PROJECT REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Indigenous people of Marind; agricultural development; Papua
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:32:32 CEST)
This research project was funded by the Masterplan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development (MP3EI). The objective of this study was to examine the role of indigenous people of Marind in the agricultural development of rice cultivation in Merauke. A survey was conducted in three villages in Merauke using stratified random sampling. The finding suggest that indigenous people of Marind have a crucial role in the agricultural development of rice cultivation in Papua.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tomato harvesting; gripper; continuum robot; tomato detection; design; agricultural robot
Online: 18 December 2019 (04:34:30 CET)
Designing and development of agricultural robot is always a challenging issue, because of robot intends to work an unstructured environment and at the same time, it should be safe for the surrounded plants. Therefore, traditional robots cannot meet the high demands of modern challenges, such as working in confined and unstructured workspaces. Based on current issues, we developed a new tomato harvesting wire-driven discrete continuum robot arm with a flexible backbone structure for working in confined and extremely constrained spaces. Moreover, we optimized a tomato detaching process by using newly designed gripper with passive stem cutting function. Moreover, by designing the robot we also developed ripe tomato recognition by using machine learning. This paper explains the proposed continuum robot structure, gripper design, and development of tomato recognition system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0046.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: agricultural productivity; Battambang; Cambodia; rice production; stochastic frontier production function (SFA model); technical efficiency
Online: 8 November 2016 (08:51:50 CET)
The aims of this study are to measure the technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian household’s rice production and trying to determine its main influencing factors using the stochastic frontier production function. The study utilized primary data collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang by structured questionnaires. The empirical results indicated the level of household rice output varied according to differences in the efficiency of production processes. The mean TE is 0.34 which means that famers produce 34% of rice at best practice at the current level of production inputs and technology, indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 66% at the same level of inputs if farmers had been technically efficient. Furthermore, between 2013-2015 TE of household’s rice production recorded -14.3% decline rate due to highly affected of drought during dry season of 2015. Moreover, evidence reveals that land, fertilizer, and pesticide are the major influencing input factors of household’s rice production, while disaster, education of household head, family size and other crops’ cultivated area are core influencing factors decreasing TE. Conversely, the main influencing factors increasing TE are irrigated area, number of plot area and sex of household head.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0135.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: technical efficiency; stochastic frontier production function (SFA model); rice production; Battambang; Cambodia; agricultural productivity
Online: 31 October 2016 (03:31:11 CET)
The aims of this study are to measure the technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian household’s rice production and trying to determine its main influencing factors using the stochastic frontier production function. The study utilized primary data collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang by structured questionnaires. The empirical results indicated the level of household rice output varied according to differences in the efficiency of the production processes. The mean TE is 0.34 which means that famers produce 34% of rice at best practice at the current level of production inputs and technology, indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 66% at the same level of inputs if farmers had been technically efficient. Furthermore, between 2013-2015, TE of household’s rice production recorded -14.3% decline rate due to highly affected of drought during dry season of 2015. Moreover, evidence reveals that land, fertilizer, and pesticide are the major influencing input factors of household’s rice production, while disaster, education of household head, family size and other crops’ cultivated area are core influencing factors decreasing TE. Conversely, the main influencing factors increasing TE are irrigated area, number of plot area and sex of household head.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0210.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: coordinated development degree; agricultural water resources; socio-economy development; Shanxi Province
Online: 20 August 2019 (10:20:33 CEST)
Conflict between agricultural water resources and socio-economy development is a global problem. Accurate evaluation of coordinated development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy and risk mitigation is necessary for sustainable development. An evaluation method, including selection of criteria, data collection, determination of weight, evaluation of coordinated development, prediction of parameters, and judgment of coordinated development state, has been proposed to study coordinated development degree. To deal with uncertainties, Monte Carlo method and fuzzy set method were used. The method is demonstrated to solve a real-world evaluation problem in Shanxi Province in the middle of China. Results show that coordinated development degrees were (0.7, 0.8) for most of the cities of Shanxi in 2015, indicating that coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate. To achieve balanced development, more attention should be put on socio-economic development in Taiyuan and Yanquan, and agricultural water resources utilization in Jinzhong, Yuncheng and Xinzhou. The average coordinated development degree is 0.758, and coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate from 2006 to 2015. Coordinated development degree has a trend of decreasing markedly, coordinate development state will be barely coordinated, and agricultural water resources utilization lags behind socio-economic development in 2020. The study demonstrates the practicability of the improved method, by evaluating coordinated development degree under uncertainty and forecasting future risks, which will conduce to promote sustainable development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0329.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: psychosocial; institutional; economic factors; Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE); agricultural policies; Tunisia
Online: 14 April 2023 (02:15:57 CEST)
The SSE seems to be subject to certain paradoxes African countries. The current study attempts to understand the factors that motivate farmers to engage in a SSE organization .The findings reveal that one of the most important pillars of the success of the social and solidarity economy is found in informal solidarity groups. Concerning the locking factors that prevent farmers to engage in initiatives of economy and solidarity organizations, the first reason is related to the negative symbolic representation of cooperatives inherited from the Tunisian institutional history, the memorial trauma of the collectivist experience of the 1960s, followed by the institutional and political factors determining this situation: the weak and inadequate intervention of the Tunisian state before and after the revolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0002.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Agricultural ExternalitiesPublic GoodsSustainable Agricultural Development Multifunctional Agriculture
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:31:26 CET)
The agriculture and rural areas perform a new function which requires the delivery of public goods to the society. In turn, a comprehensive identification and analysis of agricultural externalities (external economies) involves a need for developing a dedicated valuation methodology. This paper presents the assumptions of the public goods theory and puts them in the context of agriculture. The study focuses on analyzing the valuation methods for external economies, and proposes a methodology for the valuation of some illustrative positive externalities of agricultural production and of natural environment resources regarded as public goods (the agri-tourist value of a farm and the value of a natural waterhole).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1921.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Drug designing; Bacterial mutation; Bacterial evolution; Horizontal gene transfer; Public and agricultural health
Online: 27 June 2023 (13:55:21 CEST)
Antibiotic resistance has emerged as one of the major concerns to public human health due to issues in treatment and control of major infectious diseases. From discovery of penicillin in 1940, the antibiotic resistance originated and now developed the microorganisms as resistive strains to the major available antibiotics. Furthermore, studies on this captivating activity of the microbes provide insight into the complexities of microbial physiology and may offer some guidance in preventing the onset and consequent development of antibiotic resistance. Despite of initiatives taken in last few decades to overcome the issues, the trends of antibiotic resistance gained much peak. Antibiotic resistance appears to have emerged as a result of various factors including antibiotics being misused and overused in both the medical field and the agricultural sector. Important factors in the development of antibiotic resistance also include bacterial mutation, unplanned evolution, and horizontal gene transfers. In addition, antibiotics resistance imposed the financial consequences to public health and drug development research. Future advancements related to innovative antibiotics and molecular drug designing become challenge for researchers due to intensive multiple antibiotics resistance among human population. Many researches have been conducted on origin, evolutionary aspect of antibiotic resistance and mechanisms of antibiotics resistance, but its effect on future drug development is little understood. Therefore, the recent review will highlight the role of antibiotic resistance in drug designing and impacts of antibiotic resistance on drug development in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0535.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agricultural land; remote sensing; agricultural fire; fire predicting model
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:00:53 CEST)
Agricultural land fires have been linked to various and adverse impacts on ecosystems, food security and the agriculture sector. Understanding the patterns and drivers of agricultural land fires is essential for effective agricultural land fire management. The key objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of agricultural land fires using satellite remote sensed data, (2) assess a range of environmental conditions that could drive the occurrence of agricultural land fires, (3) determine the best model for predicting agricultural land fires and (4) determine the relative contribution of each environmental condition variable on the best predictive model. We used both univariate and multivariate regressions for the fire prediction capability of four independent environmental conditions (fuel, weather, topographic and anthropogenic). Analysis of historical satellite data revealed that agricultural land fires were more frequent than forested land fires. Our analyses also revealed that fuel condition was the most important variable for predicting agricultural land fires followed by weather, topographic and anthropogenic conditions. This study provides a novel multivariate model for predicting agricultural land fires that harbors the potential to improve agricultural land fire management and reduce fire risk within the agricultural sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0952.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: E-commerce environment; agricultural system; human-land relationship; tele-coupling; dy-namic mechanism
Online: 14 September 2023 (09:02:18 CEST)
This investigation delves into the profound interplay between the e-commerce environment and the agricultural system, while scrutinizing the intricate human-land coupling dynamics engen-dered by transformations within the agricultural domain. Focusing on the expansion of orchards in Pinghe County, a pivotal epicenter for Chinese sweet pomelo production, this study eluci-dates the reverberations of Rural E-commerce Environment Development on Orchard Expansion through the lens of Tele-coupling. In doing so, it unveils the nuanced tapestry of the human-land coupling associations latent within the evolutionary trajectory of the agricultural system amidst the blossoming information society. The findings underscore a symbiotic relationship between the augmentation of orchard acreage and the burgeoning rural e-commerce landscape, effec-tively propelling the economic prosperity of the agricultural system. Moreover, a tele-coupling phenomenon has emerged, underscoring the intricate web of interconnections binding the mat-uration of the rural e-commerce ecosystem with the proliferation of orchards. The research illu-minates that the transformation of land utilization, imbricated within the agricultural system, manifests as a distinctive form of tele-coupling intricately woven into the fabric of urbanization and information technology advancements. Consequently, adopting a comprehensive theoreti-cal perspective, amalgamating disparate domains across distinct geographic realms, becomes imperative for discerning the intricate nuances of the human-land coupling nexus within these multifaceted, open systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0108.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: agricultural; fields; farmland
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:43:49 CEST)
The possession and appraisal of agricultural fields have significant economic and social impacts. The objective of this study is to examine the perception of the factors that contribute to the value of agricultural fields and those that diminish their value in the appraisal process. The utilized quantitative methodology is based on a questionnaire administered to farmers in Huambo Province, Angola. The sample size consists of 644 respondents. The results allow concluding that the income generated from farming activities and the presence of infrastructure greatly facilitate the appraisal of agricultural fields. Conversely, the absence of legal ownership documentation and conflicts related to land ownership reduce the value of the fields. The exploratory factor analysis has identified seven determinant factors in the appraisal of agricultural fields: inherent location characteristics of the property, market dynamics related to agricultural fields, the availability of water on the property, proximity to tourist destinations, physical conditions of the fields, the positive externalities generated, and the advantages offered by the fields. We believe that this study will assist appraisers, farmers, and public administration in understanding the factors that positively and negatively impact the appraisal of agricultural fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Land-use change; Land-use planning; Ecosystem services; Erosion; Climate change; Agricultural policies; Soil tillage
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:40:53 CEST)
In the last two centuries, land use change (LUC) has been the most important direct changes driver for terrestrial ecosystems. To contrast the consequent ecosystems degradation, forward-looking spatial policies and target landscape and land-use planning processes, promoting a sustainable land use change, are needed. The present paper proposes a framework of action including different landscape planning and ecological approaches: from the spatial modelling to recognize the LUC and build different scenarios, to the ecosystem services (ESs) assessment to evaluate the possible environmental impacts. Three different scenarios were built: Trend, No-Tillage and Energy crops. The Sediment Delivery Ratio and Carbon Storage and Sequestration ESs were assessed and compared for each scenario. The aim of the paper is to support decision-makers and local communities into the landscape planning process. Results show that a regional development in line with past trend could lead to further land degradation. Instead, the two scenarios proposed in compliance with EU policies, could bring benefits only if related to moderate LUCs and respecting the naturally grass-vegetated land. From the local to global scale, a guided and shared LUC management allows implementing sustainable development, basing on a deep knowledge of physical-environmental but also social and economic issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1139.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: agricultural sector; agricultural credit; economic growth; Angola; ARDL model; econometric analysis
Online: 26 September 2023 (13:53:32 CEST)
The ultimate goal of this paper was to examine the degree of elasticity between two variables, namely, agricultural credit and agricultural growth, in Angola in the period 2003–2022. Time series data were fitted into the ARDL test using various econometric techniques such as the ADF stationarity test, Granger causality and the ordinary least squares method as well as a vector error correction model (VECM) to analyze the relationship between agricultural credit and agricultural economic growth, showing a causal relationship. Both the impacts through elasticities and the optimal point existing in this relationship were estimated. It was concluded that the impact of agricultural credit on agricultural GDP was 14.41%. Granger causality shows signs of a positive linkage between agricultural credit and agricultural GDP. However, there is a causal relationship between agricultural credit and agricultural GDP, in a unidirectional aspect. This result is consistent with most of the earlier studies reviewed in the literature, confirming that credit-oriented monetary policies can boost economic growth and, consequently, development in Angola. It is important for agricultural credit systems to be designed in a way that ensures equitable access, fair interest rates, and appropriate risk management mechanisms. Additionally, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms should be in place to assess the environmental and social impacts of credit programs on agricultural sustainability. It is worth noting that this is a first-of-a-kind study on the matter of the Angolan credit experience, specifically for the agricultural sector. Angola is still searching for a sustainable credit model that could be used as a catalyzer to boost growth and contribute to economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1968.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: agricultural production trusteeship; agricultural carbon emission reduction; propensity score matching (PSM)
Online: 28 June 2023 (08:34:12 CEST)
Abstract: Based on the survey data of 5 large grain-producing provinces in China, this paper studies the effect of agricultural production trusteeship on agricultural carbon emission reduction by using a propensity score matching method. The empirical results show that the carbon emission of wheat reduces by 7.107kg/mu, with a decrease rate of 15.5% after participating in agricultural production trusteeship. Among them, chemical fertilizers, manpower input, agricultural chemicals and diesel oil respectively reduces with rates of 14.2%, 27.7%, 14.1%, and 6%. However, there are differences in the facilitation effects of different trusteeship services, with the best promotion effect of field management services, followed by cultivation, planting and harvest services, and then agricultural material supply services, the ATT is -6.160, -5.732 and -5.530, respectively. Meanwhile, there are differences in the promotion effects for farm households with different factor endowments. The promotion effect is better for small farm households with 1 type of agricultural machinery or less, and an operation scale of 7 mus or less. Therefore, in order to better play the role of agricultural production trusteeship on agricultural carbon emission reduction, the government should vigorously support its development and guide more smallholders to choose agricultural production trusteeship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1243.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: agricultural green development; ecological conservation developing area; spatial and temporal heterogeneity; energy consumption; resources utilization efficiency; Obstacle degree calculating model
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:36:43 CEST)
As an irreplaceable ecological barrier, the ecological conservation developing area (ECDA) is vital for the integrated construction of urban and rural areas, and optimization and adjustment of industrial structure. Developing green agriculture is the foundation and guarantee for improving the rural ecological environment and meeting the increasing needs of farmers′ income. Issued by the Chinese government, No. 1 Central Document stated the necessity of promoting agricultural green development (AGD) and the related technologies in dealing with ecological pressure and resource shortages, especially for large cities like Beijing. However, few empirical studies have conducted on spatiotemporal variations of AGD in ECDA of large cities. Based on the green agricultural traits of Beijing and the accessible data, we evaluate AGD and analyze its spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Beijing ECDA by constructiing a framework with 13 indicators. The weight coefficients of AGD indicators were calculated by the projection pursuit method, with the district panel data from 2006 to 2016. The results demonstrated that energy consumption is a vital factor of green agriculture production, and agricultural output value per unit of the arable land area is the key to the green agricultural revenue. From 2006 to 2016, the AGD index of ECDA had an increasing trend till 2012, followed by a decreasing tendency. The AGD index of the northern region is higher than the southern of ECDA. The obstacle degree model was used to verify AGD limiting factors. They were poor infrastructure, slow agritourism, low labor productivity, and low resource utilization efficiency that varied by districts in ECDA. Given these findings, our study is conducive to the AGD evaluation at the district (county) level for ECDA of large cities and also provides important policy implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems (AKIS); Sustainable Management; Natural Resources; Agricultural Advisory
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:34:59 CET)
The new Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU) (2023-2027) envisages a stronger Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System (AKIS) that will unite all relevant ac-tors in a co-creation process to ensure knowledge flows within and across Member States. A sig-nificant and increasing body of literature focuses on the strategy and processes of strengthening AKIS. However, there is a relative gap in research related to the role of AKIS in achieving sus-tainability in the farming sector. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the advancements so far of AKIS across the EU when it comes to facilitating the sustainable management of natural resources (SMNR). The paper builds upon a comprehensive review of rel-evant literature during the last 15 years covering all 28 EU countries (including the United King-dom until 2019). We conclude that AKIS architecture in most EU countries lacks a comprehensive structure promoting SMNR. Based on the results we identify countries with relatively high inten-sity of research and development projects linking AKIS to SMNR and where SMNR is better in-tegrated to AKIS. Our results can be of interest to the design of stronger AKIS during the new programming period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0182.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agricultural pesticides; spray drift; MLC
Online: 11 April 2023 (03:38:13 CEST)
Agricultural workers utilize pesticides extensively on their farms to control weeds and insects, as well as increase crop productivity. Despite these advantages, their excessive use poses a seri-ous threat, particularly to the population living at the nexus of urban and rural areas. Exposure to pesticide drift can be investigated using geospatial tools. Remote sensing technology and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques have been used intensively and constitute trusted tools in different sectors, especially in agriculture. Remote sensing depends on pro-cessing the electromagnetic radiation reflected and emitted from the ground target and can be used to identify the spectral signature of crops exposed to pesticides. GIS has powerful tools for building a spatial geo-database of pesticide exposure drift. Therefore, the major objective of the research was to explore the effectiveness of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to estimate the exposure to pesticides in Macon County (Alabama). To achieve this objective, Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) was used to identify accurate cropland areas. The Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite images. Available agricultural pesticide usage data (seven of the seventeen organophosphates used in Alabama) were obtained through the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The results indicated that 6.6% of Macon County’s residents are considered potentially severely exposed, and the potentially affected population resides primarily in rural areas. While 23 percent of residents of rural edges are considered to have potentially medium to high expo-sure. In addition, 38% of residents living in suburban areas are considered to have potentially low-to-medium exposure. Also, the results indicated that both GIS and remote sensing can play an effective role in estimating pesticide exposure drift.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0761.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Hazelnut shell; Agricultural waste; Concrete properties
Online: 12 June 2023 (04:52:51 CEST)
Concrete production requires a significant amount of natural resources, with aggregates comprising between 55% and 80% of the total volume. However, over-exploitation of natural aggregates has led to the exploration of alternative materials for use in concrete production. In this study, crushed hazelnut shells were investigated as a partial replacement for fine aggregate, addressing the problem of natural resource depletion and offering a second use for this important agricultural waste product available in Chile. Hazelnut shells were incorporated in percentages of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% by weight of sand for water-cement ratios of 0.4 and 0.5. The compressive strengths at 7 and 28 days and bending tensile strengths at 28 days were determined, alongside physical properties such as workability, temperature, air content, fresh density, and hardened density of the concrete. Our findings show that replacing 2.5% of the fine aggregate with hazelnut shells led to higher compressive strength at 28 days, exceeding the strength of the standard specimens by 9.5%, whereas replacing 5% of the fine aggregate led to the highest bending tensile strength, exceeding the resistance of the standard specimens by 3.5%. Moreover, the 0.4 w/c ratio consistently led to better results for both compressive and bending tensile resistances, with fewer and lower reductions in mechanical resistances compared to the standard mixture. Our results suggest that concrete mixes with hazelnut shells as a replacement for fine aggregate at a percentage of up to 2.5% can be used in constructive systems with compression strengths lower than 17 MPa, and mixtures with up to 10% hazelnut shell replacement can be used in structures with tensile bending stress requirements lower than 6 MPa. Overall, the use of hazelnut shells as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete production presents an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective solution for the construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0928.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: agricultural holding; profitability; turnover; subsidies; descriptive statistics
Online: 13 July 2023 (11:17:36 CEST)
The objective of the analysis carried out in this paper is to quantify the impact of subsidies on the activity of two vegetable farms, of different sizes in terms of agricultural area under cultivation, 600 ha and 3000 ha, which can constitute a model at macroeconomic level, indicating the ways in which these farms can ensure their income. For the analysis carried out, indicators were taken into account concerning production, net profit and subsidies received over a period of three years for the agricultural crops grown on these farms, identifying their contribution and effects on profitability. Descriptive statistics, visual inspections and basic comparison methods were also used, thus determining the patterns of the impact of subsidies and their variation for each of the existing crops in the vegetable farms studied. The data on which the statistical models are based are extracted from the financial statements of the farms analysed, giving the possibility of a predictive extension of the evolution of income and, very importantly, of their profitability. The conclusions revealed, for the 600 ha vegetable farm, that this farm maintained its area constant during the analysis period, benefiting from annual subsidies, and that the practice of crop diversification (rape, barley, winter wheat, oats, soybean, maize, lucerne), appropriate rotation, conservation farming and crop irrigation on 85.34% of the area, ensured average yields/ha that exceeded those recorded at national and regional level, except for 2020. The economic performance of this farm is oscillating in the period 2018-2021, with the ability to consistently generate profit, but in 2020 it is close to break-even, a year in which subsidy income tipped the balance towards positive but modest financial results. For this farm, the statistical model carried out was inconclusive because the farm optimises its cropping plan every year, depending on agrometeorological predictions, subsidy levels and market trends, changing crops, thus not being able to estimate the extent to which each crop contributes to maintaining the financial balance of the farm. Thus, although subsidies have impacted the level of net income, the extent to which they have done so is unclear. For the 3000 ha farm, the findings revealed that this farm also has a roughly constant area in use over the analysis period and for which it receives subsidies. This farm practices crop diversification (rape, barley, winter wheat, sunflower, soybean, grain maize, late potatoes, sweet potato, carrot and flowers) and adequate crop rotation. The data highlight that subsidies played a significant and sometimes overwhelming role in determining the gross output of each crop to achieve a positive value of this indicator. Modern conservation farming technologies and crop irrigation on 74.14% of the area justify the average yields/ha achieved, which again exceeded those recorded at national, regional and county level, with the exception of 2020. Maize and soybean crops consistently contributed to the farm's income, with a high gross product and net income, despite changes in the average yield per hectare achieved each year. Good and rising economic performance for this farm during the period under review, which justifies the profitability of the business from an economic, financial and commercial point of view. Although there have been fluctuations in the value of yields realized on different crops, net revenues continued to be high and even up significantly in 2021. Thus, the study highlighted and identified trends and patterns in agriculture, patterns that can serve as a source of information for relevant policy decisions, playing a key role in guiding future research and allocating resources efficiently in the agricultural sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0373.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: agricultural products; bundle pricing; consumer organic preference
Online: 6 June 2023 (03:58:56 CEST)
Compared with the traditional bundle pricing strategy with fixed products, this paper proposes a more flexible interactive bundle pricing strategy (IBPS) for agricultural e-retailers. Since more and more consumers tend to buy more environmentally friendly and healthy organic agricultural products, we consider consumers' organic preferences and build a mixed bundle pricing model for organic and inorganic agricultural products. A free shipping strategy is introduced to maximize retailer profit and optimize consumer surplus. Through numerical analysis, we find: (1) Compared with the traditional online retailing method, IBPS can effectively stimulate consumption and higher retailer profit; (2) As the free shipping threshold increases, the total profit shows a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, indicating that a suitable free shipping threshold can optimize the retailer profit; (3) As the consumer green preference increases, the total sales of agricultural products decrease, but the organic sales improve, while total profit rises; (4) The higher the level of consumption, the higher the sales volume of organic products and there is an upward trend in the profits of e-retailers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0063.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Bioeconomy, bibliographic databases, value chains agricultural, production.
Online: 2 August 2021 (23:07:58 CEST)
This work analyzes the visibility and scientific impact of publications related to agricultural value chains. The incidence of bibliometric indicators allows for the interpretation of bibliographic information generated worldwide. Objective: The objective of this research is to analyze the published literature and bibliometric indicators on agricultural value chains. The Web of Science database was used to extract value chains data. The study analyzed articles published between 2010 and 2020. The keywords used are "agricultural value chains'' and articles from journals or studies related to the subject were selected for bibliometric analysis and methodological review. In the search for the keyword, a total of 4208 results were extracted, of which 1,669 records were considered for analysis. The bibliometric analysis of the data reveals that Wageningen University (55) has the highest number of publications, followed by Chinese Acad Sci (26). The author Klerkx L (9) has the highest number of records, followed by Hellin J (7). With respect to the countries with the greatest contributions on the subject are: the People's Republic of China, Germany, Italy, France and the United States. The study contributes to the analysis of bibliometrics and provides a methodological review of published journal articles on agricultural value chains. This bibliographic study presents the history of research development in agricultural value chains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0259.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biogas; Agricultural Wastes; Maize Silage; Gas Production
Online: 23 July 2019 (11:40:15 CEST)
The aim of the study was to examine the biogas and methane yield of maize silage, a wastes in agricultural point of view and compare it to the biogas productivity of commonly used mixture of maize silage and mixed fodder with water. The experimental study was carried out into 2 parts. Firstly, the batch experiment was conducted in Mesophilic conditions (35°C), at five different hydraulic retention times (HRT): 6 DAT, 11 DAT 20 DAT 29 DAT and 41 DAT. The results revealed that maize silage was generated the highest biogas yield of 537 mL /241 mL at the HRT of 6days /41 days. Mixed fodder produced the highest biogas yield of 421 mL at the HRT of 6th days and the lowest one was 252 mL at the HRT of 20th days. Finally, the methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide of biogas produced from maize silage and mixed fodder were analyzed using a gas chromatography. The results shown that biogas from maize silage precedes the gas less than the mixed fodder. In the field level experiment proved that from mixed fodder produced gas which would be enough for 7 member’s family used 3 months for the purpose of their cooking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agricultural diversification; risk management; regret; portfolio; scenario
Online: 10 January 2019 (04:42:17 CET)
Diversification is an important strategy for managing risk in agricultural systems. Risk analysis can help to support farmers’ diversification strategies, but existing analytical methods are complicated and little used. The minimum regret model helps to fill this gap. It provides a simple, transparent calculation procedure that can be executed with existing spreadsheet software. Regret is an important heuristic in the behavioural sciences and regret-based models are used in finance. The article presents the model with a numerical example. It also presents a framework to compare minimum regret portfolios with two limit cases (maximum utility and minimax regret). A case study illustrates the use of the model and the comparative framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0044.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Agricultural information, smart-mobile, stakeholder farmers, Sudan
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:12:49 CEST)
The access to agricultural information in Sudan continues to be challenging to farmers due to use of inadequate sources and traditional extension approaches. The rapid growth of smart-mobile phones usage in developing countries resulted in several advantages compared to other alternatives in term of costs, geographic coverage and ease of use. This research was conducted in North Kordofan Sate to explore the role of smart-mobile phone in accessing agricultural information. Primary data were obtained by structured questionnaires and focus group discussion through participatory rural appraisal and observation while secondary data were collected from scientific journals, books and authenticated web sources. A number of 230 respondents (10% from total farmers) were interviewed and five focus group discussions were done. Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) version 22 was used to analyze the data with aid of descriptive statistics and Chi-squire Test. The result indicated that most of the respondents fall in age group between 21-40 years, and they depend on farm activity. There was 90% of farmers processed mobile phone since more than three years ago, 90.8%continuedto use smart mobile phone to access agricultural information and showed positive contribution towards income generation. The results also revealed that there was positive perception towards using mobile phones which showed more efficient in use than radio and TVs. The results showed great advantages of using smart mobile phone where 75.2 % of respondents preferred to get agricultural information, logistics and other needs through successful communication in the mid of agricultural season. Results of Chi-squire test showed significant differences between the parameters tested. The study recommended that farmers should be connected with mobile phones to admit ease communication with agricultural extension offices and quick access to their needs and logistics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0062.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: agricultural productivity; agrometeorology; climate change; crop yield
Online: 12 December 2016 (09:59:28 CET)
In Bangladesh, climate change is a major concern because of its geophysical location and climate dependent agriculture. As sessile organisms, crops plants have to face difficulties often in this environmentally vulnerable country. Therefore, this study examines the seasonal trend of two climatic parameters viz. temperature (maximum and minimum) and rainfall over a period of 1983 to 2013. Besides, this study provides insight into the relationship between climatic parameters and crop yield of two major crops viz. rice and wheat during 1997-2013. To assess the relationship of climatic parameters with time and yield using Pearson correlation analysis, time series data used at an aggregate level. SPSS software utilized for this analysis. The cropping seasons such as rice growing seasons Aus (summer rice), Aman (autumn rice) and Boro (winter rice) exhibited a significant increase in maximum and minimum temperature. Rainfall found to have a decreasing trend for all the seasons. This study also revealed that the climatic parameters had significant effects on rice yield, but these results varied among three rice crops. Maximum temperature had positive effects on all rice yields, especially on Aus and Aman. Minimum temperature had a negative effect on Aman rice yield but a positive effect on Aus rice yield. Wheat yield negatively associated with temperature. Rainfall exhibited negative relation with both rice and wheat yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0900.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Full polarimetric SAR; S-band; Agricultural application; Quantification
Online: 13 October 2023 (19:02:55 CEST)
Based on the high-precision quantitative measurement ability, the S-band subsystem of China's high- resolution aviation system carried out the agricultural application test for the first time in Jilin elm, China. The experiment is mainly carried out in combination with vegetation growth, soil moisture content inversion, wheat straw returning and ground feature classification. Through the design of quantitative measurement scheme, the results of different straw coverage and observation at different times are compared, which shows the prospect of S-band full polarization synthetic aperture radar system in the field of agricultural application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0728.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: agricultural activities; groundwater; Saudi Arabia; Biyadh; Arab/Jubaila
Online: 12 September 2023 (08:44:36 CEST)
Agricultural activities profoundly affect groundwater levels in Saudi Arabia. The Al Kharj and Wadi Sahba areas, central Saudi Arabia, produce groundwater mainly from the Jurassic Arab/Jubaila aquifer and the overlying Cretaceous Biyadh aquifer. A geographic information system analysis and linear regression analyses show that from 1978 to 2016, significant agricultural overexploitation of the area’s fossil groundwater was associated with groundwater level drops of ~104 m in Al Kharj and ~48 m in Wadi Sahba. The estimated total volume of groundwater withdrawal across both aquifers during this period of wheat and alfalfa irrigation was ~27 billion m3. Landsat image analysis shows that agricultural land use decreased by ~66% over the same period due to overexploitation. The 2016 phase-out of alfalfa farming was associated with increases in groundwater levels: ~26 m in the Arab/Jubaila aquifer and ~3 m in the Biyadh aquifer. This recovery was likely due to lateral flow from surrounding fossil water within the aquifer given the absence of significant surface recharge. Model-based evaluation of surface recharge of the aquifer reveals very low potential for surface infiltration, with almost no recharge into the deep aquifer. Assuming that recovery continues at the present rate, the average groundwater level for the Arab/Jubaila aquifer is expected to reach 98 m below ground level in 2025 and 74 m below ground level in 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0366.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Crops production; Agricultural management; Food security; Open database
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:54:44 CEST)
In recent years the yield of fruits and vegetables have been decreasing in Colombia, threatening national food security. Analysis of crop production data may lead to identifying cropping systems that have shown better adaptability to changes in climatic and non-climatic factors associated with agricultural production. The open database AGRONET keeps data of the agricultural activities conducted in Colombia, allowing to find the information organized by crops, regions and years; each row of the database registers farm information in Colombia. Aiming to identify resilient crops systems, agricultural data of fruits and vegetables were analyzed. First, trends in crop production were studied by year and locations, detecting the regions and crops with highest yields in the period from 2006 until 2020. Then, mixed linear regression and principal components analysis were applied to elucidate the relation between non-climatic factors and crop yield. In Colombia, vegetable production was more efficient than fruits, observing yields of 10.23 and 13.33 t ha-1, respectively. On the other hand, the Colombian central region showed high yields for vegetables, while for fruits this was exhibited in northern and eastern locations. In the present study, yield variation responded to changes in the location of crop systems, while years had no effect on vegetable production. Furthermore, the price of the agricultural product and the cost of fertilizers were associated with the yield of the analyzed crops systems. In Colombia, carrot, cabbage, tomato papaya and pineapple are resilient crops whose yield increases especially by the regions where they are cultivated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1850.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: agricultural machinery; oilseed rape; harvester; reel; parameter optimization
Online: 27 June 2023 (05:29:09 CEST)
A variable speed anti-tangling reel mechanism was designed to address the problems of tangling, hanging and rewinding of the tassel wheel and the high paddling loss in the current Chinese rape combine harvester cutting table. The kinematic equations of the reel mechanism were developed, and the analysis showed that the speed in the entry stage is low and the speed in the exit stage is high, and the attitude of the reel teeth change with the rape plant movement during the whole paddling process. A single-factor test and a multi-factor regression orthogonal combination test were carried out using the cutting table loss rate of rape harvesting as the evaluation index. The main and secondary factors affecting the cutting table loss of the variable speed reel were obtained as the reel speed, the machine travel speed and the ground angle of the frame. A mathematical model of regression of cutter loss and the main influencing factors was established, with the coefficient of determination R2 = 0.9918. The optimal combination of parameters for the variable speed reel was obtained with the lowest cutting table loss rate in rape harvesting as the optimization target: reel speed 25r/min, frame parallel to the ground and implement travel speed 0.7m/s. Field validation tests and comparative tests of cutting table loss of the two reels were carried out. The test results show that the regression mathematical model of the cutting table loss is more accurate, and the cutting table loss is reduced by 13.9% with the variable speed reel compared to the cam-action reel, and there are no problems with the paddle teeth hanging and tangling during the paddling process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0363.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Cross-border E-Commerce; agricultural production; Yunnan; China
Online: 21 March 2023 (01:57:10 CET)
Economic globalisation has promoted the extensive circulation of commodities around the world, and international trade has increasingly been a strong booster for economic growth in China. As an foundation for national economy, the shift of agricultural products (AP) from production to distribution has become the focus of agricultural development, and in recent years, the international trade of agricultural products in China has been the highest in the world. While, cross-border e-commerce (CBE), as one of the important modes of agricultural products circulation, has brought new opportunities for China's fresh agricultural products to carry out online import and export trade under the favourable policies continuously introduced internationally. This research analyses status of APCBE in Yunnan Province, China, and propose strategies for developing CBE of Yunnan AP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0288.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Agricultural technology; Adoption; Multinomial Logit; Poverty; Rural Amhara
Online: 10 June 2021 (11:14:06 CEST)
The adoption of agricultural technology is an important path for raising agricultural productivity, and thereby for reducing food insecurity and poverty. Despite the efforts to promote adoption in most of the rural areas of Ethiopian farmers, the adoption rate has always been very low. So, it is essential to understand the barriers to adoption. As a result, this study examined the determinants of adoption of multiple agricultural technologies in rural Amhara region of Ethiopia. The study is based on Ethiopian socio-economic survey of 2015/16. A sample of 656 farm households was considered. The paper used multinomial logit model to assess the factors affecting adoption. The result shows that farmers with more educational level, family size, off-farm participation, livestock, extension contact, credit access, advisory service, and farmers closer to plot, all-weather road, zonal town, and farmers with lower remittance income are more likely to adopt new or improved agricultural technology. Therefore, the study recommends the need of policies and interventions on adoption of agricultural technology should pay attention and move along with those variables significantly influencing adoption of agricultural technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0271.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agricultural expansion; marketing; land-grabs; value-chains; Zambia
Online: 9 June 2021 (21:53:53 CEST)
The post-2007 crisis-induced an agricultural expansion across Africa, but local level production and marketing experiences remain understudied. This study assesses the dynamics of agricultural expansion and small-scale farmers’ experiences in rural Zambia. Using a mixed research design, data were drawn from surveys, multi-level interviews, group discussions policy reviews and observations. Results show an agriculture expansion among small-scale farmers is underway due to favourable climatic conditions, land, and water availability, enabled by state subsidies, and an emerging market in commercial and supermarket outlets. However, farmers encounter production and marketing challenges related to poor tenure security, late delivery of inputs, and low financing. They face low and fluctuating prices, poor infrastructure, including low levels of mechanisation necessary to expand the production. Overall, despite an agricultural and land-use expansion taking shape, actual benefits for real transformation are largely missing – and currently over their heads. An argument is made that whilst policy actors continue to impress farmers to organise themselves to maximise benefits of an agricultural expansion, actual processes on how farmers can achieve this are missing in policy and practice. This necessitates a focus on multi-level processes aimed at addressing production, storage and marketing dynamics within a progressive coordination arrangement that centralizes small producers. Until that is addressed, the prospects for local development and poverty reduction for small-scale farmers under an agricultural expansion will be slender but continue to centrally reside in the state efforts to create enabling local and community environment that addresses real challenges. Overall, this study helps to extend the debate on diverse processes shaping rural transformation in Zambia and across sub-Saharan Africa, including the role and importance of agricultural expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0628.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Food production; machine learning; agricultural production; prediction model
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:20:09 CEST)
Advancing models for accurate estimation of food production is essential for policymaking and managing national plans of action for food security. This research proposes two machine learning models for the prediction of food production. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) methods are used to advance the prediction models. In the present study, two variables of livestock production and agricultural production were considered as the source of food production. Three variables were used to evaluate livestock production, namely livestock yield, live animals, and animal slaughtered, and two variables were used to assess agricultural production, namely agricultural production yields and losses. Iran was selected as the case study of the current study. Therefore, time-series data related to livestock and agricultural productions in Iran from 1961 to 2017 have been collected from the FAOSTAT database. First, 70% of this data was used to train ANFIS and MLP, and the remaining 30% of the data was used to test the models. The results disclosed that the ANFIS model with Generalized bell-shaped (Gbell) built-in membership functions has the lowest error level in predicting food production. The findings of this study provide a suitable tool for policymakers who can use this model and predict the future of food production to provide a proper plan for the future of food security and food supply for the next generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: avgricultural value chain; agricultural marketing; economic development; productivity
Online: 5 January 2021 (12:08:16 CET)
Over time, the agricultural sector's contribution to the nation's Gross Domestic Product and revenue is declining exponentially; the decline may be attributed to varying problems affecting the agricultural value chain resulting in low productivity. The agricultural value chain comprises a series of activities and value addition processes required to transform raw materials into useable products to maximize the final consumers' utility.1 The agricultural value chain's marketing activities have been skewed with challenges, thus affecting agricultural productivity and agricultural sector contribution to the economy. The paper critically examines and discuss the impact of agricultural marketing to economic development, a historical review of agricultural marketing in Nigeria, challenges undermining the impact of agricultural marketing, measures to reposition agricultural marketing potential to build back better, policy recommendations to reposition the future of Nigeria's agricultural productivity. The paper aims to promote concerted efforts through knowledge dissemination to build back better through market research and facilitation and boost economic prosperity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0510.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Brexit; land use change; Wales; agricultural policies; forestry
Online: 19 November 2020 (12:24:39 CET)
Changes in agricultural policy may have rapid impact even on landscapes which have taken millennia to form. Here we explore the potential of UK leaving the EU as a catalyst for profound changes in pastoral landscapes in Wales. Impending change of the trading regime governing agricultural produce, concurrent to public pressure to use agricultural subsidies for environmental goals, may lead to unforeseen consequences for Welsh natural environment. We employ a combination of change demand modelling and ‘story and simulation approach’ to predict the effect of five hypothetical scenarios on land use and land use change in Wales by 2030. We show that the most extreme trade scenario would result in a near-uniform distribution of broadleaf woodland across most of Wales. Abandonment of marginal and low productivity grazing would likely give way to afforestation, initiating a return to forested landscapes not seen in Wales for several thousands of years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0517.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: agricultural productivity; cropping patterns; Kenya; multi-data analysis
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:44:04 CET)
The proportion of area under various crops at a given point in time, known as a cropping pattern, plays an essential role in determining the level of agricultural production. In this study, cropping patterns of three sub-counties in Murang’a County, a typical African smallholder farming area in Kenya, were mapped. Specifically, we compared the performance of eight classification scenarios for mapping cropping patterns; namely using (i) only Sentinel-2 reflectance bands (S2), (ii) S2 and S2 derived vegetation indices (VIs); (iii) S2 and S2 vegetation phenology (VP); (iv) S2 and Sentinel-1 radar backscatter data (S1); (v) S2, VIs, and S1; (vi) S2, VP, and S1; (vii) S2, VIs and VP, and (viii) S2, VIs, VP and S1. Reference data of the dominant cropping patterns and non-croplands were collected. The guided regularized random forest (GRRF) algorithm was used to select the optimum variables and to perform the respective classification for each scenario. The most accurate result of the overall accuracy of 93.16% was attained from the scenario (viii) S2, VIs, VP, and S1. The McNemar’s test of significance did not show significant differences (p≤0.05) among the tested scenarios. Our study demonstrated the strength of GRRF and the synergetic advantage of S2 and S1 derivatives to map cropping patterns in a heterogeneous landscape where high resolution imagery are inaccessible. Our cropping pattern mapping approach can be used in other sites of relatively similar agro-ecological conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0050.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: potato cultivation soil suitability; agricultural landscape categorisation; GIS
Online: 5 February 2020 (02:52:46 CET)
Growing potato demands considerable external inputs of pesticides due to its susceptibility to various pests and pathogens. Here we present an attempt to differentiate the Slovak rural landscape with respect to the possibility of effective potato cultivation and to characterise soil parameters of current potato cultivation areas with the aim to increase the sustainability of the potato production. The selection was based on soil climatic, production and economic parameters. By using the GIS tools and existing databases on soil characteristics in Slovakia, maps of soil suitability categories for potato cultivation were generated. In Slovakia, it was found that 12.3% of farmland is very suitable for potato cultivation and that as much as 43.1% is not suitable. Later the specified categories were characterised in detail and specified with respect to geographic, soil, climatic, production and economic parameters. Currently, most potato crops are cultivated on Eutric Cambisols (27%), Chernozems (20%) and Mollic Fluvisols (18%). Loamy soils (65%), soils without gravel (62%), deep soils (74%) and soil situated on plains (55%) are dominant in these regions. We suggest that potato cultivation should be concentrated on the most suitable areas, thereby increasing the economic profitability, improving the ecological stability of the country and supporting the sustainability of the agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0259.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Green pesticides; Agricultural subsidies; Product certification; Laboratory experiment
Online: 27 February 2019 (15:08:30 CET)
This paper studies the impact of agricultural subsidies and product certification on the use rate of green pesticides based on experimental economics. We found that agricultural subsidies effectively increased the utilization rate of green pesticides. If the agricultural subsidies raised from 20% to 100%, the green pesticides’ using rate increased by 438.51%. We also found that product certification increased the utilization rate of green pesticides by 376.16%%.The increase of agricultural subsidies is more effective than the product certification. Under a higher proportion of agricultural subsidies, farmers’ behavior will maintain “status bias”. Therefore, there are three suggestions proposed. Firstly, because of high price of green pesticides and lower production, the subsidies for agricultural materials should raise greatly to effectively improve the utilization rate of green pesticides. It is recommended that green pesticide provided free of charge in some wealthy areas. Secondly, both subsidies and product certification can improve the use rate of green pesticides. However, since the effect of agricultural subsidies is better than product certification, and farmers may have status bias. Therefore, it is recommended to give priority to the substantial increase on the proportion of agricultural subsidies, and then to product certification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0719.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Water quality; Farming system; Water Framework Directive; Agricultural watershed
Online: 10 November 2023 (14:42:23 CET)
Despite much published literature on the impacts of agriculture on water quality, knowledge gaps persist regarding which farming systems are of most concern for these relationships, which could help water resource planners better target water management efforts. This study addresses these subjects, seeking to understand how this relationship varies across different farming systems. We used data on water quality status in watersheds of an agricultural region in southern Portugal and crossed it with a map of farming systems for the same region provided by a previous study. By overlaying both data layers, we characterized the areal shares of the farming systems in the watersheds and inspected how these shares relate with water quality status through logistic regression. Results support that the impact of agriculture on water quality is mostly related with specific farming systems. We believe this type of information can be of high interest for agricultural planners and policymakers interested in meeting water quality standards, and we conclude by suggesting innovative policy options based on payments to farmers operating selected farming systems, as a cost-effective way to reconcile agricultural and environmental policy objectives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1506.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: agricultural water management; crop water requirements; evapotranspiration; Japanese plums
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:56:46 CEST)
Japanese plums form part of a multi-billion rand deciduous fruit industry in South Africa. Despite this, there is a paucity of knowledge on the seasonal water requirements of plum orchards. In a time of changing climatic conditions and diminishing water resources, this gap in literature poses an imminent threat to the long-term sustainability and global competitiveness of the South African plum industry. Therefore, this paper aimed to provide a review of the available literature on the crop water requirements of full-bearing well-irrigated Japanese plum orchards for improved agricultural water management. Full-year water requirements for well-watered full-bearing Japanese orchards ranged between 921 and 1 211 mm a-1 with a mean value of 1 084 ±140 mm a-1. Canopy growth and pruning appeared to be the most common causes of differences in water requirement estimates. Growing season length also plays a role with late-season maturing orchards having higher water requirements than their early and mid-maturing counterparts. The knowledge review provided benchmark figures for the annual water requirements of Japanese plums. However further research is required to determine the water requirement of plums from planting to full-bearing age and the response of plum trees to water stress, in a South African context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1308.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Risk amplification effect; Risk preference; GM agricultural products; China
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:43:31 CEST)
Consumer preference for products made from transgenic technology has been widely studied, yet few studies exist exploring the factors influencing producers’ adoption of transgenic technology. Based on field surveys in Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Henan and Shandong, we employed a gambling experiment to capture producers’ risk preferences by estimating their risk aversion coefficients. We further estimated producers’ risk amplification and risk perception of GM technology. Using ordered logit model and Poisson model we identified the major factors influencing producers’ adoption of transgenic technology. We found the factors impacted the decision of producers from different regions in different ways. The results showed that over 60% of participants amplified the risk of transgenic crops. When there was potential risk, producers might not be rational even if they had high level of knowledge and cognition about the technology. Our results shed light on government policies aiming to increase the adoption of new technologies by producers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agricultural management; antagonistic activity; fermentation formulation; copper-containing fungicides
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:31:43 CEST)
Sweet pepper is an important vegetable in the world. Bacterial leaf spot caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas perforans, is a limiting factor that significantly reduces the quality and yield of sweet pepper To control this disease, the use of chemical fungicides is currently the main disease control method. Thus, we want to develop an alternative method by using antagonistic microorganisms. Under this demand, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PMB04 has strong antagonistic effects against pathogens and can inhibit the occurrence of diseases. B. amyloliquefaciens PMB04 has the potential for the development of a disease control product. Primarily, PMB04 revealed to contain a strong inhibitory effect against all isolated X. perforans strains. In the inoculation assay, the severity of bacterial spot disease on sweet peppers was reduced by PMB04 bacterial suspensions. To increase the convenience of field application for future prospects, the development of PMB04 fermentation liquid was carried out with different ratios of brown sugar and yeast extract in a 30-liter fermentation tank subsequently. Results exhibited that the fermentation liquid of 3-1 formula obtained the highest bacterial population in a 30-liter fermentation tank. The fermentation liquid of 0.5-0.5 formula was the most stable formula under two different conditions in terms of consistent bacterial population and sporulation. In addition, the 200-fold dilution of 3-1 and 0.5-0.5 fermentation liquids revealed best control efficacy on bacterial leaf spot of sweet pepper. Additionally, the results of the 0.5-0.5 fermentation liquid (PMB4FL) with different dilution concentrations also showed that the 200- and 500-fold dilutions had the best control efficacy. To understand the effect of commonly used copper-containing fungicides on sweet peppers on the application of microbial agent PMB4FL, the effects of copper hydroxide and tribasic copper sulfate on the growth of X. perforans strains and B. amyloliquefaciens PMB04 were assayed. The results exhibited that the above two fungicides did not have any inhibitory effect on the growth of PMB04, but had a strong inhibitory effect on the X. perforans strain. In the follow-up control experiment, the treatment of copper hydroxide had no synergistic effect with PMB4FL to control bacterial leaf spot. We concluded that the use of PMB4FL fermentation liquid alone on the leaves can effectively control the occurrence of bacterial leaf spot in sweet pepper crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0624.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: aerial photography; agricultural crop; digital image processing; pattern identification
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:26:00 CEST)
The agricultural sector is undergoing a revolution that requires sustainable solutions to the challenges that arise from traditional farming methods. To address these challenges, technical and sustainable support is needed to develop projects that improve crop performance. This study focuses on the onion crop and the challenges presented throughout its phenological cycle. Aerial monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and digital image processing were used to identify patterns in the onion crop, including humid areas, weed growth, vegetation deficits, and decreased harvest performance. An algorithm was developed to identify the patterns that most affected crop growth, as the average local production reported was 40.166 ton/ha, but only 25.00 ton/ha was reached due to blight caused by constant humidity and limited sunlight. This resulted in the death of leaves and poor development of bulbs, with 50% of the production being of medium size. It is estimated that approximately 20% of the production was lost due to blight and unfavorable weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0625.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: precision agriculture; agricultural extension; profitability; production quality; systematic review
Online: 25 June 2021 (15:52:08 CEST)
Precision agriculture (PA) is a holistic, sustainable, innovative systems approach that assists farmers in production management. Adopting PA could improve sustainable food security and community economic sustainability. Developing an understanding of PA adoption attributes is needed to assist extension practitioners to promote adoption and better understand the innovation adoption phenomena. A systematic review of literature was conducted to investigate PA adoption. Thirty-three publications were examined, and four themes were found among the reviewed publications. The results were interpreted using Rogers’ diffusion of innovations framework to address the research objectives. Of the reviewed literature, we found relative advantage and compatibility were two dominant attributes to strengthen the adoption of PA, and the complexity attribute was rarely used to promote the adoption of PA. This study shows that change agents do not fully use five attributes of innovation when they promote PA technology to stakeholders to adopt. Thus, we recommend studies from the agricultural extension specialists’ perspectives in the future may determine contributions to motivate farmers’ adoption of PA, in particular related to complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0475.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Urban agri-food; GECOAGRI-LANDITALY methodology; European agricultural systems
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:42:52 CET)
: For decades the city has created food models by requiring the countryside to meet the growing demand with increasingly more homologated crop reconversions and increasingly vast and competitive farms. The current acceleration of the land concentration process and the dramatic experience of the COVID 19 pandemic have, however, forced us to redefine the city-country relationship, which has been called into question for some years now in various FAO and EU documents. Based on the GECOAGRI-LANDITALY survey itinerary, a proven tool for reading local peculiarities, the AAs show how easy it is to recognize which farmlands can best fulfil the role of guaranteeing food safety and protecting the quality and typicality of traditional foods. The final proposal is to start a new agri-food policy that no longer starts from the demand formulated by the city but, reversing the direction of the old relationship, it starts from the availability of products offered by the countryside to re-educate consumption and promote the sustainability of agricultural practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0448.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Cellulose; agricultural waste; bioadsorbent; rare earth; terbium adsorption-desorption
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:00:24 CEST)
Preparation of a low-cost cellulose-based bioadsorbent from the cellulosic material extracted from the rose stems (CRS) was carried out; rose stems were considered agricultural wastes. After the required pretreatment of this waste, and its further treatment with an acidic mixture of acetic and nitric acids, the CRS product was yielded. The resulting bioadsorbent was characterized by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, which revealed diffraction maxima related to cellulose structure, whose calculated crystallinity index (CrI) was 75 %. In addition, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) showed signs of acetylation of the sample, also, the thermal properties of the solid was evaluated through Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed cellulose fibers before and after the adsorption process, some particles with not regular shapes were also observed. The CRS bioadsorbent was used in the effective adsorption of valuable Tb(III) from aqueous solution. The adsorption data resulted in a better fit to the Freundlich isotherm, and pseudo-second-order kinetic models; however, chemisorption had not been ruled out. Finally, desorption experiments revealed a recovery of terbium ions with an efficiency of 97 % from terbium-loaded bioadsorbent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0218.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: agricultural commodity futures; price discovery; market reflexivity; Hawkes process
Online: 13 May 2020 (03:35:53 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to analyze market reflexivity in agricultural futures contracts with different maturities. To this end, we apply a four-dimensional Hawkes model to storable and non-storable agricultural commodities. We find market reflexivity for both storable and non-storable commodities. Reflexivity accounts for about 50 to 70 percent of the total trading activity. Differences between nearby and deferred contracts are less pronounced for non-storable than for storable commodities. We conclude that the co-existence of exogenous and endogenous price dynamics does not change qualitative characteristics of the price discovery process that have been observed earlier without consideration of market reflexivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020026
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: good agricultural practice; aflatoxin; Nandi County; mycotoxins; Kenya; maize
Online: 10 April 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Aflatoxin contaminated maize is of public health concern in Kenya. Training farmers on good agricultural practice (GAP) has been touted as a mitigative measure. Little is known of the effect of such training on aflatoxin levels in maize grown in Kenya. This study evaluated what effect training farmers on GAP has on aflatoxin levels in maize grown in in maize grown in Kaptumo, Kilibwoni, and Kipkaren divisions in Nandi County. Ninety farmers were recruited for the study and interviewed on GAP. Maize samples were additionally collected from the participating farmers and analyzed for aflatoxins using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). All farmers prepared the land before planting, did correct spacing between the planted crops, carried out weeding, cleaned their stores before use, checked the condition of the maize after harvesting, sorted maize after shelling, and knew aflatoxins. A majority of the farmers (90%) used fertilizers, dried maize after harvesting, knew that aflatoxins were harmful to humans, and used clean transport in transporting the harvested maize. About 98% of farmers did stooking after harvesting and 97% used wooden pallets in the maize stores. The percentage of farmers who practiced early planting, top dressing, crop rotation, raising stores above the ground, applying insecticide after shelling and feeding damaged/rotten seeds to their animals was 84–96%, 62–80%, 67–85%, 86–98%, 63–81%, and 7–21% respectively. About 18/90 (20%) of all farmers reported that they had a relative who had died from liver cancer and the mean aflatoxin levels in season 1 were significantly different from season 2 (1.92 ± 1.07 ppb; 1.30 ± 1.50 ppb). Our findings suggest that although training farmers to adopt good agricultural practices was observed to be efficient in mitigating the problem of aflatoxins, the receptiveness of farmers to different aspects of the training may have differed. Therefore, in designing an optimized regional aflatoxin contamination strategy, local applicability should be considered.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agricultural activities; central region; forest cover depletion; LULC; urbanization
Online: 18 February 2020 (10:54:53 CET)
Cameroon territory is experiencing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes since its independence in 1960. But the main relevant impacts are recorded since 1990 due to intensification of agricultural activities and urbanization. LULC effects and dynamics vary from one region to another according to the type of vegetation cover and activities. Using remote sensing, GIS and subsidiary data, this paper attempted to model the land use and land cover (LULC) change in the Centre Region of Cameroon that host Yaoundé metropolis. The rapid expansion of the city of Yaoundé drives to the land conversion with farmland intensification and forest depletion accelerating the rate at which land use and land cover (LULC) transformations take place. This study aims at assessing the impacts of both agriculture and urbanization on the LULC change in the Centre Region of Cameroon. A detailed LULC map from MAPBOX high resolution images and three LULC maps were produced from Landsat TM-OLI images (1984-2015). A maximum likelihood classification techniques using ERDAS Imagine, showed forest decline with a total loss of 54% in thirty years. Also, Landsat and MAPBOX images to which we added 1951 aerial photograph and SPOT 6 (2006) were used to analyse urban growth in the city of Yaoundé. The results show a remarkable urban spatial spread of the metropolis between 1951 and 2015, with a peak in 2000. Images processing enabled us to analyse the long term dynamics of LULC change since the 1950s in this Region using ArcGIS & QGIS software’s. Based on this dynamic, a LULC projection map was produced using Markov model on IDRISI Selva, demonstrating the decrease of the dense forest (45% in 2015 to 0.25% in 2050). It was estimated that by 2050, the entire dense forest can be depleted if nothing is done, while only 12.67% of the secondary forest would remain in the Region. Such a projected map is very useful to decision makers for council development and urban planning. This effective forest depletion ties with the hypothesis that urbanization of Yaoundé and its secondary surrounding satellite cities (within a radius of 30-100km) is a veritable driving force of deforestation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0013.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: Heavy metal; Agricultural waste; Low-cost adsorbent; Wastewater; Toxicity
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:33:23 CET)
The beginning of industrialization human being has observed a variety of environmental troubles in the world. This industrialization has not only brought growth and affluence but ultimately troubled the ecosystem. One of the crashes is visible, in form of water contamination. Here the current study heavy metal contamination of water body has been discussed. Effluents from a great number of industries viz., tannery, textile, pigment & dyes, paint, wood processing, petroleum refining, electroplating, leather etc., have a major amount of heavy metals in their wastewater. The conventional technique of handling heavy metal pollution includes chemical oxidation, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, membrane separation, electrodialysis etc. These processes are expensive, energy intensive and frequently related with generation of poisonous by-product. Therefore, the adsorption has been examined as a cost-efficient technique of elimination of heavy metals from wastewater. In the current study different low-cost adsorbent has been a review as an abatement of heavy metal contamination from wastewater. These adsorbent comprise materials of natural origin like peat moss, zeolites, clay, and chitin are found to be an effective agent for removal of deadly heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Hg, Cr etc. Separately from these, a variety of agricultural wastes like rice husk, waste tea, neem bark, black gram; Turkish coffee, walnut shell etc. were also known as a powerful adsorbent for heavy metal removal. at the side of that low-cost industrial byproduct like fly ash, lignin, iron (III) hydroxide and red mud, coffee husks, Areca waste, tea factory waste, sugar beet pulp, battery industry waste, blast furnace sludge, waste slurry, sea nodule remains and grape stalk wastes have been discovered for their technical possibility to eliminate toxic heavy metals from impure water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agricultural land conversion; land economic value; urbanization; land rent
Online: 12 October 2018 (05:18:09 CEST)
Agricultural land conversion (ALC) is an incentive–driven process. In this paper we further investigate the inter–relationship between land economic value (LEV) and ALC. To achieve this goal, we calculated LEV for agricultural and non-agricultural (housing) uses in two areas in East Java, Indonesia. The first area represents suburban agriculture, facing rapid urbanization and experiencing high rate of ALC. The second area represents rural agriculture with zero ALC. Furthermore, we identified factors affecting LEV in both areas for both uses. The resut of this study show that agricultural land yielded higher economic benefit in rural area. Conversely, comparing to agricultural land, housing creates 7 times higher value in urban area. Moreover, agricultural land shown to create higher profit after converted. Ironically, the similar comparison doesn’t exists in rural area. Agricultural land only yielded 19% more value, indicate that agricultural land can be easily converted. It is also proven by the growing number of new urban core in the periphery area. There are several factors affecting land economic value, for agricultural use, soil fertility, accessibility, and cropping pattern are important variables. While accessibility and location in urban area increases land value for housing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0538.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: governance; agricultural value chain; links; captive chain; hierarchy chain
Online: 31 August 2018 (04:35:41 CEST)
The objective of this study is to determine the type of governance of the four main agricultural value chains in Tamaulipas, northeast of Mexico. For the preparation of this research used a qualitative design, using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to a sample of representatives of the four selected chains. The results showed that in all the studied networks, control and coordination capacity is limited by the influence that has a link on the rest of the chain. In all cases, was that the industrial link is who leads the chains and exert control over the rest of the links. The results showed that, when the industrial link is located close geographically to the rest of the links (chains of rice and sugar cane), the chains showed a hierarchical type, where the industrial exercised dominion over the rest of the links and captures most of the income. On the other hand, in chains where control is exercised by links that are outside the territory (chains of soybeans and sorghum), they function as captive chains, putting the rest of the chain to its influence and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1628.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Agriculture Demand; Agricultural Risk; Agent-Based Model; Standard Operating Policy
Online: 28 November 2023 (01:39:57 CET)
Modelling and presenting mathematical relationships for human behaviour is one of the most complex issues that researchers have always dealt with. In this article, a bottom-up framework for calculating agricultural needs is presented using the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers (such as education level, age, and dependence on income on agriculture) and how their lands are located concerning each other (interactions between neighbours). The objective function of this framework is to maximize the profit of individual farmers based on the amount of water received. Two scenarios, ABM1 (not considering neighbourhood effects) and ABM2 (all cases of farmers' placement and feeling neighbourhood effects), were investigated. In the first scenario (ABM1), there was a noteworthy reduction in water deficit volumes by approximately 35%, accompanied by a 20% increment in farmers' profits. Interestingly, higher risk-taking tendencies correlated with reduced profit margins. The second scenario (ABM2) underscored the significant role of neighborhood dynamics in cultivating diverse behavioral patterns among farmers, subsequently affecting their profitability. A granular examination revealed that farmers with a higher propensity for risk-taking generally accrued lower profits. Additionally, the study facilitated the calculation of total annual profits and average water consumption for each farmer, offering valuable insights for optimizing water resource management and allocation strategies. These findings are instrumental for planners and water resource managers aiming to promote sustainable agricultural practices and efficient water use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1008.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: agricultural cooperatives; technology adopters; non-technology adopters; panel data regression
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:14:04 CEST)
In the current situation, the world is busy with technological advances, including Indonesia. Since its arrival, many business fields have competed with each other to take part as technology users. One business sector that cannot be separated from technological support is cooperatives. On the other hand, some cooperatives in the developing phase experience technological lag. At the same time, East Kutai Regency, which is the agricultural center in East Kalimantan Province, tends to rely on the cooperative sector to encourage small and medium-scale economies. This research aims to investigate the causality between access to computers (AC), internet networks (IN), digital administration skills (DAS), and financial literacy (FL) on profits (PFT). The objectivity of the study compares agricultural cooperatives that adopt technology with adopt non-technology. Using panel data regression from eighteen sub-districts in East Kutai, it is proven that technology adopting agricultural cooperatives were more prominent than non-technology adopting agricultural cooperatives during 2017–2022. However, there is a harmony in the statistical findings from both observations, where access to computers and financial literacy both have a significant effect on profits. Other analysis results show that internet networks and digital administration skills have an insignificant impact on profits. The study's implications provide valuable output for the future sustainability of agricultural cooperatives. The success of agricultural cooperatives depends greatly on the effectiveness of the application of technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1862.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: loess landslide; agricultural irrigation; loess terrace; geomorphologic evolution; FLAC 3D
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:56:20 CEST)
Forests play a pivotal role within the ecological milieu, with alterations to forested areas not only impacting the local environment but also serving as a significant contributing factor to the occurrence of landslide disasters. However, the significance of forests in connection with deep seated landslides is diminished. In instances of extreme events, heavy rainfall, highly weak slopes, or seismic events, it is improbable for forest cover to exert any influence. Due to extensive agricultural irrigation, the Heifangtai terrace of China has experienced a significant rise in groundwater levels, leading to the occurrence of numerous landslides. Through field investigations and remote sensing interpretation, this study has revealed dramatical geomorphological changes in the Heifangtai terrace due to the occurrence of widespread landslides. These changes are likely to disrupt the pre-existing hydrological balance within the study area, thereby altering the conditions for landslides. Therefore, understanding how the evolution patterns of loess landslides can be assessed is a crucial scientific issue for predicting the conditions of landslide occurrence. Taking the evolution of landslides along the edge of the Heifangtai terraces as an example, this study first classified different types of loess landslides. Subsequently, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of these landslides were analyzed. Finally, utilizing the FLAC3D software, the stability of the loess slopes at the edge of the Heifangtai terrace was examined under the lateral evolution mode. The research findings indicate that the current loess landslides in the Heifangtai terrace exhibits longitudinal multi-periodicity and lateral group-occurring behavior, which is significant for assessing loess landslides along the edge of Heifangtai terraces.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1406.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: behaviour, pesticides, food safety, environmental and occupational exposure, agricultural workers.
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:42:29 CEST)
The main objective of this review is to determine the main risks that agricultural workers are exposed to during pesticide application, which may have a harmful effect on their health and on public health. This systematic review was based on the PRISMA guidelines. A search for articles was conducted in the Medline/PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases. Fifteen articles were selected considering their assessment of agricultural workers' knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, practices, and behaviours, identifying the main risks and risk factors for disease associated with the unsafe handling of pesticides. The main risk factors identified were age, education, pesticide safety training, farming experience, and contact with other farmers/intermediaries resulting in pesticide access. The most frequent risk behaviours were: application of pesticides without personal protective equipment (PPE), incorrect disposal of empty packaging and waste, and undervaluation of label information, as well as other unsafe practices. A multidisciplinary and more effective training must be delivered in order to enhance pesticide safe usage. This will empower workers to adopt more conscious and safer behaviours while using pesticides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2213.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; perception; impacts; temperature; precipitation; agricultural community; Bamyan; Afghanistan
Online: 2 June 2023 (05:05:52 CEST)
Climate change affects both human and natural systems. Afghanistan ranked globally on the top of highly vulnerable countries to the adverse effects of climate change. The agricultural communities of Afghanistan is highly affected by climate change. Understanding farmers’ real experiences on changing climate become crucial in planning the future adaptation strategies. This study assessed the farmers' perception of climate change and its impacts on farming communities. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted with 120 household heads. Additional qualitative data were collected by conducting 4 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), 4 Historical Timeline Calendars (HTCs), 18 Key Informant Interviews (KII), and sketches of 4 Crop Calendars. The study reveals that climate indicators have varied and changed. The farmers express their experiences of decreasing snowfall in winter and annual rainfall in spring and summer, which led to the intensity and frequency of drought and water shortages for agriculture and rangelands in the upper and lower part of the valleys. The temperatures in winter and summer have increased and led to earlier snow melting, earlier blooming, flowering, and greening of the plants. These changes affected both positively and negatively. There is a half-month new opportunity for cultivation and increased earlier animal ranching in the rangelands. These findings can be valuable inputs for developing effective and efficient adaptation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1306.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Improved genetic algorithm; Complete coverage path planning; Autonomous agricultural robot
Online: 18 May 2023 (08:47:18 CEST)
The Complete Coverage Path Planning (CCPP) is a key technology in the field of agricultural robot, and has great significance for improving the efficiency and quality of tillage, fertilization, harvesting and other agricultural robot operations, as well as reducing the operation energy consumption. The traditional boustrophedon or heuristic search algorithm based CCPP methods, when coping with the field with irregular boundaries, obstacles and other complex environments, still face many problems and challenges, such as large repeated work areas, multiple turns or U-turns, low operation efficiency and prone to local optimum. In order to solve the above problems, an improved-genetic-algorithm-based CCPP method was proposed in this paper, which introduces the idea of chromosome pairs and multi-points mutation to improve its global optimization ability in complex environments, reduce the repeated work areas and the number of turns and U-turns, and thereby improve the operation efficiency. The simulation and experimental results on simple regular fields showed that the proposed improved genetic algorithm-based CCPP method achieved the comparable performance with the traditional boustrophedon-based CCPP method. However, on the complex irregular fields, although the proposed CCPP method increased the number of turns by 13.76%, the area of repeated operation and the number of U-turns were decreased by 38.54% and 35.00% respectively, and saves the battery voltage by 7.82% on average compared to the boustrophedon-based CCPP method. This proved that the proposed CCPP method has strong adaptive capacity to the environment, and has practical application value in improving the efficiency and quality of agricultural machinery operations, and reducing the energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0200.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: hesitancy; Guatemala; agricultural worker; COVID-10; SARS-CoV-2; access
Online: 11 April 2023 (05:24:35 CEST)
Despite offering free-of-charge COVID-19 vaccines starting July 2021, Guatemala has one of the lowest vaccination rates in Latin America. During September 28, 2021 to April 11, 2022, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of community members adapting a CDC questionnaire to evaluate COVID-19 vaccine access and hesitancy. Of 233 participants ≥12 years, 127 (55%) received >1 dose of COVID-19 and 4 (2%) reported prior COVID-19 illness. Persons ≥12 years old unvaccinated (n=106) were more likely to be female (73% vs 41%, p<0.001) and homemakers (69% vs 24%, p<0.01) compared with vaccinated participants (n=127). Among those ≥18 years, the main reported motivation for vaccination among vaccinated participants was to protect the health of family/friends (101/117, 86%); 40 (55%) unvaccinated persons reported little/no confidence in public health institutions recommending COVID-19 vaccination. Community- and/or home-based vaccination programs, including vaccination of families through the workplace, may better reach female homemakers and reduce inequities and hesitancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0444.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Tonle Sap; meteorological drought; agricultural drought; drought index; drought duration
Online: 28 January 2022 (18:04:28 CET)
Rice production in the Tonle Sap basin is one of the main drivers for economic and social development in Cambodia. The Tonle Sap basin has experienced many different forms of disasters while more attention has been drawn to drought disaster. The objective of this study is to assess the impacts of drought on agriculture and food security through a case study of the Baribo basin, a sub-basin of Tonle Sap basin, Cambodia. Ground observations and satellite-based products were used for drought assessment from 1985 to 2008 which was the period with relatively good data quality. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standard Vegetation Index (SVI) were selected for meteorological and agricultural droughts assessment, correspondingly. Both SPI and SVI consistently suggested that drought is a major natural hazard causing food insecurity in the target basin. The highest drought intensity (DI) and severity (DS) occurred between 1993-1994 and the longest drought duration (DD) occurred between 2002 and 2006. The most severe damage to rice production was in 2004, affecting about 46% of the total cultivated area. The analysis showed that drought duration had a strong relationship with the affected area growing rice as well as food insecurity in the Tonle Sap basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0411.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Fresh Agricultural Produce Supply Chain; Coordination; Discount Contract; Quantity Loss
Online: 24 December 2021 (15:56:11 CET)
This paper explores the coordination of the agricultural cooperative to supermarket or E-commerce sup-ply chain, under the condition of quantity loss with a mixed decay function of exponential and logistical distribution. The nature of this process is analyzed, and the corresponding demand and supply functions with single- and multi-stage discount strategies are constructed respectively to create a working model. The optimal discount ratios for supermarkets and agricultural cooperatives in decentralized and central-ized decision-making modes coupled with single- and multi-stage discounts are calculated respectively. Finally, a universal optimal strategy is designed, which can be applied to various quantity decay scenarios and makes the discount strategy more generalized. The results show that discounts can coordinate supply chains more effectively; not only is fresh agricultural produce sold before it starts to rot, but the benefit conflicts arising from both supermarkets vs. cooperatives and traditional vs. E-commerce channels are equilibrated. Further, multi-stage discounts are more effective than single-stage ones, but optimal discount ratios rely on the initial quantity of fresh agricultural produce in the supply chain; its market share in the traditional distribution channel; the potential market size; retail price; the price sensitivity coefficient of the channel; the cross-elasticity coefficient of prices between different channels; and the properties of the quantity loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0369.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Macrocyclic lactones; agricultural crops; food; sample preparation; UHPLC-MS/MS
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:50:47 CEST)
Soybean, maize and bean are crops of great economic importance, but in the last years suffered with infestations of the caterpillar Helicoverpa armigera, being the main problem the resistance of this pest to most pesticides. Avermectin emamectin benzoate was recently released to control this pest. Other avermectins, like abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin and ivermectin are used in large scale because they potent acaricidal, anthelmintic, and insecticidal activities. Thus, a simple and fast method for the determination of avermectins in these crops based on a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis was developed and validated. For extraction, water followed by acetonitrile:isopropanol and a partition step with salts was stablished. With the clean-up step using activated EMR-Lipid, limits of detection of 1.2 μg kg-1 for abamectin, doramectin, emamectin benzoate and ivermectin, and of 2.4 μg kg-1 for eprinomectin were achieved. Accuracy and precision evaluated at low levels presented satisfactory results. The method was successfully applied in commercial samples and is a good alternative for routine analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Farm fragmentation; Land fragmentation; cattle farming; agricultural productivity; Northern Ireland
Online: 9 October 2021 (13:47:08 CEST)
Farm fragmentation is the occurrence of numerous and often discontinuous land parcels associated with a single farm. Farm fragmentation is considered to be a defining feature of Northern Ireland’s (NI) agricultural landscape, influencing agricultural efficiency, productivity, and the spread of livestock diseases. Despite this, the full extent of farm fragmentation in cattle farms is not well understood, and little is known of how farm fragmentation either influences, or is influenced by, different animal production types. This study describes and quantifies farm fragmentation metrics for cattle enterprises in NI, presented separately for dairy and non-dairy production types. We find that 35% of farms consist of five or more fragments, with larger farms associated with greater levels of farm fragmentation, fragment dispersal and contact with contiguous farms. Moreover, this was particularly evident in dairy farms, which were over twice the size of farms associated with non-dairy production types, with twice as many individual land parcels and twice as many fragments. We hypothesise that the difference in farm fragmentation and farm size between dairy and non-dairy production types is associated with the recent expansion of dairy farms after the abolition of the milk quota system in 2015, which may have driven the expansion of dairy farms via the acquisition of land. The high levels of land fragmentation, fragment dispersal and contiguous contact observed in NI cattle farms may also have important implications for agricultural productivity and epidemiology alike. Whilst highly connected pastures could facilitate the dissemination of disease, highly fragmented and parcellised land could also hamper productivity via diseconomies of scale, such as preventing the increase of herd sizes or additionally, adding to farm costs by increasing the complexity of herd management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0319.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: IoT; Smart Farming; sensor data; agricultural; Fuzzy logic; Network coding
Online: 16 August 2021 (10:56:10 CEST)
Climate risk is one of the confronting factors in Indian agriculture. To overcome this distrust, a large number of sensors can be installed in the fields,The extensive IoT platform can process the data sent by these sensors.The Data stream can be processed in real-timeusing Fuzzylogic, to offer smart solution. Network coding can enhance throughput and security. Thus reducing human interaction and improve efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: IoT; Smart Farming; sensor data; agricultural; Fuzzy logic; Network coding
Online: 11 August 2021 (14:09:12 CEST)
Climate risk is one of the confronting factors in Indian agriculture. To overcome this distrust, a large number of sensors can be installed in the fields,The extensive IoT platform can process the data sent by these sensors.The Data stream can be processed in real-timeusing Fuzzylogic, to offer smart solution. Network coding can enhance throughput and security. Thus reducing human interaction and improve efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fresh agricultural products; harvest schedule; stochastic programming; sample-average approximation
Online: 2 July 2021 (15:44:52 CEST)
This study focuses on the decisions of picking, inventory, ripening, delivering, and selling mangoes in a harvesting season. Demand, supply, and prices are uncertain, and their probability density functions are fitted based on actual trading data collected from the largest spot market in Taiwan. A stochastic programming model is formulated to minimize the expected cost under the considerations of labor, storage space, shelf life, and transportation restrictions. We implement the sample-average approximation to obtain a high-quality solution of the stochastic program. The analysis compares deterministic and stochastic solutions to assess the uncertain effect on the harvest decisions. Finally, the optimal harvest schedule of each mango type is suggested based on the stochastic program solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0291.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Pakistan; bajra; barley; jowar; crops production; agricultural gross domestic product
Online: 24 May 2019 (09:02:30 CEST)
This paper investigates and explores the minor crops production in Pakistan and its association with the agricultural gross domestic product. The agriculture sector of Pakistan has a rich contribution to the economic growth and development. Like major crops; minor crops also have a vital role to boost up the agriculture sector. Time span data was used in this study and it was collected from the Economy Survey of Pakistan annual reports. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method was used to analyze the data and results were interpreted by employing the Johansen co-integration test. Study results reveal that bajra, barely and jowar has a significant impact on the agricultural gross domestic product, while the total cropped area has a negative impact on AGDP. On the basis of the study results, we recommend the policy implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0164.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agricultural impacts, climate change impacts, integrated assessment model, CGE model
Online: 10 September 2018 (10:04:25 CEST)
Changes in agricultural yields due to climate change will affect land use, agricultural production volume, and food prices as well as macroeconomic indicators, such as GDP which is important as it enables one to compare the climate change impacts across multiple sectors. This study considered five key uncertainty factors and estimated macroeconomic impacts due to crop yield changes using a novel integrated assessment framework. The five factors are 1) land-use change (or yield aggregation method based on spatially-explicit information), 2) the amplitude of the CO2 fertilization effect, 3) the use of different climate models, 4) socioeconomic assumptions and 5) the level of mitigation stringency. We found that their global impacts on the macroeconomic indicator value were 0.02 - 0.06% of GDP in 2100. However, the impacts on the agricultural sector varied greatly by socioeconomic assumption. The relative contributions of these factors to the total uncertainty in the projected macroeconomic indicator value were greater in a pessimistic world scenario characterized by a large population increase and low income (0.6%) than in an optimistic scenario (0.00%).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: ecosystem services; agricultural systems; mapping; values; cross-scale; participatory; local
Online: 3 July 2018 (08:16:24 CEST)
Given the cross-scale interactions of agricultural ecosystems, it is important to collect ecosystem service data at the multiple spatial scales they operate at. Mapping of ecosystem services helps to assess their spatial and temporal distribution and is a popular communication tool of their availability and value. For example, maps can be used to quantify distance between areas of available ecosystem services and their beneficiaries and how services fluctuate with changes in land use patterns over time, allowing identification of synergies and trade-offs. However, a lack of local context and too large a resolution can reduce the utility of these maps, whilst masking heterogeneities in access due to equity dynamics. This review identifies and summarizes eight main methods of ESS mapping found in the literature—remote sensing, biophysical modelling, agent based modelling, economic valuation, expert opinion, user preference, participatory mapping, and photo-elicitation. We consider what spatial scales these methods are utilized at and the transferability of data created by each method. The analysis concludes with a methodological framework for mapping ecosystem services, intended to help researchers identify appropriate methods for a multi-scale research design. The framework is exemplified with an overview of a research project in Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1111.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: methane yield; energy output; psychrophilic anaerobic digestion; agricultural residue; coffee husk
Online: 16 November 2023 (14:33:15 CET)
Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion emerges as an appealing integrated solution for the management of agricultural waste, particularly for farmers in regions where the average temperature does not exceed 26°C, as seen in coffee cultivation. Therefore, this study seeks to assess the biomethane potential of thermochemical treated coffee husk through psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (C3-20°C-w/pretreatment). To examine its viability, outcomes were compared with reactors operating at both mesophilic (C1-35°C) and psychrophilic (C2-20°C) conditions, albeit without the use of pretreated coffee husk. The C3-20°C-w/pretreatment test demonstrated a 36.89% increase (150.47 mL CH4/g VS; 161.04 mL CH4/g COD), while the C1-35°C test exhibited a 24.03% increase (124.99 mL CH4/g VS; 133.77 mL CH4/g COD), both in comparison to the C2-20°C test (94.96 mL CH4/g VS; 101.63 mL CH4/g COD). Notably, the C3-20°C-w/pretreatment trial yielded superior outcomes, accompanied by an associated energy output of 4262.2 KWh/year, sufficient to meet the annual energy demands of 588 residences. This marks an increase of 100 and 217 residences compared to mesophilic and psychrophilic AD of CH without pretreatment, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1427.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Agricultural robot; deep learning; precision spraying; PID; fuzzy logic; autonomous guidance.
Online: 23 October 2023 (10:07:09 CEST)
This paper presents a deep learning-based multi-guidance line detection approach, enabling an autonomous four-wheeled agricultural robot to navigate strip farmland. The integration of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) systems optimizes the velocity and heading angle of robot, facilitating smooth navigation along identified guidance line. Enhance cornering maneuverability with real-time kinematics (RTK)-assisted Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) (RTK-GNSS) positioning. Additionally, the spraying system combined with deep learning can effectively identify weeds and crop nutrient deficiencies to achieve precise spraying. The guidance system prioritizes irrigation lines for navigation, with additional guidance from crop and furrow lines. Trigonometric analysis determines the angular deviation between the identified guidance line and the vertical line of the top view image. Experiments under diverse weather conditions demonstrate the stable navigation of robot at 12.5 cm/s, achieving up to 90% accuracy in weed and nutrient deficiency identification. The spraying accuracy for weeds and deficiencies averages 87% and 73%, respectively, underscoring the system's contribution to sustainable and precision horticulture practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0689.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: agricultural utilization; biosolids; characterization; land application; sustainable management; sewage sludge; standardization.
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:20:35 CEST)
One of the issues facing modern society, whatever the socio-economic level of the communities involved, is the development of sustainable strategies in the management of sludge/biosolids. Today, it is imperative to replace solutions aimed at simply “disposing of” with those oriented towards “maximizing recovery benefits”. It is desirable that agricultural use remains the main option in sludge/biosolids management, but to ensure effective and safe agronomic benefits, correctly fulfill the legal requirements, and build stakeholder and public confidence, rigorous and sustainable procedures need to be estab-lished. The development of realistic and enforceable regulation is crucial as it represents the right bal-ance between the different aspects of a coordinated and effective management. Furthermore, it is to recognize that regulation needs to be supported by standardized character-ization procedures and guidelines of good practices, because well-defined procedures allow le-gal requirements to be correctly and uniformly met, thus ensuring reliable comparison of re-sults obtained under different conditions. In this article, main aspects to consider for a sustainable application of this management practice are discussed, together with the parameters that need to be evaluated for the characterization of sludge/biosolids, according to the various aspects related to the agricultural use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0484.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: agricultural production trusteeship; high-quality production of grain; propensity score matching
Online: 7 June 2023 (04:04:34 CEST)
Based on the survey data of 5 large grain-producing provinces in China, we studied the promo-tion effect of the agricultural production trusteeship on high quality production of grain by using a propensity score matching method. The empirical results show that the high-quality production of grain level increased by 0.292, with an increase of 87.4% after participating in agricultural production trusteeship. Among them, the level of high efficiency, premiumization, greenization and branding of grain production has respectively increased by 0.234, 0.373, 0.208, and 0.158. However, there are differences in the facilitation effects of different trusteeship services, with the best promotion effect of agricultural material supply services, followed by post-harvest services, and then land management services and cultivating and harvesting services, the ATT is 0.287, 0.230, 0.158, and 0.139, respectively. Meanwhile, there are differences in the promotion effects for farm households with different factor endowments. The promotion effect is better for small farm households with 3 laborers or less, a land management scale of 10 mus or less, and 1 type of ag-ricultural machinery or less. Therefore, in order to give full play to the promotion effect of agri-cultural production trusteeship on high quality production of grain, the government should vigorously support its development and guide more smallholders to choose agricultural produc-tion trusteeship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0539.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture; Green Finance; Agricultural Industrial Structure; Fixed Effect Model; China
Online: 8 May 2023 (12:08:12 CEST)
This study utilized panel data from 31 Chinese provinces over a period of nine years to investigate the impact of green finance on the upgrading of the agricultural industrial structure. A fixed-effect model was employed, and the findings indicate that green financing has a positive effect on the growth of China's agricultural industry. However, regional disparities exist, particularly in the uneven distribution of green financing across the eastern, central, and western regions. Moreover, it emphasizes the need to consider regional differences and tailor development strategies accordingly. To promote further development and transformation of China's agricultural industrial structure, the study recommends innovative green financial products, improved regulations and policies, and the integration of digital technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0419.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Agricultural mechanization; Planting industry; Net carbon sink; Green total factor productivity
Online: 28 December 2021 (11:05:03 CET)
Agricultural mechanization is an important factor to improve the green total factor productivity of planting industry, which is the key way to realize the sustainable development and high-quality development of agriculture. Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2019, this paper uses the stochastic frontier analysis method of output oriented distance function to measure the green total factor productivity of China’s planting industry based on net carbon sink, and empirically studies the impact of agricultural mechanization on the green total factor productivity in China’s planting industry. The empirical analysis finds that mechanization can significantly promote the planting green total factor productivity, and this basic conclusion is still robust after using instrumental variables, sub sample regression. Further research found that the path of mechanization on planting green total factor productivity is mainly reflected in technology progress and spatial spillover. The mechanism of operation scale expansion, factor allocation optimization and technical efficiency change is not significant. Given these findings, the paper adds considerable value to the empirical literature and also provides various policy- and practical implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0210.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Policy Assessment; Green Deal; EU Common Agricultural Policy; Scaled Indicators; Greening
Online: 13 December 2021 (15:55:03 CET)
Every intervention of planning, implementation, and monitoring of agricultural and agri-environmental policies requires assessment tools that should have the characteristics of relevance, completeness, interpretability, data quality, efficiency, and overlapping. Despite the extensive selection of bibliographies and numerous projects designed to develop agri-environmental indicators necessary for assessing the sustainability of new policies, it is difficult to have an integrated and updated set of indicators available, which can be an effective and practical application tool to assists policymakers, researchers, and actors in policy design, monitoring and impact assessment. Particularly, such need is pressing to face the new environmental challenges imposed by the upcoming European Union Green Deal on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) post 2023. This study, therefore, aims to fill this gap by proposing a selection methodology and different pools of agri-environmental indicators differentiated based on a scale approach (crop-farm-district-region). Furthermore, we have attempted to validate our approach by quantifying selected indicators for a specific evaluation necessity, represented in this case by an assessment of environmental impact of land use change induced by CAP greening requirements in the Northern Italy context. Results of this validation show original crops’ impacts comparison, but also highlight great knowledge gaps in the available literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0006.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agricultural Tractor; Diesel Emission; Air Pollutants; Emission Inventory; Geographic Information System
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:36:45 CET)
Due to the shortage of agricultural labor forces and rapid aging of farmers, the utilization of tractors is becoming popular and essential in Korea. Tractors can be classified into two types, a walking tractor called as a power tiller and a riding tractor. In this study, agricultural tractors including walking and riding types were categorized into 4 levels by rated output power. And diesel emission inventory of tractors was established and analyzed using 2011 and 2019 survey data in Korea. Emission inventory including CO, NOx, SOx, TSP(PM10), PM2.5, VOCs and NH3 were established using Tier 3 methodology. The total amount of emission using agricultural tractors was decreased about 13% from 2011 to 2019. The number of walking tractors were decreased by about 19% in 8 years, on the other hand that of riding tractors were increased by about 12%. However, the emission reduction is about 48% for walking tractors and the emission increment is about 5% for riding tractors. Thus, the total emission from agricultural tractors was decreased by about 16% in those periods. It is due to the decrease of 21% and 15% in the hours of use of walking and riding tractors, respectively, in 2019. Walking tractors mainly emit air pollutants from spraying and transporting. Riding tractors mainly 61% of total air pollutants emits from soil preparation and transporting operations. Geographic information system (GIS) was used to spatially assign air pollutants variables into 17 provinces and metropolitan cities in Korea. High emission generating regions and changes of emissions during 8 years were clearly seen in GIS analysis. High air pollutant emitting regions are mainly located in the western and southern regions of Korea, which have plenty of arable areas compared to other regions in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Mycotoxins; Agricultural Practices; Mycotoxigenic Fungi; Fusarium; Oats; Cereals; Statistical Analysis; Agronomic
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:18:56 CEST)
Seven agronomic factors (crop season, farming system, harvest date, moisture, county, oat variety, and previous crop) were recorded for 202 oat crops grown across Ireland, and samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS for four major Fusarium mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin. Type A trichothecenes were present in 62% of crops, with 7.4% exceeding European regulatory limits. DON (6.4%) and ZEN (9.9%) occurrences were rela-tively infrequent, though one and three samples were measured over their set limits respectively. Overall, the type of farming system and the previous crop were the main factors identified to significantly influence mycotoxin prevalence or concentration. Particularly, adherence to an organic farming system and growing oats after a previous crop of grass were found to decrease contamination by type A trichothecenes. These are important findings and may provide valuable insights for many other types of cereals crops as Europe moves towards a much greater organic based food system.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: organic rice; agricultural research; participation; public funding; scientists; monitoring and evaluation
Online: 18 March 2021 (15:57:32 CET)
This paper reports on the conception and implementation of a participatory approach within an agricultural research project aimed at fostering the transition towards organic in the Italian rice district. We investigate the relationships among scientists and stakeholders, exploring researchers’ attitudes, barriers, and potential in relation to participatory research. We use participant observation, in-depth interviews, and systematic cataloguing of communication documents, from the beginning to two years into project implementation, for a total period of three years. The results of the analysis show that, despite a high level of authoritative commitment to participation, scientists reveal a scarcity of knowledge and skills, and poor attitudes that come from a negative perception of participatory research. They engage in various forms of collaboration with stakeholders, as long as decision-making remains essentially in their hands. With the deep analysis of a case study, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on the quality of participatory agricultural research, in particular presenting evidence on the key role of researchers and their attitudes. The paper also contributes to the development of a culture of learning by doing, through honest monitoring and evaluation, and the capacity to learn from failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0345.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: food safety; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; ACEII; agricultural security; national security
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:57:36 CEST)
Coronavirus is now a significant human pathogen with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Until now there has been no data to support a threat to agricultural industries. Using a comparative genomic protein analysis, this study examined the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACEII) gene of 17 animal species with an emphasis on agriculture. To determine viral vulnerability the 20 known SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)/ACEII receptor interaction sites were compared to determine their potential susceptibility to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. With the known bat host’s (XP_032963186) number of binding sites as a threshold, we note that ALL animal species examined in this study contained significant numbers (≥10) of SARS-CoV-2 binding sites and could be at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The data from this study suggest SARS-CoV-2 imposes a grave threat to the safety and security of the agricultural industry. Urgent studies are needed to determine if infected animals can transmit SARS-CoV-2 before and/or after processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0161.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Agricultural productivity; Cambodia; Rice production; Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA); Technical Efficiency
Online: 29 September 2017 (18:21:43 CEST)
Rice is the most important food crop in Cambodia and its production is the most organized food production system in the country. The main objective of this study is to measure technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian rice production and also trying to identify core influencing factors of rice TE at both national and household level, for explaining the possibilities of increasing productivity and profitability of rice, by using translog production function through Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model. Four-years dataset (2012-2015) generated from the government documents was utilized for the national analysis, while at household-level, the primary three-years data (2013-2015) collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang province by structured questionnaires was applied. The results indicate that level of rice output varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total actual harvested area, and technically fertilizers application within provinces, while level of household rice output varied according to the differences in efficiency of production processes, techniques, total annual harvested land, and technically application of fertilizers and pesticides of farmers. The overall mean TE was estimated at 78.4% (national-level) and 34% (household-level), indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 21.6% (national production) and 66% (household) at the same level of inputs and technology if farmers had been technically efficient. The TE also recorded -7% decreasing rate at the national-level and -14.3% at household-level due to highly affected of natural disasters and various environmental and social factors during the study periods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1467.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE); Cluster-based Agricultural IoT (CA-IoT); Fault Management (FM); Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO); Wireless Sensor Network-based Agricultural IoT (WSN-based Agri-IoT)
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:23:58 CEST)
This paper presents an in-depth contextualized tutorial on Agricultural IoT (Agri-IoT), covering the fundamental concepts, assessment of routing architectures and protocols, and performance optimization techniques via systematic survey and synthesis of related literature. The negative impacts of climate change and the increasing global population on food security and unemployment threats have motivated the adoption of the wireless sensor network (WSN)-based Agri-IoT as an indispensable underlying technology in precision agriculture and greenhouses to improve food production capacities and quality. However, most related Agri-IoT testbed solutions have failed to achieve their performance expectations due to the lack of an in-depth and contextualized reference tutorial that provides a holistic overview of communication technologies, routing architectures, and performance optimization modalities based on users’ expectations. Thus, although IoT applications are founded on a common idea, each use case (e.g., Agri-IoT) varies based on specific performance and users expectations as well as its technological, architectural, and deployment requirements. Likewise, the agricultural setting is a unique and hostile area where conventional IoT technologies do not apply, hence the need for this tutorial. Consequently, this tutorial addresses these via the following contributions: (1) a systematic overview of the fundamental concepts, technologies, and architectural standards of WSN-based Agri-IoT, (2) an evaluation of the technical design requirements of a robust, location-independent, and affordable Agri-IoT, (3) a comprehensive survey of the benchmarking fault tolerance techniques, communication standards, routing and medium access control (MAC) protocols, and WSN-based Agri-IoT testbed solutions, and (4) an in-depth case study on how to design a self-healing, energy-efficient, affordable, adaptive, stable, autonomous, and cluster-based WSN-specific Agri-IoT from a proposed taxonomy of multi-objective optimization (MOO) metrics that can guarantee an optimized network performance. Furthermore, this tutorial established new taxonomies of faults, architectural layers, and MOO metrics for cluster-based Agri-IoT (CA-IoT) networks and a 3-tier objective framework with remedial measures for designing an efficient associated supervisory protocol for cluster-based Agri-IoT networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0430.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: maize yield; nitrogen management; life cycle assessment; greenhouse gas; agricultural net profit
Online: 8 October 2023 (10:06:31 CEST)
Quantification of the trade-offs among greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, yield and farmers’ incomes is essential for proposing economic and environment nitrogen (N) management strategies for optimizing agricultural production. A four-year (2017–2020) field experiment (including four treatments: control experiment (CK), suitable utilization of fertilization (SU), emission reduction treatment (ER), and high fertilization (HF)) was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) in the North China Plain. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method was used in this study to quantify the GHG emissions and farmers’ incomes during the whole maize production process. The total GHG emissions of CK, SU, ER and HF treatments in the process of maize production are 10,755.2, 12,908.7, 11,950.1, and 14,274.5 kg CO2-eq ha−1 respectively, of which the direct emissions account for 84.8%, 76.8%, 74.9%, and 71.0%, respectively. Adding inhibitor significantly reduced direct GHG emissions, and the N2O and CO2 emissions from the maize fields in the ER treatment decreased by 30.0% and 7.9% compared to those in the SU treatment. Insignificant differences in yield were found between the SU and ER treatments, indicating that adding fertilizer inhibitors did not affect farmers’ incomes while reducing GHG emissions. The yield for SU, ER and HF treatments all significantly increased by 12.9%–24.0%, 10.0%–20.7% and 2.1%–17.4% compared to CK, respectively. In comparison with CK, both SU and ER significantly promoted agricultural net profit (ANP) by 16.6% and 12.2% with the mean ANP values of 3,101.0 USD ha-1 and 2,980.0 USD ha-1, respectively. Due to the high agricultural inputs, the ANP values in the HF treatment was 11.2%, 16.6% and 12.4% lower than those in the SU treatment in 2018–2020. In conclusion, the combination of N fertilizer and inhibitors was proved to be an environmentally friendly, high-profit and low-emissions production technology while sustaining or even increasing maize yields in the North China Plain, which was conducive to achieving agricultural sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1164.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: sustainable development; sustainable production; employee welfare; agricultural technical means of transport sector
Online: 18 September 2023 (11:16:19 CEST)
The main purpose of the work is to indicate the effects of the implementation of the concept of sustainable production from the perspective of the well-being of employees. The diagnosis was made among manufacturers operating in the sector of agricultural technical means of transport (production of parts and subassemblies). Achieving the main goal required the formulation and implementation of partial goals, which the authors included: (C1) analysis of the concept of sustainable production from the perspective of employees' well-being (theoretical plane); (C2) compiling a research model in the form of an evaluation sheet being the result of a literature query and an expert study (theoretical and design layer); attention was paid to the articulation of categories relevant to the content and scope of research; (C3) verification of the research model (indication of the effects of the implementation of the concept of sustainable production (the perspective of employee well-being) by the surveyed enterprises).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0884.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: commodity market; production costs; cost trends; agricultural inputs, corn production, soybean production
Online: 13 July 2023 (11:22:43 CEST)
In Brazil, the production of corn and soybeans has been growing significantly in recent years. Considering that the strategies for investing in the production of these crops are conditioned by production costs and risk, the objective of this article is to propose a simulation model that indicates the trend of production costs for these commodities, considering the dispersion and correlation of selected key variable prices and corn and soybean production costs practiced between the years of 2018 and 2022. Fifty specialized companies in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, provided data for this study, and Monte Carlo simulations showed that the total cost of corn production/ha is between USD 600.00 and USD 1150.00, with a level of certainty of 84.7%, and soybeans are in the range of USD 260.00 to USD 420.00, with a level of certainty of 86.4%. The model evidenced a trend of decreasing production costs for the crops for the 2023/24 and 2024/25 harvests, as the input with the greatest impact (fertilizer) is showing a downward trend. On the other hand, costs related to labor, soybean seed, and fungicides are showing an upward trend, while dolomitic limestone corrective remains stable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0604.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: global value chain; Morocco; agri-food; agricultural policy; standards; water; fertilizers; innovation
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:44:13 CEST)
Global agricultural and food production is well integrated into world trade but is protected by strict health standards, essential labels and public subsidies. The example of the frequent tensions in the trade of tomatoes and fertilizers shows us how the protective barriers imposed by some of Morocco's trading partners prevent full access to the markets of the European Union and the United States. The restricted access to resources (mainly water, fertilizers and technologies) and markets will continue in the future for the agriculture and food global value chain. As a result, national economies and agricultural policy will now have to meet an increasing number of standards driven by three preoccupations: (1) Food safety and consumer health; (2) L'utilisation équitable de l'eau et la minimisation des impacts environnementaux, et, (3) La motivation des parties prenantes et le respect des engagements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1078.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Interdependence; Contagion effect; Agricultural commodities; Bibliometric analysis; Rational use of natural resources.
Online: 15 June 2023 (05:44:49 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to conduct a bibliometric review of literary production in terms of market interdependence. We investigate the effect of contagion on agricultural commodities and identify the commodities and methods used in the most cited publications over the decades. For this, we used the SCOPUS database, sorting with Rayyan, Excel, and finally, the Bibliometrix/R-project. The results showed that corn, wheat, soybeans, cotton, and sugar are the most studied commodities. There is no uniqueness concerning the methods used to identify interdependence and the contagion effect. Also, it is possible to perceive the growing scientific interest concerning the subject, with a diversity of authors and magazines. However, there is a direction of the and magazines most cited articles for analyzing agricultural commodities and energy, demonstrated a worldwide trend of studies relating natural resources, biofuels, clean energy, and efficiency. In addition, countries like China and the United States stand out in this scientific scenario as the countries that produce the most articles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0661.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Soil Moisture; Bare agricultural areas; Neural Networks; Satellite Remote Sensing; Sentinel-1
Online: 9 June 2023 (03:57:30 CEST)
Soil moisture maps are essential for hydrological, agricultural and risk assessment applications. To best meet these requirements, it is essential to develop soil moisture products at high spatial resolution which is now made possible using the free Sentinel-1 (S1) SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data. Some soil moisture retrieval techniques using S1 data relied on the use of a priori weather information in order to increase the precision of soil moisture estimates, which required access to a weather forecasting framework. This paper presents an improved and fully automated solution for high-resolution soil moisture mapping in bare agricultural areas. The proposed solution derives a priori weather information directly from the original Sentinel images, thus bypassing the need for a weather forecasting framework. For soil moisture estimation, the neural network technique was implemented to ensure the optimum integration of radar information. The neural networks were trained using synthetic data generated by the modified Integral Equation Model (IEM) model and validated on real data from two study sites in France and Tunisia. Main findings showed that the use of radar signal averaged over grids of a few km2 in addition to radar signal at plot scale instead of a priori weather information, provides good soil moisture estimations. The accuracy is even slightly better comparatively to the accuracy obtained using a priori weather information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0169.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agricultural carbon emissions; Low-level trap; DEA-SBM model; Tobit model; China
Online: 2 June 2023 (09:38:11 CEST)
This study evaluates the agricultural carbon emission efficiency of Shandong Province from 2011 to 2020 using the DEA-SBM model. The nexus between endogenous and exogenous variables is estimated using the Tobit model. The findings reveal an overall increasing trend in agricultural carbon emissions, with significant variations in efficiency values among different cities, leading to a severe polarization. Spatial evaluation shows a high distribution trend in the central region and low in the eastern and western regions of Shandong Province. The empirical tests conducted for Shandong Province and its three regions indicate that urbanization plays a major role in sup-porting the growth of agricultural carbon emission efficiency, while the education level of the la-bor force has a suppressive impact. Economic development and crop cultivation structure, how-ever, have no significant influence. The impact of these variables varies across the eastern, central, and western regions. The proposed countermeasures include improving planting structure and reducing brain drain in the eastern region, strengthening agricultural and rural inputs and in-creasing the added value of agricultural products in the central region, and intensifying the link-age between urbanization and industrial layout in the western region to reduce agricultural car-bon emissions efficiency in Shandong Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1907.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: agricultural soil; food production ecosystems; soil quality indexes; physicochemical indicators; biological indicators
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:55:57 CEST)
As the global population grows, the demand for food increases and puts a strain on food production systems and agricultural productivity, causing soil degradation. Soil Quality Indexes (SQIs) have been developed to maintain and improve soil quality. However, due to the variety of soils and SQIs, analyzing and comparing results has been historically difficult. Therefore, in this study, we carried out a systematic review with meta-analysis focused on soil quality studies of agricultural soils under intensive agriculture using the unified weighted additive SQI methodology (SQIU). We analyzed 65 quality observations obtained from 22 studies. Chemical indicators were the most prevalent in the SQIUs, followed by physical and biological indicators. Conventional soil management had negative effects on soil quality (–7.55%). From the factors analyzed, the minimum database had a significant effect on the soil quality results, but not the number of indicators that made up the SQIU. The SQIU made up of chemical-biological indicators (CB) presented negatively overestimated measurements of soil quality (–32.53%), exaggerating the damage to the analyzed soils. The indicators that correlated most strongly with the size of the effect on agricultural soil quality were the cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The SQIU is a feasible tool to interpret the quality of agricultural soils around the world, as it makes it possible to obtain a simple and generalized view of soil conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0808.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: terraced landscape; agricultural heritage; mapping with drone; density index; size index; Uzundere
Online: 24 April 2023 (02:29:02 CEST)
The history of agricultural terraces dates back to agricultural society; and throughout history, they have enabled agricultural activities to be carried out on lands with irregular relief. They have also served as an essential element of rural landscapes due to their architectural features, building materials, and techniques, as well as the landscapes they create. Furthermore, terraces also contribute to soil conservation by preventing erosion, adding organic matter to the soil, and harvesting rainwater. The significance of agricultural terraces in the cultural landscape has triggered the need to define and classify them. In this regard, agricultural terraces across many different locations have found their place on the List of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Sites (GIAHS) and UNESCO cultural heritage lists. In the present study, the agricultural terraces of the Erikli neighborhood of the Uzundere district were mapped through surveys, drone shots, and orthophotos, and analyzed based on the size and density indices previously used in the classification of Alpine terraces. The study is important in terms of demonstrating the use of drone technology in mapping agricultural terraces. The results of the study revealed that 51.6% of the agricultural terraces in the study area had very steep slopes and 22195 meters of total stone wall length, the average density index was 523.29 m/ha, and 76.4% of the terraces were meso and macro in character. Moreover the study shows that the terraces in the region are more susceptible to deterioration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0726.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: agricultural waste; bio-waste; synergies; web platform; bioeconomy; industrial symbiosis; waste management
Online: 21 April 2023 (13:48:17 CEST)
Sustainable bio-economy is considered to be one of the most promising routes towards the transition to a circular and climate-neutral economy. The valorization industry of bio-waste and agri-food by-products represents a key player in bioeconomy. In this article the design and the development of a web platform aiming at promoting synergies enabling the agricultural waste valorization is presented. The platform consists of: (i) the AgriPLaCE Waste Management Database which provides the users with an extended list of potential utilization measures for a variety of agricultural waste streams (ii) the AgriPLaCE Synergies Tool which aims to create synergies between different actors involved in the value chain from agricultural waste production to waste treatment and new valuable products’ exploitation. At the initial stage, the conceptual design of both tools took place by conducting an in-depth analysis for the user needs and services alongside the system architecture. Following, the AgriPLaCE platform development stage took place, with the implementation of all the necessary subsystems. The results showed that multiple potential collaborations can arise by the use of the AgriPLaCE platform, while users can also deepen on alternative and emerging treatment technologies and valuable products that can derive from a wide range of agricultural waste streams.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0372.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agricultural modeling; fitting quality; function; grain corn; prediction accuracy; soybeans; winter wheat
Online: 21 March 2023 (07:10:49 CET)
Crop yield prediction is relevant subject of current agricultural science. There are various mathematical approaches to crop yield prediction, and regression analysis, notwithstanding the fact that it is somewhat outdated, is still one of the most used ones in this purpose. The quality of predictive model is of great importance, and it is strongly dependent on the rational choice of the target function. The goal of this study is to find out the best regression model for winter wheat, soybeans, and grain corn yield prediction depending on the crops’ water use. The data on true crops’ yields and water use were collected within 1970-2020 at the experimental fields of the Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Kherson region, Ukraine. In total, 145 data pairs were processed by the best subsets regression to find out the best model in terms of fitting quality (assessed by the Pearson’s coefficient of correlation), and prediction accuracy (assessed by the values of the minimum and maximum absolute errors and mean average percentage error). As a result, it was established that the best fitting quality for all the studied crops is attributed to cubic function, while the best accuracy is recorded for hyperbolic (reverse) function in soybeans (mean absolute percentage error is 12.27%), quadratic and hyperbolic functions in winter wheat (mean absolute percentage error is 20.54%), and cubic function in grain corn (mean absolute percentage error is 14.92%). To sum up the results of the study, it is recommended to apply cubic regression function for modeling crops’ yields in agricultural studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0005.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: local agricultural marketplace; cereal commodity trade; quantity measurement costs; measurement reliability; Ethiopia
Online: 1 February 2019 (09:12:29 CET)
The issue of measurement reliability is certainly undervalued in the local agricultural marketplace organization. Besides, there was nothing identified concerning the extent of cereal commodity trade measurement cost. Hence, this paper aimed to estimate the magnitude of cereals trade quantity measurement cost caused by instrument error and unreliability; mainly by targeting the local marketplace in Ethiopia. The survey was conducted in six different districts’ marketplaces (n = 602) of Oromia region by employing administered structured questionnaires and site mass measurement calibration. The gathered data were analyzed using independent samples t-test, one sample t-test, and analysis of variance. According to the findings, the actual value measurement means of the quantity of most local units of the farmers were greater than small traders. The independent t-test result indicated that the average values of the quantity of the majority of units of measurement between farmers and small traders were varied significantly. Estimated measuring instruments’ error and unreliability associated average measurement cost of one-day market transaction over total cereals marketed amount were higher comparatively for a sack, bowl, and glass units. This study demonstrates that homogeneity in measurement, policy, and institutions that aid cereals trade would have an indispensable role to reduce measurement costs and ensure equitable exchange.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agricultural stakeholders; extension; multivariate analysis; socio-ecological systems; mental models; sustainable agriculture
Online: 9 October 2018 (06:03:38 CEST)
The sustainability of agriculture depends as much on the natural resources required for production as it does on the stakeholders that manage those resources. It is thus essential to understand the variables that influence the decision-making process of agricultural stakeholders to design educational programs, interventions, and policies geared towards their specific needs, a required step to enhance agricultural sustainability. We examined the perceptions, experiences, and priorities that influence management decisions of five major groups of agricultural stakeholders (conventional small grain producers, organic small grain producers, organic vegetable producers, extension agents and agro-industry crop consultants, and researchers) across the Montana, United States. Results revealed that while stakeholder groups have distinct perceptions, experiences, and priorities, there were similarities across groups. Specifically, organic vegetable and organic small grain producers showed similar responses that were, in turn, divergent of conventional producers, researchers, and crop consultants. Conventional small grain producers and researchers showed overlapping response patterns while crop consultants formed an isolated group. Our results reinforce the need for agricultural education and programs that address unique and shared experiences, priorities, and concerns of multiple stakeholder groups. This study endorses the call for a paradigm shift from the traditional top-down agricultural extension model to one that accounts for participants’ socio-ecological contexts to facilitate the adoption of sustainable agricultural systems that support environmental and human wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: agricultural pesticides; residential proximity; adverse birth outcomes; preterm birth; low birthweight; pregnancy
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:44:14 CEST)
Findings from studies of prenatal exposure to pesticides and adverse birth outcomes have been equivocal so far. We examined prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides in relation to preterm birth and term low birthweight, respectively, in children born between 1998 and 2010 randomly selected from California birth records. We estimated residential exposures to agriculturally applied pesticides within 2 km of residential addresses at birth by pregnancy trimester for 17 individual pesticides and 3 chemical classes (organophosphates, pyrethroids, and carbamates). Among maternal addresses located within 2 km of any agricultural pesticide application, we identified 24,693 preterm and 220,297 term births, and 4,412 term low birthweight and 194,732 term normal birthweight infants. First or second trimester exposures to individual pesticides (e.g., glyphosates, paraquat, imidacloprid) or exposures to 2+ pesticides in the three chemical classes were associated with small increases (3-7%) in risk for preterm birth; associations were stronger for female offspring. We did not find associations between term low birthweight and exposures to pesticides other than for myclobutanil (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04-1.20) and possibly pyrethroids as a class. Our improved exposure assessment revealed that first and second trimester exposures to pesticides were associated with preterm delivery but few affected term low birthweight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0121.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: REBF; protection levels; agricultural economic loss; Baoji section of the Weihe River
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:36:05 CET)
Many agricultural water uses crowd the river ecology of the river water, thus leading to irreversible habitat damage. This paper presents an agricultural economic loss calculation model that is based on river ecological basic flow (REBF) protection by introducing a typical crop water requirement coefficient. First, the water balance equation is used according to a set of REBF protection values to compute the agricultural water shortage that results in the REBF. Second, the agricultural water shortage that results in REBF protection and a typical crop water requirement coefficient are used to determine the food production generated by REBF protection. Finally, the loss of food production and the food market prices are used to determine the agricultural economic loss caused by the different protection levels of REBF. A case study of the Weihe River in China is conducted. The calculation model is used to compute the agricultural economic loss on the basis of REBF protection in the Baoji section of the Weihe River, and the change law of the agricultural economic loss that results in different levels of the REBF is discussed. In addition, changes in the canal water use coefficient and the crop structure that affect agricultural economic loss are analyzed. Results show that the spatial and temporal variations in the runoff affect the changes in time and space of the agricultural economic loss. The higher the REBF protection level, the higher the agricultural economic loss. In addition, agricultural economic loss can provide a quantitative basis for reasonable REBF protection. The size of agricultural economic loss helps the government sector in decision-making on REBF protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2050.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: agricultural waste; atmospheric pollution; dioxins; emission inventory; metals; POPs; risk assessment; rice straw
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:55:16 CET)
Rice cultivation is the main agricultural activity in Asia, and it results in an enormous amount of agricultural waste, that are usually disposed-off by burning, causing serious environmental health and climate problems. Pakistan is the tenth largest producer in the world and the fourth exporter of rice in the world. To date, there are no studies targeting Pakistan’s profile monitoring its contribution in open burning emissions from rice straw waste. This study presents the characterization of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PAHs emissions from three samples of rice straw collected from the main rice cultivation regions of Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh and Azad Jammu and Kashmir) in relation to the role of metal-based agricultural additives. PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PAHs emissions were quantified using a fixed grid system biomass plant and measuring the macro-pollutants online and sampling the organic micro-pollutants and metals in isokinetic mode, followed by ISO and CEN standards methods. In addition, role of agrochemicals was monitored in terms of metal catalysis resulted in POPs emissions. This study provides the characterization of most relevant group of pollutants (metals, PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PAHs) as a result of agricultural waste combustion. The rice straw samples from AJK showed high values of organochlorine micro-pollutants compared to the values followed by samples from Punjab and Sindh, i.e., respectively, ∑PCDD/F (2594>1493>856 pg/Nm3) and ∑PCB (41>38>30 pg/Nm3). Whereas the organic micro-pollutants ∑PAH, indicators of incomplete combustion (PICs), were recorded high in the samples from Sindh followed by Punjab and AJK. This study supports the idea that the phenomena that lead to the formation of PCDD/F and PCB are influenced not only by poor combustion but also by the presence of metal catalysts or precursors in the burned fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1732.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: agricultural plastic waste; disposal practices; extended producer responsibility; collection schemes; sustainable food production
Online: 26 October 2023 (16:14:18 CEST)
The use of plastic in agriculture has become so omnipresent within the industry that it has acquired it own lexicon to become known as ‘plasticulture’. However, since, compared to other industries the quantities consumed are low, little attention is granted to this waste stream. This is the case both with local and international policies even though it bears a close connection to soil health and therefore is a prerequisite to improve the sustainability of food production processes including food security. Using Malta as a case study, the research utilises quantitative and qualitative tools to identify and quantify the most common types of agricultural plastic waste generated and determines the attitudes of farmers towards a collection and recycling scheme. While it identifies that incineration and ploughing of plastic waste as regular practices, it also ascertains the willingness of farmers to acquire more knowledge about more appropriate methods to dispose of this waste stream thus guiding policy makers towards the need to initiate educational measures for farmers to prevent these harmful practices. Through stakeholder interviews the research highlights that the present lack of data is a major hindrance for policy to take account of this waste stream.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0583.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Agricultural surface pollution; Yangtze River Economic Zone; spatial and temporal characteristics; threshold effect
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:00:39 CEST)
In order to better realize rural revitalization, this paper analyzes the spatial and temporal char-acteristics and influencing factors of agricultural surface source pollution in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from the three perspectives of government, enterprise and agriculture by using the spatial Durbin model and the dynamic GMM method in the period of 2006-2021, and further re-searches the threshold characteristics of the distortion of the factor market on the agricultural surface source pollution under the different strengths of environmental regulation. The results show that there is a positive spatial correlation between agricultural surface pollution in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and government environmental regulation, input factor market distortion and labor force transfer all have a significant impact on agricultural surface pollution. Among them, factor market distortion has a significant spatial spillover effect on agricultural surface pollution in the Yangtze River Economic Zone, and has a significant single-threshold ef-fect on environmental regulation. Accordingly, the government should strengthen environmental regulation, continuously improve the agricultural factor market mechanism, and pay attention to the construction of talents to provide support for rural revitalization.