ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0503.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: iron deficiency anemia; IDA; anemia; knowledge; awareness
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:13:08 CEST)
Keywords: iron deficiency anemia; IDA; anemia; knowledge; awareness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1268.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: diabetes,cancer,anemia,albumin
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:33:25 CEST)
Abstract: Background and Objectives: A growing number of epidemiologic studies have found that diabetes mellitus may increase cancer risk and is implicated in numerous other metabolic and inflammatory disorders. The increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines plays a major role in insulin resistance and leads to hypoalbuminemia, and micro- and macrovascular diabetes complications, including kidney disease and anemia. This study aimed to investigate the utility of CEA, CRP, serum albumin level, hemoglobin, and LDH as biomarkers for cancer risk and the biological implications of diabetes on the evolution and prognosis of oncological patients. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal, observational study, on a total group of 434 patients, 217 diagnosed with a form of cancer and with type 2 diabetes as a comorbidity, and the other 217 – control group, without diabetes. These patients were admitted to the oncology clinic. In subgroups, the same number of patients was considered, depending on the location of the oncological pathology. Anemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein levels are more pronounced in subjects with type 2 diabetes and cancer. Conclusions: The presence of diabetes negatively affects the clinical and biological prognosis of cancer patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0576.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Treatment, Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, Rituximab, Cold Agglutinin Disease
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:46:33 CET)
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition characterized by destruction of red blood cells with and without involvement of complement. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia less than 50% of patients remain in a long-term remission following initial steroid therapy and subsequent therapies are required. Cold agglutinin disease is a clonal hematologic disorder which requires therapy in majority of patients and responds poorly to steroids and alkylators. Rituximab has a favorable toxicity profile and has demonstrated efficacy in autoimmune hemolytic anemia in first line as well as relapsed setting. Rituximab is the preferred therapy for steroid refractory wAIHA and as part of the first- and second-line treatment of cold agglutinin disease. This article reviews the mechanism of action of the rituximab and current literature its role in management of primary and secondary warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia and cold agglutinin disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Anemia classification; dynamic harmony search; iron deficiency anemia; thalassemia trait; machine learning
Online: 4 March 2020 (15:34:04 CET)
In recent decades, attention has been directed at anemia classification for various medical purposes, such as thalassemia screening and predicting iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In this study, a new method has been successfully tested for discrimination between IDA and β-thalassemia trait (β-TT). The method is based on a Dynamic Harmony Search (DHS). Complete blood count (CBC), a fast and inexpensive laboratory test, is used as the input of the system. Other models, such as a genetic programming method called structured representation on genetic algorithm in non-linear function fitting (STROGANOFF), an artificial neural network (ANN), an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), a support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), and certain traditional methods, are compared with the proposed method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0306.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Anemia; dental; management; oral manifestations
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:45:35 CET)
Anemia is a condition of decreased red blood cell number or hemoglobin concentration, or of disturbance in their function, ultimately leading to decreased oxygen transport to tissues. Many factors and diseases may lead to anemia, with wide manifestations systemically as well as orally. Therefore, a sound understanding of this condition is essential for the dental practitioner, with emphasis on alerting signs, dental management and proper communication with patient’s physician.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0422.v1
Online: 23 July 2018 (12:34:21 CEST)
Ghrelin and obestatin, two antagonist peptide hormones, are purportedly involved in stimulating appetite and controlling energy balance in humans. Serum ghrelin level is also associated with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), but no study has yet been made of the obestatin level in patients with IDA, even though both hormones are a single gene product. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is to see whether there is a link between IDA and these two hormones among other hematological parameters in patients with IDA. To measure ghrelin and obestatin, human saliva and serum were collected from 30 women with IDA, aged 31.7 ± 10.7 years, and 30 control women, aged 30.2 ± 8.0 years, with repeated collection of samples over a period of 1 week and 1 month. Saliva and serum ghrelin levels were measured by ELISA. Serum hemoglobin, ferritin, hematocrit and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) values were determined with an Olympus AU2700. Saliva and serum ghrelin and obestatin levels were significantly lower in the IDA group compared with controls; these levels increased slightly above baseline with iron treatment, but remained below the control values. Furthermore, and as expected, serum hemoglobin, ferritin, and hematocrit levels were significantly increased with iron treatment, while total iron-binding capacity decreased compared to baseline concentrations. The findings suggest that IDA might be linked to imbalance of circulating (serum) and non-circulating (saliva) ghrelin and obestatin levels. Decreased ghrelin and obestatin might destroy iron homeostasis through its effect on intestinal absorption. Measuring these hormone levels might be useful for monitoring the response to iron treatment. Also, serum and saliva levels for both hormones were well correlated. Thus, using saliva in place of serum for monitoring the two hormones should minimize inconvenience and patient discomfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0643.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: rhEPO; anemia of prematurity; erythrocyte transfusions
Online: 11 October 2023 (04:41:38 CEST)
Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) treatment is an alternative to erythrocyte transfusions in neonates with anemia of prematurity (AOP). This study assesses the impact of rhEPO administration within the first week of life on the incidence of AOP (any stage, individual AOP stages, and red-blood-cell (RBC) transfusions. Out of 108 preterm neonates, 49 were administered rhEPO and compared to the remaining group using univariate and multivariate analyses. Univariately, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), and RBC levels, and iron administration were significantly associated to AOP (p<0.05 each); however, only the latter remained significant after adjusting for covariates (AOR: 2.75, 95% CI, 1.06–7.11). Multinomial analysis revealed rhEOP therapy was associated with a near 3-fold reduction in moderate AOP incidence (OR: 0.36, 95% CI, 0.15–0.89). Furthermore, ANCOVA revealed positive correlations between rhEPO administration and 21-day Hb (p<0.01), HCT (p<0.05), and EPO (p<0.001) levels. The results confirm previously reported benefits of rhEPO treatment, such as reduced moderate AOP incidence and increased Hb, HCT, and serum EPO levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0191.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fortified infant cereals; anemia; growth; infants
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:49:03 CET)
After approximately 6 months of age, term breastfed infants are increasingly depending on other sources of iron to avoid iron deficiency anemia. The appropriate complementary feeding must include a balance composition of foods containing an adequate amount of macro- and micronutrients to reduce the risk of iron deficiency anemia. This study aims to compare the anemia and growth status of infants receiving commercial fortified infant cereals (FIC) with infants not receiving them. We use all complete multiple Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) from 2005 to 2018 to understand global infant feeding patterns. To better control for the strong household wealth effect in nutritional choices and possibly health awareness, we use propensity score technique as applied in outcome research to better control the effect of covariates. After matching and controlling for confounders, we did find a significant association between reduced risk of anemia and consumption of FIC. After matching and adjusting for confounders the small but positive effects of consumption of FIC on Height for age z-score and Weight for Height Z-score are no longer statistically significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Iron deficiency anemia; oral iron; side effects
Online: 18 July 2023 (14:17:18 CEST)
Introduction: In the recent years alternate day dosing has been recommended in iron deficieny treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and side effects of oral iron treatments given daily 1x1, alternate day 1x1 and 2x1 alternate day dosing in iron deficieny anemia patients. Methods: A total of 52 patients with a diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia with serum ferritin level of 25 µg/L or less were included in this retrospective study. Statistical analyzes were done with SPSS V.25. Results: The patients included in our study were between the ages of 18-51. All of the patients included in the study were female. A statistically significant increase was found between 0-14 days(p<0.001), 14-28 days(p<0.001) and 0-28 days(p<0.001) hemoglobin values in all patients. There was no statistically significant difference between 0-14 days (p=0.397) and 0-28 days(p=0.310) ferritin values in all patients. A statistically significant difference was found between 14-28 days(p<0.001) ferritin values. When the rate of change of hemoglobin and ferritin values between the groups was compared and no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. The rate of change of ferritin values for 14-28 days was significant (p=0.012). There was no significant difference in the frequency of symptoms in the 14th day and 28th day controls for each group (p>0.05). The incidence of metallic taste and bloating symptoms was found to be statistically significant in the third control in the group with 2x1 drug use alternate day (p=0.094). Discussion: The only difference in efficacy was observed in ferritin values between 14th and 28th days. The increase in ferritin values was higher in the group that used 1x1 oral iron every day. However, since no difference was observed between the groups in terms of ferritin and hemoglobin values on days 0 and 28, all three groups were considered equally efficient. Side effects were mainly gastrointestinal side effects. Since the group that received 2x1 oral treatment alternate day had a statistically significantly higher rate of side effects, the patients’ treatment tolerance will be lower compared to the other groups. In conlusion, there is no difference in efficacy and side effects between the patient groups receiving 1x1 daily and 1x1 alternate day oral iron therapy, so 1x1 use alternate day is the most appropriate treatment method for oral iron therapy in terms of patient tolerance, adherence to treatment and pharmacoeconomics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pica; iron deficiency anemia; Relationship; pregnant women
Online: 7 July 2021 (07:54:39 CEST)
INTRODUCTION. The most common cause of eating non-food items (pica) is specific deficiencies of minerals, such as iron. This study aimed to assess the relationship between Pica and Iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. METHODS. The study was conducted in the out-patient department, antenatal Clinic at East Jeddah Hospital from July to September 2020. Design: A quantitative descriptive correlation design. Sample size: A total of 400 pregnant women, included anemic pregnant women, ≥ 18 years old, with singleton fetus and iron deficiency anemia. RESULTS. The mean age was 32.2 ± 6.6, half of the participants reported food cravings. Ice was the main item in pica followed by clay and chalk. Two-thirds had pica, more than half during the 1st trimester. There is a statistically significant relationship between pica and the history of a family member, parity, and gravidity at (P< 0,001, P <0,001, P <0,005) respectively. Hb and hematocrit in relation to pica reflected a statistically significant relationship (P< 0,001) and (P< 0,001), respectively. The symptoms attributed to iron deficiency were significantly associated with pica (P< 0,006). CONCLUSION. The pica and iron deficiency anemia had a significant association with pregnant women in EJH. RECOMMENDATION. The follow-up visits should integrate the food behavior inquiry to check if the pica existing with anemic or non-anemic pregnant women. Also, increase the awareness among midwives-nurses about the prevalence of pica and iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1585.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria; aplastic anemia; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 22 August 2023 (13:19:19 CEST)
We report two cases of pancytopenia in patients after recovering from a mild COVID-19, now presenting as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and aplastic anemia. These cases il-lustrate a common pathway whereby a viral trigger causes clonal expansion of a hematological disorder. Although the association in both cases are temporal, and that COVID-19 may be an in-cidental diagnosis, the growing evidence related to hematological effects of SARS-CoV-2 infec-tion highlights the need for further investigation into the hematological consequences of COVID-19, particularly in the post-pandemic era.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0218.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: glomerular; GFR; kidney; thalassemia; anemia; hemoglobin; hereditary diseases
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:05:02 CEST)
Thalassemia is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders worldwide which has been previously found to have an association with several physiological and organ complications. Several studies found both its positive and inverse correlation with glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Therefore, in this meta-analysis, we tried to assess the accurate correlation of thalassemia with GFR. We searched in Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, and from the initial 96 articles we finally could include 15 studies. The quality and publication bias assessment confirmed that all the studies were of high to moderate quality with no publication bias. The main outcome of the mean difference (MD) was -6.45, 95%CI: -18.50, 5.60 (P<0.00001), which indicated a negative correlation of GFR with thalassemia. The sensitivity analyses found one study as a slight outlier and reanalyzing the data excluding that study MD was achieved as -13.90, 95%CI: -24.22, -3.59 (P<0.00001) which even strongly supports our main outcome. Our result determined that the GFR is generally higher in healthy people as compared to thalassemia patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0413.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Zinc; vitamin D; iron; Gripes; COVID-19; Anemia
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:34:15 CEST)
Abstract: COVID-19 in 2020 brought challenges to the Brazilian public health system with an emerging virus with respiratory contagion called SARS-CoV-2. There are few studies in Brazil and in some countries, on the increased incidence of certain viral respiratory infections, includ-ing H1N1 and coronavirus and their association with low levels of vitamin D, zinc and iron. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the deficit of vitamin D, zinc and iron has an impact on the infectious process of patients with COVID-19 and to establish new forms of prevention for the worsening of COVID-19 in the human body. Data were collected from medical records and test results from patients being followed up during the treatment period for COVID-19. Patients with low blood levels of vitamin D, zinc and iron during the treatment period of COVID-19 had a higher percentage of worsening and complications requiring hospitalization in intensive care beds. The ingestion of vitamin D, zinc and iron in the treatment period of patients with COVID-19 in addition to being an immunological protector against SARS-CoV-2 and alleviating the process of worsening the disease can also act as a biomarker in cases of this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0672.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: iPSC; hematopoiesis; developmental biology; anemia; thrombosis; immunodeficiency; cancer
Online: 27 September 2020 (08:39:30 CEST)
Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based model systems can be used to produce blood cells for the study of both hematologic and non-hematologic disorders. This commentary discusses recent advances that have utilized iPSC-derived red blood cells, megakaryocytes, myeloid cells, and lymphoid cells to model hematopoietic disorders. In addition, we review recent studies that have defined how microglial cells differentiated from iPSC-derived monocytes impact neurodegenerative disease. Related translational insights highlight the utility of iPSC models for studying pathologic anemia, bleeding, thrombosis, autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, blood cancers, and neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer’s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: iron deficiency anemia; osteoporosis; ferrum infusion; blood transfusion
Online: 10 April 2017 (06:32:56 CEST)
The cause-effect relationship between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and osteoporosis has not been established in the general population. Thus, the current longitudinal study determined the role of IDA as a risk factor for osteoporosis by analyzing a large nationwide population-based sample. In a sample of 1,000,000 randomly sampled individuals from the 1998-2012 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, patients with IDA (case group [n=35,751]) and individuals without IDA (control group [n=178,755]) were compared. Patients who were <20 years of age and who had pre-existing osteoporosis prior to the diagnosis of IDA were excluded. Each patient with IDA was age- and gender-matched to 5 individuals without IDA. The diagnoses of IDA and osteoporosis (coded using ICD-9CM) were further confirmed with blood test results and X-ray bone densitometry to ensure the accuracy of the diagnoses. Osteoporosis occurred more often among patients with IDA compared to individuals without IDA (2.27% vs. 1.32%, p<0.001). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that the risk for osteoporosis was significantly higher in the case than the control group (hazard ratio [HR]=1.74; 95% CI=1.61-1.88) and remained similar after adjustment for covariates (adjusted HR=1.81; 95% CI=1.67-1.97). Compared with individuals without IDA, the risk for osteoporosis was even higher for patients with IDA who received intravenous ferrum therapy (adjusted HR=2.21; 95% CI=1.85-2.63). In contrast, the risk for osteoporosis was reduced for patients with IDA who received a blood transfusion (adjusted HR=1.47; 95% CI=1.20-1.80). As a predictor, prior IDA is a significant and independent risk factor for development of osteoporosis. In contrast to blood transfusion treatment, the use of intravenous ferrum may further increase the risk for future osteoporosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: support caregivers’ potential; food consumption; iron supplement; anemia prevention
Online: 8 March 2023 (08:41:09 CET)
Children under two years old are at risk for anemia because young children have an increased need for iron for their physical growth and brain development. The purpose of this study was designed to evaluate the effects of a caregiver potential support program on anemia prevention in children six months to two years old attending the subdistrict health-promoting hospital in Thasala District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. This study was quasi-experimental. The sample included children aged six months to two years old and their caregivers, who were selected by random sampling and allocated to either the experimental or control group, with 40 pairs per group. The experimental group received a potential support program, while the control group received regular care. Both groups were followed for 12 weeks. The instruments used were the potential caregiver assessment, children’s anemia assessment, and a program to support the potential of primary caregivers. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and t-tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that 11.4% of the children had anemia, and a hematocrit count of less than 33% (range = 30-40, M = 34.89, SD = 1.97). The mean scores of knowledge about anemia and iron supplementation after using the program in the experimental group and control group were significantly different (p < 0.001). The mean scores of knowledge about anemia in the experimental and control group were 15.75, SD = 0.54, and 13.28, SD = 1.43 respectively. The mean scores of knowledge about iron supplementation in the experimental and control group were 10.75, SD = 0.49, and 8.15, SD = 1.54 respectively. It was found that the experimental group had a higher mean score on food care behaviors than the control group for 6-11 months and 1-2 years, with statistical significance. The experimental group also had a higher mean score of care behaviors concerning children’s consumption of medicine than the control group (M = 58.20, SD = 4.05; M = 45.78, SD = 9.66, respectively), (p < 0.001). The mean score of the hematocrit level for the experimental group was found to be higher than the control group after receiving the program (M = 35.80, SD = 1.55; M = 34.83, SD = 2.14, respectively), (p < 0.05). Therefore, healthcare providers should support caregivers' capacity to provide continued care for children to prevent anemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: blood lead; plasmodium malaria parasites; anemia; free erythrocytes protoporphyrin
Online: 31 July 2019 (11:52:32 CEST)
Lead pollutants mainly from urban agricultural practices, Leaded paints, Leaded fuels spillages, Lead-contaminated air, soils, and water sources pause a health threat to urban children in Uganda. Prolonged Lead exposure affects iron metabolism, by competitively blocking iron absorption leading to anemia. Blood Lead (BL) inhibits key enzymes ferrochelatase and aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD) involved in hemoglobin (Hb) biosynthesis even at very low levels. Lead poisoning and malaria infection geographically overlap, and both produce similar hematological outcome especially in children. Malaria parasites cause anemia by destroying parasitized red blood cells, therefore, co-existence of BL and malaria parasites infection worsens the anemia status of the host. This study aimed at expounding the extent of heme synthesis inhibition by BL levels among a study group of malaria positive children by measuring levels of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) in blood samples. Briefly venous blood samples from 198 children were analyzed for malaria parasite densities by the thick smear method, hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations determined by the standard cyan methemoglobin method, BLL were analyzed on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and FEP levels were fluorometrically measured. The results showed means of BLL (9.3 µg/dL), Hb (7.5 g/dL), FEP/Hb (8.3 µg/g) and parasite density (PD) (3.21×103 parasites / µL) among the study group. A majority of 151/198 (76.3%) of the children were moderately anemic while 8/198 (4%) were severely anemic. There was weak correlation between PD and Hb (R²= -0.15, P-value < 0.001), as compared to one between FEP/Hb and Hb (R²= -0.6, P-value=0.001). The study concludes that BL is a significant contributor to malaria anemia and should be considered in the management of anemia in malaria-endemic areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1893.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: precision medicine; erythropoietin-deficiency anemia; HIF-PHI; pharmacogenetics; inflammation; genotyping
Online: 28 June 2023 (02:49:05 CEST)
Anemia is a well-developed discipline where the concepts of precision medicine have, in part and being studied extensively. This review discusses the treatment of EPO-deficient anemia and resistance in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Traditionally, erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA) and iron supplementation have been used to manage anemia in CKD. However, these treatments have potential risks, including cardiovascular and thromboembolic events. Newer treatments have emerged to address these risks, such as slow-release and low-dosage intravenous iron, oral iron, and erythropoietin-iron combination therapy. Another novel approach is using hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF-PHI). This review highlights the need for precision medicine targeting genetic components of EPO-deficient anemia in CKD and discusses individual variability of genes such as the erythropoietin gene (EPO), Interleukin-β gene (IL-β), and hypoxia-inducible factor gene (HIF). Pharmacogenomics testing aims to provide targeted therapies and interventions that are tailored to the specific characteristics of an individual, optimizing treatment outcomes and minimizing resistance and adverse effects. The article concludes by suggesting the potential of receptor modification to revolutionize treatment outcome of erythropoietin deficiency anemia through integration of the mentioned approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: hepcidin, iron deficiency anemia, iron dextran, neonatal period, pig, supplementation
Online: 9 October 2018 (15:34:13 CEST)
In pigs, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most prevalent deficiency disorder during the early postnatal period frequently developing into a critical illness. Meanwhile, in humans, only low-birth-weight infants, including premature infants are especially susceptible to developing IDA. In both human and pig neonates, the initial cause of IDA is low birth iron stores. In piglets this shortage of stored iron results mainly from genetic selection over the past few decades for large litter size and high birth weight. In consequence, pregnant sows cannot provide sufficient amount of iron to the increasing number of developing fetuses. Supplementation with iron is a common practice for the treatment of IDA in piglets. For decades, the preferred procedure for delivering iron supplements during early life stages has been through the intramuscular injection of large amount of iron dextran. However, this relatively simple therapy, which in general, efficiently corrects IDA, may generate toxic effects, and by inducing hepcidin expression, may decrease bioavailability of supplemental iron. New iron supplements are considered now with the aim to combine improvement of hematological status, blunting hepcidin expression, and minimizing toxicity of the administered iron. We propose that iron-deficient piglets constitute a convenient animal model for performing pre-clinical studies with iron supplements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0723.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Fanconi anemia; gene editing; FANCA; head and neck cancer; CRISPR/Cas9
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:55:45 CET)
Fanconi anemia (FA) patients have an exacerbated risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Treatment is challenging as FA patients display enhanced toxicity to standard treatments, including radio/chemotherapy. Therefore better therapies as well as new disease models are urgently needed. We have used CRISPR/Cas9 editing tools in order to interrupt the human FANCA gene by the generation of insertions/deletions (indels) in exon 4 in two cancer cell lines from sporadic HNSCC having no mutation in FA-genes: CAL27 and CAL33 cells. Our approach allowed efficient editing, subsequent purification of single-cell clones, and Sanger sequencing validation at the edited locus. Clones having frameshift indels in homozygosis did not express FANCA protein and were selected for further analysis. When compared with parental CAL27 and CAL33, FANCA-mutant cell clones displayed a FA-phenotype as they i) are highly sensitive to DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) agents such as mitomycin C (MMC) or cisplatin, ii) do not monoubiquitinate FANCD2 upon MMC treatment and therefore iii) do not form FANCD2 nuclear foci, and iv) they display increased chromosome fragility and G2 arrest after diepoxybutane (DEB) treatment. These FANCA-mutant clones display similar growth rates as their parental cells. Interestingly, mutant cells acquire phenotypes associated with more aggressive disease, such as increased migration in wound healing assays. Therefore, CAL27 and CAL33 cells with FANCA mutations are phenocopies of FA-HNSCC cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0404.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Chicken infectious anemia virus; isolation and identification; pathogenicity; whole genome; bioinformatics analysis
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:05:07 CEST)
Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) poses a significant threat to the chicken industry in China. De-spite its non-specific symptoms, the disease is often overlooked. This study aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the etiology and pathology of CIA in Guangxi Province, China. Three strains of the chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) were isolated from liver samples of diseased 20-week-old chickens. The complete genomes of these strains were sequenced, and experiments on specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks revealed that the GX21121 strain exhibited high virulence. Histopathological examination of the deceased chicks showed liver cell necrosis, fibrous-serous exudation, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage in liver tissues, as well as congestion in lung and renal tissues. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed that the three strains had a close genetic relationship to the Heilongjiang wild-type (GenBank KY486144). The genetic evolu-tion of their VP1 genes indicated that all three CIAV isolates belonged to genotype IIIc. In sum-mary, this study demonstrated the genomic diversity of three CIAV strains in adult layer hens. The isolation and characterization of the GX21121 strain as a highly virulent isolate provide val-uable information for further investigations into the etiology, molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution of CIAV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0859.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Iron deficiency; iron overload; anemia; heme; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular disease; cancer; microbiome
Online: 24 April 2023 (12:48:31 CEST)
Dietary iron assimilation is critical for health and essential to prevent iron deficient states and related comorbidities, such as anemia. The bioavailability of iron is limited, while its absorption and metabolism are tightly controlled to keep body iron stores within a relatively narrow range. Genetic inactivation of the iron hormone hepcidin causes hereditary hemochromatosis, an endocrine disorder of iron overload characterized by chronic hyperabsorption of dietary iron, with deleterious clinical complications if untreated. The impact of high dietary iron intake and elevated body iron stores in the general population is not well understood. Herein, we summarize epidemiological data suggesting that high intake of heme iron, which is abundant in meat products, poses a risk factor for metabolic syndrome pathologies, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers. We discuss clinical relevance and potential limitations of data from cohort studies, as well as the need to establish causality and elucidate molecular mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Fanconi anemia; Chromosome instability; FANCG; splicing; founder pathogenic variant; Mixe indigenous group.
Online: 29 December 2021 (19:28:49 CET)
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by pathogenic variants (PV) in at least 22 genes, which cooperate in the FA/BRCA pathway to maintain genome stability. PV in FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG account for most cases (~90%). This study evaluated the chromosomal, molecular, and phenotypic findings of a novel founder FANCG PV, identified in three patients with FA from the Mixe community of Oaxaca, Mexico. All patients presented chromosomal instability and a homozygous PV, FANCG: c.511-3_511-2delCA, identified by next-generation sequencing analysis. Bioinformatics predictions suggest that this deletion disrupts a splice acceptor site promoting the exon 5 skipping. Analysis of Cytoscan 750K arrays for haplotyping and global ancestry supported the Mexican origin and founder effect of the variant, reaffirming the high frequency of founder PV in FANCG. The degree of bone marrow failure and physical findings (described through the acronyms VACTERL-H and PHENOS) were used to depict the phenotype of the patients. Despite having a similar frequency of chromosomal aberrations and genetic constitution, the phenotype showed a wide spectrum of severity. The identification of a founder PV could help for a systematic and accurate genetic screening of patients with FA suspicion in this population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: human parvovirus B19; nonstructural protein NS1; erythroid progenitor cells; differentiation; GATA; anemia
Online: 16 October 2019 (05:37:39 CEST)
Background Human parvovirus B19, a human pathogen of the erythroparvovirus genus, is responsible for a variety of diseases. Despite less symptoms caused by B19 infection in healthy individuals, this pathogen can not be neglected in specific groups who exhibit severe anemia. Main body of abstract Transient aplastic crisis and pure red cell aplasia are two kinds of anemic hemogram respectively in acute phase and chronic B19 infection, especially occur in individuals with a shortened red cell survival or immunocompromised patients. In addition, B19 infected pregnant women may suffer risks of hydrops fetalis secondary to severe anemia and fetal loss. B19 possesses high affinity to bone marrow and fetal liver due to its extremely restricted cytotoxicity to erythroid progenitor cells mediated by viral proteins. The nonstructural protein NS1 is considered to be the major pathogenic factor, which takes parts in differentiational inhibition and apoptosis of erythroid progenitor cells through inducing viral DNA damage responses and cell cycle arrest. The time phase property of NS1 activity during DNA replication and conformity to transient change of hemogram are suggestive of its role in regulating differentiation of hematopoietic cells, which is not completely understood. Conclusion In this review, we set up a hypothetic bridge between B19 NS1 and Notch signaling pathway or transcriptional factors GATA which are essential in hematopoiesis, to provide a new insight of the potential mechanism of B19-induced differentiational inhibition of erythroid progenitor cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0254.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: economic evaluation, micronutrient fortification, iron deficiency anemia, Cote d’Ivoire, model, impact, DALYs
Online: 23 July 2019 (10:25:26 CEST)
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is highly prevalent in the Cote d’Ivoire, and has severe health and economic consequences. In this paper, we apply a health economic model to quantify the burden of IDA, and the contribution of nation-wide mandatory iron fortification of wheat flour and voluntary iron fortification of condiments to the reduction of this burden. The analysis for the population from six months to 64 years builds on published reviews and publicly available datasets, and is stratified by age-groups and socio-economic strata. Without the impact of these fortification strategies, the annual burden of IDA is estimated at 242,100 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and 978.1 million USD. Wheat flour and condiment fortification contributed to a reduction of the IDA burden by approximately 5% each. In places with high prevalence of malaria and environmental factors, such as the Côte D’Ivoire, policy makers should combine nutritional intervention with infectious disease prevention and environmental factors. The findings of this study provide additional input for policy makers about the magnitude of the impact and can support the conception of future fortification strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: alpha; thalassemia; deletional; cut-off; number of genes; microcytic anemia; differential diagnosis
Online: 21 September 2017 (04:47:16 CEST)
Most of α-thalassemia cases are caused by deletions of the structural α-globin genes. The degree of microcytosis and hypochromia has been correlated with the number of affected α-globin genes, suggesting a promising role of hematologic parameters as predictive diagnostic tools. However, specific cut-off points for these parameters to discriminate between the different subtypes of α-thalassemia remain to be clearly defined. Six hematologic parameters (total number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width) were evaluated in 174 cases of deletional α-thalassemia (92 heterozygous α+ thalassemia, 39 homozygous α+ thalassemia, 34 heterozygous α0 thalassemia and 9 cases of Hb H disease). A good correlation between the number of deleted alpha genes and MCV (r = -0.672, p<0.001), MCH (r = -0.788, p<0.001) and RDW (r = 0.633, p<0.001) was observed. The deletion of at least two alpha genes in adult individuals with microcytosis without iron deficiency and normal values of Hb A2 and Hb F should be discarded when MCH levels are lower than 23.15 pg. Furthermore, MCH <21.90 pg and/or MCV <70.80 fL are strongly suggestive of the presence of one α0 allele. Finally, an accurate presumptive diagnosis of Hb H disease can be made if both RDW ≥20% and MCH <18.45 pg are seen.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1747.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: kidney transplantation; immunosuppression; adverse drug event; nephrotoxicity; NODAT; anemia; leukopenia; viral reactivation; hypertension; dyslipidemia
Online: 24 August 2023 (13:34:38 CEST)
Area covered: These drugs, particularly calcineurin inhibitors, have very narrow therapeutic windows, i.e., they have numerous drug-related side effects. Herein, we focus on the most frequent immunosuppressive drug-related side effects that we encounter in kidney-transplant recipients: namely nephrotoxicity, post-transplant diabetes mellitus, leukopenia, anemia, dyslipidemia, mouth ulcers, hypertension, and viral reactivations (cytomegalovirus and BK virus). However, other therapies that are used after kidney transplantation, e.g., valcancyclovir, may also contribute to adverse events such as leukopenia. For each side-effect, we suggest how it can be prevented and how to treat it when present.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy; recurrent vitreous hemorrhage; diabetes duration; anemia; posterior vitreous; retinal laser photocoagulation
Online: 12 December 2022 (14:59:08 CET)
(Background) the aim was to determine related factors to recurrent vitreous hemorrhage (RVH) in a sample of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients. (Methods) A retrospective, review-based study. We studied 183 eyes from 121 type 2 diabetes patients with PDR. We recorded diabetes duration, history of hypertension, retinal photocoagulation status, the posterior vitreous status, the mean HbA1c, mean hemoglobin, the renal function, and the systemic complications related to diabetes. We also recorded the use of ranibizumab prior to vitrectomy and the following surgical variables: the application of segmentation and diathermy on fibrovascular proliferative tissue, the use of silicone oil, and the occurrence of surgical complications, to study which independent variables were significantly related to the presence of RVH. (Results) Duration of diabetes (P= 0.028), hemoglobin (P=0.02), status of the posterior vitreous (P=0.03), retinal photocoagulation (P=0.002) and use of segmentation surgery technique (P=0.003) have significant link to the presence of RVH. In addition, patients with diabetic polyneuropathy, myocardial infarction and ischemia in lower limbs had more vitreous hemorrhage events (p<0.001). (Conclusions) Patients with PDR and with longer diabetes duration, anemia, attached posterior vitreous, deficient retinal photocoagulation, and previously cardiovascular events, were more prone to RVH.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0490.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: base editing; prime editing; ABE; SCD; sickle cell disease; sickle cell anemia; CRISPR; Cas9
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:23:21 CEST)
Sickle cell disease is characterized by stiff, “sickled” red blood cells that have difficulty moving through the bloodstream and do not efficiently carry oxygen. It is an inherited disease with severely limited treatment options, and is caused by a point mutation. Its prevalence in black and brown communities makes the already limited treatment options even less accessible. Base editing and prime editing are two relatively recent discoveries in the field of genome editing and were developed after the groundbreaking discovery of the CRISPR Cas9 system. While not fully tested, they hold a lot of promise in providing alternative treatment options for sickle cell disease. Both editing systems are able to install individual point mutations in the beta globin gene, which is where the sickle cell mutation occurs, and can thus cure sickle cell disease (in theory). In this paper we outline the mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas9 systems and base and prime editing, and provide insight into how to apply them to treat SCD. Further investigation should be done on specific editing systems and designs to use to ensure optimal treatment of SCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Sorghum bicolor leaf extract; SBLS; Jobelyn®; antioxidant; Immune-modulatory; anti-inflammatory; anti-anemia; HIV
Online: 7 December 2017 (04:37:20 CET)
The West-African variety of Sorghum bicolor leaf sheath (SBLS) Jobelyn® is a natural remedy, which has gained international recognition for its anti-anemic effect and energy boosting qualities in debilitating diseases. The widespread use of traditional medicine in the region usually confirms its safety, but not its efficacy or deep assessment of their pharmacological properties. The other major issue for herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of the extracts. Despite limitations, efforts have been made in isolation and characterisation of active compounds in this specie of sorghum showing various subclasses of flavonoids including apigeninidin, a stable 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and potential fungal growth inhibitor, which accounts for 84% of the total extract. Non-clinical in vitro and in vivo studies support previous indications that this variety of Sorghum bicolor possesses several biologically active compounds with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and neuro-protective properties. Clinical studies show that SBLS has the ability to boost hemoglobin concentrations in anemic conditions and most remarkably to increase CD4 count in HIV-positive patients. The multiple effects and high safety profiles of this extract may encourage its development as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of anemia, chronic inflammatory conditions or in the symptomatic management of HIV infections. This review describes the potential therapeutic aspects of SBLS extract and its potential benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1158.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: iron deficiency; iron deficiency anemia; intravenous iron; iron sucrose; ferric carboxymaltose; iron isomaltoside; inflammatory bowel diseases
Online: 20 November 2023 (02:41:19 CET)
Iron deficiency (ID) is by far the most common nutritional disorder in developing and developed countries. When left untreated, ID leads to anemia. Although the usual recommended treatment for iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is oral iron therapy with countless products, such therapy necessitates administration for >3-6 months with questionable patient compliance since most oral iron products have an unpleasant metallic aftertaste and cause intestinal side effects. In addition, in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel diseases or untreated gluten-sensitive enteropathy, oral iron therapy is contraindicated or unsuccessful. Intravenous iron is considered safe in adults, where adverse events are mild and easily managed. The experience with parenteral iron in children is much more limited and many pediatricians appear reluctant to use it because of uncorroborated fears of serious anaphylactic reactions. In the current article, we thoroughly review the available pediatric literature on the use of all commercially available parenteral iron products except ferumoxytol, which was recently removed from the market. We conclude that parenteral iron appears to be safe in children, it works faster than oral iron and the newer third-generation products allow replacement of the total iron deficit at a single setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: early initiation of breastfeeding; exclusive breastfeeding; anemia; nutritional status; infants under six months; Syrian refugees; Lebanon
Online: 16 September 2022 (02:01:22 CEST)
The objective is to describe infant feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants under six months among Syrian refugees in Greater Beirut, Lebanon. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Syrian refugee mothers with children under five years (July-October 2018), mothers with infants under six months were included in the analysis (n=114). Additionally, eleven focus groups discussions were conducted to explore supportive factors and barriers associated with early breastfeeding practices. The prevalence of pre-lacteal feeding was high (62.5%), whereas early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) was low (31%), and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) very low (24.6%). About one-fifth of the infants were suffering from anemia (20.5%) and 9.6% were wasted. Supporting factors of adequate infant feeding practices comprised knowledge on maternal nutrition and EBF, in addition to receiving support from healthcare professionals and family members. Identified barriers included preterm delivery, pre-lacteal feeding, an at-risk waist circumference and moderate to severe depression among mothers, bottle feeding, early introduction of food, maternal health reasons, breastmilk substitutes’ distribution, and misinformation offered by mothers-in-law. To address sub-optimal feeding practices documented among Syrian refugees in our study, existing infant and young child feeding policies and programs need to be strengthened and revised to tackle the identified gaps.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: iron-deficient anemia; IDA; stroke; cerebral venous thrombosis; brain MRI; aortic thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; embolic pattern
Online: 10 August 2022 (04:31:26 CEST)
Background: Anemia is one of the most frequent diseases worldwide, affecting a third of the general population. Anemia in general and in particular, iron-deficient anemia (IDA), has been associated to a higher risk of thrombotic manifestations, including ischemic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), as well as systemic extra cerebral arterial and venous thrombosis. Despite these data, anemia is seldom considered as an etiological factor of stroke. Methods: An individual case encompassing all known neurovascular and systemic arterial and venous thrombotic manifestations related to IDA is presented with the focus on clinical reasoning issues in the diagnostic pathways, starting from the neuroradiological signs. The main questions have been identified and addressed in a narrative review of the most relevant data in the literature from a pragmatic and clinical viewpoint. Results and Discussion: The presented case concerns a 46 years old man admitted to the Stroke Unit because of acute is-chemic stroke with multiple thrombi in large intracranial and extracranial vessels, multifocal ischemic lesions in several arterial territories and the concurrent finding of asymptomatic CVT, pulmonary embolism with lung infarction and aortic thrombosis. An extended diagnostic work-up excluded the main etiologies (arterial dissection, cardiac embolism, genetic and acquired prothrombotic disorders, as cancer and antiphospholipid syndrome), except for a severe IDA, such as to require blood transfusions followed by anticoagulant therapy for the several thrombotic manifestations. Neuroimaging and systemic vascular findings have been analyzed and the main issues proposed by the case in the diagnostic pathway have been identified and discussed in a pragmatic clinical road map reviewing the data provided by the literature. Conclusions: IDA is a common but treatable condition that, independently or synergically, may increase the risk of thrombotic events. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach has not yet defined and each case should be individually addressed in a pragmatic clinical road map.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0126.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: anemia; iron deficiency; pregnancy; serum ferritin; mean corpuscular volume (mcv); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); Northern Pakistan
Online: 27 January 2017 (03:46:07 CET)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to find out the incidence of anemia in pregnant women of Swat District; to analyze the iron variations and its dietary effects.Data were collected during the periods of January – September 2016. The study of samples comprised of 250 pregnant women in the different trimester. Blood sample from each woman was collected and full blood count (FBC) was conducted through Mindray BC-3000 plus hem analyzer for all pregnant individuals. Confirmed anemic cases were then examined for IDA with serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) through Randox kit and serum transferrin saturation was estimated by formula (serum ferritin saturation =serum iron ×100/TIBC). The total number of participants in the first trimester were 50, among them 26 women were suffer from iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with 52% weightage of prevalence rate, (mean Hb concentration 9.602 ± 0.87 g/dl). The rates of IDA were 63.3%; ( mean Hb concentration 8.48 ± 1.24 g/dl) and 54%; ( mean Hb concentration 9.18 ± 1.28 g/dl), among 150 and 50 participants in the second and third trimester, respectively. A significant correlation was found between serum ferritin and Hb, serum ferritin against MCV and serum ferritin against MCH. The high prevalence of anemia was found 78.2% in the age group from 26-30 followed by 78.2% in the age group 36-40 years compared to those of other age groups in the second trimester. In this study the prevalence of IDA in third trimester is lower compared to first and second trimester.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: anemia; infancy and toddlerhood; low and middle-income countries; demographic and health survey; infant feeding; multilevel regression
Online: 9 July 2018 (11:14:48 CEST)
In Low and Lower-Middle-Income countries, the prevalence of anemia in infancy remains high. In early childhood anemia cause irreversible cognitive deficits and represents a higher risk of child mortality. The consequences of anemia in infancy are a major barrier to overcome poverty traps. The aim of this study was to analyze based on a multi-level approach, different factors associated with anemia in children 6–23 m old based on recent available Standard Demographic Health Surveys (S-DHS). We identified 52 S-DHS that had complete information in all covariates of interest in our analysis between 2005 and 2015. We performed traditional logistic regressions and multilevel logistic regression analyses to study the association between hemoglobin concentrations and household, child, maternal, socio-demographic variables. In our sample, 70 % of the 6–23 m old children were anemic. Child anemia was strongly associated with maternal anemia, household wealth, maternal education and low birth weight. Children fed with fortified foods, potatoes and other tubers had significantly lower rates of anemia. Improving overall household living conditions, increasing maternal education, delaying childbearing and introducing iron rich foods at six months of age may reduce the likelihood of anemia at in toddlerhood.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1299.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: guanidene,metformin, diabetes mellitus type 2, vomit, diarrhea acidosis loss of body weight laxatives, malabsorption,anemia, dehydration,kidney injury
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:39:14 CEST)
After the first release of synthalin B (dodecamethylenbiguanide) in 1928 and its later retraction in the 1940s in Germany and the retraction of phenformin (N-Phenethylbiguanide) because of the letal complication of acidosiss,metformin (1-1-dimethylbiguanide) was first released in France in 1959 and then in the USA in 1995 for oral treatment of diabetes type 2. Acute gastrointestinal side effects often lead to dose reduction and strongly limit adherence to therapy.Main long-term consequences are deficency of vitamin B12 and of iron and sometimes also acidosis development. Intravenously injected F18-labelled glucose in metformin-treated type 2 diabetics accumulates in the the small and even more in the large intestine.The densitometry picture observed in metformin-treated diabetics is similar to that observed in patients after bowel-cleansing or chronically taking different types of laxatives where the accumulated radioactivity can even reach values observed in colon cancer. The glucose-lowering mechanism of action of metformin is therefore not only due to inhibition of glucose uptake in the small intestine but also to „attraction“ of glucose from the hepatocyte to the intestine,possibly through its secretion into the bile.Metformin is not different from the other biguanides ,synthalin B and phenformin.The mechanism of action,and the side effects are comparable to those of laxatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1153.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Fanconi anemia (FA); FANCG, interstrand crosslink (ICL); DNA damage response; genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM); CRISPR/Cas9; cisplatin; Mitomycin C (MMC); hematopoiesis
Online: 15 June 2023 (13:29:56 CEST)
Fanconi anemia (FA) develops due to a mutation in one of the FANC genes that are involved in repair of interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). FANCG, a member of the FA core complex, is essential for ICL repair. Previous FANCG-deficient mouse models were generated with drug-based selection cassettes in mixed mice backgrounds, leading to a disparity in interpretation of genotype-related phenotype. To exclude these confounders, we created a Fancg-KO (KO) mouse model using CRISPR/Cas9. The entire Fancg locus was targeted and maintained on the immunological well-characterized C57BL/6J background. Intercrossing of heterozygous mice resulted in sub-Mendelian numbers of homozygous mice, suggesting loss of FANCG can be embryonic lethal. KO mice displayed infertility, hypogonadism but no other developmental problems. Bone marrow analysis revealed a defect in various hematopoietic stem and progenitor subsets with a bias towards myelopoiesis. Cell lines derived from Fancg-KO mice were hypersensitive to crosslinking agents-cisplatin and Mitomycin C, and Fancg-KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) displayed increased γ-H2AX upon cisplatin treatment. Reconstitution of these MEFs with Fancg cDNA corrected for the ICL hypersensitivity. Collectively, this project provides a new, genetically and immunologically well-defined Fancg-KO mouse model for further in vivo and in vitro studies on FANCG and ICL repair.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0280.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Fanconi anemia; oral cancer; oral potentially malignant lesion; liquid biopsy; saliva; oral rinse; plasma; next generation sequencing; cancer gene panel; early diagnosis; diagnostic test; deep sequencing
Online: 16 January 2023 (09:10:06 CET)
Fanconi anemia (FA) patients display an exacerbated risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and precursor lesions at young ages, mainly at the oral cavity. As patients have defects in DNA repair mechanisms, standard-of-care treatments to OSCC such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy give rise to severe toxicities. New methods for early diagnosis are urgently necessary to allow treatments in early disease stages and achieve better clinical outcomes. We have conducted a prospective, longitudinal study whereby liquid biopsies from sixteen lesion/tumor-free patients were analyzed for the presence of mutations in cancer genes. DNA from saliva and plasma were sequentially collected and deep-sequenced, and the clinical evolution followed during a median time of around 2 years. In 9/16 FA patients we detected mutations in cancer genes (mainly TP53) with molecular allele frequencies (MAF) down to 0.07 %. Importantly, all patients having mutations and clinical follow-up data after mutation detection (n=6) developed oral precursor lesions or OSCC. Lead-time between mutation detection and tumor diagnosis ranged from 23 to 630 days. Strikingly, FA patients without mutations display significantly lower risk of developing precursor lesions or OSCC. Therefore, our diagnostic approach could help to stratify FA patients into risk groups, which would allow closer surveillance for OSCC or precursor lesions.