Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: wildfire; governance; Anthropocene; elemental; geography; anthropology
Online: 17 September 2019 (04:00:36 CEST)
Views of fire in the contemporary physical sciences arguably accord with Heraclitus’ proposal that ‘all things are an exchange for fire, and fire for all things, as goods for gold and gold for goods.’ Fire is a media, as John Durham Peters has stated, a species of transformative biochemical reactions between the flammable gases found in air, such as oxygen, and those found in fuels, such as plants. Inspired by an ignition source, these materials react and transform themselves and their surrounds into light and heat energy, carbon dioxide, water vapour, char and much else besides. Fire is conjunctural, durational and transformative. Fire is a dialectician, at once consuming living and dead organic matter and providing both the space and ingredients for new and renewed organic life. In this article, we consider the diverse ways in which fire is today framed as a social problem, an ecological process, an ancient tool, a natural disaster, a source of economic wealth and much more. In this way, we seek to explore the value and limits of ‘elemental thinking’ in relation to the planetary predicaments described by ‘the Anthropocene’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: discourse; communication; media; anthropology; political philosophy
Online: 10 April 2018 (08:50:45 CEST)
In order to clarify some more concepts, we start by classifying some forms of populism and visualize them as precursors of totalitarianism. It goes without saying that media control or at least media domination (especially in this recent age of digitalization) becomes important within this context, because the Turing galaxy follows essentially the development of the Gutenberg galaxy, but at the same time, quite different from the latter, it multiplies, enhances, and accelerates anonymous data pressure that alters the quality of the ongoing discourse. This is what we would like to discuss here in more detail by also asking for a possibly anthropological principle that underlies these developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biological profile; radiology; bone loss; forensic anthropology
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:14:46 CET)
Estimating age at death is essential to establish a biological profile from human skeletal remains in both forensic and archeological settings. Imaging studies of skeletal age changes in adults have described metamorphosis of trabecular bone structure and bone loss in the proximal femur , as well as changes in morphology during different stages of life. This study aims to assess the utility of a digital representation of conventional X-ray films of the proximal femur for the estimation of age at death in a sample of 91 adult individuals (47 females and 44 males) of the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection. The proposed approach showed a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 17.32 years (and mean absolute error of 13.47 years) for females and an RMSE of 14.06 years (mean absolute error of 11.08 years) for males. The main advantage of this approach is the consistency in the feature detection and extraction, as X-ray images projected on the femora space will always produce the same set features to be analyzed for age estimation while more traditional methods rely heavily on operator experience which can lead to inconsistent age estimates among experts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0279.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Primate cognition; scribbles; evolutive anthropology; art; aesthetics
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:20:42 CEST)
This study analyses 749 drawings of five female Bornean orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) at Tama Zoological Park in Japan. We searched for differences between individuals but also tried to identify possible temporal changes among the drawings of one individual, Molly, who drew almost 1,300 drawings from 2006 to 2016. An analysis of the drawings was carried out after collecting quantitative and qualitative variables. Our findings reveal evidence of differences in the drawing style of the five individuals as well as creative changes in Molly’s drawing style throughout her lifetime. Individuals differed in terms of the colours used, the space they filled but also the shapes (fan patterns, circles or loops) they drew. Molly drew less and less as she grew older, and we found a significant difference between drawings produced in winter, when orang-utans were kept inside and had less activity, and those produced during other seasons. Our results suggest that the drawing behaviour of these five orang-utans is not random and that differences among individuals might reflect differences of styles, states of mind but also motivation to draw.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0041.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Music Keywords: Decolonisation; Terminology; Dance anthropology; Ethnochoreology; Choreomusical; Epistemology; Linguistic decolonization
Online: 4 October 2021 (10:35:33 CEST)
English has become the world language, which on the one side is a blessing for international communication. On the other side, its dominance tends to make large parts of the world rely on only one language for academic work. This impoverishes the conceptual, expressive and epistemological richness available in all the other languages and makes believe that a translation can bring every concept from one language to another. My aim here is to discuss one concrete problem with a missing concept in English; dance and music as a unity. I will test epistemological arguments; why should we keep dance and music apart and why should we unite them under a new term. I then ask why we do not see concepts from other languages as a resource to improve academic terminology in English and other European languages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0352.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: folklore, ethnographic study, Indian tribes, myths, social anthropology, Gujarat
Online: 24 May 2018 (14:25:07 CEST)
The focus of this ethnographic expedition is to study the folklore and traditions amongst the existing tribal populations of Barumal village in southern Gujarat, India. The fieldwork revolves around cultural and socio-economic aspects of their livelihood and this paper encompasses the knowledge from one such lens out of many. It tries to identify the importance of mythology and its roots. The data collected from three different population groups are Varlis, Kukanas, Dhodiya Patels that are set within the caste system based hierarchy inhabiting in the same region. The interview method was employed throughout with open-ended questions. The varied customs and traditions appearing in their lifestyle, occupation, and festivals are always associated with one god or another. The key informants felt the need to distinguish the history of their own tribe from the others by taking the help of myths passed down from their ancestors. Most of the key informants were mature adults including both males and females.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: heuristic model; system; complexity; method; intercultural communication studies; gregory bateson; anthropology; informational realism; Quebec
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:23:37 CEST)
This article focuses on methods for designing heuristic models within the paradigm of systems theory and in the disciplinary context of intercultural communication. The main question arises from the striking observation that the common language is insufficient to develop knowledge about human communication, especially when many factors of complexity (such as ambiguity, paradoxes, or uncertainty) are involved in the composition of an abstract research object. This epistemological, theoretical, and methodological problematic is one of the main challenges to the scientificity of anthropological theories and concepts on culture. Moreover, these questions lie at the heart of research in intercultural communication. Authors and theorists in the complexity sciences have already stressed the need, in such case, to think in terms of models or semiotic representations, since these tools of thought can mediate much more effectively than unformalized language between the heterogeneous set of perceptions arising from the field of experience, on the one hand, and the philosophical principles that organize speculative thought, on the other. This sets the scene for a reflection on the need to master the theory of heuristic models when it comes to developing scientific knowledge in the field of intercultural communication. In this essay, my first aim is to make explicit the conditions likely to ensure the heuristic value of a model, while my second aim is to clarify the operational function and required level of abstraction of certain terms such as concepts, categories, headings, models, systems, or theories that are among the most commonly used by academics in their descriptive accounts or explanatory hypotheses. To achieve this second objective, I propose to create cognitive meta-categories to identify the three (nominal, cardinal or ordinal) roles of words in the reference grids we use to classify our ideas, and to specify how to use these meta-categories in the construction of our heuristic models. Alongside the theoretical presentation, examples of application are provided, almost all of which are drawn from my own research into the increased cultural vigilance of the majority population in Quebec since the reasonable accommodation crisis in this French-speaking province of Canada. The typology I propose will perhaps help to avoid the confusions regularly committed by authors who attribute only cosmetic functions to words that nevertheless have a highly heuristic value, and who forget to consider the logical leaps of their theoretical thinking in the construction of heuristic models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0122.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Music Keywords: music therapy; stroke rehabilitation; moments of interest; process research; therapeutic relationship; mixed methods; EEG hyperscanning; social neuroscience; medical anthropology
Online: 8 March 2022 (10:41:32 CET)
Interdisciplinary research into the underlying neural processes of music therapy (MT) and subjective experiences of patients and therapists are largely lacking. The aim of the current study was to assess the feasibility of newly developed procedures (including EEG/ECG hyperscanning, synchronous audio-video monitoring, and qualitative interviews) to study the personal experiences and neuronal dynamics of moments of interest during MT with stroke survivors. The feasibility of our mobile set-up and procedures as well as their clinical implementation in a rehabilitation centre and an acute hospital ward were tested with four phase C patients. Protocols and interviews were used for the documentation and analysis of the feasibility. Recruiting patients for MT sessions was feasible, although data collection on three consecutive weeks was not always possible due to organisational constraints, especially in the hospital with acute ward routines. Research procedures were successfully implemented, and according to interviews, none of the patients reported any burden, tiredness or increased stress due to the research procedures, which lasted approx. 3 hours (ranging from 135min to 209min) for each patient. Implementing the research procedures in a rehabilitation unit with stroke patients was feasible and only small adaptations were made for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0112.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: forensic medicine; forensic dentistry; forensic anthropology; 3D CNN; AI; deep learning; biological age determination; sex determination; 3D cephalometric; AI face estimation; growth prediction
Online: 5 November 2021 (10:00:56 CET)
Three-dimensional convolutional neural networks (3D CNN) as a type of artificial intelligence (AI) are powerful in image processing and recognition using deep learning to perform generative and descriptive tasks. The advantage of CNN compared to its predecessors is that it automatically detects the important features without any human supervision. 3D CNN are used to extract features in three dimensions where input is a 3D volume or a sequence of 2D pictures e.g., slices in a cone-beam computer tomography scan (CBCT). The main aim of this article was to bridge interdisciplinary cooperation between forensic medical experts and deep learning engineers. With emphasis activating clinical forensic experts in the field with possibly basic knowledge of advanced artificial intelligence techniques with interest in its implementation in their efforts to advance the forensic research further. This paper introduces a novel workflow of 3D CNN analysis of full-head CBCT scans. Authors explore and present 3D CNN method for forensic research design concept in five perspectives: (1) sex determination, (2) biological age estimation, (3) 3D cephalometric landmark annotation, (4) growth vectors prediction, (5) facial soft-tissue estimation from the skull and vice versa. In conclusion, 3D CNN application can be a watershed moment in forensic medicine, leading to unprecedented improvement of forensic analysis workflows based on 3D neural networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1891.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: bioinformatics 1; hypervariable region 2; mitochondrial DNA 3; mitochondrial genomics 4; mitochondrial haplogroup 5; molecular anthropology 6; next generation sequencing 7; oncogenetics 8; phylogeography 9
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:29:37 CEST)
The field of mitochondrial genomics has advanced rapidly and revolutionized disciplines from molecular anthropology, population genetics, to medical/oncogenetics. However, mtDNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis for matrilineal haplotyping and phylogeographic inference remains hindered by the lack of a consolidated, mitogenome database and efficient bioinformatics pipeline. To address this, we developed a customized human mitogenome database (hMITO DB) embedded in a CLC Genomics workflow for read mapping, variant analysis, haplotyping, and geo-mapping. The database was constructed from 4,286 mitogenomes. The macro-haplogroup (A to Z) distribution and representative phylogenetic tree were found consistent with published literature. The hMITO DB automated workflow was tested using mtDNA-NGS sequences derived from Pap smears and cervical cancer cell lines. The auto-generated read mapping, variants track, and table of haplotypes and geo-origins were completed in 15 min for 47 samples. The mtDNA workflow proved to be a rapid, efficient and accurate means of sequence analysis for translational mitogenomics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0049.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental pattern; forensic anthropology; forensic odontology; forensic dentistry; forensic radiolo-gy; forensic chemistry; forensic science; machine learning; identification; dental materials; acid solution; dissolution; sulfuric acid; dentition; teeth; acid degradation
Online: 24 February 2022 (03:41:16 CET)
(1) Teeth, represent in humans the most resilient tissues. However, exposure to concentrated acids might lead to their obliteration, thus making human identification difficult. Teeth often contain dental restorations from materials that are even more resilient to acid impact. This paper introduces novel method of 3D reconstruction of dental patterns as a crucial step for digital identification with dental records.; (2) With combination of modern methods of Micro-Computer Tomography, Cone Beam Computer Tomography, Attenuated Total Reflection in conjunction with Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Artificial Intelligence Convolutional Neural Network algorithms, the paper presents the way of 3D dental pattern reconstruction and human remains identification. Research studies morphology of teeth, bone, and dental materials (Amalgam, Composite, Glass-ionomer cement) under different periods of exposure to 75% sulfuric acid; (3) Results reveal significant volume loss in bone, enamel, dentine, and as well glass-ionomer cement. Results also reveal significant resistance of composite and amalgam dental materials to sulfuric acid impact, thus serving as strong parts in the dental pattern mosaic. Paper also introduces probably first successful artificial intelligence application in automated forensic CBCT segmentation.; (4) Interdisciplinary cooperation utilizing mentioned technologies can solve problem of human remains identification with 3D reconstruction of dental patterns and their 2D projections over existing ante-mortem records.