ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0304.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: agro-ecotourism; sustainability; community; West Java; Indonesia
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:19:16 CEST)
Agro-ecotourism is a tourism development activity in a location with ecological and agricultural advantages, leading to business utilization to generate economic value. Agro-ecotourism in West Java has a selling point in the form of natural potential, agriculture, arts, handicrafts, to the traditional culinary processing typical of the village. This research aims to analyze the sustainability level and the sensitive factors or attributes that affect the level of sustainability of community-based agro-ecotourism in West Java. The study used a survey method on 237 agritourist actors. Data were analyzed using Multi-Dimensional Scaling in the Rapid Appraisal-Tourism technique. The study results show that community-based agro-ecotourism in West Java is quite sustainable (57.07). This study analyzed sustainability through economic, social, cultural, institutional, ecological, and technological dimensions. The social dimension has the highest value because agriculture-based village tourism is carried out in the community. Meanwhile, the lowest value is the technology dimension. The availability of infrastructure influenced the value obtained and means of transportation as well as environmentally friendly farming techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0519.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Grapevine leafroll disease; Closteroviridae; GLRaV-3cDNA clones; RT-qPCR; Western blot; vacuum agro-infiltration; agro-pricking; agro-drenching; agro-injection; Koch’s postulates
Online: 9 October 2023 (15:17:00 CEST)
Grapevine leafroll disease (GLRD) is the most globally prevalent and destructive disease complex responsible for significant reductions in grape yield and quality as well as wine production. GLRD is associated with several positive-strand RNA viruses of the family Closteroviridae, designated grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs). However, the specific etiological role of any of these GLRaVs in GLRD has not been demonstrated. Even though GLRaV-3 is considered the chief GLRD agent, little is known about the molecular, cellular and pathological properties of this virus. Such knowledge gap is due to multiple factors, including unavailability of biologically active virus cDNA clones and the lack of reliable experimental systems for launching grapevine infection using such clones. In this work, we have tested four methods for inoculating tissue cultured grapevine plantlets with cDNA clones of GLRaV-3: i) vacuum agro-infiltration; ii) agro-pricking; iii) agro-drenching and iv) agro-injection. We have shown that vacuum agro-infiltration was the most effective among these methods. Further, we examined the impacts of different experimental conditions on the survival and infectivity rate of grapevines after infiltration. To verify the infectivity rate for different treatments, we used RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting. We have found that humidity plays a critical role in the survival of plantlets after agro-infiltration and that the use of RNA silencing suppressor, and dormancy treatment both had strong effects on the infection rates. To our best knowledge, the experimental protocol reported here is the most effective system for launching infection of grapevine using cDNA clones of grapevine viruses featuring up to 70% infection rate. This system has strong potential to facilitate grapevine virology research including fulfillment of Koch’s postulates for GLRD and other major virus diseases as well as the molecular, cellular, and pathological properties of GLRaVs and potentially other important grapevine viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0776.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Ecotourism; Participations; Perceptions; Impact; Protected area
Online: 23 April 2023 (05:07:16 CEST)
This study aims to examine households' perceptions of the socio-cultural, economic, and environmental impacts of ecotourism in the protected area, focusing on Simien Mountain National Park, North west Ethiopia. Using a mixed research approach with a sequential explanatory design, we collected data through a single-round cross-sectional survey, interviews, focus groups, discussions, and secondary sources of information. Three districts were selected using a multi-stage sampling method, and 397 respondents were surveyed. We analyzed the quantitative data using percentages, averages, t-tests, ANOVA, and regression models, and examined the qualitative data using thematic analysis. Our findings suggest that households living in the park generally perceived the social, economic, and environmental impacts of ecotourism as favorable. However, the study also revealed that the benefits of tourism are not being fully utilized, indicating the potential for further development. We found significant differences in how people perceived ecotourism based on their gender, education, and residence location. Specifically, men and respondents with higher levels of education were more likely to perceive ecotourism positively. The logistic regression model revealed a statistically significant direct cause-and-effect relationship between three demographic factors of household respondents' participation in ecotourism (dependent variable) and gender (B = 1.85, p = 0.023), educational attainment (B = 0.23, p = 0.003), and location (B = 0.42, p = 0.041). In light of these findings, the authors recommend that the local government and the Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Agency should develop sustainable plans for tourism that will benefit nearby communities and improve living conditions in the park.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1593.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Ecotourism; birdwatching; destination image; destination marketing; Colombia
Online: 22 June 2023 (10:40:39 CEST)
Colombia is noteworthy as a biodiversity hotspot, featuring an extraordinary number of en-demic orchids, birds, and butterflies. This exploratory study examines the perceptions of desti-nation image considering the cognitive and affective image in predicting behavioral intentions of ecotourists through symmetric data analysis. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS), the author(s) analyzed 64 survey responses collected of rural areas, including a new 15 statement scale spe-cialized on birdwatching. The findings support the reliability of the model, symmetric analysis presents the higher influence of emotions and affections in increasing intentions of recommen-dation, considering birdwatching as based on personal relationships. Additionally, the cognitive image for the birders despite representing destination attributes or sets of destination resources of a mental picture does not have the same impact on behavioral intentions. Therefore, manag-ers should develop positioning strategies based on the generation of emotions, because bird-watching tourists seek to have more emotional experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1266.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Ecotourism; Artificial wetland; Nansha wetland; Wetland conservation
Online: 18 May 2023 (04:57:12 CEST)
After more than 20 years of market-oriented reforms, China's economy has developed significantly so far. Guangzhou, in particular, has been developing rapidly, with its urbanisation rate increasing and its gross domestic product climbing, all of which have prompted Guangzhou to pay more attention to the ecological aspects of its development. The Nansha Coastal Wetland Scenic Area, located in the southernmost part of Guangzhou, is the largest coastal wetland in Guangzhou and the largest habitat for migratory birds in the city, as well as an important exemplary ecological reserve in Guangzhou's "Road to Ecological Civilisation". With the inclusion of Nansha in the national development strategy of Guangzhou's "Southward Expansion", the conflict between ecological protection of coastal wetlands and urban development has become increasingly prominent. In this regard, this study intends to use theoretical analysis, literature research, comparative analysis, fieldwork, data analysis and case studies to analyse the current state of the ecological environment in Nansha, explore the main problems in the process of its "southern development", and propose practical solutions for the construction and development of the ecological environment in Guangzhou, combining the theories of ecological economy, public goods and dissipative structure in Nansha. This paper is divided into seven chapters. This paper is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 presents the significance, purpose, content, methodology and technical approach of the study. Chapter 2 defines the basic concepts and the characteristics of the terms "Nantuo", "Nansha New Area", "coastal wetland" and "Nansha Binhai Wetland Scenic Area". The terms "Nansha New Area", "coastal wetland" and "Nansha Coastal Wetland Scenic Area" are defined. The theoretical basis of ecological economy theory, public goods theory, dissipative structure theory and sustainable development theory is used to explain the importance of protecting wetlands. It also demonstrates the importance that countries attach to the conservation of wetland ecology through a review of domestic and international literature. Chapter 3 describes the formation process, development status, conservation content and conservation actions of the Nansha Binhai wetland. Chapter 4 analyses the apparent and invisible problems faced by the Nansha coastal wetlands. Chapter 5 draws lessons from the experience of wetland resources development and conservation in China and overseas. Chapter 6 presents recommendations and solutions to the existing wetland problems in the Nansha coastal area. Chapter 7 provides conclusions and outlook. The ecological vulnerability of the Nansha wetlands is obvious. The government has to speed up the construction of logistics, industries, railways and ports while protecting a large area of wetlands. In the conflict between industrial civilization and ecological civilization, maintaining the integrity of the Nansha wetland requires the participation of the whole society, so as to finally achieve a balance between economic development and ecological protection, providing important theoretical guidance for the protection of the ecological environment of the Nansha wetland, ecological planning and scenic area development under the development strategy of the "southern expansion" of Guangzhou's urban space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0005.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: sustainability; ecotourism; System Dynamic; tourism; biodiversity; communities
Online: 3 February 2017 (03:53:56 CET)
The sustainability of ecotourism is the backbone of tourism development of a country. Ecotourism can contribute to both conservation and development in which involves dynamic relationship between tourism, biodiversity and communities, facilitate by great management. The purpose of this study is to analyze the dimensions of the socio-economic and environmental impacts of ecotourism in communities surrounding the Tasik Kenyir in Terengganu, Malaysia. This study provides a framework for the development and evaluation of ecotourism. The framework will determine if the relationships between indicators are positively correlated which will result in positive contribution to the other by using System Dynamic. Socio-cultural and economic data will be collected through interviews and group discussions in selected communities in Tasik Kenyir. Data on wildlife will be extracted from secondary data from Kenyir Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. The data analysis will explore the socio-cultural and economic differences between and within different communities due to ecotourism development, the contribution of ecotourism to conservation activities, local support for conservation and ecotourism as well as the influence of tourist activities on the distribution of wildlife species in Tasik Kenyir. This study aims to contribute toward understanding the natural resource community-ecotourism inter-relationship and help to bridge the knowledge gap that hinders biodiversity conservation initiatives. The findings will be used as a base for further development of ecotourism and will recommend alternative management options where necessary for the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0346.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: marine ecotourism; coastal areas; fishermen; development models; sustainable
Online: 15 November 2018 (05:51:15 CET)
Coastal areas in the South Coast of West Java Province have the potential to develop marine ecotourism, one of which is the Pangandaran area which must be transferred into economic value by not damaging natural resources. Marine ecotourism development is not only intended to raise foreign exchange for local governments, but are also expected to play a role in maintaining natural resources sustainably. This research aims to analyze the sustainable synergistic marine ecotourism development model. The method used in this research using quantitative descriptive method. The Quantitative descriptive method is used to describe the general condition of the research area, using primary and secondary data. The technique of taking respondents using accidental sampling as many as 50 respondents consisting of tourists, public figures, fishermen who have side jobs as a provider of marine ecotourism services. The analysis tool used is through a Rapfish model approach to measuring the synergistic model of sustainable development of marine ecotourism. Based on the results of a research on a sustainable synergistic marine ecotourism development model by measuring the ecological dimensions of environmental services in high conditions, the economic dimension of marine ecotourism is in moderate condition. Marine ecotourism technology in low conditions and social dimensions of marine ecotourism in low conditions. Model development of sustainable marine ecotourism synergistic with regard to the dimension of environmental, economic and social institutions should be able to form integrated from infrastructure to support marine ecotourism up to raise the level of income of fishermen who have a second job as a marine ecotourism providers. The infrastructure and regulatory dimensions are recommended to use the technology information to promote marine ecotourism optimally and regulations need to make marine ecotourism zoning rules and infrastructure improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0487.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: drought; shock; agro-climate; agriculture; precipitation
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:55:23 CEST)
Both globally and in Hungary, agriculture is one of the industries that is most vulnerable to weather and climate extremes. Intense temperature rises, spatial and temporal variations in precipitation, and significant changes in extreme climatological and weather parameters have contributed to changes in the conditions of cropland, crop losses, and impacts on crop quality in recent years. This paper depicts the transformation of the domestic agricultural sector due to the extreme drought shock of 2022, as well exploring the adaptation strategies applied. The research is based on official agro-climate database and crop data, and the temperature, precipitation, and radiation during the growing season are all examined. The agro-meteorological properties in Hungary had to be investigated for the entire year and all four of its seasons, with indicator analysis projected onto the ever-increasing and dormant seasons. Long-term climate analysis is necessary to understand the historic drought of 2022 and the success of future adaptation and mitigation techniques. The results can help smallholders effectively reduce the adverse impacts of drought conditions, thereby increasing their adaptation to similar shocks.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0320.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Bio hydrogen; photo-fermentation; agro-waste
Online: 10 November 2020 (15:05:24 CET)
This study evaluates the production of biohydrogen from agro industrial waste. The worldwide energy demand is increasing exponentially and the reserves of fossil fuels are depleting, the combustion of fossil fuels has the effect on environment because of CO2 emission. Hydrogen generation market size is forecast to cross 180 billion by 2024, according to a new research report by global market. For the production of biohydrogen. we had chosen groundnut shell as our source, using Tween80 as a surfactant we had undergone pre-treatment studies for (10min,20min,30min,40min,50min) we had estimated the content of cellulose, protein, carbohydrates at (1%,2%,3%,4%,5%) and obtained the optimum value in the form of graph. The production of hydrogen is done by using the rumen fluid of the cow and the quantity of the hydrogen produced by this process is identified by using the analytical instrument Gas Chromatography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0130.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: mandalika; tourist village; independent tourist village; ecotourism; mangrove; SEM
Online: 8 October 2018 (06:03:50 CEST)
Village development aims to improve the welfare of villagers and the quality of human life. The purpose of this study was to formulate a coastal tourism management model toward developing independent tourist village. This study employed a quantitative approach by using survey methods. The data analysis was performed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). There were 4 variables namely: the potential of mangrove ecosystem, the perception of coastal community, the coastal tourism facilities, and the coastal ecotourism. The results indicated that there were 2 variables which had a significant effect on the management of coastal tourist village namely the perception of coastal community and coastal ecotourism. Furthermore, the management of coastal tourist village had a significant effect on the development of independent tourist village, and the management of coastal tourist village was a strong mediator to develop an independent coastal tourist village.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: biorefinery; bioprocess; agro-industry; high-value products; Avocado
Online: 2 April 2021 (15:35:30 CEST)
Significant problems have arisen in the last years, such as climate change, global warming, and hunger. These complications are correlated with the depletion and exploitation of natural resources and environmental contamination. Due to overcrowding, the list of challenges for the next few years is growing. A comprehensive approach was made to the agro-industrial production of Avocado (Persea americana) and the management of all its biomass waste. So, bioprocesses and biorefinery can be used to produce high added-value products. A large number of residues are composed of lignin and cellulose. They have many potentials to be exploited sustainably for chemical and biological conversion; physical, chemical, and natural treatments improve the following operations. There are some applications to many fields such as pharmaceutical, medical, material engineering, and environmental remediation. Possible pathways are mentioned to take advantage of Avocado as biofuels, drugs, bioplastics, and even in the environmental part and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology using bioprocesses and biotech. In conclusion, Avocado and its waste could be transformed into high value-added products in industries above to mitigate global warming and save non-renewable energy.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0199.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Ecotourism; Sustainability; Island Tourism; Penghu National Scenic Area; Tourist Service System
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:45:47 CET)
In order to increase the number of tourism in ecotourism, enhance the ecotourism attractions. It is essential to construct the ecotourism service system for the Penghu National Scenic Area because the ecology system is sensitive and frangible. This study adopts the Fuzzy Delphi method and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to establish an index framework of ecotourism service system of Penghu National Scenic Area. The results indicated that there are 4 dimensions which include 21 factors service attributes are identified as the service system for traveling. The findings are concluded as follows:(1)the security management capability is the main principle for ecotourism service system;(2)the ecological diversity is fundamental for the marine environment and the core resource for ecotourism;(3)the transportation capacity and environmental quality need to improve; (4)the marine environmental resources is the most important item for sound ecotourism development; (5)the enhancement of the operation willingness of local communities can promote ecotourism development;(6)the natural resources should be protected to provide an ideal recreational environment for ecotourism;(7)the development of ecotourism needs to support local conservation to achieve sustainability. The perspectives of sustainability and service system are involved to support the value of this study, which can continuously sustain Penghu archipelago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0078.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Malaysia; Endau Rompin; landscape-scale management; ecotourism; rainforest to reef; Tiger
Online: 23 August 2017 (09:14:40 CEST)
In 1990 the Malaysian Government launched Vision 2020 with the goal of Malaysia becoming a ‘fully developed country’ by the year 2020. In this drive for development the country has been examining many of its key natural assets, exploring how to both preserve them whilst ensuring that they make the maximum possible contribution to national development goals. Endau Rompin is one of these assets, being the second largest National Park in Peninsula Malaysia. The rich tropical rainforest flora and fauna of the Park and its hinterland, however, are threatened by various anthropogenic forces, most notably deforestation and poaching; both of which have taken the Park’s flagship species - the Tiger Panthera tigris jacksoni – towards the brink of local extinction. Malaysia’s statutory East Coast Economic Region Development Council commissioned a study to consider ways of increasing tourism revenues from the Park while at the same time reversing these threats. The key conclusion drawn is that a more holistic, landscape-scale approach should be adopted, with Endau Rompin forming part of a wider strategic economic zone based around sustainable tourism and land management. The proposed expanded zone extends eastwards beyond the confines of the Park, across the coastal plain to the South China Sea, and onwards to the neighbouring Mersing Islands. This expanded zone is referred to as Malaysia’s new ‘Rainforest to Reef Region’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Reference evapotranspiration; agro-meteorological; multifractal; scaling; cross-correlations; persistence
Online: 6 October 2020 (11:17:39 CEST)
This paper examined the multifractal properties of six acknowledged agro-meteorological parameters, such as reference evapotranspiration (ET0), wind speed (U), incoming solar radiation (SR), air temperature (T), air pressure (P), and relative air humidity (RH) of five stations in California, USA. The investigation of multifractality of datasets from stations with differing terrain conditions: Dagget, Bakersfield, Santa Maria, Los Angeles and San Diego using the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis showed the existence of a long term persistence and multifractality irrespective of the location. The scaling exponents of SR and ET0 time series are found to be higher for stations with higher altitudes. Subsequently, this study proposed using the novel multifractal cross correlation (MFCCA) method to examine the multiscale-multifractal correlations properties between ET0 and other investigated variables. MFCCA could successfully capture the scale dependent association of different variables and the dynamics in the nature of their associations from seasonal to multi-annual time scale. The multifractal exponents of pressure and relative air humidity are consistently lower than the exponents of ET0, irrespective of station location. This study found that joint scaling exponent was nearly the average of scaling exponents of individual series in different pairs of variables. Additionally, the α-values of joint multifractal spectrum were lower than the α values of both of the individual spectra, validating two universal properties in the mutifractal cross correlation studies for agro-meteorological time series. The temporal evolution of cross-correlation showed similar pattern for all pair-wise associations involving ET0, except for the RH-ET0 link.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0405.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Systematic Review; Sustainable Agriculture; Climate Change; Resilience; Agro-Systems
Online: 27 February 2020 (12:23:04 CET)
In the last few decades, a lot has been written on the use of sustainable agriculture to improve ecosystem services for resilience to climate change. However, no tangible and systematic evidence exists on how this would participate in alleviating impacts on vulnerable rural communities. This paper provides a narrative systematic review (SR) integrated with a bibliometric analysis and a concept network analysis to understand how, in a changing climate, sustainable agriculture builds the resilience of agro-systems. The search was set from the date of the first relevant article until the end of 2018. Results generated have demonstrated that: a. Only single practices and methods have been studied to assess impacts on single ecosystem services. b. Soil quality and health are considered a key indicator of sustainable agriculture. c. Albeit the assessed practices and methods have shown to improve the biodiversity of agro-systems, which makes them more resilient to extreme climate events, we are still far from reaching interdisciplinary and multi-dimensional agriculture which integrates all management aspects and generates a full range of ecosystem services. In conclusion, the study addressed the following recommendations for the scientific community and for decision-makers to orient future research strategies and efforts: a. Integration of all agro-systems services into sustainable management using an ecosystem-based approach on a life-cycle basis using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method; b. Improving the scientific understanding of traditional knowledge for higher synergies and for further integration; c. Unification of assessment methods and indicators for the quantification of impacts; d. Creation of a platform to share, monitor, screen, and approve assessments and evaluations of sustainable agriculture by region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0054.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: bioenergy; Camelina sativa; energy crops; agro-climatic suitability; biodiesel
Online: 11 January 2017 (04:57:16 CET)
Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is an oilseed with potential for use as a raw material in second-generation biofuels. Camelina has a seed yield of up to 2380 kg ha-1 and contains around 45% fatty acids. Selection of a suitable site is critical for production optimization. The objective of this study was to determine Chilean agro-climatic suitability for establishing camelina as a productive alternative. Climate and soil requirements and geographical restraints were evaluated for the species, considering the climatological characteristics of its regions of origin, as well as regions where camelina is successfully grown in the rest of the world. The variables considered include factors (maximum temperatures of the warmest month, water deficits, and degree days) and limitations (altitude, geomorphology, and current land use), which permitted the evaluation of the national territory for a certain level of suitability. It was determined that 1.3% of the national territory (960,664 ha) has some degree of suitability for camelina adoption. Between the Biobío and Los Lagos regions, 49.0% of land (471,203 ha) is in the category of without thermic restrictions, with mild water restrictions, and mild soil restrictions or without information, which can be used for camelina production. The Los Ríos region had 21.4% surface area (321,176 ha) with some level of suitability for camelina, the most suitable region to establish this crop in Chile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0522.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Agro-morphological; Data-driven; Machine Learning; Seed yield; Sensitivity Analysis
Online: 30 August 2022 (11:21:48 CEST)
The modeling and prediction of crop seed yield can be a vital improvement in the precision agriculture industry as it provides reliable assessments of the effectiveness of agro-traits. Here, multiple machine learning (ML) techniques are established for predicting sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed yield (SSY) and incorporating agro-morphological features. Models utilized for coupled PCA-ML (Principal component analysis-Machine Learning) methods were compared with original ML models to evaluate predicted efficiency. The Gaussian process regression (GPR) and Radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN) models exhibited the most accurate SSY predictions with determination coefficients or R2 values of 0.99 and 0.91, respectively. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) for the ML models fluctuated between 0 to 0.30 t/ha (metric tons/hectare) for the varied modeling process phases. Estimation of sesame seed yield with coupled PCA-ML models improved performance accuracy. The K-fold process suggested the utilization of datasets with the lowest error rates to ensure the continued accuracy of GPR and RBF models. Sensitivity analysis revealed the capsule number per plant (CPP), seed number per capsule (SPC), and 1000-seed weight (TSW) were the most significant seed yield determinants.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0633.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Biofortification; Agro-biodiversity; HarvestPlus; Hidden Hunger; Orphan Crops; Wild edibles
Online: 28 July 2021 (16:18:29 CEST)
Biofortification refers to the increase in the amount of essential vitamins or provitamins or minerals in crops to improve the nutritional status of the people, which is largely intended to alleviate the problem of micronutrient malnutrition. I argue that biofortification may not be an effective weapon to fight against the hidden hunger since it demonstrates limited capacity on nutritional enhancement and can negatively impact the socio-economic fabric of the society in many different ways. Finally, I suggest a couple of alternatives that might meet the challenge more efficiently than biofortified crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: participatory methodologies; policy, advocacy; agronomy; information/ variability; agro-weather advisories.
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:45:15 CET)
There is consensus that climate variability and change is impacting food security in Eastern Africa, and that conventional extension approaches, based on top-down model of information dissemination and technology transfer, are too inadequate to help smallholder farmers tackle increasingly complex agro-climatic adversities. Innovative service delivery options exist but are mostly operated in silos with little effort to explore and blend them. There are efforts to develop a blended Climate-Resilient Farmers Field School methodology to address the gaps, with objective to improve participants’ knowledge, skills and attitude to apply the blended approach and to sensitize actors on what needs to be advocated at the policy level. Some 661 local trainers/facilitators (ToT/ToFs), 32% of them women and 54% youth, were trained across Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, with additional 76 Master Trainers (MToTs) trained to backstop the ToT/ToFs. Through the implementation, the process reached 36 agribusinesses covering some 237,250 smallholder farmers trained across Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda on CSA technologies, practices, and innovations by the end of 2020. The blended approach offers lessons to transform extension to help farmers improve food security and resilience. Preliminary findings indicate that the process is rapidly shaping individual adaptive behavior and group adaptive thinking. Lessons also show a strong need for agronomists to work more closely with agro-meteorologists to ensure that farmers are properly guided to participate appropriately in the co-generation and application of climate information and agro-weather advisories, which they can interpret easily and utilize for their agricultural production purposes. Experience from this initiative can be leveraged to develop scalable participatory extension and training models
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: okra bast fibers; agro-residual fibers; thermal properties; mechanical properties
Online: 5 June 2020 (06:06:05 CEST)
In this study, fibers were extracted from different parts of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus) via water- and dew-retting methods. The fibers were subjected to physical and thermal analyses. The fibers obtained from the upper part of the okra plant show higher breaking strength and lower linear density. Fibers obtained via water-retting exhibited higher breaking strength, elongation at break rates, and lower linear density values. The paper also presents the results of thermogravimetric analysis of the okra fibers. Tests were carried out in oxygen and inert gas atmospheres. The temperature range of the main thermal decomposition stage was in the 275–400°C for range thermo-oxidation and 300–425°C for pyrolysis investigation. Slight differences were found in the thermal resistances of the tested fibers, which was confirmed by an analysis using the alpha s- alpha r methodology. The calculated activation energy values show a large-spread range.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0397.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Sugarcane, impacts, ecosystem services, human well-being, agro-systems, sustainability
Online: 27 February 2020 (10:56:50 CET)
Since the 1950s sugarcane production has grown rapidly from less than 0.5 billion tonnes in the late 50s to reach over 1.9 billion tonnes in 2012 on about 27 million hectares of agricultural land. This expansion has been boosted by the high demand for bioethanol promoted as a sustainable bioenergy source which accounted in 2010 for the biggest share of the global biofuel market. Despite its benefits, the scientific debate on sugar is growing especially that counterarguments are so many, including negative impacts on different interacting ecosystems and human well-being, e.g. bigger stress on land and water resources, environmental externalities on air, a harmful impact on the biodiversity and endemic species, negative environmental externalities, health, and socio-economic aspects. This paper provides a narrative systematic review (SR) of the impacts of sugarcane production on these different ecosystems employing the ecosystem services framework for its acceptance by policy-makers. The references included for the SR were 163 and results showed that the majority of the studies are from Brazil, Australia, South Africa and the USA (≈ 75% of the literature), most of them were from peer-reviewed journals (85%), and most of the case studies adopted a quantitative research approach (93%). The literature assessed showed that sugarcane, like all agro-systems, depends on the practices and techniques to transform negative impacts into positive externalities on ecosystems and human well-being. However, the literature studied failed to include the inter-linkage in sugarcane production impacts’ and therefore to evaluate the related ecosystem services with respect to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework to account for existing trade-offs. Therefore, the findings are addressed to the scientific community and decision-maker for an intensification of interdisciplinary and integrated research based on the MA framework to cover all ecosystem services, for sustainable development of the sugarcane sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1129.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Agriculture; Agro-ecological zone; Adaptive capacity; Least Developed Countries; Paris Agreement
Online: 17 November 2023 (15:29:45 CET)
Climate change impacts threaten sustainable development efforts. The magnitude of the impacts, however, varies with socio-ecological characteristics of locations. This is the reason there is con-sensus on the necessity for climate change adaptive capacity building that is country driven, based on and responsive to local needs. However, information on context specific capacity building needs in developing countries is not readily available. The objective of this study was to establish location specific awareness, training, educational, research and technology capacity building needs for climate change adaptation among small-holder farmers in Uganda. Structured interviews were undertaken with 465 households from five agro-ecological zones selected based on the level of vulnerability of agricultural systems to the main climate variation and change hazards. Results reveal substantial capacity building needs in all the zones. Majority of the farmers needed capacity building for interventions on soil water conservation practices for adapting to drought and un-predictable rainfall. For all zones, education, research, and technology were perceived as key needs. However, the needs varied among zones. These results demonstrate the importance of context specificity in adaptation efforts. The study provides agro-ecological and social system specific in-formation for climate change adaptation planning and policy interventions for effective capacity building
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0317.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: pear trees; TIMAC AGRO Italia; growth regulator; sustainable development; plant nutrition
Online: 15 July 2020 (05:57:57 CEST)
Agricultural Production today has to deal with different challenges. It has to increment production for a continuously increasing population, reducing the environmental burdens on the natural systems. In conventional agriculture, this is possible through the increase of inputs, especially nutrients, which, however, are responsible for the biggest part of emissions. It becomes more complicated though, adopting sustainable agricultural practices, to improve the quality and the quantity of agricultural production reducing the inputs use. Plant growth regulators are described in the literature for the significant role in securing crop management of modern agriculture. Therefore, this joint field experiment has been carried out on a pear orchard (Pyrus communis L. cv. Abate Fètel) in Emilia Romagna (Italy) by Fondazione Navarra and TIMAC AGRO Italia S.p.A., to test the “less for more” theory which consists in getting more and better agricultural produce using fewer inputs. Preliminary results of two consecutive years have confirmed our assumption as it was possible to substantially reduce the total fertilisation units applied, improving significantly quantitative and qualitative production indicators (i.e. flower and fruit density, fruit set (%), the average weight of fruits (g) and the total yield (t/ha)). Results have also shown a positive correlation between plant growth regulators and agronomic efficiency of pears.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0163.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: agro-input; commercialization index; disaster; fertilizer; resilience; markets; production; seeds system
Online: 9 April 2020 (16:32:39 CEST)
Market-orientation is widely applied to understand the expected interaction of smallholder farmers with input and output markets. Commonly used interchangeably with market participation, it is fast becoming a key milestone for attaining smallholder commercialization. This study introduces the term into the disaster resilience, seed systems and livelihoods context. Using a mixed methods approach, 120 smallholder farmers in a drought-affected district of South Africa were sampled, and information collected for analysis. The result shows that most of the farmers rely on purchased seeds and fertilizers for crop production, and on average sold 62% of their farm produce. A market orientation index (MOI) of 55% was estimated, showing that the farmers were market oriented. The farm size, quantities of seeds and fertilizer purchased, value of crop produced, amount received from crop sales, distance to markets and access to credit were found significant in determining their market orientation. Policy interventions were made to improve access to irrigation, seed varieties and extension delivery in the area. The finding has implications for development efforts at rebuilding after a natural disaster, as well as sourcing food aid from local smallholder farmers by humanitarian actors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0149.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Agro-industry; Ethiopia; oasis wheat; pasta wheat; Senegal River; value chain
Online: 12 April 2019 (11:04:08 CEST)
Durum wheat is an important food crop in the world and an endemic species of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In the highlands of Ethiopia and the oases of the South Sahara this crop has been cultivated for thousands of years. Today, smallholder farmers still cultivate it on marginal lands to assure production for their self-consumption. However, durum wheat is no longer just a staple crop for food security but it has become a major cash crop. In fact, the pasta and couscous industry currently purchase durum grain at prices 10 to 20% higher than bread wheat. Africa as a whole imports over € 4 billion per year of durum grain to provide the raw material for its food industry. Hence, African farmers could obtain a substantial share of this large market by turning their production to this crop. Here, the achievements of the durum breeding program of Ethiopia are revised to reveal a steep acceleration in variety release and adoption in the last decade. Furthermore, the variety release for Mauritania and Senegal is described to show how modern breeding methods could be used to deliver grain yields above 3 t ha-1 in seasons of just 92 days of length and daytime temperatures always above 32°C. This review describes the ability of releasing durum wheat varieties adapted to all growing conditions of SSA, from the oases of the Sahara to the highlands of Ethiopia. This potential area of expansion for durum wheat production in SSA is not linked to any breeding technology, but rather it remains dependent on the market ability to purchase these grains at a higher price to stimulate farmer adoption. The critical importance of connecting all actors along the semolina value chain is presented in the example of Oromia, Ethiopia, and that success story is then used to prompt a wider discussion on the potential of durum wheat as a crop for poverty reduction in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1040.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: tourism carrying capacity; sustainable development; recreational loads; ecological conservation; Katon-Karagay National Park; ecotourism
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:10:43 CEST)
Tourism carrying capacity remains pivotal for ensuring sustainable development within protected terrains, accentuating the balance between conservation, socio-economic benefits, and visitor satisfaction. This study delves into the intricate dimensions of this balance, focusing on the Katon-Karagay National Park (KKNP). Merging comprehensive empirical data accrued from fieldwork within the park, calculations surrounding recreational loads, and a synthesis of relevant literature, the study designed a methodology. This included calculated techniques incorporating ecological and tourist social capacities, the psychocomfort approach, and an ongoing monitoring approach, supplemented by exclusive data from the park's administration. Key findings underscored the significance of an adaptive balance, revealing specific permissible recreational loads for different park zones. For instance, zones of quiet recreation evidenced up to 5 people/ha, while active recreation zones fluctuated between 20 to 100 people/ha. Monitoring evidenced critical environmental changes, shaping recommendations for effective tourism flow regulation, ensuring alignment with established norms and ecological preservation. The exploration substantiates the indispensability of a meticulously structured approach to ascertain tourism carrying capacity, emphasizing the harmony achievable between environmental sanctity and human pursuits. KKNP's empirical data serves as a paradigm, guiding sustainable tourism frameworks for similar ecologically sensitive regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0636.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; sustainable tourism; responsible tourism; ecotourism; sustainable citizenship; environmental awareness; social media; Twitter
Online: 29 January 2021 (17:22:57 CET)
The social confinement resulting from the COVID-19 crisis temporarily reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Although experts consider that the decrease in pollution rates was not drastic, some surveys detect a growth in social concern about the climate. In this environment, institutions, city councils and companies have promoted sustainable tourism as a necessary option, even before world society regains freedom of movement. This work analyzes and geolocates the sustainable tourism and ecotourism proposals on Twitter, quantitatively and qualitatively, using the Twitonomy Premium tool, with data extracted at the end of December 2020. The results show an arduous activity in Ireland, Kenya, Sri Lanka, India, Croatia, Spain, Finland, France, Mexico and Pakistan, among others. The accounts that achieve the most impact and engagement are both from public institutions and influencers specialized in travel, writers and chefs, who act as eco-influencers. Ecotourism is promoted as the necessary option for the conservation of cities and landscapes, which will be visited by tourists supposedly more aware after the virus.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0115.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: beaches; coastal avifauna; ecotourism; migratory birds; recreation ecology; recreational disturbance; shorebirds; tourism development; wetlands
Online: 11 September 2019 (05:17:14 CEST)
This data descriptor summarizes the process applied to identify, screen, select and gather data from the content of 142 peer-reviewed papers/sources that report on the sources and impacts of recreational disturbance on coastal avifauna. While populations of resident and migratory coastal avifauna are under threat and diminishing rapidly across the planet, and particularly in association with Asian flyways, many governments are leveraging booming global demand for coastal recreation and tourism in order to deliver economic development to regional communities. The summary data shared via this data description was extracted from papers collected in a systematic literature review that was designed to explore the global literature on the recreational disturbance of coastal avifauna in order to elucidate the state of the global knowledge regarding this issue and to identify management strategies that could be applied at tropical Asian destinations to minimize the impacts of recreational disturbance and thus enhance the ecological sustainability of coastal recreation and tourism across the region. The data shared via the Excel worksheet associated with this data descriptor was extracted from peer-reviewed articles published in English between 1 January 2000 and the 31 December 2018 with the full text of the article available online. These articles were found by searching several online indexing several databases including Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes; Fenton reaction; sustainable agro-industrial sector; sewer connection permit
Online: 5 January 2021 (13:53:12 CET)
This study investigated the efficacy of advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the reduction of pollution loads in mixed agro-food industrial wastewaters (dairy and slaughterhouse) in Nablus city, Palestine. Bench-scale Jar tests using an advanced oxidation process (AOP) were performed as a pretreatment stage. Initial results on direct applications of Fenton’s process on mixed agro-food wastewater (COD: 15400-18200 mg/l) were unsatisfactory. Hence, the performance of the Fenton process was applied on three mixed wastewater samples with different pre-treatment trials: (A) coagulant (FeCl3.6H2O) addition, (B) settling (2h), and use of flocculent (lime Ca(OH)2) in sample (C). Preceded with lime, Fenton`s process (Sample C) was most effective in the removal of organic carbon and nitrogen (89% COD; 80% TKN). The removal efficiency in inorganic loads (91% TSS; 62% TS) were achieved under H2O2/COD (w/w ratio 2:1), H2O2/Fe+2 (w/w ratio 10:1) and acidic conditions (pH = 3). The adoption of AOP technology by agro-food industries could ensure compliance with municipal by-laws and acquire connection permits to sewerage networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Keywords: excessive fertilization; agro environment; rental land; traditional way; younger farmers; environmental consciousness
Online: 13 November 2017 (16:14:39 CET)
Abstract: The study focuses on how socio-economic and demographic indicators affect fertilization sustainability (excessive amount of fertilization). Principally we aim to examine the significance magnitude of the effects of three socio-demographic variables such as traditional way of fertilization, rental land farming, and farmers’ younger age on over-fertilization in Bangladesh and other developing countries. In 1960s, Bangladesh state authority launched a campaign ‘Grow more Food’ to feed huge numbers of population and thus the farmers are provided chemical fertilizers and pesticides at a subsidized low price. Farmers began to use huge amount of fertilizers for gaining high yields and continued it to present causing environmental woes a lot. We interview (face-to-face, focus group discussion, and phone interview) 210 Bangladesh farmers in 2016 by semi-structured questionnaire. Data has been analyzed using General Linear Model (GLM) in Univariate Analysis of Variance. The study found the effect of traditional way of fertilization on excessive amount of fertilization is strongly significant at 1% level. Apart from, rental land farming and farmers’ younger age have a significant influence on over- fertilization; though their significance level (5% and 10% respectively) is quasi-strong. Policy makers can be able to formulate fertilizer policy on the basis of these findings.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0232.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: citizen science; crowdsourced data; ecotourism; natural Resource management; social media; photo-elicitation; photovoice; wildlife conservation; wildlife tourism
Online: 22 August 2019 (11:32:08 CEST)
This data descriptor summarizes the process applied and data gathered from 50 publications/papers reporting on the use of photography generated by tourists, tour operators and members of the public, with a particular focus on the crowdsourcing of photographs through online platforms and social networking sites (SNSs) as a method of research for wildlife conservation and ecotourism. The papers were collected in a systematic literature review to inform a pilot study of the feasibility of using SNSs to crowdsource georeferenced photographs of endangered Bornean Pygmy Elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) taken by ecotourists along the Lower Kinabatangan River region of Sabah, Malaysia. Papers were sourced using the Murdoch University Findit online-search tool to search over 100 databases, including Proquest, Scopus and Web of Science. The criteria for a paper to be included in the review (and shared via the dataset attached to this this data descriptor) were that it was peer-reviewed, published in English, between 1997 and the 31 December 2017, had the full text accessible online and reported on a study or studies that utilized photographs that tourists, tour operators and/or members of the public generated and shared via SNSs or online platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1836.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Hemp; agro-waste; deep eutectic solvents; electrospinning; gel-based blends; waste valorization; nanocomposite gels
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:47:16 CET)
Natural fibers have attracted increasing interest as an alternative to produce environmentally friendly and sustainable materials. Particularly, hemp fibers have revealed to be widely used in various industrial applications due to their extremely unique properties. However, hemp can generate a large amount of agro-waste, and results in an attractive source of biopolymers for the development of low-cost materials in alternative to the raw materials and conventional petroleum-based plastics. In addition, deep eutectic solvents (DESs), a new type of truly green solvents, have been tested to remove gums, lignin, and other non-cellulosic components from hemp fibers. Reusing these components dissolved into the DESs to fabricate new materials directly by electrospinning is a very attractive but still unexplored endeavor. Thus, this innovative research to venture new upcycling pathways is focused on the fabrication of composite nanofibers by electrospinning of a gel-based blend of Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and hemp agro-waste (HW) dissolved into choline chloride (ChCl) : Glycerol (1:2) and ChCl : Urea (1:2) DES mixtures. The results obtained revealed that the produced nanofibers displayed uniform appearance with diameters ranging from 257.72 ± 65.63 nm to 380.78 ± 133.98 nm. In addition, the mechanical properties of the electro-spun composite nanofibers produced from the gel-based blends of HW dissolved in DESs and PVA (HW-DESs_PVA) were found to be superior, resulting in an enhanced tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Furthermore, the incorporation of HW into the nanofibers was able to provide bioactive antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Overall, this study demonstrated a promising, more sustainable, and eco-friendly way to produce electrospun composite nanofibers using HW in a circular economy perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0278.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Genetic diversity; Underutilized legume; Multispectral imaging system; Agro-morphological traits; Winged bean; Morphometric traits
Online: 15 March 2023 (10:04:35 CET)
The winged bean is an underutilized legume that has the potential to contribute to nutrition and food security globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, very little research attention is paid to exploiting its full potential due to a lack of adequate knowledge of the existing genetic diversity in the available winged bean germplasm. To bridge this gap, seed morphometric and selected agro-morphological traits which are crucial for yield and seed quality determination in crop plants were used to assess the genetic diversity of thirty accessions of winged bean sourced from the Gene bank of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan. The thirty winged accessions were evaluated under field trials at three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. The agro-morphological data as well as the seed morphometric dataset obtained from a Multi-Spectral Imaging (MSI) system were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal Component (PC) analysis, cluster analysis, and correlation analysis. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the accessions for all measured traits. The first three PCs accounted for 93% of the variation observed among the accessions for all measured traits. Accessions were grouped into three clusters based on the agro- morphological traits and three clusters under the MSI system. Seed yield per plant had the highest estimates of significant positive correlation with hundred seed weight, pod weight per plant, etc. at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. TPt-31 had the highest seed yield per plant, pod weight per plant, and early maturity while TPt-7 had an extended flowering and maturity period, the highest number of pods per peduncle and pods per plant as well as the lowest seed yield. These accessions could serve as a good resource for future winged bean improvement programs. The result also confirmed that the MSI system is an invaluable tool for discriminating among accessions of the same crop species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0777.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes; Fenton reaction; agro-industrial wastewater; municipal by-laws; sewer connection permit
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:21:22 CET)
This study investigated the reduction of organic loads from mixed agro-food industrial wastewaters (dairy and slaughterhouse) of Nablus city using advanced oxidation process (AOP), a high- rate chemical oxidation reaction. Bench-scale Jar tests using an advanced oxidation process (AOP) were performed as a pretreatment stage. Direct applications of classical Fenton’s process on mixed raw agro-food wastewater samples (COD: 15400-18200 mg/l) revealed unsatisfactory results. The performance of the Fenton process was evaluated using three mixed samples with different pre-treatment trials: (A) coagulant (FeCl3.6H2O) addition, (B) settling (2h) allowed, and use of flocculent (lime Ca(OH)2) in sample (C). Compared with other partial treatments, sample (C), Fenton`s process lime preceded, was the most effective in the removal of organic (89% COD; 80% TKN) and inorganic loads (91% TSS; 62% TS) under H2O2/COD (w/w ratio 2:1), H2O2/Fe+2 (w/w ratio 10:1) and acidic conditions (pH =3). Obtained results comply with Nablus municipal by-law (COD below 2000 mg/l), which help decision-makers within the agro-food industries install pollution reduction systems. Investment in the Fenton-based peroxidation process, allow agro-food industries to obtain connection permits to sewage networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0226.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: crowdsourcing; citizen science; ecotourism; Facebook; Flickr; photo-elicitation; Instagram; photovoice; social media; social networking sites; Twitter; wildlife conservation
Online: 21 August 2019 (10:34:58 CEST)
The first two decades of the 21st-century have seen the emergence of the modern citizen science movement, increased demand for niche eco and wildlife tourism experiences, and the willingness of people to voluntarily share information and photographs online. To varying extents, the rapid growth of these three phenomena has been driven by the availability of portable smart devices, access to the Web 2.0 internet from almost anywhere on the planet, and the development of applications and services, including social media/networking sites (SNSs). In addition, the number of peer-reviewed publications that explore how text and images shared on SNSs can be data-mined for academic research has surged in recent years. This systematic quantitative review has two goals. The first goal is to provide an oversight of how the photographs that ecotourists share online are contributing to wildlife tourism research. The second goal is to promote the emerging photovoice technique as a theoretical context for social research based on the photographs and comments that ecotourists share on SNSs. From the perspectives of community benefits, conservation behaviours, and environmental education, there are many similarities between authentic ecotourism experiences and quality ecological citizen science programs. Much of the literature regarding the theory and practice of citizen science reports on the difficulties of attracting, training, motivating and retaining community members. The synthesis of this review is that crowdsourcing wildlife and tourism data from comments and photographs that ecotourists share on SNSs is a credible method of research that provides a self-replenishing pool of citizen scientists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0181.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: total aflatoxin; quantum dot nanobead; test strip; on-site; peanut and rice; agro-food safety
Online: 24 March 2017 (03:59:06 CET)
An on-site, ultra-sensitive, and quantitative sensing method was developed based on quantum dot nanobeads (QDNBs) and test strip for the determination of total aflatoxins (AFTs) in rice and peanut. The monoclonal antibody against AFT (mAbAFT) was home-made and labeled with QDNB. After the pre-coating of the AFT antigen on the test line (T line), the competitive immunoreactions were conducted between AFT and AFT antigen on the T line with QDNBs-mAbAFT. Under optimal conditions, this approach allowed a rapid response towards AFT with a considerable sensitivity of 1.4 pg/mL and 2.9 pg/mL in rice and peanut matrices, respectively. The put-in and put-out duration were within 10 min. The recoveries for AFT in rice and peanut samples matrices were recorded from 86.25–118.0% with the relative deviations (RSD) below 12%. The assay was further validated via the comparison between this QDNB strip and the conventional HPLC method using spiked samples. Thus, the design provided a potential alternative for on-site, ultra-sensitive, and quantitative sensing of AFT that could also be expanded to other chemical contaminants for food safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: precision agriculture; durum wheat; Italy; case study; economic impact; agro-environmental impact; sustainability; nitrogen efficiency; profitability
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:32:28 CEST)
The European Green Deal has set a concrete strategic plan to increase farm sustainability. At the same time, the current global challenges, due to climate change and fuels and commodity market crisis, combined with the Covid-19 pandemic and the ongoing war in Ukraine, comprise the need for quality food, but also the reduction of negative external effects of agricultural production, with fair remuneration for the farmers. In response, precision agriculture has great potential to contribute to the sustainable development. Precision agriculture is a farming management that provides a holistic system approach to managing the spatial and temporal crop and soil variability within a field to improve the farm’s performance and sustainability. However, farmers are still hesitant to adopt it. On these premises, the study aims to evaluate the impacts of precision agriculture technologies on farm profitability, agronomic and environmental management by farmers adopting (or not) these technologies, using the case study method. In detail, the work focuses on the period 2014-2022 for two farms that cultivate durum wheat in Central Italy. The results suggest that the implementation of precision technologies can guarantee economic and agri-environmental efficiency. Results could serve as a basis for developing a program to start training in farms as well as suggest policy strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: An anthropological study; Agro-industrial food system; Institutional settings; formal and informal institutions; common pool resources
Online: 21 May 2018 (12:59:07 CEST)
Agriculture is the backbone of Kenya’s economy, supporting up to 80% of the rural livelihoods. Kenya’s export horticulture is currently the leading Agriculture subsector in Kenya has evolved from small-holder farming to agro-industrial large-scale export farming dominated by multinational companies. It is regarded as an agro-industrial food system based on the economies of scale producing for mass markets outside of the production area. Much of the food consumed from this food system has undergone multiple transformations and been subject to a host of formal and informal insitutions (rules, regulations, standards, norms and values). An Anthropological study of export horticulture in Northwest Mount Kenya was carried out utilizing qualitative data collection methods in Northwest Mount Kenya region. Data was coded and analysed thematically based on grounded theory approach. The study described the institutional settings of export horticulture from an emic perspective as changing and defining the operations of the food system access and management of common pool resources, namely water and land. With the agro-industrial food system competing for these scarce resources in a semi-arid zone, there is potential for conflict and also reduced production and overall benefits to the different actors in the study area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2008.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Otyrar district; agriculture; abandoned lands; soil salinization; development of abandoned lands; organic methods; and agro-innovative technology
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:29:55 CEST)
To provide the population with food, it is very important to re-cultivate "abandoned lands" that have been retired from agricultural use. Conversion of arable land into agricultural abandoned lands in the south of Kazakhstan is, first of all, was primarily associated with salinity. For the purposes of sustainable development, there is a need to develop proposals for re-mastering by studying their current state, reviewing world studies on the reclamation of salt-affected soils. Therefore, this study was devoted to the study of the current environmental and reclamation conditions of the abandoned lands of Otyrar district in the south Kazakhstan, as well as discussion and recommendations on their development. In the course of the research, the historical method is used in the study of the emergence and formation of abandoned lands, the method of geographical analysis during the territorial analysis of the research object, the statistical and comparison methods in showing the complexity and intensity of the problems, the cartographic, geo-informational and field research (reconnaissance) methods in the study of the condition of the abandoned lands in the research object and methods of grouping and analysis were used in the work with scientific data on the topic of research. By deciphering space images with the help of geoinformation technologies, it was revealed that the area of abandoned lands in the research object is 13688.9 ha, including the area of non-saline soils – 83.9 ha, weakly saline soils – 984.4 ha, medium saline soils – 2398.3 ha, highly saline soils – 10222,1 ha. A review of the methods and technologies proposed by scientists for the development and melioration of salt-affected lands was made. Taking into account the ecological and reclamation state of the object of research along with the material and technical capabilities of farms, 2 methods of developing abandoned lands (organic and agro-innovative) in the research object are proposed and the need for their use in case of soil salinization has been scientifically justified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2057.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera); hybrid Interpolation; climate change, CanESM2; agro-climatic indices; sustainable farming, regression-kriging; RCPs; Syria.
Online: 28 June 2023 (16:20:55 CEST)
The evaluation of suitability for bioclimatic viticulture indices (BVIs) zones, as with any other crop, requires a well-founded knowledge of the spatial variability in climate data, which is also used to assess different grapevine cultivars and to delimit appropriate regions for vineyard production under the current climate and projected climate change. BVIs, on the other hand, are typically calculated using a small number of locations linked by climatic station sites or applied using a coarsely-resolution distributed dataset. Furthermore, often the methods applied to precisely delineate symmetrical regions are not appropriate to generate accurate maps. To provide an analysis using three temperature-based indices and the hydrothermal coefficient (HTC), quantifying their spatial variation, and representing the spatial patterns of each BVI throughout the Jabal Al Arab viticulture—one of the most important Syrian viticulture regions in the Eastern Mediterranean—daily temperature data from 15 meteorological stations and 57 rain gauges, considering the 1984–2014 period, and downscaled future scenarios (RCPs based on CanESM2), considering the 2016–2100 period, were utilized. The statistical method of each BVI was analyzed, and, later, they were mapped by using GIS and a hybrid interpolation (regression-kriging) approach. The regression fitting method revealed that the sum accumulation of heat and the hydro-thermal index during the growing season were highly related to elevation and distance to the seacoast variables; however, the viticulture zones varied spatially depending on which index was used and under suggested future scenarios compared to the current climate. The spatial distribution of climate in the Jabal Al Arab regions exhibits significant variability. The findings suggest that climate change projections indicate a prevalence of warmer conditions in the future. Under the RCP scenarios, the territory can be categorized into up to three bioclimatic classes for both the Heat Index (HI) and the Winter Index-Growing Degree Days (WI-GDD), in contrast to the current climate which has six classes. These results provide valuable insights into the suitability of viticulture within each climatic region and facilitate the identification of homogeneous zones. The utilization of consistent bioclimatic indices and an advanced hybrid interpolation method has enabled the delineation and comparison of bioclimatic variables of Jabal Al Arab with other regions worldwide. Such comparisons should be considered when selecting grapevine varieties and assessing the potential for grape production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0195.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: olea europaea; olive stone; agro-waste; slow pyrolysis; bimetallic nano-alloys; catalyzed dye degradation; Trash-to-Treasure
Online: 16 February 2022 (06:41:46 CET)
Biochar is a carbon allotrope obtained by pyrolysis of biomass, usually agro-waste. Owing to the demand for sustainable development, biochar is continuously raising much hope in the scientific community. However, in order to impart it with new properties, its modification is required, either in situ during pyrolysis, or after the carbonization process. Herein, we propose a new direct approach to obtain bimetallic copper/nickel nanoparticle-loaded on olive stone biochar. The bimetallic-coated biochar and the reference materials bare biochar, copper-loaded and nickel-loaded biochar were prepared at 400 °C under a stream of dinitrogen from olive pit powder particles impregnated first with citric acid (CA), and then with copper and nickel nitrates. We have employed citric acid in the process in order to check its effect on the structural and textural properties of biochar supporting the metallic nanoparticles. Surprisingly, citric acid induced the formation of agglomerated or even raspberry-shaped, bimetallic copper/nickel nanoparticles. Large 450-500 nm-sized agglomerates of ~80 nm bimetallic CuNi NPs were noted for B-CA@CuNi. Interestingly, for biochar material prepared with initial Cu/Ni=10 molar ratio (B-CA@CuNi10/1), the bimetallic NPs formed unusual nano-raspberries (1748 nm in size) which are agglomerates of individual 10-20 nm-sized CuNi10/1 nanoparticles. The B-CA@CuNi and reference materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetometry. The B-CA@CuNi and B-CA@Ni materials could be attracted efficiently with a magnet, but not B-CA@CuNi10/1 due to a low nickel loading. B-CA@CuNi was tested as a catalyst for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). Discoloration was noted within 10 min, much faster than a similar material prepared in the absence of CA. B-CA@CuNi could be recycled at least 3 times with exhibit as fast discoloration catalysis performance. This paper stresses the important role of citric acid in shaping the bimetallic nanoparticles loaded in situ on biochar during the slow pyrolysis process and to enable faster catalysed discoloration of organic dye solution.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: anaerobic co-digestion; kinetics of biomethane accumulation; kinetic modeling; biogas; sugar-cane molasses; whey; agro-industrial residues valorization
Online: 14 August 2023 (11:15:17 CEST)
The biomethane accumulation of several combinations of whey and sugarcane molasses, inoculated with sludge from a treatment facility of one of the dairy enterprises of Imbabura, was assessed in the current experiment at a concentration of 0.5 g/l COD. The whey: molasses (W: M) ratios for each treatment were 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0, with a constant temperature of 37°C and an initial pH adjustment of 7.5. Half a litre of total mixes was used for each treatment in duplicate. Six kinetic models were evaluated to account biomethane accumulation in anaerobic co-digestion processes in batch of whey and sugarcane molasses. Five of these have been tested by other researchers, and one was developed by modifying a first-order model to consider changes in the biomethane accumulation profile. This proposed model, along with the modified two-phase Gompertz model, resulted in the ones that were best able to adjust the experimental data, obtaining in all cases an R² ≥ 0.949, indicating the accuracy of both models. In addition, the proposed here model has five parameters, one less than the modified two-phase Gompertz model, making it more straightforward and robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0429.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: thrombosis; kinetic parameters; cell growth; protein purification; biomass production; Chlorophyceae; agro-industrial sub-product; extraction methods; molecular weight; chromatography
Online: 4 August 2023 (10:49:13 CEST)
Thrombosis is characterized by the pathological formation of fibrin clots within a blood vessel, leading to the obstruction of blood flow. Fibrinolytic enzymes from microorganisms have exhibited promising effects to dissolve clots in a more efficient and safe way. Then, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biomass and fibrinolytic enzyme production of Tetradesmus obliquus under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions using different concentration of corn steep liquor (CSL). Different extraction and precipitating methods were tested, and the enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography. More advantageous culture condition was mixotrophic using 0.25% CSL, showing the highest values of biomass productivity (Px = 169.3 ± 44.36 mg∙L-1day-1) and specific growth rate (µmax = 0.17 ± 0.00 day-1), and significant fibrinolytic production (391.34 ± 40.03 U∙mg-1). Moreover, fibrinolytic activity was higher when extracted by homogenization and precipitated using acetone, which exhibited clear zone of fibrin degradation in the fibrinolytic plate assay. Additionally, the purified enzyme showed specific activity of 1176.90 ± 140.37 U∙mg-1 and molecular weight around 97 kDa. Finally, the enzyme has higher enzymatic activity than various fibrinolytic enzymes, and the obtained enzyme has potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent in thrombosis treatment. Additional studies are need to investigate the biochemical properties and biological profile of this enzyme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0361.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Agro-economic crop water productivity; Hydro-economic modeling; CSPSO-MODSIM; Economic benefits; Crop pattern planning; Crop water Irrigation depth; Climate change; Iran.
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:12:25 CET)
For water-stressed regions like Iran improving the effectiveness and productivity of agricultural water-use is of utmost importance due to climate change and unsustainable demands. Therefore, a hydro-economic model has been developed here for the Zarrine River Basin with the central concept of that demands are value-sensitive functions, where quantities of water-uses at different locations and times have a changeable economic benefits. To do this, the potential crop yields and the surface and groundwater resources, especially Boukan Dam inflow are simulated using the hydrologic model, SWAT, based on predicted climatic scenarios i.e. quantile mapping-downscaled projections. Then, to allocate the agricultural water based on the agro- economic crop water productivity (AEWP) of crops, a basin-wide water management tool, MODSIM, is customized. Next, a simulation- optimization model has been developed using a coupled CSPSO-MODSIM, to optimize the total AEWP, considering climatic impact and crop pattern scenarios, for 2020-2038, 2050-2068 and 2080-2098 periods. Finally, the optimum crop pattern and crop water irrigation depths are presented for different RCPs and periods. The results indicated that this approach will improve considerably the AEWPs and decrease the agricultural water-use up to 40%. Thus, this integrated model is able to support water authorities and other stakeholder in a water-scarce basin, as is the study area.