ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; AST/ALT ratio; mortality; artificial intelligence; older people
Online: 4 March 2022 (11:17:44 CET)
Low serum alanine aminotransferase activity and high aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/ALT ratio may be associated with high mortality in older people. We aimed to confirm this in an 8-year retrospective cohort study. Clinical data for 5,958 people aged 67–104 years were analyzed for their relationships with all-cause mortality using artificial intelligence (AI; Prediction One [Sony Network Communications Inc.]) and conventional statistical analysis (SAS Enterprise Guide [SAS Institute Inc.]). In total, 1,413 (23.7%) participants died during the study. Auto-AI analysis with five rounds of cross-validation showed that AST/ALT ratio was the third largest contributor to mortality, following age and sex. Serum albumin concentration and body mass index were the fourth and fifth largest contributors, and the individual serum ALT and AST activities were the seventh and tenth largest contributors. Conventional survival analysis showed that ALT, AST, and AST/ALT ratio as continuous variables were all associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.98 (0.97–0.99), 1.02 (1.02–1.03), 1.46 (1.32–1.62), respectively; all p <0.0001). In conclusion, both AI and conventional analysis suggest that of the conventional biochemical markers, high AST/ALT ratio is most closely associated with all-cause mortality in older people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; post COVID; liver; aspartate aminotransferase; risk factors
Online: 8 February 2023 (10:47:25 CET)
The long-term laboratory aspects of the effects of COVID-19 on liver function are still not well understood. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatic clinical-laboratory profile of patients with up to 20 months of long-term COVID-19. A total of 243 patients of both sexes aged 18 years or older hospitalised in the acute phase of COVID-19 were included in this study. Liver function analysis was performed. Changes were identified in the mean levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and ferritin. Inflammatory markers such as ferritin > 300 U/L were observed in the group that presented more changes in liver function markers (ALT, AST, and GGT). Age ≥ 60 years, male sex, AST > 25 U/L, and GGT ≥ 50 or 32 U/L were associated with ALT > 29 U/L. There was a correlation between ALT and AST, LDH, GGT, and ferritin. Our findings suggest that ALT and AST levels may be elevated in patients with long-term COVID, especially in those hospitalised in the acute phase. In addition, ALT > 29 U/L was associated with other markers of liver injury, such as LDH, GGT, and ferritin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Anorexia; adolescents; pediatric; liver injury; aminotransferase; renal injury; refeeding
Online: 2 June 2022 (07:58:28 CEST)
Background: Only few pediatric reports exist regarding the prevalence, cause and evolution of liver and renal injury in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and the risk factors of hepatic and renal failure at admission and during hospitalization, especially during refeeding in a cohort of hospitalized adolescents with AN.Methods: In a retrospective cohort study of adolescents with AN in a single hospital of Marseille from 2013 to 2019, we compared four groups on admission: elevated aminotransferases (AT)/normal AT and renal injury/no renal injury to analyze the differences between them (demographic factors, anthropometric factors, disease duration, initial prescribed calories, speed of refeeding, aminotransferase level, glomerular filtration rate). We observed the evolution of AT and renal injury for these four groups during refeeding (by the increase of kilocalories). Results: A total of 29 subjects with AN met eligibility criteria (age: 14.2 years, female (86.2%), BMI at admission (Z-score= -2.8 standard deviation (SD)) with elevated AT (20.7 %) and renal injury (13.8 %) on admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-4.05 vs -2 SD, p = 0.013), lower expected weight for height (69% vs 76%, p = 0.034) and longer disease duration (2.1 vs 0.9 years, p =0,032) were significantly associated with elevated liver enzymes at admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-3.35 vs -2.5 SD, p = 0.002), lower expected weight for height at admission (69% vs 74,5%, p = 0.002) and loss of weight before admission (0.66 vs à 0.20 kg per day, p = 0.002) were associated with renal injury at admission. Time nadir BMI (13.5 vs 6.5 days, p = 0.034) and duration of hospitalization (55 vs 41 days, p = 0.036) were longer in elevated enzymes on admission group. During refeeding, liver enzymes (95% confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) aspartate aminotransferase: -0.07 [-0.11; -0.03] and OR alanine aminotransferase: -0.16 [-0.27; -0.06]) and renal injury (95% CI, OR creatinine: -0.013 [-0.017; -0.008]) have normalized with the increase of calories, with significant association.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that degree of malnutrition is associated with liver and renal injury on admission. Theses failures disappeared with refeeding. In the future, prospective multicentric studies could examine evolution of renal and hepatic failure undergoing refeeding in large pediatric cohort of AN.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1496.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: pemafibrate; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); Alanine Aminotransferase; M2-BPGi; dyslipidemia; liver fibrosis
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:02:35 CEST)
AIM Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Pemafibrate, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα), has been reported to ameliorate liver function among patients with dyslipidemia. However, there are not many reports of the clinical effects of the pemafibrate. This study aims to summarize the experience of using pemafibrate and analyze the effects on liver function in patients with dyslipidemia. METHODS One hundred twelve cases of hyperlipidemia receiving pemafibrate 0.2 mg/day were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Age, gender, BMI, complications, concomitant medications, serum parameters (TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, AST, ALT, γGTP, ALP, platelets, M2BPGi, Cre, eGFR, HbA1c, blood glucose level at any time) were investigated and evaluated. RESULTS Pemafibrate administration significantly improved serum TG and HDL-C, but not in LDL-C. Serum AST, ALT, γGTP, and ALP were also significantly improved. The fib-4 index, a liver fibrosis score, did not change significantly, but M2-BPGi, an index of fibrosis, decreased significantly. No correlation was observed between each lipid parameter and ALT, and ALT decreased independently of the lipid parameters. Conclusions As we expected, pemafibrate demonstrated a lipid-improving effect without adversely affecting hepatic and renal functions. An unexpected finding was the decrease in ALT that was independent of lipid parameters.