REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0002.v1
Online: 4 January 2021 (08:27:33 CET)
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a well-known group of viruses in veterinary medicine. We currently know four genera of Coronavirus, alfa, beta, gamma and delta. Wild, farmed and pet animals are infected with CoVs belonging to all four genera. Seven human respiratory coronaviruses have still been identified, four of which cause upper respiratory tract diseases, specifically, the common cold, and the last three that have emerged cause severe acute respiratory syndromes, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. In this review we briefly describe animal coronaviruses and what we actually know about SARS-CoV-2 infection in farm and domestic animals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0170.v3
Online: 5 May 2022 (10:38:09 CEST)
Non-vertebrate species represent about ~95% of known metazoan (animal) diversity. They remain to this day relatively unexplored genetically, but understanding their genome structure and function is pivotal for expanding our current knowledge of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. Following the continuous improvements and decreasing costs of sequencing technologies, many genome assembly tools have been released, leading to a significant amount of genome projects being completed in recent years. In this review, we examine the current state of genome projects of non-vertebrate animal species. We present an overview of available sequencing technologies, assembly approaches, as well as pre and post-processing steps, genome assembly evaluation methods, and their application to non-vertebrate animal genomes.
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal suffering; animal welfare; fires; wild animals
Online: 28 August 2020 (08:50:40 CEST)
Animals living in the wild are exposed to numerous challenges, such as fires, that can lead to animal suffering. The impacts of fire have been studied in different branches of ecology, but studies of its effects on the welfare of individual animals remain scarce. The current review aims to synthesize a sample of relevant aspects regarding fire’s negative effects on wild animals. This review provides a better understanding of how fire compromises animal welfare, providing an example of how to use the knowledge gathered in ecology studies to examine the welfare of wild animals. It can help raise concern for the situation of wild animals as individuals, and to develop the field of welfare biology, by identifying promising future lines of research. The fundamentals of carrying out future work to design protocols for rescuing animals or preventing the harms they can suffer in fires is also explored.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Bartonella, vector, bartonellosis, ticks, fleas, domestic animals, human
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:14:24 CET)
Bartonella spp. bacteria can be found around the globe and are the causative agents of multiple human diseases. The most well-known infection is called cat-scratch disease, which causes mild lymphadenopathy and fever. As our knowledge of these bacteria grows, new presentations of disease have been recognized with serious manifestations. Not only has more severe disease been associated with these bacteria, but Bartonella species have also been discovered in a wide range of mammals and the pathogens’ DNA can be found in multiple vectors. This review will focus on some common mammalian reservoirs as well as the suspected vectors in relation to disease transmission and prevalence. Understanding the complex interactions between these bacteria, their vectors, and reservoirs as well as the breadth of infection by Bartonella around the world will help toassess the impact of Bartonellosis on public health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0416.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: zoo animals; visitor attitudes; wildlife encounters; wildlife tourism; selfie
Online: 18 February 2021 (12:13:24 CET)
In the twenty-first century– an era of increasing domestic and international tourism- there are boundless opportunities to encounter wild animals both in their home countries and ex situ in zoological facilities around the world. Tourism activity– especially at accredited zoos and sanctuaries –plays a crucial role in the conservation of wild animal populations, and influences the welfare of individuals within involved species. Unfortunately, not all zoos and sanctuaries prioritize the conservation and welfare of their animals, such as those who promote irresponsible and mutually-harmful visitor-animal encounters for economic profit. While the relationship between visitors and animals at zoological facilities has shifted over time to match evolving morals and sentiments towards animals, there is still a storied tendency of visitors preferring close encounters with charismatic wild species. Since the 1970s, researchers’ attention has increasingly focused on assessing the influence of the visitor effect, which refers to the impact that viewing, touching, feeding, holding, and riding captive wildlife has on the animals. Many wildlife attractions promote such encounters, despite research suggesting that close interactions with visitors can cause stress and harm to involved species. Such activities are further promoted through the “selfie tourism” phenomenon, in which visitors capture images of themselves in too-close proximity to wild animals to be shared on social media. In this commentary, we consider the challenge of “selfie tourism”, and how it can promote unethical relationships between humans and wildlife and lead to deleterious implications for the animals’ conservation and welfare.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0473.v2
Online: 25 August 2020 (08:30:38 CEST)
Coronaviruses are positive sense RNA virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family, which are further subdivided into four genera: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta Coronaviruses. Infectious bronchitis virus and SARS-CoV belong to Beta Coronaviridae family. Infectious bronchitis virus causes respiratory and nephritic signs that includes tracheal rales, urate crystals, lethargy and nasal discharge. In livestock and pets, the Coronavirus infection causes mostly gastrointestinal lesions, which may be prevented through vaccination and biosecurity. Recent infections of SARS-CoV-2 (also known as COVID-19) on farm and pet animals were summarized in this study. Besides, zoo animals were reported with infections in some countries/regions. Although the damage of COVID-19 has not been reported as serious as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and African Swine Fever (ASF) on farm animals so far, the transmission mechanism of COVID-19 among group animals/farms and its long-term impacts are still not clear. The impact of Coronavirus on animals and potential prevention strategies, such as vaccine development and farm biosecurity measures, were discussed. Prior to the development of the effective vaccine, the biosecurity measures (e.g., conventional disinfection strategies and innovated technologies) may play roles in preventing potential spread of diseases/viruses.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; companion animals; cross-infection
Online: 17 May 2020 (15:27:24 CEST)
Since the COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 break out in Wuhan China from Dec. 2019, it has spread to hundreds of countries up to now. Scientists from all over the world have paid tremendous efforts to research and try to control the disease. Previous studies suggested that some of the wild animals could be intermediate hosts between humans and origination of SARS-CoV-2, and some companion animals of humans can be infected by SARS-CoV-2, which raised our curiosity about cross-infection of SARS-CoV-2 between animals and humans. Thus, we select some kinds of animals that might have contact with humans to estimate the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in different animals by evolutionary analysis of their receptors for SARS-CoV-2. The results show that some companion animals of the Felidae family like the cat has a higher infection possibility while the species of the Rodent family like the rat and mouse having close contact with humans show an opposite result, which consist with recent animal experiments and researches. These should raise concerns about cross-infection between human and companion animals or animals having close contact with humans which might turn animals into depositaries of the coronavirus even after control of SARS-CoV-2 spreading and cause second or more waves of infections after social reopening. Another side of our results stands by the opinion that bioinformatic analysis can be consistent with experiments in some respects so that we can prevent unnecessary sacrifice of laboratory animals in future experiments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0123.v1
Online: 10 April 2019 (09:35:16 CEST)
Social media has become a powerful tool for spreading information and awareness campaigns on environmental issues, especially as they pertain to the conservation of wild animals. It is a double-edged sword, however, since it also facilitates the legal and illegal trade of wild animal species as well as the propagation of ‘wild animal selfies.’ This review presents some key literature to date which concerns the impact of social media on public perceptions of animals (such as through ‘viral’ videos), changing trends in animal encounters at wildlife tourism destinations, and the wildlife trade as it is facilitated by social media. Finally, avenues for future research are suggested with urgency, since the impact of social media on the welfare and conservation of wild animal species is most likely underestimated yet bears serious consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0092.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: livestock; stover; lucerne; maize; bull; animals; dry matter; protein; cottonseed
Online: 11 May 2017 (05:04:11 CEST)
The experiment was conducted at livestock research and development station surezai Peshawar during March 2012 to study the effect of cotton seed cake, Lucerne hay supplementation on intake of maize stover and weight gain by male sahiwal bull. Twelve (12) young Sahiwal bull breed, 280 kg average liveweight and 2 years of age were randomly put into 4 groups of 3 animals under intensive feeding system to determine the effect of different protein supplements on growth, and intake of chopped, dried maize stover. A control group was fed stover adlibitum only, and the other groups were fed daily 750 g cottonseed cake/head, 1 kg lucerne hay or 900 g of lucerne/cottonseed cake (66:34; w/w). Significant differences were observed on average daily live weight gains. Animals on lucerne and its mixture registered higher daily gains (243 g) and (330 g) respectively, followed by cottonseed cake (156 g); the control group lost weight (-8.0 g/d). Contrary to the live weight gains, animals fed on lucerne and its mixture had lower maize stover intakes, 3.35 kg DM/animal/day and 3.70 kg DM respectively, while those on cottonseed cake and the control group ingested respectively 4.72 kg DM and 4.16 kg DM maize Stover. It is concluded that during the critical period in the suburb of Peshawar, small-scale farmers can prevent loss in live weight by utilizing simple available rations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0483.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hymenoptera; insect; bee; wasp; hornet; epidemiology; fatalities; venomous animals; public health
Online: 30 December 2021 (12:17:52 CET)
Epidemiology of Hymenopteran-related deaths in Europe due to bee, wasp and hornet stings (Cause Code of Death: X23) based on official registers from WHO Mortality Database is described. Over a 23-year period (1994-2016), a total of 1,691 fatalities were officially recorded, mostly occurring in Western (42.8%) and Eastern (31.9%) Europe. The victims tended to concentrate in: Germany (n=327; 1998-2015), France (n=211; 2000-2014) and Romania (n=149; 1999-2016). The majority of deaths occurred in males (78.1%), within the age group of 25-64 years (66.7%), and in an “unspecified place” (44.2%). The X23 gender ratio (X23GR) of mortality varied from a minimum of 1.4 for Norway to a maximum of 20 for Slovenia. The highest X23MR, expressed in terms of annual rates and per million inhabitants, were recorded in countries from Eastern Europe (0.35) followed by Western (0.28), Northern (0.23) and Southern Europe (0.2). The countries with the highest and lowest mean X23MR were Estonia (0.61), Austria (0.6) and Slovenia (0.55); and Ireland (0.05), United Kingdom (0.06) and the Netherlands (0.06), respectively. Country-by-country data show that the incidence of insect-sting mortality is statistically low, but not negligible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0244.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; animals; dogs; epidemiology; risk factors; clinical picture; Croatia
Online: 9 June 2021 (07:40:55 CEST)
Over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs are more common than previously thought. In this study, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was investigated in two dog population. The first group was comprised of 1069 dogs admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for any given reason. The second group included dogs that shared households with confirmed COVID-19 cases in humans. This study group numbered 78 dogs. In COVID-19 infected households, 43.9% tested ELISA positive, and neutralisation antibodies were detected in 25.64% of dogs. Those data are comparable with the secondary attack rate in the human population. With 14.69% of dogs in the general population testing ELISA positive, there was a surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the dog population amid the second wave of the pandemic. Noticeably seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the dog and the human population did not differ at the end of the study period. Male sex, breed and age were identified as significant risk factors. This study gives strong evidence that while acute dog infections are mostly asymptomatic, they can pose a significant risk to dog health. Seropositive dogs had a 1.97 times greater risk for developing central nervous symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0301.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Obesity; Genetics; Companion Animals; Metabolic Disease; Comparative Genomics; Dogs; Cats; Horses
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:51:29 CEST)
Obesity is one of the most prevalent health conditions in humans and companion animals across the world. Obesity is associated with multiple health conditions across species including premature mortality. It is therefore of importance across the fields of medicine and veterinary medicine. The regulation of body weight is a homeostatic process vulnerable to disruption by genetic and environmental factors. It is well established that the heritability of obesity is high in humans and laboratory animals, with ample evidence that the same is true in companion animals. In this review, we provide an overview of how genes link to obesity in humans, drawing on a wealth of information from laboratory animal models, and summarising the mechanisms by which obesity causes related disease. Throughout, we focus on how large-scale human studies and niche investigations of rare mutations in severely affected patients have improved our understanding of obesity biology and can inform our ability to interpret results of animal studies. For dogs, cats and horses, we review the similarities in obesity pathophysiology to humans and review those genetic studies that have been done to investigate them. Finally, we discuss how veterinary genetics may learn from humans about studying precise, nuanced phenotypes and implementing large-scale studies, but also how veterinary studies may be able to look past clinical findings to mechanistic ones and demonstrate translational benefits to human research.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0235.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: guinea pig; rabbit; Versuchskaninchen; animals experiments; organ donation; biomedical experiments; altruism
Online: 12 October 2020 (12:09:32 CEST)
(1) Background: In the United Kingdom, Ireland, Iceland, France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy a subject participating in a (bio) medical experiment is termed a guinea pig. In Germany (Versuchskaninchen), The Netherlands, all of Scandinavia, and most of Eastern Europe, the term rabbit is used for such a subject. We have searched for potential differences in attitudes towards biomedical research by inhabitants of the respective European countries by making an analysis of frequency and motivation to participate in biomedical experiments on both sides of the European rabbit borderline. (2) Methods: We have performed an analysis of the use of experimental animals for research in European countries as well as country specific scientific output in PubMed indexed literature. Attitudes towards biomedical research in European countries was derived from EU questionnaires. (3) Results: In biomedical experiments with animals, more guinea pigs are used in laboratories in “rabbit countries” than in “guinea pig countries”. Inhabitants of “rabbit countries” have a higher participation rate in biomedical experiments and donation of blood than people from “guinea pig” countries. The reasons to participate in a medical experiment are not purely altruistic, especially in “rabbit countries”. (4) Conclusions: inhabitants of European countries in which a person who participates in a biomedical experiment is labeled as an (experimental) rabbit participate more in biomedical experiments as well as tissue and organ donation. Motives to do so are not just altruistic, because financial reasons also play a role.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0069.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; zoonoses; anthroponosis; veterinarian; OIE and animals
Online: 3 August 2020 (10:12:55 CEST)
Coronavirus disease is the current cause of global concern. The massive outbreak of COVID-19 has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare this as a pandemic situation. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 leading to acute respiratory distress and substantial mortality in humans. However, the first laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 in a pet dog in Hong Kong has shown the possibility of human-to-animal transmission (zooanthroponotic) of the virus. Thereafter, many animals including cat, tiger, lion and mink have also been reported to acquire the virus in several countries. In this situation the role of veterinarian assumes important in treating the animals, helping in food security, disease diagnosis, surveillance and boosting the economy of livestock stakeholders at the grassroot level. In the absence of any selective vaccine or drug against SARS-CoV-2, the world is anticipated to triumph over this pandemic with collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach linking human, animal and environmental health. This article gives an insight into the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in animals, including the factors behind the shuffling of the virus among variety of species and also emphasizes on the role of veterinarian in managing and safeguarding public health so as to pave the way for adopting one health approach in order to conserve biodiversity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0181.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Teevra cells; Komal cells; medial septum; freely behaving animals; ripples; delta; theta
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:52:48 CEST)
Hippocampus plays a crucial role in spatial and episodic memory. The acquisition of new memories is impossible without participation of the hippocampus. There are two main functional states or “modes” of the hippocampal activity, theta and non-theta state. They have different behavioral correlates and clearly different spectral content of the LFPs and neuronal spiking. Hippocampal theta state is present under active exploratory behavior, locomotion, cognitive situations requiring attention and REM sleep. Slow-wave sleep and quiet wakefulness (immobility, eating, grooming) represent the non-theta hippocampal state. The nodal point for the regulation of hippocampal activity is the MS. The activation or suppression of different types of MS cells appears to be responsible for controlling hippocampal theta and non-theta states. Functional coupling between MS neurons and hippocampal interneurons varies in a state-dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0207.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome; cat; companion animals; viral hemorrhagic fever; pathology
Online: 11 January 2021 (17:48:51 CET)
ABSTRACT: A woman in her 50s showed symptoms of fever, loss of appetite, vomiting, and general fatigue 2 days after she was bitten by a sick cat, which had later died, in Yamaguchi prefecture, western Japan, in June 2016. She subsequently died of multiorgan failure, and an autopsy was performed to determine the cause of death. However, the etiological pathogens were not quickly identified. The pathological features of the patient were retrospectively re-examined, and the pathology of the regional lymph node at the site of the cat bite was found to show necrotizing lymphadenitis with hemophagocytosis. The pathological features were noticed to be similar to those of patients reported to have severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). Therefore, the lymph node section was retrospectively tested immunohistochemically for SFTSV antigen, which revealed the presence of SFTSV antigen. The sick cat also showed similar symptoms and laboratory findings similar to those shown in human SFTS cases. It is highly possible that the patient was infected with SFTSV through the sick cat’s bite. If a patient gets sick in an SFTS-endemic region after a cat bite, SFTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0593.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: epidemiology; X23; fatalities; venomous animals; Spain; stings; hornets; wasps; bees; Vespa velutina
Online: 23 December 2020 (15:24:07 CET)
Epidemiology of fatalities in Spain due to hornet, wasp and bee stings (Cause Code of Death: X23) is described. Over a 20-year period (1999-2018), a total of 78 fatalities were recorded, mostly occurring in males (85.9%), of 65 years and older (52.6%), at “unspecified places” (67.9%) and in the months of July and August (50%). The X23 mortality rates (X23MR) expressed in terms of annual rates and per million inhabitants, varied from 0.02 to 0.19 (mean value ± standard deviation = 0.09 ± 0.05), placing Spain at low levels in comparison with other countries. A more detailed and specific breakdown of the distribution of the yearly deaths at Sub-state level and across communities reveals some striking features. They were more concentrated in the Communities of Galicia (35.8%), Andalucía (21.7%) and Castilla y León (12.8%). X23MR were estimated in Galicia at 1.82, 1.10 and 2.22 in 2014, 2016 and 2018 respectively; and in Asturias at 1.88 and 0.97, in 2014 and 2017 respectively. The role of the invasive species Vespa velutina (VV), is examined. Due to its habits, abundance and broader distribution, the risk that VV represents to human health is unmatched by other Hymenoptera native species.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: l. monocytogenes; humans; animals; food; antimicrobial and virulence genes; bioinformatic analysis; prfA phylogenetic analysis
Online: 17 November 2019 (09:48:54 CET)
Serious outbreaks of foodborne disease have been caused by Listeria monocytogenes found in retail delicatessens and the severity of disease is significant, with high hospitalization and mortality rates. Little is understood about the formidable public health threat of L. monocytogenesin all four niches, humans, animals, food and environment in Egypt. This study analyzed the presence of L. monocytogenes collected from the four environmental niches and bioinformatic analysis was implemented to analyze and compare the data. PCR was used to detect virulence genes encoded by pathogenicity island (LIPI-1). prfA amino acid substation that causes constitutive expression of virulence was common in 77.7% of isolates. BLAST analysis did not match other isolates in the NCBI database suggesting this may be a characteristic of the region associated with these isolates. A second group included the NH1 isolate originating in China, and BLAST analysis showed this prfA allele was shared with isolates from other global locations such as Europe and North America. Identification of possible links and transmission pathways between the four niches, helps to decrease the risk of disease in humans, to take more specific control measures in the context of disease prevention, to limit economic losses associated with food recalls and highlightens the need to treatment options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0065.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE); E.coli; Antimicrobial Resistance; Multidrug resistance; Phylogenetic diversity; chicken; food animals; Antimicrobials
Online: 2 November 2020 (17:14:31 CET)
Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has been public health risk in several countries and recent reports indicate the emergence of CRE in food animals. This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence, resistance patterns, and phylogenetic diversity of CRE E.coli from chicken. Routine bacteriology, PCR detection of E.coli species, multiplex PCR to detect carbapenemase encoding genes and phylogeny of CRE E. coli were conducted. The results show that 24.36 % (19/78) were identified as CRE based on the phenotypic identifications of which 17 were positive for the tested carabanemase genes. The majority, 57.99% (11/19) of the isolates harbored multiple carbapenemase genes. Four isolates harbored all blaNDM blaOXA, blaIMP, five and two different isolates harbored blaNDM and blaOXA, and blaOXA and blaIMP respectively. The Meropenem, Imipenem and Ertapenem MIC values for the isolates ranged from 2g/mL to ≥256g/mL. Phylogenetic grouping showed that the CRE E.coli isolates belonged to five different groups; groups A, B1, C, D and unknown. The detection of carbapenem resistant E.coli in this study shows that CRE is has become an emerging problem in farm animals, particularly, in poultry farms. This also implies the potential public health risks posed by CRE from chicken to the consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: One-health; food-animals; E. coli; K. pneumoniae; Acinetobacter; P. aeruginosa; fluoroquinolones; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotic consumption
Online: 13 September 2021 (09:55:56 CEST)
BackgroundIt is unclear what underpins the large global variations in the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in gram-negative bacteria. We tested the hypothesis that different intensities in the use of quinolones for food-animals plays a role. MethodsWe used Spearman’s correlation to assess if the country-level prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in human infections with Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was correlated with the use of quinolones for food producing animals. Linear regression was used to assess the relative contributions of country-level quinolone consumption for food-animals and humans on fluoroquinolone resistance in these 4 species. ResultsThe prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in each species was positively associated with quinolone use for food-producing animals (E. coli [ρ=0.55; P<0.001], K. pneumoniae [ρ=0.58; P<0.001]; A. baumanii [ρ=0.54; P=0.004]; P. aeruginosa [ρ=0.48; P=0.008]). Linear regression revealed that both quinolone consumption in humans and food animals were independently associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli and A. baumanii. ConclusionsReducing quinolone use in food-producing animals may help retard the spread of fluoroquinolone resistance in various gram negative bacterial species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0450.v1
Subject: Keywords: 3Rs; replacement of animals; inhalation; in vitro; animal models; species differences; lung morphology; rodents; aerosol exposure
Online: 19 May 2021 (14:30:03 CEST)
Testing in animals is mandatory in drug testing and the gold standard for evaluation of toxicity. This situation is expected to change in the future because the 3Rs principle, which stands for replacement, reduction and refinement of the use of animals in science, is reinforced by many countries. On the other hand, technologies for alternatives to animals experiments have increased. The necessity to develop and use of alternatives is influenced by the complexity of the research topic and also by the fact, to which extent the currently used animal models can mimic human physiology and/or exposure. Rodent lung morphology and physiology differs markedly for that of humans and inhalation exposure of the animals are challenging. In vitro and in silico methods can assess important aspects of the in vivo action, namely particle deposition, dissolution, action at and permeation across the respiratory barrier and pharmacokinetics. Out of the numerous homemade in vitro and in silico models some are available commercially or open access. This review discusses limitations of animal models and exposure systems and proposes a panel of in vitro and in silico techniques that, in the future, may replace animal experimentation in inhalation testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0247.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal welfare; pain; farm animals; Pain-Track; Cumulative Pain; pain assessment; welfare foot-print; time; interspecific comparisons
Online: 15 August 2022 (03:57:59 CEST)
We describe a recently developed approach to quantify welfare loss in animals, the Cumulative Pain metric. It combines the two most relevant dimensions of negative affective experiences: intensity and duration. The metric enables estimating the time individuals spend in negative affective states of a physical or psychological nature (operationally referred to simply as ‘pain’) of different intensities as the result of one or more challenges (e.g., diseases, injuries, deprivations). A new notation protocol (the Pain-Track) is used in which the duration of the experience is represented along the horizontal axis and intensity is represented by four categories in the vertical axis. Pain experiences are partitioned into temporal segments, where hypotheses for the experienced duration and intensity are proposed based on existing welfare indicators (e.g., neurophysiological, behavioral, anatomical, evolutionary). This structure forces transparency about assumptions and uncertainties, highlights knowledge gaps, and enables estimates to be continuously adjusted. Because the Cumulative Pain metric is based on parameters with a broadly common biological meaning, it provides the much needed interoperability among assessments of animal welfare. It enables comparing the impact of practices and living conditions, policies and interventions, and the calculation of welfare footprints of animal-sourced products using a universal measurement unit.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; food-producing animals; dairy products; health benefits; One health; antimicrobial resistance; probiotics; starter cultures; adjunct cultures; protective cultures.
Online: 7 August 2021 (00:17:15 CEST)
Animal products, in particular dairy and fermented products, are natural, major sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Due to their antimicrobial properties, LAB are used in humans and in animals, with beneficial effects, as probiotics or in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In livestock production, LAB contribute to animal performance, health, and productivity. In the food industry, LAB are applied as bioprotective and biopreservation agents, contributing to improve food safety and quality. However, some studies have described resistance to relevant antibiotics in LAB, with the concomitant risks associated to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to foodborne pathogens, their potential dissemination throughout the food chain, and the environment. Here, we summarize the application of LAB in livestock and animal products, as well as the health impact of LAB in animal food products. In general, the beneficial effects of LAB on the human food chain seem to outweigh the potential risks associated with their consumption as part of animal and human diets. However, further studies and continuous monitorization efforts are needed to ensure their safe application in animal products and in the control of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing the possible risks associated with antibiotic resistance and, thus, protecting public health.