ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: transportation integration; service industry agglomeration; Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration; urban agglomeration transportation integration index system; knowledge spillover effect.
Online: 13 September 2022 (16:02:29 CEST)
This study selected the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration as the research area, combining it with the current situation of the transportation development of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration to construct the urban agglomeration transportation integration index system and evaluate the development status of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration transportation integration. The study examined the influence mechanism of transportation infrastructure on service industry agglomeration. The results are as follows: (1) From 2011–2020, the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration’s transportation integration index showed a clear upward trend. (2)The development of transport integration in urban agglomerations has heterogeneous effects on local service agglomeration. The development of the integration level of local transportation has a certain inhibitory effect on the agglomeration of local service industry. The transportation integration of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration plays an important role in promoting the agglomeration of local wholesale and retail industry, transportation, storage and postal services. (3) The transportation integration of urban agglomeration can affect the agglomeration of service industry through the knowledge spillover brought by the free flow of various factors. The knowledge spillover effect caused by local transportation integration can promote the agglomeration of local service industry to a certain extent. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration needs to accelerate the construction of trans-provincial and trans-municipal transportation infrastructure, and further improve the connectivity level of the urban agglomeration, so as to promote the integrated development of high-quality transportation in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0420.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: wet agglomeration; flocculation; hydrodynamics; turbulence
Online: 29 May 2018 (09:00:36 CEST)
In this study, an experimentally validated computational model was developed to investigate the hydrodynamics in a rotor-stator vortex RVR agglomeration reactor having a rotating disc at the centre with two shrouded outer plates. A numerical simulation was performed using a simplified form of the reactor geometry to compute the 3D flow field in batch mode operations. Thereafter, the model was validated using data from a 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) flow analysis performed during the design of the reactor. Using different operating speeds—70, 90, 110 and 130 rpm, the flow fields were computed numerically followed by a comprehensive data analysis. The simulation results showed separated boundary layers on the rotating disc and the stator. The flow field within the reactor is characterized by a rotational plane circular forced vortex flow in which the streamlines are concentric circles with a rotational vortex. Overall, the results of the numerical simulation demonstrate a fairly good agreement between the CFD model and the experimental data as well as the available theoretical predictions. The swirl ratio β was found to be approximately 0.4044, 0.4038, 0.4044 and 0.4043 for operating speeds of N=70, 90, 110 and 130 rpm respectively. In terms of the spatial distribution, the turbulence intensity and kinetic energy are concentrated on the outer region of the reactor while the axial velocity showed a decreasing intensity towards the shroud. However, a comparison of the CFD and experimental predictions of the tangential velocity and the vorticity amplitude profiles shows that these parameters were under-predicted by the experimental analysis which could be attributed to some of the experimental limitations rather than the robustness of the CFD model or numerical code.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0583.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: sludge; dust; processing; dehydration; agglomeration; recycling
Online: 8 December 2023 (10:11:37 CET)
Annotation. PURPOSE. Development of a drainless energy-saving technology for the processing of high-moisture iron-containing sludge from metallurgical production. RESEARCH METHOD. The regularities of the combined process of chemical dehydration of high-moisture iron-containing sludge by powdered waste of lime and dolomite, hardening and agglomeration by pressing in a single technological cycle on the developed experimental plant are studied. In the course of laboratory studies, the temperature of the mass, the rate of dehydration, the chemical composition of the mixtures, the appearance of the resulting briquettes, the weight loss during agglomeration, the humidity of the mixtures, and the mechanical strength of the briquettes were carried out. RESULTS. New patterns have been established that have made it possible to develop a non-firing method for producing iron-containing material and self-healing briquettes. The essence of the method, which is one of the main provisions of scientific novelty, is to combine the processes of dehydration, self-hardening of the mixture with the process of shaping by applying external pressure to the hardening mixture in molds to obtain agglomerated material in the form of briquettes in a single technological cycle. The proposed technology does not require drying and firing, and a set of strength properties occurs as the material is cooled in air during the day. A new energy-efficient and drainless method for the production of iron-containing briquettes has been developed, which combines the processes of chemical dehydration and agglomeration in one technological cycle. CONCLUSION. The proposed project and technology will allow organizing production for the processing of high-moisture iron-containing sludge and obtaining a complex iron-containing material as a secondary metal-containing raw material for metallurgical plants for the production of steel and rolled metal. and dolomite dust of dry gas cleaning) as dehydrating and binding materials, as well as screening of coke and coal as a reducing agent. The proposed technology also solves the problems of environmental pollution and land acquisition for storage of production waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0388.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: alumina; Bayer process; bauxite; seeded precipitation; coarse gibbsite; agglomeration.
Online: 21 December 2022 (06:56:02 CET)
The addition of active seed for increasing the precipitation rate leads to the formation of fine Al(OH)3 particles that complicates separation of solid from the mother liquor. In this study, the enhanced precipitation of coarse Al(OH)3 from sodium aluminate solution using active agglomerated seed was investigated. Aluminum salt (Al2(SO4)3) were used for active agglomerated seed precipitation at the initial of the process. About 50% of precipitation rate was obtained when these agglomerates were used as a seed in the amount of 20 g L–1 at 25 °C within 10 h. The agglomerated active seed and precipitate samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM images showed that agglomerates consist of flake-like particles that can be stick together by bayerite (β-Al(OH)3) acting as a binder. The precipitation temperature above 35 °C and the high concentration of free alkali (αk > 3) lead to the agglomerates refinement that can be associated with the bayerite dissolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0256.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: hierarchical agglomeration; complex vibration spectra; bedload monitoring; underwater acoustics
Online: 12 July 2020 (12:27:37 CEST)
This paper proposes a novel data processing framework dedicated to bedload monitoring in underwater environments. After calibration, by integration the total energy in the nominal bandwidth, the proposed experimental setup is able to accurately measure the mass of individual sediments hitting the aluminum plate. This require a priori knowledge of the vibration trasients in order to match a predefined dictionary. Based on unsupervised hierarchical agglomeration of complex vibration spectra, the proposed algorithms allow to accurately localize the transients corresponding to the shocks created by sediment impacts on a steel plate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0230.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: industrial agglomeration; FDI; green total factor productivity; spillover effect
Online: 16 May 2018 (10:54:56 CEST)
This paper studies the influence mechanism of industrial agglomeration and foreign direct investment (FDI) on green total factor productivity (GTFP). We use the SBM Directional Distance Function to measure the GTFP of Chongqing's manufacturing industry from 1999 to 2015. The results show that the level of GTFP in Chongqing's manufacturing industry is relatively low, which is contrary to the current green development mode. By clarifying the conduction path of industrial agglomeration and FDI on GTFP, we use the panel Tobit model to study the effect of industrial agglomeration and FDI on GTFP. The main findings are: the higher the level of industrial agglomeration, the more beneficial it is to increase GTFP. FDI has an inhibitory effect on GTFP. The spillover effect of FDI on GTFP is not significant. At the same time, FDI counteracts the role of industrial agglomeration in promoting GTFP. The findings in a present study indicate that, according to Chongqing's experience, the "pollution haven" is established. Therefore, relying solely on foreign technology to promote the development of the manufacturing industry has many drawbacks clearly. Only by improving the ability of independent innovation is the reliable way to enhance GTFP effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0791.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Ultrasound; gas purification; agglomeration; acoustic field; resonant gap; vortex flow
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:47:39 CET)
The article is devoted to the study of ultrasonic agglomeration of PM2.5 in uniform and non-uniform ultrasonic fields. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of ultrasonic agglomeration by initiating acoustic streams in a resonant non-uniform ultrasonic field is shown. A non-uniform ultrasonic field with zones of high and low sound pressure levels formed using a bending-oscillating disk transmitter made it possible to initiate acoustic vortex-type streaming that promote the movement of particles into the nodal areas of a standing wave and between them. The efficiency of ultrasonic treatment was determined indirectly by the degree of inertial trapping of agglomerates. It has been established that the impact of an non-uniform ultrasonic field in comparison with the impact of a uniform ultrasonic field makes it possible to increase the efficiency of inertial capture of agglomerates PM2.5 from 89% to 95%, PM1.5 from 85% to 92%, PM0.5 from 76% to 85%. The results obtained made it possible to propose a design for an agglomeration chamber, which allows for a multiple increase in the productivity of ultrasonic processing of a gas-dispersed flow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2008.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: technological innovation; financial agglomeration; real economy growth; space spillover effect
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:21:52 CEST)
Amidst China's new economic normal, the real economy faces various domestic and global challenges. Technological innovation, with its capital intensity and uncertain returns, is crucial to rejuvenate emerging industries and revamp the industrial structure. Meanwhile, financial agglomeration plays a dual role: directly fostering real economic development and indirectly affecting it through technological innovation. This study analyzes data from 30 mainland Chinese provinces and cities between 2011 and 2018, utilizing fuzzy matter-element analysis and location entropy method. Relying on a spatial econometric model, we explore the impact of technological innovation and financial clustering on real economic growth, including spatial ripple effects. The conclusions are derived from Chinese evidence and offer valuable insights into the evolving innovation and financial dynamics within the participating nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: educational quality; agglomeration; segregation; spatial autocorrelation; Moran’s Index; geo-visualization
Online: 17 June 2022 (04:51:58 CEST)
This study seeks to measure the degree of agglomeration of educational quality in Colombia, based on the non-socialization of the population that exhibits low educational quality, with the population that exhibits high educational quality, and thus determine how such agglomeration affects the phenomenon of academic segregation. To this end, we perform a spatial analysis of the educational quality in Colombia and of variables that may influence to the phenomenon of educational agglomeration. The level of agglomeration in educational quality in Colombia is demonstrated by the calculation of the Moran’s Index, in which a result of 0.62 was obtained. High educational quality is concentrated in the Andean region, while low educational quality is agglomerated in the periphery of the country, in areas such as the Pacific region. A spatial regression model was carried out to measure the dependence of municipalities on their neighbors, and to determine the main socio-economic factors affecting the phenomenon of educational agglomeration in Colombia, finding that living conditions, unsatisfied basic needs and fiscal transparency have all an impact on the educational quality of the municipalities. It is also found that the number of homicides in the municipalities does not seem to have a significant relationship with education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1402.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: ecosystem services; optimisation; InVEST model; NSGA II; Central Plains Urban Agglomeration
Online: 20 June 2023 (08:11:13 CEST)
Based on multi-source remote sensing data, scenario analysis, and model simulation, the Pareto optimal solutions for water supply, water purification (N retention), and carbon storage and sequestration services under different scenarios were sought by adjusting its land use structure. The results showed that. In Scenario 1(S1), the water supply service needs to increase by 86.820 to 11.211 billion cubic metres, the water purification (N retention) service needs to decrease by 11,400 to 11,700 tons, and the carbon storage and sequestration service need to decrease by 2.070 to 2.487 billion tons. In Scenario 2(S2), the water supply service needs to increase by 8.243–10.666 billion cubic metres, the water purification (N retention) service needs to decrease by 11,300–1.10 million tons, and the carbon storage and sequestration service needs to decrease by 2.033 to 2.466 billion tons. In Scenario 3 (S3), the water supply service needs to increase by 7.832–11.437 billion cubic metres, the water purification (N retention) service needs to decrease by 1.16–10,800 tons, and the carbon storage and sequestration service needs to decrease by 19.220 to 2.380 billion tons. After land use optimisation and adjustment, the S3 ecological land structure is complete and consistent with the vision of ecological protection and urban development in the study area, which is the optimal scenario. After optimising the S3 ecosystem service supply pattern, the water supply, water purification (N retention), and carbon storage and sequestration services could connect the western and eastern ecosystem service supply areas, balance the overall ecosystem service supply pattern of the study area and meet the demand for ecosystem services. The results can guide regional land planning and ecosystem service management optimisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0110.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: hydrogen production; steam reforming; Ni/attapulgite; catalysts deactivation; agglomeration and sintering
Online: 28 September 2016 (10:14:11 CEST)
In this research, catalytic steam reforming acetic acid derived from the aqueous portion of bio-oil for hydrogen production was investigated by using different Ni/ATC (Attapulgite Clay) catalysts prepared by precipitation, impregnation and mechanical blending methods. The fresh and reduced catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, TEM and H2-TPR. The comprehensive results demonstrated that the interaction between active metallic Ni and ATC carrier was significantly improved in Ni/ATC catalyst prepared by precipitation method, and in which the mean Ni particle size was the smallest (~13 nm) resulted in the highest metal dispersion (7.5%). The catalytic performance of the three catalysts was evaluated through the process of steam reforming of acetic acid in a fixed-bed reactor under atmospheric pressure at two different temperatures, such as 550 ℃ and 650 ℃. Results showed that the Ni/ATC (PM-N/ATC) prepared by precipitation method, achieved the highest H2 yield of ~82% and little lower acetic acid conversion efficiency of ~85% than that (~95%) of Ni/ATC (IM-NATC) prepared by impregnation method. In addition, the deactivation catalysts after reaction for 4 h were analyzed by XRD, TGA-DTG and TEM, which demonstrated that the catalyst deactivation was not caused by the amount of carbon deposition, but owed to the significant agglomeration and sintering of Ni particles in the carrier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0188.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: porous silicon nitride ceramics; microwave sintering technology; agglomeration process; law of influence
Online: 18 August 2019 (02:30:04 CEST)
In this paper, the preparation methods of porous silicon nitride materials with controllable dielectric constant and pore structure were systematically studied. By using microwave sintering technology, porous silicon nitride materials with high closed pore ratio were prepared by adjusting the content of sintering additives and sintering process parameters, and controlling the grain boundary phase and pore structure and size. The effects of sintering conditions on the total porosity, closed porosity, pore structure and dielectric properties of materials were systematically studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0347.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: urbanization quality; ecosystem services; coupling coordination; spatial-temporal variations; Lanzhou-Xining Urban Agglomeration
Online: 14 April 2023 (04:13:31 CEST)
The study of man-land relationship in urbanization process is the current frontier and focus of international research. How to balance urban development and ecosystem conservation in the Upper Yellow River is a key issue for sustainable development in China. In this study, we evaluated the Lanzhou-Xining urban agglomeration （LXUA）by constructing a multi-dimensional assessment system for urbanization quality and ecosystem services. The efficacy function model, entropy weight method, and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model were used to quantitatively assess the subsystems' state of development. Then, the coupling model (CD) and the coordination degree（CCD）model were used to explore the coupling coordination relationship and spatial-temporal change characteristics of the composite system. The findings indicate that: 1）In 2020, the quality of urbanization in LXUA showed the pattern of "double core". The development of urban centers in each city is insufficient, and the proportion of counties with low-level is too high. 2）Integrated ecosystem services showed an increasing distribution pattern from the northeast to the southwest. Water provision services, soil conservation services and carbon fixation services all showed growth trends. 3）Each county’s composite system was in the run-in stage or highly coupled stage. The subsystems were closely related to each other. 4）The CCD was decreased by 6% between two decades. The number of counties on the verge of disorder was the highest. About 80% of the counties are relatively lagging behind in ecosystem services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0277.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: industrial agglomeration; land transfer; agricultural green production efficiency; intermediary effect model; threshold effect model
Online: 6 July 2023 (03:33:13 CEST)
Understanding how industrial agglomeration affects agricultural green production efficiency is essential for green agricultural development. This study uses the super-efficient EBM-GML to measure and analyze the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and core sources of dynamics of agricultural green production efficiency in China by using panel data from 30 Chinese provinces from 2006 to 2020. It also empirically investigates the relationships between industrial agglomeration, land transfer, and agricultural production efficiency. By using fixed, intermediary, and threshold effects models, the internal links between the industrial agglomeration, land transfer, and agricultural green production efficiency are examined. The findings indicate that the green production efficiency of Chinese agriculture exhibits the regional characteristics of being “high in the west and low in the east, high in the south and low in the north” in terms of space; in terms of time series, the overall trend is that of growing, with an average annual growth rate of 11.45%, and the growth primarily depends on the “single-track drive” of green technological progress. By promoting land transfer, industrial agglomeration can increase the agricultural green production efficiency and decomposition index. Land transfer has a double-threshold effect on the influence of industrial agglomeration on agricultural green production efficiency. As a result, this study suggests adhering to the idea of synergistic development, promoting agricultural green development, strengthening the development of industrial agglomerations, promoting the quality and efficiency of industry, improving land-transfer mechanisms, and placing a focus on resource efficiency improvements, as well as other policy recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0200.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Agricultural Transport Costs; New Economic Geography; Spatial Spillovers; Agglomeration Effects; Origin-Destination Flow Models
Online: 13 December 2021 (12:38:33 CET)
The role of agricultural transport costs in core-periphery structures has habitually been ignored in New Economic Geography (NEG) models. This is due to the convention of treating the agricultural good as the numéraire, thus implying that agricultural transportation costs are assumed to be zero in these models. For more than three decades, this has been the standard setting in spatial equilibrium analysis. The paper examines the effects of agricultural transport costs on the spatial organisation of regional structures in Peru. In doing so, the Krugman’s formulation of iceberg transport costs is modified to introduce the agricultural transport costs into the dynamic of the NEG models. We use exploratory spatial flow data analysis methods and non-spatial and spatial origin-destination flow models to explore how the regional spatial structure change when real transportation data for agricultural goods is included into the iceberg transport costs formulation. We show that agricultural transport costs generate flows that are systematically associated with flows to or from nearby regions generating thus the emergence of spatial spillovers across Peruvian regions. The results of the paper support the contention that NEG models have overshadowed the role of agricultural transport costs in determining the spatial configuration of economic activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0341.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Green total factor productivity; Economic agglomeration; Employment density; Dynamic spatial Dupin model; Spatial spillover
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:41:24 CEST)
In the context of carbon emissions peak, environmental issues highlight the importance of the green economy, how does economic agglomeration release growth potential and enable the coordinated development of the economy and environment? There are few works of literature to analyze it within the framework of spatial economy. This paper constructs a theoretical model to clarify the influence mechanism of economic agglomeration on green total factor productivity (GTFP), and then uses a dynamic SDM model to test the theoretical hypothesis. This contribution has three main findings. First, there is a "U-shaped" curve relationship between economic agglomeration and GTFP, and the formation mechanism is that economic agglomeration has a threshold effect on the agglomeration externalities such as infrastructure sharing, knowledge spillover, and labor market upgrading. Second, the mismatch of industrial structure is an important reason that the economic agglomeration in this region has not produced an obvious spatial spillover effect on other regions; Relaxing restrictions on the concentration of economic activity to regional centers would contribute to the improvement of GTFP. Third, GTFP has the classic "snowball effect" in the time dimension, but has the obvious "warning effect" in the space and time dimension. Based on this, this paper believes that at the present stage, it is necessary to adapt to the layout of economic geography, promote the rational allocation of human resources in the territorial space, promote the coordination between economic agglomeration and the development goal of green economy, and at the same time, it is necessary to cultivate the cooperative linkage mechanism of green economy development and transformation among cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1911.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: enterprise flow; urban network structure; influencing mechanisms; the Ningxia Urban Agglomeration along the Yellow River
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:53:54 CEST)
Given the significant role of the Ningxia Urban Agglomeration along the Yellow River in reshaping the urban network and promoting coordinated development in the upper Yellow River region of China, this paper takes enterprise flow as the explicit manifestation of the regional urban network. Based on the data of registered enterprises from 2005 to 2021, combined with the interlocking network model, social network analysis method, and spatial panel econometric model, this paper interprets the evolution of the regional urban network structure and its influencing mechanisms through the different types of enterprise flow. The results indicate the following: (1) The external network is primarily focused on outflow investments towards North China, East China, and Northwest China. The overall inflow sources form a multi-origin structure dominated by North China and East China. The Jinfeng and Xingqing serve as core hubs for enterprise exports in the external network and destinations for incoming enterprises. However, in the Productive manufacturing connections, a spatial organizational pattern driven by multiple cities has formed. (2) In the internal network, a concentric connection structure centered around the Jinfeng and Xingqing has formed. The Productive service connections are relatively active, while the Productive manufacturing connections are relatively concentrated between the Jinfeng, Xingqing, Ningdong, and Lingwu. However, there is an imbalance in the spatial connections within the urban agglomeration network and an incomplete hierarchical system of network nodes. (3) In the external network, the main feature is the absorption of external elements to foster development momentum. In the internal network, the Jinfeng and Xingqing serve as contact and radiation sources, influencing various nodes. However, their driving capacity is weak. (4) The market demand and coordinated development both demonstrate significant promoting effects on the connections within the external and internal networks. The sluggish adjustment and transformation of regional industrial structure have resulted in a temporary negative inhibitory effect on the development of transformation. The negative impact of urban investment activities and the positive impact of government management are reflected within the internal network. (5) The improvement of urban management and service functions, as well as external borrowing, can promote the connection in different network. However, the borrowing economic activity can have a negative impact in different networks. (6) Industrial agglomeration can promote enterprises connections in different networks and generate significant spatial spillover effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1516.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: Self-assemble; Matter agglomeration; Glasses; Quasicrystals; Carbon Fullerenes; Graphene; Virus Structures; Nanotechnology; Energy landscape; Path Integrals.
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:07:04 CET)
Matter grows and self-assembles to produce complex structures such as virus capsids, carbon fullerenes, proteins, glasses, etc. Due to its complexity, performing pen-and-paper calculations to explain and describe such assemblies is cumbersome. Many years ago, Richard Kerner presented a pen-and-paper path integral approach to understand self-organized matter. Although successfully addressed many important problems including the yield of fullerene formation, the glass transition temperature of doped chalcogenide glasses, the fraction of boroxol rings in B2O3 glasses, the first theoretical explanation for the empirical recipe of window and Pyrex glass and the understanding of virus capsid self-assembly, still is not the primary choice when tackling similar problems. The reason lies in the fact that it diverges from mainstream approaches based on the energy landscape paradigm and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this context, a critical review is presented, demonstrating that the Richard Kerner method is, in fact, a clever way to identify relevant configurations. Its equations are simplified, common physical sense versions to those found in the energy landscape kinetic equations. Subsequently, the utilization of equilibrium Boltzmann factors in the transition Markov chain probabilities is analyzed within the context of local two-level energy landscape models kinetics. This analysis demonstrates that their use remains valid when the local energy barrier between reaction coordinate states is small compared to the thermal energy. This finding places the Richard Kerner model on par with other more sophisticated methods and, hopefully, will promote its adoption as an initial and useful choice for describing the self-agglomeration of matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0844.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Process integration; In-line measurement; Capacitive moisture measurement; Near-infrared spectroscopy; Fluidized bed agglomeration; Spray drying
Online: 12 June 2023 (13:36:33 CEST)
The integration of spray drying and agglomeration offers significant advantages, such us continuous production with lower energy consumption. However, it is a knife-edge process with a narrow operating window and limited degrees of freedom that decide between successful agglomeration and fluidized bed blockage due to excessive moisture. In this contribution, factors influencing the spray-through agglomeration process of skim milk powder as a model system were investigated via a design of experiments. Three in-line monitoring methods were applied and tested to observe the most important parameters in the agglomeration process: product moisture and particle size distribution. Regarding the moisture content, a capacitive moisture sensor was calibrated with linear regression and a near-infrared sensor with partial least squares regression. Near-infrared spectroscopy was found to be the suitable method for determining moisture content, while the capacitive moisture sensor mainly provides information on the bulk density, the filling level or fluidization state in the fluidized bed. Additionally, particle size distribution data was extracted from the spectral data using in-line data of a spatial filter velocimetry probe in the fluidized bed. This opens the potential to monitor both parameters in real-time with a single non-invasive sensor.