REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0489.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Ciherang; agronomics; genetics; breeding; intensive cultivation
Online: 28 November 2022 (03:13:26 CET)
Ciherang rice variety was released in year 2000 and become a superior variety in Indonesia. In a decade, due to the excellent agronomic characteristics and high productivity, Ciherang gradually replace the mega-variety IR-64 and widely cultivate in almost 40% rice production area in Indonesia. In addition to its high grain yield, short straw, early maturity, and high productive tiller number, it had superior grain quality, such as long and slender grain shape, clean yellow color, aromatic, and high milled rice percentage with excellent eating quality, matching with farmers and rice consumers demands. It has intermediate glycemic index and delicious taste. It is intolerance to flooding condition and susceptible to several diseases and pests, including rice blast, bacterial blight, brown planthopper, and yellow stem borer. Because of Ciherang has been well-characterized genetically, many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and candidate genes which associated with certain traits have been identified. It has also been used as a parent in rice breeding program to develop mapping populations for genetic analysis. In order to increase the flooding tolerant and disease resistant in Ciherang, many valuable genes have been introduced into Ciherang through backcrossing breeding technique and transgenic approach. The optimal rice productivity in Ciherang also supported by the application of intensification system in Ciherang cultivation. Unravelling the complex genetic control of agronomic characteristics, grain yield traits, and other desirable traits which valuable for rice farmers and consumers are very important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0079.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Groundwater quality; Shallow aquifers; agronomics; geospatial techniques; Aligarh
Online: 6 September 2021 (07:57:47 CEST)
Monitoring of groundwater quality in today's scenario is very much important. Due to urbanization and population pressure regular monitoring of groundwater for drinking as well as irrigation purposes need a major concern. With this aim, a study has been carried out consisting 26 groundwater samples in May 2017, to access the physiochemical characteristic, water quality index (WQI) of groundwater by using GIS software and to find out the groundwater suitableness for drinking as well as for irrigation purpose. The pH is slightly alkaline and the TDS is much more than prescribed limits of BIS. The trend of cations in groundwater are Ca2+>Na+>Mg2+>K+ while anions trend is HCO3->SO42->Cl->NO3->CO32->F-. The Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-K-Cl-SO4 types of groundwater facies were dominant. Generally, the chemical changes in groundwater are administered by the evaporation process with ion exchange, and mixing of particles is the significant source of the solute acquisition process. WQI of the study area suggested that the 15% sample is unsuitable, 69% is poor and remaining is good for drinking uses. The potential salinity of the groundwater sample is nearly high although the majority of the sample is suited for irrigation activities.