important in regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, etc. Studies have shown a correlation between human dietary intake of polyacetylene-rich vegetables with reduced risk of inflammation and cancer. Polyacetylene supplementation can influence cell growth, gene expression, and immunological responses, and reduce tumour number in rat and mouse models. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary polyacetylenes involves several mechanisms, including effects on inflammatory cytokines, the NF-κB pathway, antioxidant response elements, UPR pathway, growth factor signalling, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. This review summarises the published research on falcarinol-type polyacetylene compounds and their mechanisms of action regarding cancer chemoprevention and treatment, and also identifies some gaps in our current understanding of the health benefits of these polyacetylenes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0459.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: migraine disorders; headache disorders; nociceptive pain; analgesics; calcitonin gene-related peptide; pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP); vasoactive intestinal peptide; adrenomedullin; neuropeptides; drug development
Online: 17 October 2023 (10:50:15 CEST)
Migraine is a neurovascular disorder that can be debilitating for individuals and society. Current research focuses on finding effective analgesics and management strategies for migraines by targeting specific receptors and neuropeptides. Nevertheless, the responder rates of recently approved calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and receptor inhibitors remain around 50 percent. To address the need for novel therapeutic targets, researchers are exploring the potential of another secretin family peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), as a ground-breaking treatment avenue for migraine. Preclinical models have revealed how PACAP affects the trigeminal system, which is implicated in headache disorders. Clinical studies have demonstrated the significance of PACAP in migraine pathophysiology; however, a few clinical trials remain inconclusive: the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 1 receptor mAb, AMG 301 showed no benefit for migraine prevention, while the PACAP ligand mAb, Lu AG09222 significantly reduced the number of monthly migraine days over placebo in a phase 2 clinical trial. Meanwhile, another secretin family peptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is gaining interest as a potential new target. In light of recent advances in PACAP research, we emphasize the potential of PACAP as a promising target for migraine treatment, highlighting the significance of exploring PACAP as a member of the antimigraine armamentarium, especially for patients who do not respond to or contraindicated to anti-CGRP therapies. By updating our knowledge on PACAP and its unique contribution to migraine pathophysiology, we can pave the way for reinforcing PACAP and other secretin peptides, including VIP, as a novel treatment option for migraines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Sorghum bicolor leaf extract; SBLS; Jobelyn®; antioxidant; Immune-modulatory; anti-inflammatory; anti-anemia; HIV
Online: 7 December 2017 (04:37:20 CET)
The West-African variety of Sorghum bicolor leaf sheath (SBLS) Jobelyn® is a natural remedy, which has gained international recognition for its anti-anemic effect and energy boosting qualities in debilitating diseases. The widespread use of traditional medicine in the region usually confirms its safety, but not its efficacy or deep assessment of their pharmacological properties. The other major issue for herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of the extracts. Despite limitations, efforts have been made in isolation and characterisation of active compounds in this specie of sorghum showing various subclasses of flavonoids including apigeninidin, a stable 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and potential fungal growth inhibitor, which accounts for 84% of the total extract. Non-clinical in vitro and in vivo studies support previous indications that this variety of Sorghum bicolor possesses several biologically active compounds with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and neuro-protective properties. Clinical studies show that SBLS has the ability to boost hemoglobin concentrations in anemic conditions and most remarkably to increase CD4 count in HIV-positive patients. The multiple effects and high safety profiles of this extract may encourage its development as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of anemia, chronic inflammatory conditions or in the symptomatic management of HIV infections. This review describes the potential therapeutic aspects of SBLS extract and its potential benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0655.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Bangladeshi medicinal plants; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory
Online: 11 October 2023 (06:30:43 CEST)
Bangladeshi medicinal plants (BMP) have been used as traditional medicinal plants to treat chronic inflammatory diseases, but the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the bark of BMP are not yet known. The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities using methanolic extracts of bark obtained from 15 medicinal spices of Bangladesh plants. The bark methanol extracts of BMP evaluated the total antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the 15 bark extracts of BMP, Albizia odoratissima (A. odoratissima), Engelhardia spicata (E. spicata), and Shorea robusta (S. robusta) showed the highest total phenolic contents and total antioxidant capacity by reducing free radicals scavenging activity. In particular, the three bark extracts significantly reduced the mRNA expression of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-inducible enzymes in macrophages. Also, the mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase 2 was significantly suppressed by three bark extracts in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results suggest that among the 15 bark extracts obtained from medicinal plant in Bangladesh, three bark extracts of A. odoratissima, E. spicata, and S. robusta exert total antioxidant capacity by reducing free radicals scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on LPS-stimulated inflammation in macrophages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1856.v1
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:27:11 CEST)
Two-dimensional (2D) ice I is an atomic-level ice that is composed of two interlocked atom-ic layers saturated with hydrogen bonds. It has recently been experimentally observed but its properties have yet to be clarified. Accordingly, we theoretically studied the hydrophobic properties of 2D ice I. On the contrary, simulation of a hydrogen fluoride molecule on a 2D ice surface manifested that it destroyed the 2d ice structure and connected new hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Investigations of the interfacial effect between 2D and three-dimensional (3D) ice films indicated that the network structure of 2D ice was not de-stroyed by a 3D ice surface, as the former was saturated with hydrogen bonds. However, the surface of 3D ice reorganized to form as many hydrogen bonds as possible. Thus, the 2D ice film was hydrophobic and inhibited the growth of 3D ice. This shows that if 2D ice can be produced on an industrial scale, it could be used as an anti-3D-icing agent under low tem-perature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Anti-inflamotry; antioxidant; oxidative stress; zebrafish
Online: 18 January 2023 (07:06:34 CET)
This work is based on identifying the analysis techniques used to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects using the zebrafish model. In this context, a literature review was performed with the Web of Science database. We used the terms zebra fish, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, model, and Danio rerio. Fifty articles were reviewed, of which thirty-three were chosen to perform this review and were classified according to the source of plant extracts, compounds extracted from plants, chemical compounds, and other sources. This paper is an effort to provide a literature review on zebrafish models and elucidate their pros and cons to evaluate anti-inflamatory and antioxidant activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Pediatrics; Gait; Rehabilitation; Anti-gravity; Treadmill
Online: 1 December 2021 (12:57:48 CET)
The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the literature on the use of anti-gravity treadmill and its effects on lower limb motor functions in children and adolescents with locomotor impairments. Four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science) were searched for articles from inception to August 2021. Inclusion criteria were: (1) experimental or quasi-experimental studies using the anti-gravity training as the primary intervention; (2) studies conducted in paediatricpediatric participants; (3) articles reporting outcomes related to the lower limb functions; and (4) studies published in French or English. Fifteen articles were included in the review. Studies included children and adolescents aged 4–18 years with locomotor impairments. The intervention duration was ranged from 2 and to 12 weeks, with 2-5 sessions per week. Included studies showed reported that anti-gravity training induces improvements in muscle strength, balance, spatiotemporal gait parameters, and walking endurance in children with locomotor impairments. This review provides relevant information about the modalities, outcomes and limits associated with the anti-gravity training protocol reported in the literature. Overall, the anti-gravity treadmill training could be viewed as a valuable training modality for children with cerebral palsy. However, more precise, and comprehensive description of anti-gravity rehabilitation protocols would be useful.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: AIDS; anti-HIV; natural products; SARs
Online: 21 January 2020 (03:15:50 CET)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which is chiefly originated by a retrovirus named Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), has influenced about 70 million populations worldwide. Even though several advancements have been invented in the field of antiretroviral combination therapy, still HIV has become the dominant reason for death in South Africa, for example. The current antiretroviral therapies have achieved success in providing instant HIV suppression but with countless undesirable adverse effects. In the present day, the biodiversity of the plant kingdom is being explored by several researchers for the discovery of potent anti-HIV drugs with different mechanisms of action. The primary challenge is to afford a treatment that is free from any sort of risk of drug resistance and serious side effects. Hence, there is a strong demand to evaluate the drugs obtained from natural plants as well as the synthetic derivatives that have been derived from the natural compounds by various chemical reactions. Several plants such as Andrographis paniculata, Dioscorea bulbifera, Aegle marmelos, Wistaria floribunda, Lindera chunii, Xanthoceras sorbifolia and others have displayed significant anti-HIV activity showing more potent anti-HIV activity along with their structures, SARs & important key findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0060.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: mobile app, software quality anti-patterns
Online: 5 December 2019 (04:16:35 CET)
As the time passes the modification in technology world lead to the evaluation in mobile application as well. With evaluation in mobile industry it is an open challenge for software quality researcher that how to enhance software quality to meet the needs of changes? Quality assurance play a key role in differentiating good application from bed application. With the continuous evaluation of mobile application developing process should be quick and efficient to comply with user requirements and satisfaction. While the listed requirement leads to bad design choices known as antipatterns, which in turn affect the reliability of the code. A tool based method PAPRIKA is used in the proposed re-search to identify and monitor these antipatterns together with a two-step assessment model for software quality assurance and object oriented software quality matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Scandoside; NF-κB; MAPK; Anti-inflammation
Online: 18 January 2018 (07:03:53 CET)
The iridoids of H. diffusa play an important role in the anti-inflammatory process, but the specific iridoid with anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism is lack of study. An iridoid compound named scandoside (SCA) was isolated from H. diffusa and its anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism was confirmed by in intro experiment and molecular docking analysis. As results, SCA significantly decreased the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inhibited the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. SCA treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B alpaha (IκB-α), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The docking data suggested that SCA had great binding abilities to COX-2, iNOS and IκB. Taken together, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of SCA is due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppressing the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, which provided useful information for its application and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: steroid; metabolism; anti-inflammatory drug; inhibition
Online: 24 May 2017 (08:25:26 CEST)
In vitro studies show that diclofenac inhibits enzymatic steroid glucuronidation. This study was designed to investigate the influence of diclofenac on the excretion of stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol via analyses in hair, blood and urine in vivo in a rat study. Brown Norway rats were administered with stanozolol (weeks 1-3) and diclofenac (weeks 1-6). Weekly assessment of steroid levels in hair was complemented with spot urine and serum tests. Levels of both stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol steadily increased in hair during stanozolol treatment and decreased post-treatment, but remained readily detectable for 6 weeks. In contrast, compared to control rats, diclofenac significantly reduced urinary excretion of 3’-hydroxystanozolol which was undetectable in most samples. This is the first report of diclofenac altering steroid metabolism in vivo, detrimentally affecting detection in urine, but not in hair which holds considerable advantages over urinalysis for anti-doping tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; BBIBP-CorV; children 3-12 years old; the anti-spike; Anti-nucleocapsid; Neutralizing antibody
Online: 16 March 2022 (15:24:51 CET)
Background and Objectives: In the current Covid-19 pandemic, children below the age of 12 could manifest Covid-19 symptoms and serve as a reservoir for the virus in the community. The present study was conducted to evaluate the reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of BBIBP-CorV, prior to involving this age group in the vaccination program in the kingdom of Bahrain. Subjects and Methods: The study included 582 children from 3 to 12 years old of Bahraini and non-Bahraini nationality, all of which contributed to the reactogenicity study. Of those, 401 contributed to the immunogenicity study. All children received 2 doses of BBIBP-CorV inactivated virus 3 weeks apart. To assess reactogenicity, children were followed up for 5 weeks to evaluate any vaccine-related adverse events (AE). To assess immunogenicity, blood was collected on day 0 and day 35 to assess antibody titer against S, N, and neutralizing antibody. Results: Of the 582 participants, (45.4%) were female, (54.61%) were male, with 49% in 9-12 age group. Of the 401 children contributing to the immunogenicity study, 274 (68.3%) had no prior exposure to Covid-19. The overall incidence of AE was 27.7%. No significant difference was found among different age groups. The most frequent AE was local (at the injection site) and occurred in 16% of children, followed by fever in 9.3%. No serious adverse events were reported. The Seroconversion rate was 100% among children with no prior exposure to Covid-19. Children with previous Covid-19 exposure had higher averages of anti-S (2379 U/ml compared to 409.1), anti-N (177.6 U/ml compared to 30.9) and neutralizing antibody (93.7 U/ml compared to 77.1) than children with no prior exposure at day 35. Conclusions: Two doses of COVID-19 BBIBP-CorV on the subjects aged between 3 to 12 has good safety and tolerance and can induce an effective immune response and neutralizing antibody titer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Carica papaya; fermented papaya preparation (FPP); free radical scavenging; antioxidant; oxidative stress; anti-diabetic; anti-carcinogenic
Online: 24 July 2018 (11:39:50 CEST)
The simplistic morphological characteristics of the Carica papaya, papaya or ‘pawpaw’ should not be the cause for underestimating its potential as a nutraceutical. The market for papaya has been expanding at a staggering rate, partly due to its applicability as a biofortified product, but mostly for its phytochemical properties and traditional health benefits. Recent characterization studies have showed that the entirety of papaya or using a formulation of fermented papaya promotion (FPP) displays effective free radical scavenging abilities, thought to be influenced by its phenolic, carotenoids, flavonoid or amino acid profile. Aiming at reducing the impact of free radical-induced oxidative damage in the human system, the antioxidant properties of FPP have been found to potently target a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from neurological impairments such as senile dementia to systemic diseases, to its interference at the cellular level and support of normal biological ageing processes. FPP has thus been extensively investigated for its ability to exert cellular protective effects and reduce oxidative stress via mitigation of genetic damage, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic inactivation in diseases. Oxidative stress reduction strategies using FPP and its holistic approach in disease prevention and management, with a focus on diabetes, cancer and cognitive health, contributes unequivocally to wellness in an aging population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: wine; grape pomace; grape seed; by-products; bioactives; phenolics; polar lipids; anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidant; Mediterranean Diet
Online: 14 June 2023 (09:40:25 CEST)
The plethora of bio-functional compounds present in fermented alcoholic beverages like wine, as well as the valorization of bioactives from their wineries/breweries by-products like grape pomace and grape seed, has gained significant interest in the functional foods sector. Wine has always accompanied humanity, for religion or for health. For example, Christians are using wine in the “Holy Communion”, following what Jesus Christ himself did and said during the Last Supper, while the benefits of the wine consumption in moderation was embedded in all Mediterranean civilizations, as it is mentioned by the wise King-Prophet David in his psalms, but also by Hip-pocrates and other wise men, in a Greek-based philosophy of “All things in Moderation” (Cleobulus of Lindos; 6th century BC). In modern times, and after the outbreak of research on wine benefits since the 90’s, when the term “French Paradox” was introduced in the US public during a CBS show, recent evidence has outlined that these benefits are derived by the synergisms of its bio-functional compounds and their digestion-derived metabolites. Within this article, the proposed health benefits of moderate wine consumption, as a functional component of a balanced diet (i.e. the Mediterra-nean Diet), against inflammation-related chronic disorders, is thoroughly reviewed. The various bio-functional compounds of both wine and wineries’ by-products, such as their bioactive phe-nolics, unsaturated fatty acids, polar lipids, and dietary fibers, and their functional antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic health promoting properties are also thoroughly evaluated. The mechanisms of actions and synergism, by which the health benefits are elicited, are also ex-plored. Functional properties of non-alcoholic wine products are also introduced. Emphasis is also given to applications of wineries’ by-products bioactives, as ingredients of bio-functional foods, supplements and nutraceuticals. Limitations and future perspectives for this popular functional alcoholic beverage (wine) ant its rich in bioactives by-products are also addressed. .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1383.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Tetraselmis sp. Carotenoid; anti-inflammatory; zebrafish; inflammation
Online: 21 October 2023 (13:16:51 CEST)
Inflammation is natural protective response of the body tissue caused by various stimuli. Macrophages start and control the inflammatory response. Microalgae have high value of ingredients including carotenoids which are well known for anti-inflammatory properties and used for various products in functional food industries. A green microalgal, Tetraselmis species contains a various type of carotenoids such as lutein, violaxanthin, astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene. Therefore, we studied whether carotenoids isolated from Tetraselmis sp. with different culture conditions in Raw 264.7 cells and zebrafish (Danio rerio) have an anti -inflammatory effect. Carotenoid extracts of natural seawater (NS) and magma seawater (MS) showed inhibitory activity of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction without toxicity. In addition, carotenoid extracts of NS and MS inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)- 1β and IL-6. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, which are inflammatory mediators also decreased by pretreatment of NS and MS. Carotenoid extracts of NS and MS pretreatment also reduced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB). In conclusion, the carotenoid extract of Tetraselmis sp. has an anti -inflammatory effect and can be potential industrial ingredient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0436.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: pharmacological evaluation; docking; anti-inflammatory; analgesic; antimicrobial
Online: 8 October 2023 (08:26:48 CEST)
A series of pyrazolopyrimidines derivatives 4– 11 were synthesized using 1-(6-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-methylpyridazin-3-yl)-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidin-4-amine 3 as a starting material. The detailed synthesis, structure assignments of the novel compounds based on chemical and spectroscopic evidence, spectroscopic data, pharmacological properties and molecular docking are reported. The pharmacological evaluation illustrated that many of these compounds have good analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Hydroxamic acids; Antibacterial; Anti-biofilm; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Online: 4 September 2023 (15:33:31 CEST)
Hydroxamic acid (HA) derivates displayed antibacterial and antifungal activities. HA with various numbers of carbon atoms (C2, C6, C8, C10, C12 and C17), complexed to different metal ions Fe(II/III), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activities and their anti-biofilm activities. Some derivates, among others HA12Fe2, inhibited the development of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium marinum biofilms and could even attack pre-formed Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. Proteomic profiles showed that the potential targets of HA10FeCl were mainly related to mycobacteria stress adaptation, involving cell wall lipid biosynthesis, drug resistance and tolerance, siderophore metabolism. This study provides new insights regarding the antimycobacterial activities of the HA and their complexes, especially about their potential antibiofilm activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1318.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: anti-thrombin aptamer; complex network; electrical response
Online: 18 August 2023 (08:30:24 CEST)
Food and drinks can be contaminated with pollutants such as lead and strontium and this poses a serious danger to human health. For this reason, a number of effective sensors have been developed for the rapid and highly selective detection of such contaminants. TBA, a well-known aptamer developed to selectively target and thereby inhibit the protein of clinical interest -thrombin, is receiving increasing attention for sensing applications, particularly for the sensing of different cations. Indeed, TBA, in the presence of these cations, folds into the stable G-quadruplex structure. Furthermore, different cations produce small but significant changes in this structure that result in changes in the electrical responses that TBA can produce. In this article we produce an overview of the expected data regarding the use of TBA in the detection of lead and strontium, calculating the expected electrical response using different measurement techniques. Finally, we conclude that the TBA should perform better as a detector of strontium rather than lead.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1969.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Cancer; Benzoic acid; Anti-cancer activity; Scaffold
Online: 29 May 2023 (05:00:08 CEST)
Cancer is a catchall term that refers to a collection of more than one chronic disease that can adversely affect the body, including the organs of the body. These diseases can be grouped together under the umbrella term "cancer." Cancer is a catch-all term that is used to refer to a number of different diseases. During the process of looking for new chemical entities, it was found that certain compounds with a basic nucleus of benzoic acid (BA) exhibit a remarkable anticancer potential. This was discovered while the researchers were looking for new chemical entities. In the sixteenth century, the aromatic chemical known as BA, which is also known as an aromatic carboxylic acid, was discovered. BA is also referred to as an aromatic carboxylic acid. When it comes to the chemical synthesis of a wide range of different active molecules, the utilization of a sizeable quantity of BA as a raw material is absolutely necessary. In addition to being present in a variety of other naturally occurring compounds, the BA moiety is the component that is responsible for the activity of the naturally occurring compounds vanillin, gallic acid, and syringic acid. In the synthesis of a wide variety of synthetic bioactive molecules, the BA scaffold is utilized as a building block. The drugs furosemide, bumetanide, benzocaine, tetracaine, and bexarotene are all examples of molecules that fall into this category. The scope of this review article allows for the discussion of a number of noteworthy and recent achievements of BA derivatives in terms of their effectiveness against cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Tibouchina granulosa; anti-inflammatory activity; hispiduloside; cytokines
Online: 4 November 2022 (07:24:02 CET)
The ethanol extract (EE) prepared from the leaves of Tibouchina granulosa, and its fraction in ethyl acetate (fEA) were evaluated concerning their capacity to reduce inflammation in different experimental models. fEA was also studied concerning its chemical constituents. EE and fEA were assayed for their anti-inflammatory potential, using formalin-induced licking behaviour and carrageenan-induced inflammation into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP) models. Reduction in polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) activation was performed in freshly isolated PMN. Chromatographic analysis of fEA was done by HPLC. Hispiduloside was isolated as the main constituent in fEA and its quantity was estimated to be 11.75% in fEA, 3.05% in EE, and 0.2% (w/w) in the plant. EE (30 mg/kg) significantly reduced the second phase of formalin-induced licking. fEA demonstrated a reduction in leukocyte migration into the SAP. EE and fEA drastically reduced cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ), nitric oxide (NO) production, in vitro PMN migration induced by C5a and IL-8, and TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression. Taken together our data indicate that either ethanol extract or its fEA fraction from leaves of T. granulosa present an anti-inflammatory effect contributing to the pharmacological and chemical knowledge of this species and confirming the rationale behind its traditional use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0541.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Codium fragile; marine algae; anti-obesity; prebiotics
Online: 29 November 2021 (14:51:07 CET)
Polysaccharides from marine algae exhibit beneficial biological activities. In this study, we examined the effect of polysaccharides from Codium fragile (PCF) on prebiotic and anti-obesity activity. PCF increases the growth of specific beneficial microbial populations with concomitant decrease in pathogenic microbes. Further, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH activity) after fermentation with PCF as carbon source were higher than for the glucose as control. Moreover, PCF inhibited adipocyte differentiation by inducing differentiation-related factors when the induction of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes was induced. Therefore, we suggest that PCF can be used as prebiotic material with anti-obesity for human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cardiovascular; Channa striatus; diabetes
Online: 9 August 2021 (14:59:08 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus remains a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular complications. Given the burden of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications, there is a need to identify strategies, safe and effective therapeutic agents that could effectively prevent and control diabetes. Presently, many patients living with diabetes depends on traditional medicines as an alternative cure. Channa striatus (Haruan) is a freshwater fish traditionally used to treat wounds, inflammations, and pains. Several pharmacological investigations have supported the folkloric claims of C. striatus extracts, including hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-platelet aggregation activities. The therapeutic potentials of C. striatus were demonstrated to be associated with the presence of high content essential amino acids and good fatty acids known to improve cell growth and facilitate wound healing. Therefore, C. striatus bioactive compounds have great potentials to serve as lead candidates in developing novel therapeutic agents for the management of diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological properties and therapeutic potentials of C. striatus for the management of diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: adipogenesis; signaling pathways; anti-obesity treatment; obesity
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:09:51 CEST)
Abstract: As a risk factor, obesity is a threat to human well-being and related metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. adipogenesis is defined as the proliferation and maturation of adipocyte predecessor cells to adipocyte. As the adipogenesis process decides adipocyte production, it may be considered a therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related disorders. White adipose tissue abnormal expansion increases the size and number of adipocytes. For that reason, this review aims to spot the molecular mechanisms implicated in adipogenesis that lead to application in the therapeutic targets. Keywords: adipogenesis, signaling pathways, anti-obesity treatment, obesity
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0013.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: anti-globalization; economic globalization; US-dominated globalization
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:28:16 CET)
Since the financial crisis in 2008, the U.S. economy has weakened, and the world economy has slowly developed. As the world's leading country, the United States has used many methods to restore the economy. But it does work efficiently. However, there are many issues in developed countries such as domestic social, economic, immigration in the United States/United Kingdom; those are not optimistic. Developed countries have entered a dilemma. The neoliberalism financial system has been unable to move forward. Populists have pointed out that those problems have been causing by globalization. Under the leadership of the Brexit Referendum, President Trump has caused a wave of anti-globalization. Under a series of systems such as the China-US trade war and the US-Mexico border wall repairs, the anti-globalization trend is getting stronger. This article mainly analyzes the in-depth reasons and mechanism research of globalization and anti-globalization alternately—the data obtained from an international method performance study. The results show that anti-globalization is temporary, along with globalization. There are three main factors affecting globalization: the situation of the dominant country, natural disasters, and wars. After so much literature review, I believe that the United States' globalization is gradually weakening, and globalization may return to regionalization under the United States' opposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0360.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Anti-counterfeiting; Security; RFID; Retailer; Re-selling
Online: 10 August 2020 (15:16:58 CEST)
Product counterfeiting is an on-going problem in supply chains and retail environments, Recently an anti-counterfeiting protocol to address this issue via cost-effective use of auto-identification technologies such as radio-frequency identification (RFID) was proposed by researchers.Yet the use case of re-selling the same product was not been fully addressed which might cause serious problem for the exciting and proposed schemes and transactions. This paper proposes an extended RFID-based anti-counterfeiting to address the use case of the original buyer reselling the same item to a second buyer. The extended scheme will be followed by a formal security analysis to show that the proposed protocol satisfies the requirements of security correctness and is resistant to compromise through security attacks.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0270.v1
Online: 16 May 2020 (16:51:36 CEST)
A novel approach has been suggested to use isoelectric points of viral and human proteins to quickly identify proteins that are effective in not allowing virus particles to attach to human receptor cells by virtue of their electrical charge. The method has been applied to SARS CoV-2 to suggest potentially important human proteins that can be suitable for making anti-viral drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Chaenomeles speciose; TCM; antioxidants; phytochemicals; anti-inflammation
Online: 5 December 2018 (07:40:27 CET)
Chaenomeles plants are adapted to diverse ecological zones particularly the temperate areas of Korea, Japan and China. In China, Chaenomeles speciosa mainly planted in Chongqing, Anhui and Hubei provinces. Most of the studies till date have been focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of C. speciosa fractions. The present study aimed to review the maximum literature reported for the presence of various phytochemicals in C. speciosa. In addition, the pharmacological properties of these chemical compounds of this plant shall also be discussed. The extracts of the various parts of the plant are rich in diversity of antioxidants, organic acids, phenolics, terpenoides and many different phytochemicals that bear strong anticancer, antioxidant, anti-viral, antibacterial properties, anti-inflammation, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-parkinson properties. C. speciosa fruits have broad scope in industry as well as in medicines. Not only the leaves and fruits of C. speciosa plant, but various other parts including roots, seeds, bark twigs, and flowers all have long history of clinical trials in curing many human ailments. However, the maximum accessible data concerning the chemical composition and their broad pharmacological properties of C. speciosa plant parts is pretty restricted that make it more appealing for indepth investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0323.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: fracking; Risk Society; anti-politics; climate change
Online: 17 September 2018 (16:11:45 CEST)
Fracking in the UK has yet to reach full industrial development but it is still subject to significant opposition. This study uses Beck’s Risk Society theory and anti-politics to examine the views voiced by opponents to fracking in Yorkshire, England. A qualitative approach was used; local newspaper reports were evaluated alongside semi-structured interviews with protesters to provide a thematic analysis. Although there are signs of post-materialist concerns with the environment these issues did not dominate the discussion. Scientists were not held responsible for the risks involved in fracking. Instead economic greediness of politicians and austerity measures were perceived as putting the environment and people’s health at risk. Interviewees thought fossil fuel energy production was economically advantaged over more sustainable energy and jobs in the low carbon economy. Protesters’ trust in politicians had been eroded but faith in democracy remained. It is suggested a citizen-led deliberative approach to all the concerns raised, not simply those relating to scientific risk, might achieve some level of resolution over fracking in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: silver nanoparticles; green synthesis; anti diabetic; cytotoxic
Online: 16 September 2018 (10:02:14 CEST)
Background. Nanotechnology is promising field for generating new applications. A green synthesis of nanoparticles through biological methods using plant extract have a reliable and ecofriendly approach to improve our global environment. Methods. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous extract of Anagalis arvensis L and silver nitrate and were physicochemically characterized. Results. The stability of AgNPs toward acidity, alkalinity, salinity and temperature showed that they remained stable at room temperature for more than two months. The SEM and TEM analysis of the AgNPs showed that they have a uniform spherical shape with an average size in the range of 40–78 nm. Further 1-Dibhenyl-2-Picrylhydrazl radical in Anagalis arvensis L.mediated AgNPs showed a maximum activity of 98% at concentration of 200μg/mL. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay in Anagalis arvensis L. mediated AgNPs showed a maximum activity of 85% at concentration of 200μg/mL. Reducing power of Anagalis arvensis L.Ag NPs exhibited a higher activity of 330 μg/mL at concentration of 200 μg/mL. These NPs have cytotoxic effects against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii with a value of 53% LD 178.04μg/mL. Conclusion. The AgNPs synthesized using Anagalis arvensis L. extract demonstrate a broad range of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0011.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitosan; aldehydes; chalcone; MIC; anti-cancer activity
Online: 1 August 2018 (09:38:35 CEST)
Versatile hybrid organic polymers are prepared using two active intermediates such as cynuric chloride and chitosan derivatives. The prepared chalcones are characterized by using FT-IR, UV, and proton NMR, thermal analysis and Minimum inhibitory Concentration. Thermal stability of the synthesized hybrid polymer is found using TGA and the hybrid chitosan derivative chalcone is thermally stable up to 270 °C. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared chitosan containing chalcone moiety are find out using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) method. The synthesized versatile chalcone shows excellent antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and Gram-positive bacteria Chalcone containing halogen moiety shows high activity (MIC 7.8 µg/mL) than the hydroxyl containing chalcone. Cytotoxicity activity of the synthesized composites shows high activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0455.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Gonocaryum calleryanum; secoiridoid; structure identification; anti-inflammatory.
Online: 30 May 2018 (16:42:36 CEST)
Three new secoiridoid constituents Gonocarin A-C (1-3) and a new derivative Gonocarin A monoacetate (4), along with two known lignins pinoresinol (5) and paulownin (6) were isolated from the seed of Gonocaryum calleryanum (Baill.) Becc. The structures of the new metabolites were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, particularly mass spectroscopy and 2D NMR (1H–1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) spectroscopy. When mouse macrophages RAW264.7 were treated with compounds 1-6 together with LPS -stimulated, a concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) productions were detected. The results confirmed that the Gonocaryum calleryanumrrg could be a potential anti-inflammatory agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: cordycepin; adenosine A1 receptor; prolactin; anti-obesity
Online: 3 April 2018 (07:53:24 CEST)
Cordycepin is an extract from the insect fungus Cordyceps. militaris, which is a traditional medicine with various biological function. In previous studies, cordycepin had been reported with excellent anti-obesity effect, but the mechanism is unclear. A large quantity of evidences showed that prolactin plays an important part in body weight regulation, hyperprolactinemia can promote appetite and accelerate fat deposition. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of the anti-obesity effect of cordycepin by reducing prolactin release via an adenosine A1 receptor. In vivo, obese rats model was induced by high fat diet for 5 weeks, the serum and liver lipids coupling with serum prolactin were reduced by treatment of cordycepin, the results suggested that cordycepin is a potential drug for therapying obesity which could be related with prolactin. In vitro, cordycepin could inhibit prolactin secretion in GH3 cells via upregulating the expression of adenosine A1 receptor, the inhibition effect could be blocked by an antagonist of adenosine receptor A1 DPDPX, prolactin induced the upregulation of lipogenesis genes PRLR, and P-JAK2 in 3T3-L1 cells. Intriguingly, cordycepin would down-regulate the expression of prolactin receptor (PRLR). Thus, we concluded that cordycepin modulate body weight by reducing prolactin release via an adenosine A1 receptor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: oligonol; diabetes; pancreas; antioxidative stress; anti-inflammation
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:29:46 CEST)
Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit. This study was conducted to examine whether oligonol has an ameliorative effect on diabetes-induced pancreatic damage via oxidative stress-induced inflammation. Oligonol was orally administered at 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and changes in serum glucose, C-peptide, insulin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as body weight and food and water consumption were assessed. Furthermore, rat pancreases were analyzed for weight, ROS generation, TBARS level, insulin content, and protein expressions of phosphor (p)-p38, p-extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2, p-inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa Bα, nuclear factor-kappa Bp65, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Markers of diabetes were shown to be decreased by oligonol administration and histological damage in the pancreas was also ameliorated. These results indicate that oligonol exerts antidiabetic activities, which may be mediated via antioxidative, stress-related, anti-inflammatory signaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0023.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: anti-yeast; enzyme inhibitors; Terminalia mantaly; Combretaceae
Online: 3 November 2016 (09:35:17 CET)
The chemical investigation of the anti-yeast methanol extract from the stem bark of Terminalia mantaly led to the isolation of seven compounds: 3-O-methyl-4-O-α-rhamnopyranoside ellagic acid (1), 3-O-mehylellagic acid (2), arjungenin or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid (3), arjunglucoside or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid glucopyranoside (4), 2α,3α,24-trihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-28-oïc acid (5), stigmasterol (6), stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7). Their structures were established by means of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data. Compounds 1-5 were tested in vitro for activity against three pathogenic yeast isolates, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei. The activity of compounds 1, 2 and 4 were comparable to that of the reference compound fluconazole (MIC values below 32 µg/ml) against the three tested yeast isolates. They were also tested for inhibitory properties against four enzymes of metabolic significance: Glucose-6-Phosphate Deshydrogenase (G6PD), human erythrocyte Carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I and hCA II), Glutathione S-transferase (GST). Compound 4 showed highly potent inhibitory property against the four tested enzymes with overall IC50 values below 4 µM and inhibitory constant (Ki) <3 µM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0307.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; anti-PD-1/PDL-1; anti-CTLA-4; gender; sex; Nivolumab; Pembrolizumab; Atezolizumab; Ipilimumab; Durvalumab
Online: 15 November 2018 (07:02:24 CET)
Evidence has recently emerged on the influence of gender on the immune system. In this systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs), we explored the impact of gender on survival in patients with advanced cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We performed a comprehensive search of the literature updated to April 2018, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and EMBASE. We extracted data on study characteristics and risk of bias in duplicate. Of 423 unique citations, 21 RCTs were included, inherently to 12,635 patients. Both males and females showed reduced risk of death associated with ICIs use (HR 0.73, p<0.001 and HR 0.77, p<0.001, respectively). Subgroup analyses by specific ICI showed similar OS in both genders for anti-PD-1/PDL-1. Anti-CTLA-4 use was associated with longer OS in men only (HR 0.77, p<0.012), with the exception of melanoma (in women, HR 0.80, p=0.006). PFS was longer in men than in women (HR 0.67, p<0.001 and HR 0.77, p=0.100, respectively). Conclusively, ICIs use was associated with more favorable outcomes in men, particularly for anti-CTLA-4 agents. In melanoma, not gender-related factors may influence the anti-tumor immune response evoked by ICIs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0910.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitor; resistance mechanism; melanoma; oral mucosal melanoma; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint blockade; anti-PD-1; anti-CTLA-4
Online: 17 October 2023 (03:37:34 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibodies, have initiated a new era in the treatment of malignant melanoma. ICIs can be used in various settings, including as first-line, adjuvant, and neoadjuvant therapy. In the scope of this review, we examined clinical studies utilizing ICIs in the context of treating oral mucosal melanoma, a rare disease albeit with an extremely poor prognosis, with a specific focus on unraveling the intricate web of resistance mechanisms. The absence of a comprehensive review focusing on ICIs in oral mucosal melanoma is notable. Therefore, this review seeks to address this deficiency by offering a novel and thorough analysis of the current status, potential resistance mechanisms, and future prospects of applying ICIs specifically to oral malignant melanoma. Clarifying and thoroughly understanding these mechanisms will facilitate the advancement of effective therapeutic approaches and enhance the prospects for patients suffering from oral mucosal melanoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: SiO2; hydrophobic; Anti-icing; Self-cleaning; protective coatings
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:22:38 CEST)
In the present study, an epoxy-modified silica nano-composite coating was deposited on an aluminum substrate and ACSR conductor. For this purpose, super-hydrophobic modified silica nanoparticles based on the TEOS and MTES precursors were prepared. Then, the modified silica nanoparticles were added to the epoxy resin solution. The coating deposition on an aluminum substrate and ACSR conductors was performed by a spraying method. The structure, morphology, and chemical analysis of the nanoparticle’s surface were studied with X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) methods. The water contact angles on the prepared samples were measured by a water contact angle analyzer method. Icing tests were performed at a constant operating temperature of -14 °C. Also, the self-cleaning behavior of the samples was evaluated with an iron oxide powder. The results indicated that the epoxy-modified silica nano-composite coating showed hydrophobic (CA, 141°), anti-icing, and self-cleaning properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: crocin; saffron extracts; antioxidants; carotenoids; anti-glycation activity
Online: 5 September 2023 (17:01:29 CEST)
Crocin, a glycoside carotenoid showing several health benefits, is mainly obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.), whose quality and content of phytochemicals can be strongly affected by environmental conditions. Therefore, in this work, the crocin content and the in vitro antioxidant activity of saffron extracts obtained from three different varieties (Greek, Sicilian, and Iranian saffron) were assessed. Crocin content in saffron extracts was quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity of saffron extracts was evaluated using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging test. The Maillard reaction was used to assess the anti-glycation activity. Although the Sicilian and Iranian saffron extracts contained higher amounts of crocin compared to the Greek one, ORAC values and % NO inhibition were higher for the Greek variety that showed a total phenolic content about two-fold greater than that of the other two extracts. Sicilian and Greek saffron had similar anti-glycation activities, while the Iranian saffron was less effective. These results suggest that the antioxidant activity of saffron extracts could be ascribed to their naturally occurring complex mixture of phytochemicals, deserving further investigations as supplement to prevent pathological conditions induced by radical species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Infection; Influenza; anti-viral; ProLectin-M; ProLectin-I
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:50:33 CEST)
ntroduction: Respiratory tract Infections are the greatest cause of death worldwide. Since its outbreak in 2019, the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has been a challenge to humans in terms of treatment and prevention of this respiratory viral infection. The re-emergence of respiratory viral infections like influenza, pose a serious hazard to global public health because they occur seasonally. Creating broad-spectrum antiviral compounds for rapid action in the case of an outbreak crisis, as well as bioweapon defences, is critical. Human galectin-3 is found in high concentrations in activated T lymphocytes, epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. ProLectin -I and ProLectin -M are both galectin antagonists. Blocking viral entry with a complex polysaccharide component "ProLectin-M" has downstream effects on viral reproduction enabling it to be used as a therapeutic tool and a safe alternative to conventional anti-viral medicines. Methods: In total, 3 cell based assays have been conducted to evaluate antiviral efficacy of ProLectin–I and ProLectin-M against SARS-CoV-2 virus, Influenza-A (H1N1), and human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) strain A2. ProLectin-M and ProLectin-I were evaluated for their anti-viral potency using SARS-CoV2 virus strain by viral RNA Extraction and qRT-PCR assays. The plaque assays were carried out to determine the antiviral activity of the test products (ProLectin-I and ProLectin-M) against ‘Influenza-A (H1N1)-A/PR/8/34 (TC adapted)’ and ‘Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) strain A2’ in a cell based in vitro setting. As eference standard, "Oseltamivir Phosphate" and "Remdesivir" were used to determine antiviral activity of test products against H1N1 and hRSV strains respectively.Results: The IC50 of ProLectin-M and ProLectin-I against SARS-CoV-2 virus was found to be 6248 ng/ml (6.2µg/ml) and 4207 ng/ml (4.2μg/ml) respectively. The CC50 value was similar in both the test products i.e. >100 µg/ml. Against Influenza A (H1N1) strain, ProLectin-M exhibited 95 % reduction in the viral load at the test concentration of 21.8 µg/mL with an IC50 value of 5.4 µg/mL whereas, ProLectin-I did not show any cytotoxicity till 250 µg/mL concentration. Against 'human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) strain A2, ProLectin-M exhibited 65 % reduction in the viral load at the test concentration of 43.75 µg/mL with an IC50 value of 27.41 µg/mL whereas, ProLectin- I did not show any cytotoxicity till 250 µg/mL concentration. Conclusion: Both ProLectin-I and ProLectin-M have been reported to exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral activity in ‘in-vitro’ setting. ProLectin-M reducing influenza-A virus by 95% and hRSC strain A2 by 65%. To better understand broad spectrum antiviral activity of ProLectin-I and ProLectin-M, further pre-clinical research is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1856.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: chalcones; anti-leishmanial activity; molecular docking; molecular dynamic
Online: 28 August 2023 (10:27:43 CEST)
Leishmaniasis is a group of neglected infectious, non-contagious diseases caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus which affects millions of people worldwide. The drugs available for its treatment, especially in cases of visceral leishmaniasis, are old, outdated, have serious side effects and in many cases are ineffective due to the emergence of resistant strains. In this context, the search for new candidates for more effective and safer drugs which can become new therapeutic alternatives is a constant need. In this work, 10 new chalcones were synthesized in high yields through Claisen-Schmidt condensation and were evaluated in vitro against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes. CP04 and CP06 compounds were the most promising, respectively showing IC50 values = 13.64 ± 0.25 and 11.19 ± 0.22 against promastigotes, and IC50 = 18.92 ± 0.05 and 22.42 ± 0.05 against amastigotes. The compounds did not show cytotoxicity in erythrocytes, showing selectivity indexes greater than 74 and 90. Molecular docking studies carried out under the sterol 14-alpha demethylase (CYP-51) (PDB: 3L4D) and trypanothione reductase (PDB: 5EBK) enzymes from L. infantum evidenced the great affinity of the CP04 molecule for these targets, showing Moldock score values of -94.0758 and -50.5692 KJ/mol-1, with these values being much lower than the co-crystallized ligand energies. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated great stability of CP04 in its targets, thus indicating a real interaction possibility. Our findings confirm the potential that chalcones have as candidates for anti-leishmania drugs, and suggest that the CP04 compound may become a promising drug candidate to design and develop novel chalcone-based analogs for leishmaniosis therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1647.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Lung cancer; Cytokines; Therapy; Immune system; Anti-tumor
Online: 23 August 2023 (09:55:37 CEST)
Lung cancer accounts for the majority of cancer cases. In recent years, checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy (ICI) has emerged as a new treatment. A better understanding of the tumor microenvironment, or TMJ, or the immune system surrounding the tumor is needed. Cytokines are small proteins that carry messages between cells and are known to play an important role in the body's response to inflammation and infection. Cytokines are important for immunity in lung cancer. It promotes tumor growth (oncogenic cytokines) or inhibits tumor growth (anti-tumor cytokines) by controlling signaling pathways for growth, proliferation, metastasis, and apoptosis. The immune system relies heavily on cytokines. They can also be produced in the laboratory for therapeutic use. Cytokine therapy helps the immune system stop the growth or kill cancer cells. Interleukins and interferons are two types of cytokines used to treat cancer. This article begins by addressing the role of the tumor microenvironment (TMJ) and its components in lung cancer. This review also highlights the functions of various cytokines such as IL, TGF and TNF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0952.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: phlorotannin; starch digestion; edible seaweed; anti-diabetic effect
Online: 11 August 2023 (13:20:28 CEST)
Seaweeds, notably cochayuyo (Durvillaea incurvata), are recognized for their rich macro- and micronutrient content, along with their inhibitory effects on the α-glucosidase enzyme. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of this inhibition in actual starchy food products under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The study utilized freeze-dried cochayuyo, extracted using hot pressurized liquid extraction with 50% ethanol at 120 C and 1500 psi. The inhibition mechanism of α-glucosidase was determined, and the polyphenol composition of the extract was analyzed using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. The study further evaluated the extract’s impact on starch digestibility, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity in noodles as representative starchy food under gastrointestinal conditions. The results indicate that the α-glucosidase inhibition mechanism is mixed. Phenolic compounds, primarily tetraphloroethol, could contribute to this anti-enzymatic activity. The extract was observed to decrease starch digestibility, indicated by a lower rate constant (0.0158 vs. 0.0261 min-1) and digested starch at an infinite time (77.4 vs. 80.5 g/100 g). A significant increase (~1200 vs. ~390 µmol TROLOX/100 g) in antioxidant activity was also noted during digestion when the extract was used. Thus, the study suggests that the cochayuyo extract can reduce starch digestion and enhance antioxidant capacity under gastrointestinal conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0214.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: quercetin; antioxidant; apoptotic; anti-inflammatory activity; colon cancer
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:42:07 CEST)
(1) Background: Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality globally. It is a multi-step process that involves genetic and epigenetic modifications leading to histological and morphological changes. Several complementary therapeutic options have been analyzed, shedding light on plant-based medication as a potential treatment for colon cancer. Flavonoids such as quercetin are known to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. This in vitro study examines quercetin's anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-angiogenesis effects and antioxidant properties in colon cancer cells. (2) Methods: The antioxidant capacity of quercetin-treated cells was investigated using biochemical assays, and angiogenesis and cytokine levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The epigenetic modulation and differential expression of aging, apoptotic, and proliferation genes, and Histone deacetylases (HDACs) were also investigated. (3) Results: In this study, the quercetin-treated group significantly reduced the antioxidant enzymes, cytokines, and VEGF levels, altering the expression of epigenetic factors. Quercetin also induced significant senescence in colon cancer cells. Moreover, a considerable increase was observed in the apoptotic and hTERT genes. In contrast, a decrease in p53, proliferation genes, and HDACs was observed, providing a basis for the clinical use of quercetin in cancer treatment. (4) Conclusion: In vitro studies showed that quercetin treatment efficiently induces senescence and apoptosis in colon cancer cells. We also found that quercetin effectively modulated the expression of p53, Wnt1, CTNNB1, and HDACs, indicating that it could be used to treat colon cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1845.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: hepatitis D; prevalence; anti-HDV antibody; HDV RNA
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:26:46 CEST)
Background: It is assumed that the prevalence of hepatitis D in HBsAg-positive individuals reaches 4.5-13% in the world, and on average about 3% in Europe. Data from several European countries, including Slovakia, are missing or are from an older period. Methods: We analyzed all available data on hepatitis D from Slovakia, including reports from the Slovak Public Health Authority and the results of one prospective study, and three smaller surveys. The determination of anti-HDV IgG and IgM antibodies and/or HDV RNA was used to detect hepatitis D. Results: In the years 2005-2022, no confirmed case of acute or chronic HDV infection was reported in Slovakia. The presented survey includes a total of 343 patients, of which 126 were asymptomatic HBsAg carriers, 33 acute hepatitis B, and 184 chronic hepatitis B cases. In a recent prospective study of 206 HBsAg-positive patients who were completely serologically and virologically examined for hepatitis B and D, only 1 anti-HDV IgG positive and no anti-HDV IgM or HDV RNA positive cases were detected. In other smaller surveys, 2 anti-HDV IgG positive patients were found without the possibility of HDV RNA confirmation. In total, only 3 of 329 HBsAg-positive patients (0.91%) tested positive for anti-HDV IgG antibodies and none of 220 tested positive for HDV RNA. Conclusion: The available data show that Slovakia is one of the countries with a very low prevalence of HDV infection reaching less than 1% in HBsAg-positive patients. Routine testing for hepatitis D is lacking in Slovakia, and therefore it is necessary to implement testing of all HBsAg-positive individuals according to international recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1457.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Anti-diabetic; Alpha amylase; Adhatoda vasica; Molecular docking
Online: 21 July 2023 (10:09:28 CEST)
Background: Diabetic patients are more likely to experience morbidity and mortality as a result of microvascular complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and stroke. There are many synthetic anti-diabetic agents available which are expensive and have undesirable pathological effects. Thus, it is essential to look for cost-effective, natural, and safe antidiabetic agents. The aim of this study was to screen phytoconstituent and evaluate the in-vitro and in-silico α-amylase inhibitory activity of ethanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica leaves. Method: The extraction of Adhatoda vasica leaves was performed with ethanol through Soxhlet extraction process. Different concentrations (0.1 mg/ml to 1 mg/ml) of ethanolic extract, Acarbose, and Sitagliptin, were prepared and all concentrations were evaluated for α-amylase inhibitory activity through the spectrophotometric method. Molecular docking (AutodockVina 1.2.0) and toxicity profiling (SToPToX web server) studies were performed. Results: The plant extract showed highest inhibition of α-amylase (56.763±0.0035) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. This inhibitory activity was supported by the in-silico study. Vasicoline (C5) and quercetin (C9), active constitute of plant Adhatoda vasica, showed the best binding energy of 8.3 and 8.0 Kcal/mol respectively with α-amylase enzyme (PDBID: 4W93). Toxicity study revealed the safety profile of plant extract. Conclusion: It was concluded that Adhatoda vasica leaves possess some bioactive compounds which are responsible for controlling blood glucose levels and its identification, purification, and isolation may lead to the development of newer therapeutic agent with lesser side effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0895.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Event Related Potentials; Epilepsy; P300; Anti-Seizure Medication
Online: 13 July 2023 (07:40:09 CEST)
Background: Epileptic patients frequently encounter cognitive impairment. Functions that are mostly affected involve memory, attention and executive function; however this is mainly dependant on the location of the epileptic activity. The aim of the study is to assess cognitive functions in MRI-negative epilepsy patients by means of neurophysiological and neuropsychological measures. Methods: The patients were enrolled from the outpatient Epilepsy/Clinical Neurophysiology clinic over a time period of 6 months. The study sample comprised 20 MRI negative epilepsy patients [mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 30.3 ± 12.56 years; age range 16-60 years; average disease duration, 13.95 years) and 10 age-matched controls (mean age ± SD, 24.22 ± 15.39 years), that were also education-matched (p>0.05) Patients with epileptogenic lesions were excluded from the study. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Auditory ERPs and the cognitive screening tool EpiTrack, were administered to all subjects. Results: Latencies of P300 and slow waves were prolonged in patients compared to controls (p<0.05). ASM load and the patients’ performance in the EpiTrack maze subtest were the most significant predictors of P300 latency. A decline in memory, attention, and speed of information processing has been observed in patients with cryptogenic epilepsy compared to age-matched controls, as reflected by P300 latency and EpiTrack scores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1156.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: measles; seroprevalence; immunity; anti-measles IgG antibodies; Greece
Online: 15 June 2023 (14:40:55 CEST)
Accurate data on susceptibility rates against measles in general population of Greece are scarce. Many studies estimate the vaccination coverage but none has calculated the nationwide immunity rate, involving all age groups, against measles virus. The purpose of our study was to determine the immunity status to measles, especially after the latest outbreak in 2017-2018. In total, 3,972 leftover blood samples were collected from a nationwide laboratory network using a geograph-ically stratified sampling strategy and were tested for the presence of measles specific IgG anti-bodies. The overall crude seroprevalence was calculated 89.6% and the adjusted 89.8% (95% CI: 88.8% - 90.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in seropositivity among sexes (p=0.783). Higher immunity rates and antibody titer were found in older age groups ≥ 41 years old (94.9%, 95% CI: 93.7% - 95.9%, and 730.0 IU/l) in comparison to younger individuals 1-40 years old (83.4%, 95% CI: 81.6% - 85.7%, and 616.5 IU/l). ). Comparing the seroprevalence among Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS 2), a statistically significant difference was estimated among them (<0.001). The two regions where higher measles incidence was observed during the 2017-2018 outbreak, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace and Western Greece, were among the four regions with the lower seropositivity (84.6%, 95% CI: 79.9% -89.4% and 85.9%, 95% CI: 81.4% - 90.4%, respectively). Our study showed a measles immunity gap that affects younger age groups and makes a new measles outbreak likely. Enforcement of vaccination campaigns and ad-dressing vaccine hesitancy could bridge it and achieve the required target for herd immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1031.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: vigilance; attention; online assessment; ANTI-Vea; attentional networks
Online: 14 June 2023 (09:35:29 CEST)
The Attentional Networks Test for Interactions and Vigilance–executive and arousal components (ANTI-Vea) is a computerized task of 32 min duration in the standard format. The task simultaneously assesses the main effects and interactions of the three attentional networks (i.e., phasic alertness, orienting, and executive control) and two dissociated components of vigilance with reasonable reliability (executive and arousal vigilance). We present this free and publicly accessible resource (ANTI-Vea-UGR; https://anti-vea.ugr.es/) developed to easily run, collect, and analyze data with the ANTI-Vea (or its subtasks measuring some attentional and/or vigilance components embedded in the ANTI-Vea). Available in six different languages, the platform allows for adaptation of stimuli timing and procedure to facilitate data collection from different populations (e.g., clinical patients, children). Collected data can be freely downloaded and easily analyzed with the provided scripts and tools, including a Shiny app. We discuss previous evidence supporting that attention and vigilance components can be assessed in typical lab conditions as well as online and outside the laboratory. We hope this tutorial will help researchers interested in measuring attention and vigilance with a tool useful to collect data from large sample sizes and easy to use in applied contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0592.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: anti-inflammatory assays; murine model; rodent-induced edema
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:34:51 CEST)
Background: Pteropodine (PT) is a component of some plants with potentially useful pharmaco-logical activities for humans. This compound has biomedical properties related to the modulation of the immune system, nervous system, and inflammatory processes. This study addresses the an-ti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity of pteropodin in a murine model of arthritis and induced edema of the mouse ear. Methods: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, we used the reversed passive Arthus reaction (RPAR), which includes the rat paw edema test, the rat pleurisy test, and a mouse ear edema model. The antioxidant effect was evaluated by determining the myeloperoxidase enzyme activity. Results: PT showed an anti-inflammatory effect in the different specific and non-specific tests. We found a 52 to 74% of inhibitory effect of PT in the rat paw edema test, 52% of reduction of the pleural exudate volume, and low neutrophil count (28%), when compared to the control group. We also found a 81% of inflammatory inhibition of the ear edema, and a significant myeloperoxidase enzyme inhibition by the three doses of PT. Conclusions: PT exerted a potent an-ti-inflammatory effect in the acute inflammation model in rodents.