ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Androgen receptor; androgen receptor splice variant 7; prostate cancer; localization; NanoBiT
Online: 13 April 2023 (02:54:24 CEST)
The androgen/androgen receptor (AR)-signaling axis plays a central role in the development and growth of prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Upon androgen-binding the AR dimerizes with another AR, translocates into the nucleus where the AR-dimer activates/inactivates androgen-dependent genes. In consequence treatments for locally advanced or metastatic PCa are commonly based on androgen deprivation therapies (ADT). Unfortunately, the clinical benefits of ADT are only transitory and most tumors develop mechanisms allowing the AR to bypass its need for physiological levels of circulating androgens. In the clinic failure of ADT is often characterized by the synthesis of a C-terminally truncated, constitutively active AR splice variant, termed AR-V7. In contrast to AR, the constitutively active AR-V7 does no longer need androgenic stimuli for nuclear entry and/or dimerization. The goal of the present study was to mechanistically decipher the interaction between full-length AR (AR-FL) and AR-V7 in AR-null HEK-293 cells using the NanoLuc Binary Technology (NanoBiT) structural complementation assay under androgen stimulation and deprivation conditions. Our data point toward a hypothesis that AR-FL/AR-FL homodimers form in the cytoplasm, whereas AR-V7/AR-V7 localize in the nucleus. However, after 15 min of androgen stimulation, all AR-FL/AR-FL, AR-FL/AR-V7 and AR-V7/AR-V7 dimers localized in the nucleus. In this way, we can show an androgen-regulated interaction between AR-FL and AR-V7 at forming heterodimers that localize in the nucleus, whereas AR-V7/AR-V7 dimers were found to localize in the absence of androgens in the nucleus. Treatment with enzalutamide diminished the luminescence of AR-FL homodimers and AR-FL/AR-V7 heterodimers but not AR-V7/AR-V7 homodimers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0711.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cancer Stem Cell; Androgen Receptor; Prostate Cancer; Breast Cancer; Glioblastoma
Online: 12 September 2023 (03:15:45 CEST)
The cancer stem cell hypothesis suggests that neoplastic cells with stem characteristics hierarchically regulate tumor generation and its high cellular heterogeneity. These cells have been detected in all cancer types, and specific signaling pathways give the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation. In prostate cancer, androgen receptor signaling has been extensively studied, and in non-stem cells, it promotes cell proliferation and tumor progression, but in the cancer stem cell population, it negatively regulates processes such as self-renewal. However, in other types of cancer, such as breast and glioblastoma, the androgen receptor seems to favor the maintenance of cancer stem cells, suggesting that androgen signaling has different effects depending on the tumor context. This review discusses the role of androgen receptor in maintaining cancer stem cells by regulating proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation, as well as the possible signaling pathways involved in these processes.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CYP3A5; androgen receptor; African American; CYP3A5 inhibitors/inducers
Online: 6 March 2020 (03:33:52 CET)
Androgen receptor signaling is crucial for prostate cancer growth and is positively regulated in part by intratumoral CYP3A5. As African American (AA) men often carry the wild type CYP3A5 and express high level of CYP3A5 protein, we blocked the wild type CYP3A5 in AA origin prostate cancer cells and tested its effect on androgen receptor signaling. q-PCR based profiler assay identified several AR regulated genes known to regulate AR nuclear translocation, cell cycle progression and cell growth. CYP3A5 processes several commonly prescribed drugs and many of these are CYP3A5 inducers or inhibitors. In this study, we test the effect of these commonly prescribed CYP3A5 inducers/inhibitors on AR signaling. The results show that the CYP3A5 inducers promoted AR nuclear translocation, downstream signaling and cell growth whereas CYP3A5 inhibitors abrogated them. The observed changes in AR activity is specific to alterations in CYP3A5 activity. Both the inducers tested demonstrated increased cell growth of prostate cancer cells, whereas the inhibitors showed reduced cell growth. Further, characterization and utilization of the observation that CYP3A5 inducers and inhibitors alter AR signaling may provide guidance to physicians prescribing CYP3A5 modulating drugs to treat comorbidities in elderly patients undergoing ADT, particularly AA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0126.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: amyloid peptides; androgen receptor; nuclear receptor; aggregation; atomic force microscopy
Online: 16 May 2017 (17:48:54 CEST)
The human androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand inducible transcription factor harboring an amino terminal domain (AR-NTD) hosting the ligand independent activation function. AR-NTD is intrinsically disordered and display aggregation properties conferred by the presence of a poly-glutamine (polyQ) sequence of 22 residues. The length of the polyQ sequence, as well as the presence of adjacent sequence motifs modulate this aggregation property. AR-NTD contains also a conserved sequence motif KELCKAVSVSM that displays an intrinsic property to form amyloid fibrils under mild oxidative conditions of its conserved cysteine residue. As peptide sequences with intrinsic ability to oligomerize are reported to have an impact on the aggregation of polyQ tract, we determined the effect of the KELCKAVSVSM on the polyQ stretch in the context of the AR NTD, using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Here, we present evidence for a crosstalk between the amyloidogenic properties of the KELCKAVSVSM motif and the polyQ stretch at the AR NTD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: nuclear receptors; AR; androgen receptors; prostate cancer; STAT3; treatment; transcription factors
Online: 27 October 2019 (11:02:25 CET)
The nuclear receptor superfamily comprises a large group of proteins with functions essential for cell signaling, survival and proliferation. There are multiple distinctions between nuclear superfamily classes defined by hallmark differences in function, ligand binding, tissue specificity, and DNA binding. In this review, we utilize the initial classification system, which defines subfamilies based on structure and functional difference. The defining feature of the nuclear receptor superfamily is that these proteins function as transcription factors. The loss of transcriptional regulation or gain of functioning of these receptors is a hallmark in numerous diseases. For example, in prostate cancer the androgen receptor is a primary target for current prostate cancer therapies. Targeted cancer therapies for nuclear hormone receptors have been more feasible than others to develop due to ligand availability and cell permeability of hormones. To better target these receptors, it is critical to understand their structural and functional regulation. Given that late-stage cancers often develop hormone insensitivity, we will explore the strengths and pitfalls of targeting other transcription factors outside of the nuclear receptor superfamily such as the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0318.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence; Androgen Receptor; Random Forest; Deep Neural Network; Convolutional
Online: 24 February 2021 (13:14:01 CET)
Substances that can modify the androgen receptor pathway in humans and animals are entering the environment and food chain with the proven ability to disrupt hormonal systems and leading to toxicity and adverse effects on reproduction, brain development, and prostate cancer, among others. State-of-the-art databases with experimental data of human, chimp, and rat effects by chemicals have been used to build machine learning classifiers and regressors and evaluate these on independent sets. Different featurizations, algorithms, and protein structures lead to dif- ferent results, with deep neural networks (DNNs) on user-defined physicochemically-relevant features developed for this work outperforming graph convolutional, random forest, and large featurizations. The results show that these user-provided structure-, ligand-, and statistically-based features and specific DNNs provided the best results as determined by AUC (0.87), MCC (0.47), and other metrics and by their interpretability and chemical meaning of the descriptors/features. In addition, the same features in the DNN method performed better than in a multivariate logistic model: validation MCC = 0.468 and training MCC = 0.868 for the present work compared to evalu- ation set MCC = 0.2036 and training set MCC = 0.5364 for the multivariate logistic regression on the full, unbalanced set. Techniques of this type may improve AR and toxicity description and predic- tion, improving assessment and design of compounds. Source code and data are available at https://github.com/AlfonsoTGarcia-Sosa/ML
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; castrate-resistant growth; metastases; androgen receptor; glucocorticoid receptor; cytokines; transmembrane receptors; cell signaling; pharmacological targeting; neuroendocrine differentiation; lineage plasticity; prostate cancer stem cells
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:19:03 CEST)
Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer has led to development of therapeutic strategies targeting androgen receptor (AR). These androgen-receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSI) include androgen synthesis inhibitor- abiraterone and androgen receptor antagonists- enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide. Although these medications provide significant improvement in survival among men with prostate cancer, drug resistance develops in nearly all patients with time. This could be through androgen-dependent or androgen-independent mechanisms. Even weaker signals and non-canonical steroid ligands can activate AR in the presence of truncated AR-splice variants, AR overexpression, or activating mutations in AR. AR splice variant, AR-V7 is the most studied among these and is not targeted by available ARSIs. Non-androgen receptor dependent resistance mechanisms are mediated by activation of an alternative signaling pathway when AR is inhibited. DNA repair pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, BRAF-MAPK and Wnt signaling pathway and activation by glucocorticoid receptors can restore downstream signaling in prostate cancer by alternative proteins. Multiple clinical trials are underway exploring therapeutic strategies to overcome these resistance mechanisms.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0476.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: androgen insensitivity syndrome; androgen receptor; ligand binding domain; pathogenic mutation; bioinformatics
Online: 27 April 2020 (03:59:38 CEST)
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is the most common disorder of sex development in people with karyotype 46,XY. Mutations in AR (androgen receptor) gene are found in most individuals with AIS. Exons 4-8, which encode LBD, were shown to be a mutation hotspot. The aim of this study was the search of mutations in the sequence of exons 6-8 which encode LBD of AR gene in patients with different clinical AIS phenotypes from Ukraine. The investigated patients were 4 women with 46,XY karyotype, SRY-positive and clinical features of AIS (2 – CAIS, 2 – PAIS). Serum levels of T, LH, and FSH were quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) technology. Cytogenetic studies were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes with further use of standard protocols of chromosomal analysis (GTG-banding). The presence of SRY sequence was confirmed by FISH with LSI SRY probe. Direct Sanger sequencing of 6-8 exons was performed in patients and family members on the PCR products on the matrix of DNA samples isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Detected SNPs were analysed using gnomAD, VEP, MutationTaster, Human Splicing Finder, NetPhorest 2.1, Group-based Prediction System 5.0, and PhosphoPICK bioinformatical resources. Modelling of mutant proteins based on available 3D models was conducted using the open source software UCSF Chimera 1.14rc. We have detected 3 previously described mutations (missense mutation X:67722905 Т>С (rs9332970) in PAIS patient, missense mutation X:67722943 C>T (rs886041132) in CAIS patient and, samesense mutation X:67723745 C>T (rs137852594) in PAIS patient). We determined these mutations as pathogenic using SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster, Human Splicing Finder. Moreover the synonymous mutation X:67723745 C>T (rs137852594) detected in patient with PAIS was determined as mutation affecting processes of splicing. In our study we have identified novel mutation X:67722884 T>G in CAIS patient and family members. This mutation was predicted as a pathogenic using aforementioned bioinformatical tools. STRUM calculations of the protein stability change caused by single-point mutation showed a destabilization effect of the Ile836Ser substitution ΔΔG=-2.6. Possible aberrant phosphorylation analysis revealed the ability of MAPK family, Akt family, CDK1, CDK7, CDK9, PKC kinases to phosphorylate Ser836. Results concerning the pathogenicity of X:67722905 Т>С (rs9332970), X:67722943 C>T (rs886041132), X:67723745 C>T (rs137852594) mutations detected in patients with AIS from Ukraine obtained using bioinformatical resources SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster, Human Splicing Finder correlate with previously published data concerning weaker binding of androgens in patients with the same mutations. This approves informativity of using such resources for mutation pathogenicity analysis. Analysis of the ortholog proteins, subdomain structure, and aberrant phosphorylation of AR-LBD suggests novel X:67722884 T>G mutation to be pathogenic. Based on analysis of mutant protein modelling followed by assessment of free energy change using STRUM it was predicted that mutant protein binds androgens 460 times worse than wild type.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0258.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; exercise; adherence
Online: 27 April 2022 (10:43:52 CEST)
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer treatment is associated with adverse physiological changes, however exercise can improve outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine exercise intervention adherence, and its effects on physiological outcomes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer undergoing ADT. Uniquely, this review incorporates a meta-aggregation of qualitative data, providing perspectives from the men’s experiences. A systematic review and meta-analysis were completed following PRISMA Guidelines. Databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed) were searched for studies using “prostate cancer”, “exercise intervention”, and “androgen deprivation therapy”. Quantitative randomised controlled trials describing adherence to exercise interventions were selected, with qualitative articles selected based on descriptions of experiences around participation. Subgroup meta-analyses of adherence, exercise mode, and intervention duration were completed for quality of life, aerobic fitness, fatigue, and strength. Articles (n=64) articles were identified, with 29 (n=23 quantitative; n=6 qualitative) articles from 25 studies included. Exercise had no effects (p<0.05) on quality of life and fatigue. Significant effects (all p<0.05) were observed for aerobic fitness, and upper- and lower-body strength. Adherence to exercise-based interventions was 80.38%, with improvements observed in aerobic fitness and strength. Subgroup analysis revealed exercise adherence impacted fatigue and strength, with greater improvements observed in programs >12-weeks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1568.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: male hypogonadism; androgen deficiency; testosterone; assay; erectile dysfunction
Online: 22 August 2023 (13:48:04 CEST)
Testosterone (T), the principal androgen secreted by the testes, plays an essential role in male health. Male hypogonadism is diagnosed based on a combination of associated clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory confirmation of low circulating T levels. In this review we have highlighted factors, both biological and analytical, that introduce variation into the measurement of serum T concentrations in men; these need to be considered when requesting T levels and interpreting results. There is an ongoing need for analytical standardisation of T assays and harmonisation of pre- and post-analytical laboratory practices, particularly in relation to the laboratory reference intervals provided to clinicians. Further, there is a need to share with service users the most up-to-date and evidence-based action thresholds for serum T as recommended in the literature. Estimation of free testosterone may be helpful. Causes of secondary hypogonadism should be considered. A comprehensive approach is required in the management of male hypogonadism, including lifestyle modification, as well as medication where appropriate. The goal of treatment is resolution of symptoms as well as optimisation of metabolic, cardiovascular and bone health. The advice of an endocrinologist should be sought, where there is doubt about the cause and appropriate management of the hypogonadism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: AR-V7; Androgen receptors; Docetaxel; Cabazitaxel; Abiraterone; Enzalutamide
Online: 20 February 2020 (06:45:47 CET)
Background: The AR-V7 splice variant is a cause of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, testing for the presence of AR-V7 by RT-PCR shows AR-V7 positivity in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that the positivity reflected contamination by hematopoietic cells. We tried a novel CTC enrichment instrument using Celsee® to clear hematopoietic cells. Methods: We tested whole blood or Celsee-enriched samples for AR-V7 by RT-PCR and included samples from 41 CRPC patients undergoing sequential therapy. We evaluated the associations between AR-V7 status and clinical factors. We evaluated factors affecting AR-V7 positivity. Results: AR-V7 positivity was lower in Celsee-enriched than in whole blood specimens. AR-V7 and clinical factors did not predict the therapy effectiveness. We found no significant differences in the effectiveness of Enz/Abi upon AR-V7 evaluation. All AR-V7 positive patients had resistance to Enz/Abi. DTX, CBZ, and Radium223 treatment showed no significant difference in the treatment effectiveness, regardless of AR-V7 presence. AR-V7 was more frequently positive than EOD2 in cases with bone metastases. Conclusion: Celsee® CTC enrichment suppresses the AR-V7 false positivity. All AR-V7 positive patients presented resistance to Enz/Abi. DTX, CBZ, and Radium223 were effective and remained treatment options. AR-V7 positivity should progressively appear in patients with advanced bone metastases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0720.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Prostate cancer; androgen receptor; AR signaling pathway; disease progression; therapeutic re-sistance; personalized treatment; androgen deprivation therapy; AR-targeted therapies
Online: 25 September 2023 (16:46:10 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with a rising incidence observed over the years. The androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in male development and maintaining masculine characteristics. Dysregulation of AR signaling in prostate cancer can lead to disease progression and resistance to standard therapies. Understanding the intricate regulation and function of AR in both healthy and diseased states is crucial for developing effective treatment strategies. This review comprehensively explores the role of androgen receptors in prostate cancer susceptibility, disease progression, and treatment response by analyzing recent literature. An extensive search of peer-reviewed publications in major databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, was conducted using specific keywords related to androgen receptor, prostate cancer, disease progression, and treatment resistance. Relevant conference abstracts and clinical trial reports were also included. The review presents an overview of the role of androgen receptors in prostate cancer initiation, progression, and treatment resistance. It highlights emerging biomarkers associated with AR signaling dysregulation and their potential utility for early detection and personalized treatment approaches. Additionally, recent advances in targeting the AR pathway for novel therapeutic strategies to improve patient outcomes and overcome treatment resistance in advanced prostate cancer are discussed. The findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the AR signaling pathway in prostate cancer and offer insights into its multifaceted role in disease development and treatment response. They may pave the way for innovative therapeutic interventions and precision medicine approaches based on specific AR signaling profiles, enhancing patient care and reducing the burden of this lethal disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0577.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Androgen Receptor, AR signaling, Prostate cancer, SRC-3, Therapeutics
Online: 11 October 2023 (07:43:18 CEST)
Background: Prostate cancer remains a significant global health concern, and understanding the molecular drivers of this disease is crucial for developing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a member of the SRC family, has emerged as a key player in prostate cancer pathogenesis. This review comprehensively examine the role of SRC-3 in prostate cancer, encompassing molecular mechanisms, clinical implications, and therapeutic opportunities. Methods: A systematic literature search following PRISMA guidelines was conducted in PubMed, PMC, and other relevant databases to identify studies that investigate SRC-3 in prostate cancer. A total of 67 articles were selected based on predetermined inclusion criteria. Results: 785 articles were retrieved from databases using specific keywords and MeSH terms related to SRC-3 and Prostate Cancer. After removing 461 duplicates, 260 articles were excluded based on title and abstract review. Subsequently, a comprehensive screening by three researchers resulted in 47 relevant articles for this systematic review. We summarize its contributions to AR-mediated transcriptional regulation, tumor growth, and metastasis. Evidence suggests that SRC-3 expression correlates with prostate cancer aggressiveness, disease recurrence, and poor patient outcomes. Its potential as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target is explored, offering insights into personalized medicine approaches. Conclusions: SRC-3 plays a pivotal role in prostate cancer, influencing disease progression and clinical outcomes. Understanding the molecular intricacies of SRC-3 in prostate cancer offers new opportunities for precision medicine and innovative therapeutic approaches. This review provides a comprehensive overview of SRC-3's involvement in prostate cancer, emphasizing its clinical relevance and potential as a therapeutic target, ultimately contributing to improved patient care in the era of personalized oncology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0345.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Prostate cancer, SPOP mutations, Androgen Receptor, disease characterization, therapeutic targets
Online: 6 October 2023 (11:29:08 CEST)
Background: Prostate cancer is a global health concern, necessitating ongoing research to enhance our comprehension of its molecular foundations and develop more efficacious therapeutic approaches. Among the emerging protagonists in this arena is Speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) (SPOP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor protein. SPOP's recent ascent to prominence in prostate cancer research is attributed to its crucial role in regulating the Androgen Receptor (AR) signaling pathway. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of existing knowledge concerning SPOP mutations in prostate cancer. It seeks to elucidate their significance in characterizing the disease and their potential as therapeutic targets. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in multiple databases, including PubMed, Web of science, Scopus and google scholar to identify relevant studies published up to September 2023. Eligible studies included investigations of SPOP mutations in prostate cancer and their implications. Data extraction, quality assessment, and synthesis were performed in conformity to the PRISMA guidelines. Results: The review revealed that SPOP mutations are recurrent events in prostate cancer, with a notable prevalence in specific molecular subtypes. These mutations primarily affect the MATH domain of SPOP, disrupting its substrate recognition function. Notably, SPOP mutations have profound consequences on the AR signaling pathway, leading to increased AR protein stability and transcriptional activity. The clinical implications of SPOP mutations remain diverse, with varying associations with prognostic outcomes. Conclusion: SPOP mutations represent a significant facet of prostate cancer biology, influencing disease heterogeneity and clinical behavior. While their precise prognostic significance is evolving, their functional impact on the AR pathway highlights their potential as therapeutic targets. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of SPOP mutations in prostate cancer, contributing to our understanding of the disease's molecular landscape and therapeutic avenues.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Tadalafil; prostate cancer; aromatase; adipocytes; bone; androgen receptors; obesity; osteoporosis
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:53:13 CET)
Tadalafil is a selective phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) associated symptoms. Besides its classical actions on PDE5 within the genitourinary tract, where the specific enzyme expression is maximal, it may exert different systemic effects. This is mainly due to the pleiotropic distribution of PDE5 enzyme throughout human (and animal) body, where it can exert protective effects in different clinical conditions. Recently, it has been demonstrated that tadalafil may display novel actions on androgen receptor (AR) expression and activity, cytochrome P19a1 (Cyp19a1) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in different in vitro systems, such as adipose, bone and prostate cancer cells where it can act as a selective modulator of steroid hormone production. This may determine novel potential mechanism(s) of control in pathophysiologic pathways. In this review we summarize basic research and translational results applicable to the use of tadalafil in the treatment of different clinical conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; antisense therapy; oligonucleotide; splice switching; mRNA knockdown; androgen receptor; AR45
Online: 20 July 2023 (09:53:18 CEST)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), also known as Kennedy’s disease, is a debilitating neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscular weakness and neuronal degeneration, affecting 1-2 individuals per 100,000 globally. While SBMA is relatively rare, recent studies have shown a significantly higher prevalence of the disease within the indigenous population of Western Canada compared to the general population. The disease is caused by a pathogenic expansion of polyglutamine residues in the androgen receptor protein, which acts as a key transcriptional regulator for numerous genes. SBMA has no cure, and current treatments are primarily supportive and focused on symptom management. Recently, a form of precision medicine known as antisense therapy has gained traction as a promising therapeutic option for numerous neuromuscular diseases. Antisense therapy uses small synthetic oligonucleotides to confer therapeutic benefit by acting on pathogenic mRNA molecules, serving to either degrade pathogenic mRNA transcripts or helping to modulate splicing. Recent studies have explored the suitability of antisense therapy for the treatment of SBMA, primarily focused on antisense-mediated mRNA knockdown approaches. Advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of SBMA and the development of targeted therapies offer hope for improved quality of life for individuals affected by this debilitating condition. Continued research is essential to optimize these genetic approaches, ensuring their safety and efficacy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: melatonin; testis; androgen production; oxidative stress; inflammation; infertility; Leydig cells; Sertoli cells; mast cells; macrophages
Online: 27 February 2017 (08:56:51 CET)
Environmental darkness signal is transferred from the retina to the pineal gland triggering melatonin secretion. Melatonin influences the synthesis and release of the hypothalamic GnRH and the adenohypophyseal gonadotropin hormones and therefore, regulates testicular function in photoperiodic species. Besides the brain, direct actions of melatonin at the testicular level have also been described. Melatonin released from the pineal gland to the circulation is taken up by peripheral tissues including testes. Testicular synthesis of melatonin has also been reported. The two key somatic cell types in the testis, Leydig and Sertoli cells, express melatonergic receptors. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences the oxidation state and the energy metabolism, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. Melatonergic receptors were also described in testicular macrophages and mast cells of infertile patients. Whereas melatonin exerts anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on testicular macrophages, it provides protective effects against oxidative stress in testicular mast cells. These data pinpoints melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i.e. steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis) mostly in seasonal breeders. More importantly, melatonin is also involved in the modulation of testicular inflammatory and oxidant/anti-oxidant states in patients with idiopathic infertility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: QNBC (Quadruple negative breast cancer); AR (Androgen receptor); AA (African American); CA (Caucasian); BC (Breast cancer)
Online: 27 July 2022 (04:07:32 CEST)
Background: We previously found that QNBC tumors are more frequent in African Americans compared to TNBC tumors. To characterize this subtype further, we sought to determine the miRNA-mRNA profile in QNBC patients based on race. Methods: Both miRNA and mRNA expression data were analyzed from TCGA and validated using datasets from the METABRIC, TCGA proteomic, and survival analysis by KMPLOT. Results: miRNA-mRNAs which include FOXA1 and MYC (mir-17/20a targets); GATA3 and CCNG2 (mir-135b targets); CDKN2A, CDK6, and B7-H3 (mir-29c targets); and RUNX3, KLF5, IL1-β, and CTNNB1 (mir-375 targets) were correlated with basal-like and immune subtypes in QNBC patients and associated with a worse survival. Conclusion: Thus, QNBC tumors have an altered gene signature implicated in racial disparity and poor survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Long non-coding RNA; Prostate androgen-regulated transcript 1; miR-204-3p; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2
Online: 24 May 2022 (11:57:26 CEST)
Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor of the lung and the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80%–85% of lung cancer, 40% of NSCLCs will have spread beyond the lungs by the time it is diagnosed. Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) prostate androgen-regulated transcript 1 (PART-1) was reported that promote the development of several cancers. In the current study, we conducted experiments to investigate the role of PART-1 in the proliferation, invasion, and migration of NSCLC. The expression level of the PART-1 gene increased significantly in the NSCLC cell lines, including A549, H1229, H1650, H1975, and PC9. Knocking down of PART-1 inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and migration of A549 cells, moreover, decreased the tumor proliferation in nude mice. We confirmed that PART-1 targeted miR-204-3p directly, and miR-204-3p targeted the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) directly. Furthermore, we discovered that PART-1 involved the NSCLC progression by regulating the miR-204-3p-targeted IGFBP-2 pathway. LncRNA PART-1 might be a target for treating NSCLC, and a warning sign of diagnosis of early lung cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0633.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer; new hormonal agents; transcriptomic profiling; DNA damage repair genes; tumor suppressor genes; androgen receptor; immunotherapy; CDK4/6 inhibitors; PARP inhibitors; AKT inhibitors.
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:17:07 CEST)
De novo metastatic hormone-sensitive PC (mHSPC) accounts for 5-10% of all prostate cancer (PC) diagnoses but it is responsible for nearly 50% of PC-related deaths. Since 2015, the prognosis of mHSPC has slightly improved thanks to the introduction of new hormonal agents and chemotherapy combined with androgen deprivation therapy from the first-line setting. This review describes the current therapeutic opportunities in de novo mHSPC, focusing on potential molecular biomarkers identified in the main clinical trials that have changed the standard of care, the genomic features of de novo mHSPC, and the principal ongoing trials that are investigating new therapeutic approaches and the efficacy of a biomarker-guided treatment in this setting. The road towards a personalized treatment for de novo mHSPC is still long considering that the randomized clinical trials, which have furnished the basis of the current therapeutic options, stratified patients according to clinical criteria that not necessarily reflect the biological rationale of the chosen therapy. The role of transcriptomic profiling of mHSPC as predictive biomarker requires further validation, as well as it remains to ascertain how the genomic alterations detected in mHSPC, that are considered predictive in the castration-resistant disease, can be exploited in the mHSPC setting.