ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0183.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: allelopathy; barnyardgrass; root trait; phytohormone; biotic stress
Online: 2 June 2023 (10:29:48 CEST)
Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa spp.) is a prevalent type of weed in rice fields worldwide. Despite the growing knowledge concerning allelopathic interference with barnyardgrass, little is understood regarding the competitive mechanisms between allelopathic rice and herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass at the plant physiological level. In this context, a hydroponic system was employed to investigate the root morphological traits and different phytohormones levels of two rice cultivars, i.e., the allelopathic rice cultivar “PI312777” (PI) and the non-allelopathic rice cultivar “Lemont” (LE), when co-planted with quinclorac-resistant and -susceptible barnyardgrass, respectively. The results showed that the shoot and root biomass were greater in the allelopathic rice cultivar. Moreover, the treatments at the two time points induced an increase in shoot and root biomass of PI when subjected to barnyardgrass stress. In terms of root morphology, PI exhibited significantly higher fine-root length in diameters <0.5 mm, a greater number of root tips, and longer root tips compared to LE. In addition, the levels of different plant hormones, including auxin (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA), known for their diverse adaptation strategies to biotic stress, were analysed. The response to quinclorac-resistant barnyardgrass stress was consistent in terms of the content of well-known stress-related hormones, namely SA and JA. The accumulation of SA and JA was observed in both rice cultivars under the stress of quinclorac-resistant barnyardgrass, with higher contents of these hormones in PI than that in LE. The most significant change was observed in IAA and ABA contents in rice, which decreased significantly from 7 days to 14 days under co-culture stress. Additionally, PI contained higher levels of IAA and ABA than LE in the presence of barnyardgrass stress. This research may aid in the development of strategies for reducing the environmental impact of herbicides through the prudent selection of non-chemical herbicide control tactics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: allelopathy; environment modification; interspecific interactions; salinity; seed germination
Online: 7 November 2022 (03:30:40 CET)
Plant community assembly is the central issue in community ecology. As plant traits differ in different life history stages, the form, intensity and mechanism of interspecific interactions may change with the ontogenetic process of plants. However, our understanding of interspecific interaction mechanisms during germination is still limited. Here, we conducted a laboratory germination experiment using 5 dominant species in Chongming Dongtan (Spartina alterniflora, Scirpus mariqueter, Phragmites australis, Suaeda glauca and Tripolium vulgare) to assess their germination performance in control (monoculture), allelopathy and mixture treatments. The results indicated that seeds could affect germination performance of neighbours through both allelopathy and microenvironment modification. Salinity of the solution in petri dishes after germination decreased in all treatments, and was negatively correlated with the number of total germinated seeds. Seed leachate of invasive Spartina alterniflora inhibited the germination of native Scirpus mariqueter and Phragmites australis, but not the two halophytes Suaeda glauca and Tripolium vulgare. The salt absorption by Spartina alterniflora seeds had the opposite effects compared with that of its seed leachate. On the other hand, seed leachate of native species promoted the germination of invasive Spartina alterniflora. The effect of microenvironment modification of Scirpus mariqueter and Phragmites australis was positive, whereas that of Suaeda glauca and Tripolium vulgare was neutral or negative. Considering seed-to-seed interactions is an important perspective to understand the underlying mechanisms of community dynamics, species diversity maintenance and invasion of alien species, and can improve the effectiveness in the management of invaded coastal wetlands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: allelopathy; biochar; invasive species; island ecosystems; Psidium cattleianum
Online: 4 January 2022 (12:37:04 CET)
Many tropical invasive species have allelopathic effects that contribute to their success in native plant communities. Pyrolyzed biomass (“biochar”) can sorb toxic compounds, including allelochemicals produced by invasive plants, potentially reducing their inhibitory effects on native species. Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is among the most important allelopathic invasive species in tropical islands and recognized as the most serious invasive species threat in the global biodiversity hotspot of Mauritius. We investigated the effects of additions of locally produced biochar on native tree species in a field experiment conducted in areas invaded by strawberry guava within Mauritius’ largest national park. Growth and survivorship of native tree species were monitored over 2 ½ years in plots subjected to four treatments: non-weeded, weeded, weeded + 25 t/ha biochar and weeded + 50 t/ha biochar. Native tree growth and survivorship were strongly suppressed by strawberry guava. Biochar treatments dramatically increased native tree performance, with more than a doubling in growth, and substantially increased native tree survivorship and species diversity, while suppressing strawberry guava regeneration, consistent with growth-promoting properties and sorption of allelochemicals. We conclude that biochars, including “sustainable biochars” produced from locally accessible biomass using low-tech pyrolysis systems, have considerable potential to counteract effects of allelopathic invaders and increase the capacity for native species regeneration in tropical island ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Allelopathy; Gossypium hirsutum; chromosome substitution; sustainable weed management.
Online: 27 September 2021 (12:56:50 CEST)
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a problematic common weed species, especially in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). With the wide use of chemical herbicide and herbicide-tolerant transgenic cotton lines, Palmer amaranth populations have developed tolerance to commonly used herbicides. It is imperative to develop alternative weed control methods to slow the evolution of herbicide-resistant weed populations and provide new sources for weed management. Eleven chromosome substitution (CS) cotton lines CS-B26lo, CS-T17, CS-B16-15, CS-B17-11, CS-B12, CS-T05sh, CS-T26lo, CS-T11sh, CS-M11sh, CS-B22sh, and CS-B22lo were screened for weed-suppressing abilities in this study. The cotton lines were tested using the established stair-step structure methodology, which provided scope to study the effect of individual CS lines on the growth and development of Palmer amaranth weed without any interference of other external factors in the greenhouse. Height (cm) and chlorophyll concentration (cci) were measured for each plant in the system. The data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design using LSD mean comparisons of the genotypes at the P≤ .05 level. The 14th day after establishment resulted in the most significant variation in Palmer amaranth height reduction among the CS lines. Results indicated that CS-B22sh had the highest effect in reducing Palmer amaranth height and chlorophyll concentration with the most heightened susceptibility for Palmer amaranth. The cluster analysis revealed that Enlist® cotton, CS-CS-B22sh, and CS-T26lo were clustered in one group suggesting similar genetic potential with reference to Palmer amaranth growth and development. CS-B22sh showed novel genetic potential to control the growth and development of Palmer amaranth, a major weed in cotton fields. In the future, it will be interesting to investigate if CS-B22sh exudates from its root contain allelochemicals able to impede the growth and development of Palmer amaranth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0232.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: cyanobacteria, toxic, biotic factors, abiotic factors, interactions, allelopathy
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:36:33 CEST)
Environmental genetics-related modern methods are shown as important indicators of various cyanotoxins syntheses, and their knowledge and use are critically analyzed. Microcystins and other cyanotoxins loads and syntheses are related to different drivers, like various chemical elements and compounds (especially nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and their ratio), then to the light, conductivity, temperature, and other climatical and hydrological factors, to which spatial and geographical features (such as the surface of the water bodies) have to be added. The biotic relationships include different specific and supraspecific, uni- and bilateral links between the cyanobacteria, and subsequently their synthesized toxins, and protozoans (or protoctists), chromists, macrophytes, different systematical and ecological groups of zooplankton, and others. The importance of, but also the gaps in, the knowledge and the scarcity of studies involving ectocrines mediated interactions between different groups of algae and plants are highlighted. The paper ends with an interesting classification of lakes' trophicity, illustrated with conceptual diagrams, based on possible scenarios of cyanobacteria behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0445.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: allelopathy; leaf litter; condensed tannins; mangrove forests; natural regeneration
Online: 16 June 2021 (12:43:27 CEST)
Kandelia obovata (Ko) and Aegiceras corniculatum (Ac) are common and dominant plant species in mangrove wetlands in South China, and distribute in the similar tidal zones along the coastline. The present study aimed to determine the allelopathic effects of leaf litter leachates (LLLs) from Ko and their purified condensed tannins (PCTs) on the germination and growth of Ac by mangrove microcosms. Replicate pots containing five different levels of LLLs and PCTs were separately prepared and propagules of Ac were placed in each treatment. Both LLLs and PCTs significantly inhibited the germination and growth of Ac, especially in high levels. The final germination rates of roots, stems, and the number of fine roots declined continuously while other growth indicators, including the lengths of fine roots, nutritive roots, the biomasses of roots, stems, leaves, increased firstly and then decreased with increasing levels. These results indicated that LLLs from the leaf litter of Ko, in particular, their PCTs exerted an inhibition effect on propagule germination and seedling growth of Ac, and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent. This study suggested that condensed tannins from leaf litter, acting as allelochemicals, could regulate the natural regeneration of a mangrove forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0047.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Sustainable agriculture; allelopathy; biocidal potential; phytotoxic effects; weed management.
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:00:35 CET)
Along with climate change, the native forest replacement by exotic species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, is contributing to a highly fire-prone environment. Since E. globulus detains several post-fire regeneration strategies, sustainable practices are needed to manage eucalyptus stands. Thus, eucalyptus allelopathic potential can be used for weed control. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the herbicidal potential of post-fire regenerated E. globulus leaves in Portulaca oleracea, and unraveling the main physiological processes disturbed by biocide application. For this, an aqueous extract prepared with fresh leaves (FLE; 617 gfresh weightL-1) and other with oven-dried leaves (DLE; 250 gdry weightL-1) were prepared and foliar-sprayed twice-a-week at different dilutions in 7-days-old purslane plants. As positive control, glyphosate was used. After five weeks, results revealed that DLE at the highest dose detained the greatest herbicidal activity against P. oleracea. To understand how DLE impacted weed physiology, several biochemical and redox-related parameters were evaluated in purslane plants treated with DLE highest dose. Results suggested an overproduction of hydrogen peroxide, causing severe oxidative damage in roots. Overall, this study showed that young E. globulus dried leaves had powerful herbicidal properties against P. oleracea and can represent a feasible approach for weed management, while reducing fire hazard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1745.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: naturalised alien species; allelopathy; Cenchrus echinatus; weeds; floristic diversity; urban ecology
Online: 26 July 2023 (09:19:49 CEST)
Exotic plants are usually problematic for the native species where they coexist. This study evaluated the effect of naturalised alien Cenchrus echinatus L. on native plants in the urban vegetation. A field trial was conducted to assess the effect of this species on cover and diversity of the native vegetation. The allelopathic potential of such species was examined. Plots comprising C. echinatus had lower cover of some native species. Lower floristic diversity was observed at more dense cover of this plant. The soil under Cenchrus attained lower N, P and K contents. This soil had no effect on germination and growth of the native species. It also comprised germinable seeds of some species which were absent from the standing vegetation. Exotic C. echinatus may exert a negative effect on the native vegetation of the urban plant communities. Dense cover of Cenchrus may inhibit germination of native species, leading to reduction in their cover. The reduction in cover and diversity of native species was not attributed to allelopathy. These results suggest that naturalised C. echinatus may be more competitor than the native ones, particularly at higher densities. Furthermore, it may represent a threat for the native plants in the urban vegetation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0737.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: allelopathy; bioherbicides; corn gluten meal; essential oils; mustard seed meal; pathogens; plant extracts
Online: 31 October 2018 (07:50:29 CET)
Over the last five decades, weed management systems have relied primarily on synthetic herbicides. Due to the concerns over the potential impact of chemicals on human health and the environment, efforts are being made to reduce the heavy reliance on synthetic herbicides. To reduce the use of synthetic herbicides, the use of natural products such as essential oils, plant extracts, allelochemicals, agricultural by-products, and some microbes are gaining attention because of their short environmental half-life and low toxicity. They are a good alternative to synthetic herbicides, especially in organic agriculture, since they focus on environmental protection, and ecological stability. Most of the commercially available natural herbicides are non-selective and require careful application in order to preserve the cash crops. Although many studies in this direction have been undertaken, the use of these natural products is still not common because of their cost the difficulties in their synthesis due to their complex structure, cost effectiveness, poor performance, and rapid degradation. When used singly, these natural herbicides do not perform as well as the chemical herbicides. An integrated approach may provide better results. Using a combination of natural herbicides may be more effective than using just one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0136.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Diplodia quercivora; oak; epi-epoformin; cyclohexeneoxide; etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay; phytotoxicity; allelopathy; SAR
Online: 8 June 2018 (13:15:11 CEST)
(+)-epi-Epoformin (1), is a fungal cyclohexene epoxide isolated together with diplopimarane and sphaeropsidins A and C, a nor-ent-pimarane and two pimaranes, from the culture filtrates of Diplodia quercivora, a fungal pathogen for cork oak in Sardinia, Italy. Compound 1 possesses a plethora of biological activities including: antifungal, zootoxic and phytotoxic activity. The last activity and the peculiar structural feature of 1 suggested to carry out a structure activity relationship study, preparing eight key hemisynthetic derivatives and their phytotoxicity was assayed. The complete spectroscopic characterization and the activity in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay of all the compounds is reported. Most of the compounds inhibited growth and some of them had comparable or higher activity than the natural product and the reference herbicide Logran. As regards the structure-activity relationship, the carbonyl proved to be essential for their activity of 1, as well as the conjugated double bond, while the epoxide could be altered with no significant loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: tomato cultivar; allelopathy; competitive ability; plant-plant interactions; weed suppression; sustainable agriculture; weed management; vegetable
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:33:20 CEST)
The present study aims to identify tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars with weed-suppressive ability against target weed species in the tomato growing season. A greenhouse study was conducted with 17 tomato cultivars and target weeds Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.). Tomato plants and weed species were grown in the same pot. The height, chlorophyll, and dry weight biomass of the weeds were measured 28 days after sowing. The largest effect of tomato interference was on Palmer amaranth. Cultivar 15 reduced Palmer amaranth height, chlorophyll, and biomass by 58, 28, and 83%, respectively. Chlorophyll percentage of yellow nutsedge seedlings was suppressed by 15% by cultivar 64, whereas 13% of its height was reduced by cultivar 20. Cultivar 15 reduced biomass of yellow nutsedge by 40%. The percentage of chlorophyll of large crabgrass was reduced by 22% with cultivar 5, whereas the height and biomass were reduced by 35 and 44% with cultivars 38 and 63, respectively. Factoring all parameters evaluated, cultivars 38, 33, and 7 were most suppressive against the problematic weed species in tomato.