ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0383.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bioretention; nitrogen removal; submerged zone; alternate wet and dry conditions
Online: 31 January 2020 (11:31:15 CET)
Adding a submerged zone (SZ) is deemed to promote denitrification during dry periods and thus improve NO3--N removal efficiency of a bioretention system. However, few studies had investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration in the SZ during dry periods and evaluated the effect of the variation on nitrogen removal of the bioretention system. Based on the experiment in a mesocosm bioretetion system with SZ, this study investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration of the system under 17 consecutive cycles of wet and dry alternation with varied rainfall amount, influent nitrogen concentration and antecedent dry periods (ADP). The results indicated that (1) during the dry periods, NH4+-N concentrations in SZ showed an exponential decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 12.9 ± 7.3 hours; while NO3--N concentrations showed an inverse S-shape decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 18.8 ± 6.4 hours; (2) during the wet periods, NO3--N concentration in the effluent showed an S-shape upward trend; and at the early stage of the wet periods, the concentration was relatively low and significantly correlated with ADP, while the corresponding volume of the effluent was significantly correlated with the SZ depth; (3) in the whole experiment, the contribution of nitrogen decrease in SZ during dry periods to NH4+-N and NO3--N removal accounted for 12% and 92%, respectively; and the decrease of NO3--N in SZ during the dry period was correlated with the influent concentration in the wet period and the length of the dry period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0318.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: quantum gravity; alternate theory of gravity
Online: 28 January 2023 (09:44:13 CET)
There has been a disconnect between our understanding of the universe's working at the micro and macro scale - that is, disagreement between quantum mechanics (QM) and general relativity (GR). A theory of vacuum-matter equilibrium is presented from scratch to bridge this gap. It is proposed that gravitons are both quanta of matter and gravitation, as every matter entity is believed to interact with gravitation. The vacuum has an energy density that gives rise to virtual-graviton pairs. Upon collision, a virtual-graviton may get stuck to the matter while a graviton from the matter gets ejected. It is possible as all gravitons are identical in mass and size. Equilibrium is thus established where matter erodes in the vacuum, and the vacuum condenses as matter. The probability of graviton exchange depends on the relative energies of the virtual-graviton and matter entity, as calculated in the inertial frame of reference (IFoR) decided by the state motion of vacuum energy at that place. If the rate of matter-vacuum equilibrium is taken as a constant, it leads to the notion of time and time dilation. The force appearing on a matter entity through collision with virtual-gravitons is calculated, and the expression is a hybrid of Newton's and Einstein's equation. It further helps to answer the queries related to phenomena like the flatness of galaxy rotation curves, misconceptions about relativistic mass and length contraction, the relation between time, gravity, and quantum entanglement (QE), and the composite nature of the universal gravitational constant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: institutional, land, alternate, mastery and sustainable
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:54:08 CEST)
The community of farmers in land tenure have different institutional in terms of mastery of the land. In Indonesia there were generally institutional governing the utilization of land for mastery permanently, but there were also institutional governing dominion land in turn. This research aimed to chart institutional pattern characteristic mastery of the land inheritance system passes in, andanalyzeits contribution to sustainability of agriculture in the economic, social and ecological. Research method using case studies, with unit case a subdistrict in Gowa, South Sulawesi province, Indonesia. The results showed that institutional land pattern mastery system passes the inheritance patterns of alternation that has in effect hereditary, pattern rotation established by the heir land management patterns, depending on the number of beneficiaries, as well as not having managed to land fragmentation, so the scale of farming land, conditions can be maintained , the land was slanted so given a terracing, planting process was carried out by means of mutual. Neither found that institutional land pattern mastery system passes the inheritance had been contributing the sustainability of agriculture in social and ecological, but have yet to fully contribute to the sustainability of agriculture in economy.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Frames; Orthogonal frames; Canonical dual; Alternate dual
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:57:52 CEST)
Frames are more stable as compared to bases under the action of a bounded linear operator. Sums of different frames under the action of a bounded linear operator are studied with the help of analysis, synthesis and frame operators. A simple construction of frames from the existing ones under the action of such an operator is presented here. It is shown that a frame can be added to its alternate dual frames, yielding a new frame. It is also shown that the sum of a pair of orthogonal frames is a frame. This provides an easy construction of a frame where the frame bounds can be computed easily. Moreover, for a pair of orthogonal frames, the necessary and sufficient condition is presented for their alternate dual frames to be orthogonal. This allows for an easy construction of a large number of new frames.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0093.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: microarthropods; decomposition; nutrient mineralization; multi-channel feeding; predation; alternate prey; detrital shunting
Online: 8 November 2019 (10:39:16 CET)
Two desirable functions of healthy soil are nutrient cycling and pest suppression. We review recent literature on the contributions of soil microarthropods to soil health through their intersecting roles in decomposition and nutrient cycling and direct and indirect suppression of plant pests. Microarthropods can impact soil and plant health directly by feeding on pest organisms or serving as alternate prey for larger predatory arthropods, and indirectly, by mediating the ability of crop plants to resist or tolerate insect pests and diseases through interactions with the decomposition food web in support of plant nutrition. Soil fauna, including microarthropods, are key regulators of decomposition at local scales but their role at larger scales is unresolved. Future research priorities include the incorporation of multi-channel omnivory into food web modeling and understanding the vulnerability of our soil carbon to increased global temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS); PCOS phenotypes; Rotterdam Criteria; hyperandrogenism; Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS); Alternate Healthy Index (AHEI); Alternate Healthy Index 2010 (AHEI-2010) and DASH index
Online: 2 December 2020 (09:29:48 CET)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder which impair ovarian function. The adherence to healthy dietary patterns and physical exercise are the first line of recommended treatment for PCOS patients, but it is no clear what type of diet is more adequate. In this case-control study, we explore the association between the adherence to five dietary quality indices widely used and PCOS. We enrolled 126 cases of PCOS and 159 controls (Murcia, Spain). Diagnostic of PCOS and its phenotypes were established following the Rotterdam criteria [hyperandrogenism (H), oligoanovulation (O), polycystic ovaries morphology (POM)]. We used a validated food frequency questionnaires to calculate the scores for five dietary indices: alternate Healthy Eating index (AHEI), AHEI-2010, relative Mediterranean Dietary Score (rMED), alternate Mediterranean Dietary Score (aMED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios and confidence intervals. In the multivariable analysis, AHEI-2010 index was inversely associated with “H+O” PCOS’ phenotype (ORQ3 VS Q1= 0.1; 95% CI :(0.0; 0.9); P for trend= 0.02). In conclusion, we did not find any statistical significative association between dietary indices and total, anovulatory and ovulatory PCOS, but it seems interesting explore these association among the diverse phenotypes of PCOS in studies with higher sample size.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0239.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: dark matter; dark energy; alternate theories of gravity; MOND; Hubble tension
Online: 19 June 2020 (10:57:02 CEST)
While there is overwhelming evidence for dark matter (DM) in galaxies and galaxy clusters, all searches for DM particles have so far proved negative. It is not even clear whether only one particle is involved or a combination or particles, their masses not precisely predicted. This non-detectability raises the possible relevance of modified gravity theories – MOND, MONG, etc. Here we consider a specific modification of Newtonian gravity (MONG) which involves gravitational self-energy, leading to modified equations whose solutions imply flat rotation curves and limitations of sizes of clusters. The results are consistent with current observations including that involving large spirals. This modification could also explain the current Hubble tension. We also consider effects of dark energy (DE) in terms of a cosmological constant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0096.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: fish assemblages; community dynamics; alternate stable states; eutrophication; submerged aquatic vegetation; nutrient load reduction; point-source pollution
Online: 11 May 2017 (07:54:59 CEST)
After a local pollution control plant significantly reduced phosphorus loading into a phytoplankton-dominated tributary of the Potomac River in the early 1980’s, water quality and biological communities were monitored bi-weekly from April-September. After a 10-year time-lag, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), once abundant in this freshwater tidal embayment, returned to the area in 1993. After additional reductions in nitrogen load starting in 2000, the system completely switched to a SAV-dominated state in 2005. Fish abundance didn’t change during these distinct phase changes, but the fish community structure did. Increases in SAV provided refuge and additional spawning substrate for species with adhesive eggs such as Banded Killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), which is now the most abundant species in the embayment. Other changes seen were a decrease in the relative contribution of open water dwelling species such as White Perch (Morone americana), and an increase of visual predators such as Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides). The 30-year record of data from this Potomac River tributary has revealed many important long-term trends that validate the effectiveness of initiatives to improve water treatment, and will aid in the continued management of the watershed and point source inputs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0048.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: accessory protein; alternate reading frame; nomenclature; open reading frame; ORF3b; ORF3d; ORF9a; ORF9b; overlapping ORF; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 2 December 2020 (08:04:06 CET)
At least six small alternate-frame open reading frames (ORFs) overlapping well-characterized SARS-CoV-2 genes have been hypothesized to encode accessory proteins. Researchers have used different names for the same ORF or the same name for different ORFs, resulting in erroneous homological and functional inferences. We propose standard names for these ORFs and their shorter isoforms, developed in consultation with the Coronaviridae Study Group of the ICTV. We recommend calling the 39 codon Spike-overlapping ORF ORF2b; the 41, 57, and 22 codon ORF3a-overlapping ORFs ORF3c, ORF3d, and ORF3b; the 33 codon ORF3d isoform ORF3d-2; and the 97 and 73 codon Nucleocapsid-overlapping ORFs ORF9b and ORF9c. Finally, we document conflicting usage of the name ORF3b in 32 studies, and consequent erroneous inferences, stressing the importance of reserving identical names for homologs. We recommend that authors referring to these ORFs provide lengths and coordinates to minimize ambiguity due to prior usage of alternative names.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Alkali Activated Composite Mud Mortar; Alternate to Cement Mortar; Numerical Analysis; ANSYS; Bond strength; Shear crack behaviour
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:05:14 CEST)
This study identifies new Alkali Activated Composite Mud Mortar to alternate Cement Mortar used for laying masonry works. This study handles both experimental and numerical analysis of strength and durability for mortar, especially bond strength along mortar and brick joints have studied detail and compared with ANSYS. The bond strength has estimated through the triplet brick prism of shear behavior. The strength and deformation characteristics of masonry constituents obtained from these tests depend on the actual composite conduct of masonry. There is always a good reception for environmentally friendly, low energy, new construction materials, and used in preparing mortar/brick unit combinations all around the world. Also, this study fulfills those requirements. Especially, masonry laid with the mud mortar meets all. Fly Ash, Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag, and Quarry Dust have utilized the new composites' preparation with 8Molority, 10Molority developed excellent strength. The composite specimens are having compression and bond strength, ranging from 4.84-5.14 and 0.12-0.18N/mm2. The mixed ratio of materials has taken (0.5 parts of Fly Ash, 0.5 parts of Steel Slag, 1.75 parts of Soil, and 0.25 parts of Quarry Dust). The samples tested resistance against acidic, sulfate, and alkalinity indicated PH values less than 7 and 9 simultaneously. Compression strength varied from 10-20% and gained more and fit composite used for mortar in masonry works.