ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Agroecology; territorial agroecologycal food systems.
Online: 2 June 2021 (07:20:43 CEST)
The health emergency caused by Covid 19 highlighted the food dependency of many cities in the world and Cali and the cities of Valle del Cauca were no exception as they depended on food flows from other regions and countries, so these Entities are part of the corporate food system, to which their rulers delegated food security for their inhabitants. In the same territory and for the last nine years, a second-level organization has been consolidating that brings together 14 peasant agroecological markets and that despite strict confinement measures was able to continue supplying food to consumers in the municipalities of influence that have supported this initiative. The foregoing leads to think that said organization can become a platform for an agroecological food system of regional scope, for which the characteristics that said system should have according to a model based on the principles of agroecology were evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0974.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: food-policy; agroecology; assessment; urban agriculture
Online: 15 November 2023 (09:59:30 CET)
Recent crises have highlighted the vulnerabilities of global supply chains and, consequently, a profound need for food system transformation. In this scenario, Local Food Policy and agroe-cology arise as two different but converging paradigms capable of fostering an inclusive and sustainable transition of the food systems, especially in the urban contexts. The purpose of this paper is to strengthen the relationship between these two paradigms by proposing agroecological assessment as a tool for formulating evidence-based Local Food Policies. Considering the city-region food system of Rome (Italy) as a reference context, the paper proposes an adaptation of the TAPE model on a sample of 20 farms to analyze urban agriculture and understand the extent to which it contributes to the transformation of the food system. Data processing shows that, in the city-region context of Rome, agroecological principles are not fully adopted by the majority of farms. In addition, farms with the highest agroecological level are those driven mainly by social factors and have a lower propensity for innovation. This could be read as a constraining aspect because it hinders and slows down the transformation process of food systems. However, these data turn out to be essential to the implementation of Local Food Policy and in identifying pathways toward sustainability.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0292.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: agroecology; participatory research; web application; traceability
Online: 17 December 2021 (15:07:16 CET)
Agroecology, defined as the ecological science of food production is also as practical approach to design food production systems based on local concerted solutions that aim to promote synergy among the diversity of human and non human food systems elements. These two facets makes agroecology a good candidate for participatory research. Information technology should help using this information for the production of structured scientific knowledge. In this respect, there is a need for information technology that is adaptive to encompass the diversity of within and between systems and that provide benefit to farmers that feed it with data. We present MiCampoApp, a webapp that aims to join participatory research and certification in agroecology, with two roles, the farmer and the administrator. The idea to join participatory research for decision support with certification for market differentiation in single system is that much of the certification data harbors information for scientific research, and this incentivize data collection for the interest of the farmer and the community. The administrator create a model for data collection in order to solve a research question of interest for a communities or to produce traceability information to feed participatory guarantee system in a community. The farmer collects information using simple icons and produces traceability pages for research or certification purposes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Agroecology; Apoidea; Landscape; Pesticide; Sacrifice zones
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:33:00 CEST)
Industrial agriculture (IA) is the predominant model of food production since the Green Revolution in the 1950s. IA has been recognized among the main drivers of biodiversity loss, climate change and native pollinator decline. This is controversial, given that native agricultural pollinators are an important resource biota already contributing to crop yield, especially in areas defined as "world biodiversity hotspots” (WBH). These areas often overlap with agricultural zones hosting a significant proportion of cultivated land, mainly through intensive agricultural practices. Pollinator biodiversity and pollination services in these places are currently under threat due to the negative consequences of IA. The dual role of insects as key players allowing the maintenance of the natural ecosystem, as well as main crop pollinators, is particularly exacerbated and urgently requires conservation actions in WBH and food-producing zones. Here we summarize the known negative effects of IA on pollinator biodiversity and illustrate these problems by considering the case of Chile. Food exports represent a considerable part of the economy in this OECD “developing country” in the “Global South”, and a large part of its surface has been highlighted as a unique WBH. This area is currently being replaced by IA businesses at a fast pace, threatening local biodiversity. We present agroecological strategies for sustainable food production and pollinator conservation in food-producing WBHs like Chile. These alternatives recognize native pollinators as internal inputs that cannot be replaced by IA technological packages or external inputs and support the development of agroecological and biodiversity restoration practices to protect their existing biodiversity. We suggest a strategy that integrates four fundamental pillars for producing food in a sustainable way, recognizing biodiversity and local cultural heritage: 1) Share the land, restore and protect; 2) Ecological intensification; 3) Localized knowledge, research and technological development; and 4) Territorial planning and implementation of socio-agroecological policies. We suggest that this approach does not need greater modification of native pollination services that sustain the world with food and basic subsistence goods, but a paradigm change where the interdependency of nature and human wellbeing are recognized for ensuring the present and future of the world’s food security and sovereignty as well as considering the reduction of consumerism and food waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biomass; ecophysiology; GIS remote sensing; agroecology; Togo
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:02:46 CEST)
In the context of climate change, the need for stakeholders to contribute to achieving SDG2 is no longer in doubt especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study of the landscape within 10 km of the Donomadé model farm, southeastern Togo, we sought to assess vegetation health in ecosystems and agrosystems, including their capacity to produce biomass for agroecological practices. Sentinel-2 sensor data from 2015, 2017, 2020, and 2022 were preprocessed and used to calculate normalized vegetation fire ratio index (NBR), vegetation fire severity index (dNBR), and CASA-SEBAL models. From these different analyses, it was found that vegetation stress increased across the landscape depending on the year of the time series. We estimated that 9952.215 ha, 10,397.43 ha, and 9854.90 ha were highly stressed in 2015, 2017, and 2020, respectively. Analysis of the level of interannual severity revealed the existence of highly photosynthetic areas which had experienced stress. These areas, which were likely to have been subjected to agricultural practices, were estimated to be 8704.871 ha (dNBR2017–2015), 8253.17 ha (dNBR2020–2017), and 7513.93 ha (dNBR2022–2020). In 2022, the total available biomass estimated by remote sensing for was 3,741,715 ± 119.26 kgC/ha/y. The annual average was 3401.55 ± 119.26 kgC/ha/y. In contrast, the total area of healthy vegetation was estimated to be 4594.43 ha, 4301.30 ha, and 4320.85 ha, in 2015, 2017, and 2022, respectively. The acceptance threshold of the net primary productivity (NPP) of the study area was 96%. The coefficient of skewness (0.81 ± 0.073) indicated a mosaic landscape. Productive and functional ecosystem components were present, but these were highly dispersed. These findings suggest a great opportunity to promote agroecological practices. Mulching may be an excellent technique for enhancing overall ecosystem services as targeted by the SDGs, by means of reconversion of plant biomass consumed by vegetation fires or slash-and-burn agricultural practices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1689.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Agroecology; GHG emissions; Cropping systems; Mulch cover; Synergies.
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:28:34 CEST)
Conservation Agriculture (CA) and the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) are both agroecologically-oriented production systems that support more productive, sustainable, and resource-conserving farming, with synergies arising from their respective assemblages of reinforcing agronomic methods. Application of CA principles enhances the growth, yield, and performance of the crops grown under the cropping system as well as the health and resilience of the whole ecosystem. SRI practices create more favorable conditions for the development of crop plants below- and above-ground, conditions that can be enhanced by CA management. SRI practices such as reduced plant density m-2 can elicit better phenotypic expression of the genetic potentials of crops grown with CA.. For these two agronomic systems to converge at field level, some of their respective practices for plant, soil, water, and nutrient management need to be modified or aligned. One such adaptation is to practice SRI in CA systems on permanent, no-till, mulch covered raised beds, with rainfall or irrigation water in the furrows between the beds furnishing and controlling water; and providing weed suppression and improved nutrient recycling. SRI rice cropping can benefit from the CA practices of no-tillage, soil mulch cover, and diversified cropping, both in paddies and on raised beds. Several examples have shown that this convergence of cropping systems is feasible for smallholding farmers as well as for larger-scale producers, and also that SRI practices within a CA system are amenable to considerable mechanization. This review article examines the compatibility between CA and SRI, considering examples of their being utilized in complementary ways. Further research and experimentation are needed to identify and assess appropriate practices for capitalizing upon their synergies.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0279.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: SDG; Dayalbagh Way of life; Agroecology; Sustainable Agriculture
Online: 15 December 2022 (09:04:03 CET)
The multiple crises that the world is facing – climate change, COVID-19 and war have halted or reversed the progress of the world towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals. Using a case study of Dayalbagh, a locality in metropolitan Agra, India, and headquarters of the Radhasoami faith, we examine the potential benefits of employing agroecology to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The active, disciplined and cooperative community-based lifestyle followed in Dayalbagh with a strong focus on agriculture and service demonstrates how most of the SDGs can be achieved. It offers lessons for policy makers in terms of focus areas for policy support and reaching the last, lowest, least and the lost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0573.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: sustainability transitions; diets; agroecology; food system resilience; climate change
Online: 19 April 2023 (08:38:33 CEST)
The past years have shown the widespread vulnerability of agro-food systems and rural diets to external perturbations such as wars, climate events, and pandemics. Experiencing numerous obstacles, Cuba constitutes an example of success in the transition to agroecological sustainability models. This article characterizes how processes of agricultural change, local development, and industrial degrowth have impacted food availability and dietary diversity among rural livelihoods in the municipality of Yaguajay, Sancti Spíritus, for the past forty years (1980s-2020s). It integrates findings from focus groups, repeated nutritional surveys, and interviews carried out between 2016 and 2022 among residents of the towns of Yaguajay and La Picadora. The goal is to identify effects and response strategies within agro-food systems of rural populations. Distinguishing between periods of abundance and shortage, our findings show two counterpoints: intensive sugar monocrop cultivation which resulted in high dietary variety; and economic crises in 1990s and during the last period of the pandemic, which have led to significant dietary adjustments. The article concludes underscoring the importance of comprehensive assessments of dietary strategies to elicit what agroecological transitions mean for local realities and of the value of food consumption and small-holder production experiences to understand the limits to sustainable transformations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agroecology; control points; carbon dioxide; methane; nitrous oxide; sorghum
Online: 14 November 2022 (04:43:06 CET)
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are significant contributors to global change. We experimentally manipulated biogeochemical control points of irrigation and nitrogen (N) to examine management strategies that could impact GHG flux, i.e., carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and soil physiochemical changes over a growing season in an arid New Mexico sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cropping system. Sorghum is water and N efficient and amenable to environmental stress. Interrogating how crop systems perform in intense heat, aridity and ultraviolet stress of the southwestern US climate can inform future management in areas that produce more food currently, but that will undergo these stresses in the near future. Water was applied at regionally typical rates, or at ~30% below those rates. Timing N to plant needs may reduce N loss and N2O emissions, and we tested this hypothesis by adding equal amounts of fertilizer to all plots, with half receiving all fertilizer at planting versus plots fertilized at 50:50 planting and 30 days post-planting. Gas flux from soil was analyzed via FTIR. More biomass was harvested from the fully irrigated plots; N timing did not significantly affect biomass. Soil pH fluctuated throughout the season in response to both treatments. Carbon dioxide emissions significantly increased in fully irrigated plots through time. Methane uptake was depressed by full irrigation. Nitrous oxide flux was lower in split N plots, but N2O emissions were not impacted by reduced irrigation. These results suggest that arid adapted crops can maintain economically feasible yield, and biogeochemical monitoring within a growing season can help manage for GHG flux.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0474.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Climate change; agroecology; Fragaria x ananassa; precipitation; rainfall simulation
Online: 29 December 2021 (23:20:41 CET)
It is well established that the interacting effects of temperature and precipitation will alter agroecological systems on a global scale. These shifts will influence the fitness of specialty crops, specifically strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa), an important crop in the Northeastern United States. In this study, four precipitation scenarios were developed that are representative of current and probable-future growing season precipitation patterns. Using a precipitation simulator, we tested these scenarios on potted day neutral strawberries. This study generated four primary results: (1) though treatments received different amounts of precipitation, little difference was observed in soil volumetric water content or temperature. However, treatments designed to simulate future conditions were more likely those designed to simulate current conditions to have higher nitrate-in-leachate (N-leachate) concentrations; (2) neither total precipitation nor seasonable distribution were associated with foliar or root disease pressure; (3) while there was a slightly higher chance that photosynthetic potential and capacity would be higher in drier conditions, little difference was observed in the effects on chlorophyll concentration, and no water stress was detected in any treatment; and (4) leaf biomass was likely more affected by total rather than seasonal distribution of precipitation, but interaction between changing rainfall distribution and seasonal totals is likely to be an important driver of root biomass development in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1832.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Agroecology; LSD; LSD outbreak; Sero Epidemiology Risk factor; Qualitative study
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:51:53 CET)
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) vaccination and epidemiological distribution remain unknown in some parts of Ethiopia including the Sidama regional state. With this, an assessment of LSD vaccine-related problems and serological study was performed in selected districts of Sidama regional state representing three agroecological zones from September 2021 to June 2022. A cross-sectional study of qualitative and quantitative studies was used. The result showed a few portion of respondents know about LSD (29.2%), and vaccinate their cattle (23.3%). 20.8% of the respondents stated LSD occurrence in their vaccinated cattle while focus group discussion with the professionals stated the possible reasons related to electric power disruption that impacted LSD vaccine cold-chain. The other study was on sero-epedimiology of LSD which showed an overall animal and herd level sero-prevalence of 40.8% and 81%, respectively. Higher and lower sero-prevalence was observed in lowland (48%) and highland (28%) areas, respectively. Furthermore, risk factor analysis showed the existence of a significant association between management systems, breed, and body condition score (BCS) of cattle. In conclusion, both qualitative and quantitative study results showed the need for intervention in terms of community-based awareness creation about LSD clinical signs, vaccination advantages, and options for electric power supply together with the frequently updated information on LSD prevalence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agroecology; seed dormancy; plant establishment; germination; climate change; Poaceae; Brassicaceae; Fabaceae
Online: 18 May 2023 (09:45:04 CEST)
Cover crops as living plant or mulch can suppress weeds by reducing weed germination, emergence and growth, either through direct competition for resources, allelopathy, or by providing a physical barrier to emergence. Farmers implementing conservation agriculture, organic farming or agroecological principles are increasingly adopting cover crop as part of their farming strategy. However, cover crop adoption remains limited by poor and/or unstable establishment in dry conditions, weediness of cover crop volunteers is subsequent cash crops, and seed cost. This study is the first one to review the literature on seed traits of cover crops, their germination response to different biotic and abiotic factors aiming to improve seed germination and seedling establishment. Knowledge on seed traits would be helpful in choosing suitable cover crop species and/or mixture adapted to specific environments. Such information is crucial to improve cover crops establishment, growth, provision of ecosystem services, while allowing farmers to save seeds and therefore money. We discuss how to improve cover crop establishment by seed priming and coating, and appropriate seed sowing depth. Here, three cover crop families namely Poaceae, Brassicaceae, and Fabaceae, were examined in terms of seed traits and response to environmental conditions. The review showed that seed traits related to germination are crucial as they affect the germination timing and establishment of the cover crop, consequently soil coverage uniformity, factors that directly related to their suppressive effect on weeds. Poaceae and Brassicaceae exhibit higher germination percentage than Fabaceae under water deficit conditions. Seed dormancy of some Fabaceae species/cultivars limits their agricultural use of as cover crops because the domestication of some wild ecotypes is not complete. Understanding genetic and environmental regulating seed dormancy is necessary. Appropriate selection of cover crop cultivars is crucial to improve cover crop establishment and provide multiple ecosystem services including weed suppression, particularly in a climate change context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0272.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: agroecology; physical reproduction; social reproduction; agency; sub-Saharan Africa; smallholder agriculture
Online: 16 August 2022 (03:31:35 CEST)
This paper investigates how agroecology in Africa is researched for two purposes. First, we present evidence of links between agroecology and food and nutrition security in sub-Saharan Africa. Second, we investigate which pathways of influence are dominant in the existing research and which pathways are under-represented. To achieve these objectives we anchor our analysis within feminist economics, thereby making use of the concepts of social reproduction and agency in our analysis of the literature. By employing a systematic literature review of empirical studies from African countries, starting from 1996 to 2020, we consolidate evidence that agroecology has contributed to food and nutrition security by acting toward sustainability at the farm level. However, our review shows in a second step that social and household dimensions of agroecology at the level of households and territories are not well documented in research linking agroecology to food security and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. Given that sustainable production practices such as agroecological practices are not mutually exclusive from the social activities of farmers and cultural contexts in which farmers are embedded, it is important to consider social and ecological processes concomitantly when assessing the value of Agroecology programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Himachal Pradesh; transition; womens' empowerment; food sovereignty; agroecology; farmer networks; marginal farmers
Online: 31 October 2023 (12:18:40 CET)
In 2018, the state of Himachal Pradesh in north India launched an initiative to convert all its farmers to natural farming (NF), an agroecological approach. The aim was to address multiple challenges related to rural livelihoods, high input costs, biodiversity loss, and environmental degradation. This paper is based on a qualitative case study of the state programme to transition farmers to NF. It seeks to understand how its mechanisms support and empower small and marginal women farmers. In addition to identifying mechanisms that facilitate the effective uptake of NF, the case study sought women's views on whether these increased spaces for decision-making and developed capabilities and autonomy. Framed within the vision of reclaiming food sovereignty, various mechanisms such as training in villages, participating in NF groups and networks, visits to model farms and adopting leadership roles offered new pathways for women farmers to gain confidence and capabilities. Women began to participate in spaces that had been culturally and structurally denied to them. This case study illustrates how agroecology efforts with a specific focus on gender have the potential to provide women with creative outlets and a variety of decision-making and income-generating roles, spaces for community learning and knowledge needed for sustainable ecosystems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0009.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Agroecology; Local Resources; Sustainable Food Production; Climate Change; Policy; Sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 1 May 2023 (03:46:44 CEST)
Agroecology is a holistic approach to farming that emphasizes the use of local resources and ecological processes to increase productivity, reduce environmental impact, and enhance resilience. Despite its potential benefits, the adoption of agroecological practices in Sub-Saharan Africa has been slow. This paper examines the opportunities for promoting agroecology in the region, including the growing demand for organic and sustainable food, the availability of local knowledge and resources, and the potential for agroecology to improve rural livelihoods and support climate change adaptation. The premise is that the promotion of agroecology faces several challenges. which include, inadequate policy and institutional support, lack of access to credit and markets, limited extension services, and weak land tenure systems. The paper draws on case studies from across Sub-Saharan Africa to illustrate the opportunities and challenges of promoting agroecology in the region. These case studies highlight the diversity of agroecological practices and the importance of context-specific approaches. Overall, the paper maintains that agroecology has the potential to transform agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, but that realizing this potential will require concerted efforts from governments, civil society, and the private sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Main Agroecological Structure; agroecology; Andean agroecosystems; agrobiodiversity index; cultural dimensions; farmer awareness
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:28:29 CEST)
The agro-biodiversity present in agro-ecosystems is fundamental in guaranteeing sustainability and resilience. However, there are very few proposals for evaluating it and, even less, ones that include indicators to analyze the influence of the structural and spatial configuration of a landscape in order to favor agro-biodiversity connectivity to productive systems, management and conservation practices, and the producer (farmer)’s perceptions, awareness and ability to favor it on his farm. The Main Agro-ecological Structure MAS is redefined as an environmental agro-biodiversity index. New indicators are established for a total of 10 criteria and 29 indicators of systems that describe the agro-biodiversity of agro-ecosystems. Methodologies for its evaluation are also described, and the possibility of adapting certain indicators according to the ecological and cultural contexts where the farms are located is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: agroecology; biodiversity; ecosystem services; post-normal science; socio-ecological systems; sustainability; stakeholders
Online: 6 May 2019 (12:28:18 CEST)
Sustainable agriculture is essential to provide food security for a growing world population without further sacrificing the integrity of the environment. To make progress towards agricultural sustainability we must consider ecological and socioeconomic processes within the agricultural socio-ecosystem and involve stakeholders in the research process. We propose an innovative experimental approach for examining how natural regulation of ecosystems may provide an alternative to increasing external inputs in agriculture while improving the socio-economic welfare of farmers. These “social-ecological experiments” go further to participatory action research by not only involving stakeholders in the research process but also by manipulating simultaneously socioeconomic and ecological processes under real field conditions to give a faster route to sustainability. Social-ecological experiments are undertaken in real field conditions, explicitly involving stakeholders, and help untangle the drivers of social-ecological dynamics under various land management and farming practices. Social-ecological experiments are distinct from adaptive management and scenario-planning approaches as they highlight the interactions between ecological and social processes, manipulate the social and ecological processes shaping the system and show causal links between patterns and processes. As an example, we describe a social-ecological experiment for reducing herbicide use. Social-ecological experiments offer great opportunities for increasing stakeholders’ acceptance of environmental policies implemented through adaptive management. These experiments may help to identify management practices that optimize multiple objectives, deliver a portfolio of ecosystem services and satisfy key stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0582.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Landscape Agroecology, MuSIASEM, Multi-EROI, Circular bioeconomy, Barcelona Metropolitan Region, industrial agriculture
Online: 24 October 2018 (16:30:08 CEST)
The paper analyses how between 1956 and 2009 the agrarian metabolism of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR) has become less functional, losing circularity in biomass flows and in relationship to its landscape. We do so by adopting a Multi-EROI and flow-fund (MuSIASEM) analyses and its nexus with landscape functional structure. The study of agricultural flows of Final Produce, Biomass Reused and External Inputs is integrated with that of land use, livestock, power capacity and population changes between 1956 (at the beginning of the Green Revolution) and 2009 (fully industrialized agriculture). A multi-scale analysis is conducted at the landscape scale (seven districts within the Barcelona metropolitan region) as well as for the functions deployed, within an agroecosystem, by the mutual interactions between its funds (land-uses, livestock and farming population). A complex nexus between land, livestock, dietary patterns and energy needs is shown; we conclude that from the perspective of the circular bioeconomy the agrarian sector has gone worse hand in hand with the landscape functional structure. Therefore, a novel perspective in landscape agroecology is opened
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0119.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agroecology; Bio-economic farm models; Crop Syst; Aqua Crop; Organic farming; sustainable development
Online: 7 July 2022 (09:12:26 CEST)
Nations of the world have seen unprecedented changes in climate variables in recent decades. But it is unclear to what extent climate change has impacted and will impact food systems in some developing regions, and how policymakers can frame an approach to encouraging adaptation and advancing climate-smart agriculture. Many studies attempting to link agroecology to climate change adaptation do so without understanding the potential of Agroecology not only to mitigate climate change – which is the weak response – but to reverse its impact and ‘climate proof’ our food systems. By modeling the near and far future impacts of climate change on crop production, we showed how climate will impact crop production under two crop production systems (agroecology and non-agroecology production systems). The overarching aim is to derive sustainable development strategies and lessons for policymakers and climate researchers - essential components of environment and Agricultural development. Using case studies from Nigeria, we observed that transitioning to agroecology, even at the farm level also transforms farm designs, thereby affecting their overall food and nutrition status. The result showed that the use of agroecology management practices not only reduces the impact of climate change in the near future but will also lead to increased crop yield in the future. The finding suggests that to feed the over 400 million projected population of Nigeria by 2050, the use of agroecological practices will be a better alternative to the conventional farming methods. To advance the use of agroecological farming methods, governments at every level in Nigeria need to mainstream organic agriculture in national government policies. This is important as it will not only address climate change impacts but also hunger and poverty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0820.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: ecosystem services; functional microbiota; soil health; plant health; microbiome assisted strategies; organic agriculture; agroecology.
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:06:40 CEST)
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of different inoculation technologies on the aerobic biological semi-decomposition process of bokashi-type biofertilizer formulations. We examined their effects on the chemical and biological quality of the product, as well as their influence on the agronomic and nutritional characteristics of red-beet and cabbage crops in the field. The highest yields of field-grown beet crops were obtained from seedlings produced using the following treatments: bokashi biofertilizer + biodynamic preparations 502-507 BPB (62.6 Mg ha-1), bokashi + Chamomilla 12CH (60.2 Mg ha-1), and bokashi + Carbo vegetabilis 12 CH (56.3 Mg ha-1). These results corresponded to an increase of 60.9%, 54.7%, and 44.7%, respectively, compared to the yield of the control treatment (38.9 Mg ha-1). The increase in productivity of cabbage plants was higher in the treatment bokashi + Calcarea carbônica 12 CH (35.8 Mg ha-1), being 148.6% higher than the control (14.4 Mg ha-1).The content of moisture, carbon, nitrogen, C/N ratio, and pH H2O in the majority of the evaluated formulations, comply with the standards outlined in IN Nº 61, 2020, by Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Supply, qualifying them as class "A" solid organic compound fertilizers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Agroecology; Crop modeling; Crop production; Decision support system; Ecological management; On-farm experimentation; Optimization
Online: 7 December 2022 (02:14:42 CET)
Precision agriculture and open-source data repositories provide a plethora of field-specific ecological data about agroecosystems, but few mechanisms have been developed to turn that information into management recommendations for crop production. The On-Farm Precision Experiments (OFPE) framework is an agroecological model-based methodology to improve crop manager’s abilities to make field-scale agronomic input decisions. This work evaluates the use of field-specific experiments that employ open-source data and the data emanating from precision agriculture technologies to gain local knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability in agroeconomic performance at the sub-field scale. Quantification of the temporal variability in crop response to inputs (e.g., crop seeding rates, crop rotations, fertilizers, other soil amendments, pesticides, etc.) allows for estimation of the probability that a future management scenario will outcompete another, in terms of crop yield, crop quality, farmer net return, or environmental quality. The challenge is to integrate OFPE into applied management with minimal disruption of stakeholder practices while drawing on historic knowledge about the field and economic constraints. OFPE is the basis of a decision support system that includes a six-step cyclical process that harnesses precision agriculture technology to apply experiments and gather field-specific data, incorporates modern data management and analytical approaches, and generates management recommendations as probabilities of outcomes. The OFPE framework allows field managers to assess the tradeoffs in agronomic input management between the maximization of crop production, quality and profits from production while considering environmental effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0547.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Agroecology; functional trait; intraspecific trait variation; Leaf Economics Spectrum; plant trait spectra; Vitis vinifera.
Online: 31 August 2022 (13:35:02 CEST)
Variability in traits forming the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) among and within crop species play a key role in governing agroecosystem processes. However, studies evaluating the extent, causes, and consequences of within-species variation in LES traits for some of the world’s most common crops remain limited. We quantified variation in nine leaf traits measured across 90 vines of five wine grape (Vitis vinifera) varieties at two ontogenetic stages. Grape traits covary along an intraspecific LES, in patterns similar to those documented in wild plants. Across varieties, high rates of photosynthesis (A), and leaf nitrogen (N) concentrations, are coupled with low leaf mass per area (LMA), while the opposite suite of traits defines the “resource conserving end” of this intraspecific LES in grape. Variety identity predicted of leaf physiological (A) and morphological traits (i.e., leaf area and leaf mass), while leaf chemical traits and LMA were best explained by ontogenetic stage. All varieties expressed greater resource conserving trait syndromes (i.e., higher LMA, lower N, lower Amass) later in the growing season. Traits related to leaf hydraulics, including instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE), were unrelated to LES and other resource capture traits, and were better explained by spatial location. Our results highlight the relative contributions of genetic vs. phenotypic factors in structuring this variation and point to a key role of domestication in governing trait relationships in the world’s crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0312.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: ecopolitana; greenscape; forestry plan; ecological network; green infrastructures; biodiversity; agroecology; conservation agricolture; Sentinel 2; LiDAR.
Online: 17 November 2021 (23:13:51 CET)
A national green planning strategy has recently been introduced in the Italian urban planning sector, aimed at making all local initiatives undertaken nationwide consistent with each other. At a regional level, Friuli Venezia-Giulia has recently implemented a Landscaping Plan, which is of an urban planning and ecological nature at an intermediate level between national and local. This article describes the local green plan of Latisana, which has been entitled Ecopolitana, given that it is represents the experimental phase, at a regional level, of the possibilities offered by landscape planning and design. Specifically, it outlines the multi-disciplinary approach used, demonstrating how landscape planning can be compared to the sustainable development of cities, with specific regard to the agricultural sector. Regarding the agricultural sector, a low-intensity cropping model is also suggested, based on the principles of agroecology and landscape ecology, which has already been implemented in the historical rural landscape of Plasencis (UD) and developed through GIS analysis and remote sensing processes. Its aim is to be the starting point for the achievement of the goals set in the 2030 Agenda, and especially Goals 13 (Climate action) and 15 (Life on land), given the current scarcity of agroecological infrastructures in the area of Latisana (UD) and the high percentage of soil used for intensive cropping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Precision agriculture; agroecology; remote sensing; crop irrigation; soil moisture; vegetation indexes; Sentinel-1,2; neural network; dielectric permittivity
Online: 28 June 2023 (16:10:09 CEST)
In this article, a method for the moisture mapping of the soil surface of agrophytocenosis was proposed using neural network based on synchronized radar and multispectral optoelectronic data of Sentinel-1,2. To verify the developed method, data from two experimental plots were used. These plots were located two on irrigated soybean crops. The first of them was located on the right bank (1st plot) and the second one on the left bank (2nd plot) of the down part of Volga River. Two experimental soil moisture geo-datasets were done by measurements and geo-referencing points using gravimetric method (1st plot) and with proximal sensing method (2nd plot) using Soil Moisture Sensor ML3-KIT (THETAKIT, Delta). The soil moisture retrieval algorithm was based on the use of a neural network to predict reflection coefficient of an electromagnetic wave from the soil surface, followed by inversion into soil moisture using a dielectric model that takes into account the soil texture. The input parameter of the neural network was the ratio of the microwave radar vegetation index (calculated on the basis of Sentinel-1 data) to the index (calculated on the basis of data of multispectral optoelectronic channels 8 and 11 of Sentinel-2). Such way calculated index reveals showed a significantly greater dependence on soil moisture than on vegetation height that was been used in previous studies. The retrieved values of soil moisture were compared with the soil moisture measured in-situ. The proposed method with a determination coefficient of 0.44-0.65 and a standard deviation of 2.4%-4.2% for the 1st plot as well as with and of the same metrics for the 2nd allows predicting the soil moisture of both a test plots covered by soybean plants, relative to soil moisture measured in-situ. The conducted research created the scientific basis for a new technology for remote sensing the moisture content of the soil surface of agrophytocenosis as an element of the precision farming system and agroecology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: family farming; agroecology; rural settlements; circle of sustainability; agricultural ecology; Paulo Freire; participant research; land reform; generating themes
Online: 9 May 2019 (13:05:59 CEST)
In the Brazilian Amazon, rural settlements are increasingly isolated by large-scale production farms, jeopardizing their sustainability and the good living of family farmers. Works were carried out in settlements to measure sustainability. However, the majority does not consider the participation and the collectively of those involved. In this way, we propose to evaluate, in a collective and participatory way, the sustainability and good living of the SDP São Paulo Rural Settlement, of the northern Amazon of Mato Grosso. We used the didactic-pedagogical method Circle of Sustainability, developed from five points: 1st - circle of investigation of generating themes; 2nd - circle of the history of the subject world; 3rd - circle of diagnosis of rural settlements; 4th - circle of exchange of knowledge; and 5th - circle of sustainable perceptions and narratives. The historical, socioeconomic and cultural characterization of the settlement allowed us to understand how sustainability and good living are being built in the settlement history process. Sustainability and good living are dialectical processes, are under construction, in movement.