REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0243.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: aged; homes for the aged; malnutrition; dehydration; nutrition policy
Online: 11 October 2018 (14:48:57 CEST)
Preventing malnutrition and dehydration in older care home residents is complex, with both conditions remaining prevalent, despite numerous guidelines spanning several decades. This policy-mapping scoping review used snowballing search methods to locate publicly-available policies, reports and best practice guidelines relating to hydration and nutrition in UK residential care homes, to describe the existing knowledge base and pinpoint gaps in practice, interpretation and further investigation. Findings were synthesised narratively to identify solutions. Strategies for improvements to nutritional and hydration care include: development of age and population-specific nutrient and fluid intake guidelines; statutory regulation, contractual obligations for commissioners, appropriate menu-planning, implementation and auditing of care, acknowledgment of residents’ eating and drinking experiences, effective screening, monitoring and treatment and staff training. The considerable body of existing knowledge is failing to influence practice, relating to translational issues of implementing knowledge into care at the point of delivery, and this is where future research and actions should focus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1464.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Systematic review; Sarcopenia; aged; Nutrition
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:25:26 CET)
Background: Sarcopenia, a subject of extensive research, has led to numerous clinical trials and systematic reviews (SR). These reviews aid healthcare professionals by summarizing results and conducting meta-analyses, enhancing reliability. However, the abundance of reviews complicates decision-making on sarcopenia management. To address this, SR of SR have emerged, consolidating data from various sources into comprehensive documents. Objective: to assess the isolated impact of dietary interventions on sarcopenia's diagnostic criteria for older individuals. Methods: a study protocol for a SR of SR, following Cochrane and PRISMA recommendations. The search strategy includes the MeSH ‘sarcopenia’ and its subheadings; ‘aged’ and its subheadings; ‘nutrition’ and its subheadings; and filter ‘systematic review’, performed at main databases. Selected studies must include older adults, submitted to nutritional interventions compared to control groups. Quantitative analyses will use inverse variance statistic method (random effects); the effect measures mean difference. Heterogeneity measured with Q-Test. Results: The results of this SR of SR will may provide valuable information about the sarcopenia treatment, deepening the knowledge about. Conclusion: this protocol is reproducible, requires low cost and personnel, and may allow a higher understanding on sarcopenia treatment and management on older people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: anorexia; aged; intensive care; depression
Online: 14 January 2022 (13:52:25 CET)
Abstract: Appetite loss is common in older patients and an independent risk factor for sarcopenia, which is associated with high mortality. However, few studies have explored the phenomenon of appetite loss after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, we aimed to describe the prevalence of appetite loss and the relationship between appetite loss and depression in patients living at home 12 months after intensive care. We conducted a post hoc analysis, which was a published ambidirectional study examining post-intensive care syndrome at 12 months after discharge. We included patients aged > 65 years. The Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) were used for the analysis. Descriptive statistics and a multilevel generalized linear model were used to clarify the relationship between appetite loss and depression. Data from 468 patients were analyzed. The defined appetite loss was 25.4% (95%CI, 21.5–29.4). High severity of depression was an independent factor for high probability of appetite loss (OR, 1.2; 95%CI, 1.14–1.28; p=0.00). Poor appetite is common 12 months after intensive care and is associated with the severity of depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0466.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: restraint; restrictive practice; chemical restraint; physical restraint; psychotropic; residential aged care; long term aged care; community aged care; nursing home; home care; day care.
Online: 24 August 2021 (13:55:10 CEST)
Restraint use in Australian residential aged care has been highlighted by the media, and investigated by researchers, government and advocacy bodies. In 2018, the Royal Commission into Aged Care selected ‘Restraint’ as a key focus of inquiry. Subsequently, Federal legislation was passed to ensure restraint is only used in residential aged care services as the ‘last resort’. To inform and develop Government educational resources, we conducted qualitative research to gain greater understanding of the experiences and attitudes of aged care stakeholders around restraint practice. Semi-structured interviews were held with 28 participants, comprising nurses, care staff, doctors, physiotherapists, pharmacists and relatives. Two focus groups were also conducted to ascertain the views of residential and community aged care senior management staff. Data were thematically analyzed using a pragmatic approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. Five themes were identified during the study: 1. Understanding of restraint; 2. Support for Legislation; 3. Restraint-free environments are not possible; 4. Low-level restraint, and 5. Restraint in the community is uncharted. Although most staff, health practitioners and relatives have a basic understanding of restraint, more education is needed at a conceptual level to enable them to identify and avoid restraint practice, particularly ‘low-level’ forms and chemical restraint. There was strong support for the new restraint regulations, but most interviewees admitted they were unsure what the legislation entailed. With regards to resources, stakeholders wanted recognition that there were times when restraint was necessary and advice on what to do in these situations, as opposed to unrealistic aspirations for restraint-free care. Stakeholders reported greater oversight of restraint in residential aged care but stated that community restraint use was largely unknown. Research is needed to investigate the extent and types of restraint practice in community aged care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0478.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Aged vinegar; Microbial community; Physicochemical characteristics; Correlation
Online: 7 August 2023 (04:59:59 CEST)
In this paper, the main physicochemical characteristics and evolutionary laws of microbial community structure during the fermentation of aged vinegar were discussed, and the correlation between Cuqu and microorganisms and physicochemical characteristics during fermentation was explored. The results showed that there are significant differences in genera at different stages of fermentation, the main dominant bacteria in R1 are Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus and Issatchenkia. At R2 fermentation stage, Lactobacillus, Acetobacter and Saccharomyces showed an upward trend and finally became absolute advantage bacteria. The main genus of bacteria at the end of overall fermentation is Aspergillus. Correlation analysis shows that in Cuqu, the bacterial genera that are significantly positively and negatively correlated with reducing sugars and amino acid nitrogen are the same, while the bacterial genera that are significantly positively and negatively correlated with pH and saccharification power are the same. During the fermentation process, pH, reducing sugar and saccharification ability are mainly positively correlated with bacterial genera. And research has found that during the fermentation process, the overall correlation between fungal communities and physicochemical characteristics is weaker compared to bacteria.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Aged; Alanine Transaminase; Brain infarction; Frailty; Mortality
Online: 19 March 2021 (08:09:52 CET)
(1) Background: Extremely low alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are be-ing recognized as a risk factor of increasing mortality in the elderly in relation to frailty. In the elderly, both frailty and ischemic stroke are not only common, but also associated with mortality. This study aimed to investigate whether extremely low ALT levels increase the all-cause mortality rate in the elderly after ischemic stroke. (2) Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 901 patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a university-affiliated hospital between February 2014 and April 2019. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to determine whether extremely low ALT lev-els are an independent risk factor of mortality in elderly patients after ischem-ic stroke. (3) Results: This study enrolled 323 older adults (age ≥65 years) who were first diagnosed with ischemic stroke. The mean age of the participants was 76.5 ± 6.6 years, mean survival time was 37.1 ± 20.4 months, and the num-ber of deaths was 96 (29.7%). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard analy-sis revealed that the risk factors for all-cause mortality in the elderly after is-chemic stroke were age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, serum creatinine, and extremely low ALT level (<10 U/L) at the time of diag-nosis (adjusted hazard ratio: 3.243, 95% confidence interval: 1.945–5.408; P < 0.001) (4) Conclusions: Extremely low ALT level at the time of diagnosis (<10 U/L) is an independent risk factor that increases the mortality rate in the el-derly after ischemic stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0794.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Households type; climacteric syndrome; middle aged; dietary factors
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:10:14 CEST)
Research on climacteric syndrome among middle-aged men remains scant than the research among women. Research is also scant on climacteric syndrome among older adults living alone, particularly men, who are more vulnerable than such females. This cross-sectional study investigated whether the prevalence of climacteric syndrome is associated with the type of household middle-aged men live in and identified the determinants of climacteric syndrome based on the household type. Six hundred middle-aged men living in multi-person households and 600 living alone were surveyed about general characteristics, diet-related factors, and climacteric syndrome. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-squared test, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression. The risk of climacteric syndrome in single-person households was found to be 1.6 times higher than that among in multi-person households (p = 0.006). In multi-person households, income and breakfast frequency predicted climacteric syndrome (p < 0.05), while age, breakfast frequency, dinner frequency, and weekly eating out frequency predicted climacteric syndrome in single-person households (p < 0.05). Thus, dietary factors are more closely linked to the prevalence of climacteric syndrome in single-person households than in multi-person households. This highlights the need for climacteric syndrome interventions for middle-aged men whose health concerns may persist into older adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: assistance dogs; aged care; older adults; regulation; support
Online: 28 June 2023 (12:29:06 CEST)
Assistance dogs provide significant benefits to older adult owners. However, despite protective legislation, aged care facilities continue to not allow owners to retain their dog on relocation. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether older adults should be allowed to retain their dog on relocation to an aged care facility, and what factors should impact this decision. Further, if allowed to retain their dog, what would be the best practice to allow for this. A deliberative democracy methodology was used, with a range of key stakeholders recruited. Focus groups were held, with follow up questionnaire to establish deliberation for all questions. Results indicated that with sufficient objective measurement, fair decisions can be made to ensure the welfare and wellbeing for owner and dog. Key policy and procedure changes would also be necessary to ensure ongoing support, such as training, care plans, and emergency directives. By ensuring sufficient policies and procedures are in place, training and support could lead to an ideal outcome where facilities could be at the forefront of a better future for aged care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0442.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: dry aged beef; aging process; microbiological profile; sensorial perception
Online: 7 November 2023 (11:06:34 CET)
Beef dry aging consist in a selection of unpackaged primal cuts that are placed in a refrigerator room with controlled environment for several weeks. The goals are the concentration of flavor, like nutty and beefy and tenderness improvement. In this study it was intended verify the microbiological and physicochemical behavior and the meat sensorial perception during a process example of meat dry aging. Twelve beef loins were selected for 90 days of dry aging and placed in a refrigerator room with average temperature, relative humidity and forced air 3.17 ± 0.68 °C, 60.65 ± 4.23 % and 0.5-2 m/s, respectively. On 1, 14, 21, 35, 60 and 90 days of dry aging, were taken two samples, crust and lean meat for microbiological counts, pH, aw, color L*a*b* and sensorial analysis. During drying, there weren´t any pathogenic bacteria counts and the average counts were higher for the crust. The aw and pH had an average of 0.98 ± 0.02 and 5.77± 0.015, with a slightly decrease and increase respectively (P<0.05) along aging days. The dry aging process practices, with room refrigeration at RH<65.00% and temperature <4.00 °C can be the reason for aw<0.98 and meat pH<6.00 and therefore for the absence of pathogenic bacteria. The lower microbial counts on the lean meat and the overall acceptability assessed by the sensory panel confirm the importance of the good trimming and storage practices for the dry aged beef.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0505.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: exercise microbreaks; office workers; middle-aged; musculoskeletal disorders; workplace
Online: 7 July 2023 (15:47:26 CEST)
Office workers often experience occupational musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of the current systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of workplace exercise intervention on the oldest age group of office workers who have been reported in the literature so far, in terms of workability and well-being. Randomized Controlled Trials were used and the methodological guidelines of PRISMA were followed. The keywords used were: office workers, older, exercise intervention, workplace, microbreaks, workability and well-being. The databases searched were: PubMed, PEDro, ResearchGate, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Science Direct. PROSPERO ID: CRD42022329656. Five studies (total number of participants: 1190, mean age: 46,4) met the inclu-sion criteria. Their quality was deemed to be moderate to high, according to PEDro and MPSER scales. Workplace interventions of gradually increased strengthening and moderate stretching exercises, isometric positioning and postural reminders, either with or without supervision, result in decreasing musculoskeletal pain, disability, sick-leave from work and in the improvement of quality of life and physical activity of the middle-aged office workers, without negative impact on their workability. Despite the worldwide aging workforce, there is a knowledge gap due to research absence in the field of microbreak exercise interventions in the group of older office workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0344.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: machine learning; thermodynamic calculations; martensitic aged steel; mechanical properties
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:04:31 CEST)
This paper mainly used database technology, machine learning, thermodynamic calculation, experimental verification, etc., on integrated computational materials engineering. The interaction between different alloying elements and the strengthening effect of precipitated phases are investigated mainly for martensitic ageing steels. Modelling and parameter optimization were performed by machine learning, and the highest prediction accuracy was 98.58%. Investigated the influence of composition fluctuation on performance and correlation tests to analyze the influence of elements from multiple perspectives. Furthermore, screen out the three-component composition process parameters with composition and performance with high contrast. Thermodynamic calculations studied the effect of alloying element content on the nano-precipitation phase, Laves phase, and austenite in the material. The heat treatment process parameters of the new steel grade were also developed based on the phase diagram. A new type of martensitic ageing steel was prepared by selected vacuum arc melting. The sample with the highest overall mechanical properties had a yield strength of 1887 MPa, a tensile strength of 1907 MPa, and a hardness of 58 HRC. The sample with the highest plasticity had an elongation of 7.8%. The machine learning process for the accelerated design of new ultra-high tensile steels was found to be generalizable and reliable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0346.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: allanite; radiometric survey; radiological risk assessment; AEDE; AGED; ELCR
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:36:23 CEST)
Past exploration for U deposit in the Philippines discovered the mineralization of radioactive allanite in Palawan. The allanite occurs as sand component in the heavily populated beach of Erawan, San Vicente, Palawan. This work assessed the risks associated with the radionuclides in Erawan beach by in situ ground radiometric survey of K, U, and Th in 694 sampling points. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to determine the similarity between the radionuclides and to identify other probable anthropogenic sources of radionuclides. Our results show that the mean activity concentrations of K (597.8 Bq kg-1) and Th (93.15 Bq kg-1) are equivalent to 1.5 and 3.1 times of the world average natural radioactivity levels in soil, respectively, while the mean U (34.7 Bq kg-1) is similar to the world average. The mean radiological risk assessments like radium equivalent, gamma specific activity index, external hazard index, internal hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, annual gonadal equivalent dose, and excess lifetime cancer risk are 213.96 Bq kg-1, 0.78, 0.58, 0.67, 97.24 nGy h-1, 119.25 µSv y-1, 684.39 µSv y-1, and 0.42 (10-3), respectively. Th consistently correlated most to the risks. We attribute the occurrence of Th to the presence of allanite, K to fertilizer use for farming, and U to both the allanite and farming. The results of our study can provide important baseline data for future detailed studies or monitoring of the long-term effects of elevated radiation levels to the local population of Erawan.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0145.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Aged; Geriatrics; Successful Ageing; Care Quality; Health Systems; Training
Online: 8 October 2018 (12:34:05 CEST)
Malaysia became the centre of international attention when it democratically removed a semi-authoritarian government of 62 years during its 14th general election this year. This electoral success has provided geriatric medicine in Malaysia with the unexpected ageing icon in the oldest prime minister in the world. Political change has led to a wave of optimism for the expansion of geriatric services in Malaysia, which has met with numerous challenges in the last two decades. The number of geriatrics specialists and services had already begun expanding under the previous government. However, existing geriatricians will need to reassess the landscape of delivery and access of care in our rapidly growing ageing population and develop new strategies to truly expand their services. In addition to unrelenting efforts in the recruitment and training of future geriatricians, the steady expansion of the geriatric workforce should take into account the inclusion of geriatric medicine in the undergraduate training curricula of all healthcare professionals. Expansion of geriatric services will also be a cost-effective strategy to reduce the growing national healthcare budget incurred by the growing needs of an ageing population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: NADPH oxidases; apocynin; VAS2870; aged heart; cardiomyocytes; isoproterenol; TBARS
Online: 16 April 2018 (06:17:57 CEST)
Cardiac aging is characterized by alterations in contractility and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) homeostasis. It has been suggested that oxidative stress may be involved in this process. We and others have reported that in cardiomyopathies the NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived superoxide is increased, with a negative impact on [Ca2+]i and contractility. We tested the hypothesis that in the aged heart, [Ca2+]i handling and contractility are disturbed by NOX-derived superoxide. Contractility was evaluated isolated hearts, challenged with isoproterenol. To assess [Ca2+]i, isolated cardiac myocytes were field-stimulated and [Ca2+]i was monitored with fura-2. Cardiac concentration-response to isoproterenol was depressed in aged compared to adults hearts (p < 0.005), but was restored by NOX inhibitors apocynin and VAS2870. In isolated cardiomyocytes, apocynin increased the amplitude of [Ca2+]i in aged myocytes (p < 0.05). Time-50 [Ca2+]i decay was increased in aged myocytes (p < 0.05) and reduced towards normal by NOX inhibition. In addition, we found that myofilaments Ca2+ sensitivity was reduced in aged myocytes (p < 0.05), and further reduced by apocynin. Finally SERCA levels but not phospholamban were reduced in aged hearts (p < 0.05). In conclusion, β-adrenergic‒induced contractility was depressed in aged hearts, and NOX inhibition restored back to normal. Moreover, altered Ca2+ handling in aged myocytes was also improved by NOX inhibition. These results suggest a NOX-dependent effect in aged myocytes at the level of Ca2+ handling proteins and myofilaments.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0894.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: aged; concept formation; geriatric nursing; resilience psychological; standardized nursing terminology
Online: 11 August 2023 (07:12:02 CEST)
(1) Background: Resilience has been presented as a potential protective factor to be promoted in difficult experiences in the elderly. However, further clarification of the concept of resilience is needed about this population, as this is of critical interest for nursing care. (2) Aim: To develop the concept of resilience in the elderly to establish the elements that refer to the nursing outcome Personal resilience (1309) from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC), specifically in the elderly. (3) Methods: Concept analysis using Beth Rodgers' evolutionary model. The attributes, antecedents, consequents and empirical elements were described in the integrative review, with searches in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS and Embase databases. A total of 2431 citations have been identified and 110 studies were included. (4) Results: The concept of “resilience in the elderly” is composed of two attributes: available resources and positive behaviours and is defined as positive attitudes of older people with the assistance of resources available from experiences of adversity. Conclusion: This analysis and concept development of resilience in the elderly provided sensitive indicators for nursing care in the context of adversity, considering available resources and with positive attitudes during this phase of life span.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Physical Activity; Population Health; Adult; Middle Aged
Online: 1 September 2022 (16:13:25 CEST)
Worldwide, depressive disorder is one of the leading determinants of disability-adjusted life years. Although the benefits associated with physical activity (PA), there is a lack of information related to depression, especially in countries like Czechia, where modern approaches to mental health care only recently emerged. The PA levels were associated with aspects of depression such as clinician-diagnosed history; different severities; continuous depression scores; and specific symptoms that characterize the depression. The multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression models were carried out on 2123 participants (45.3% men, median 48 years). Compared to subjects with insufficient PA, the moderate and high PA levels were inversely associated with clinician-diagnosed depression history (respectively, prevalence rate [PR]= 0.84; 95% CI 0.66-0.82 and PR=0.50; 95% CI 0.36-0.67); and with continuous depression scores (PR=0.85; 95% CI 0.75-0.97; and PR=0.79; 95%CI 0.70-0.90).; but only high PA showed association with depression categories (PR=0.75; 95%CI 0.60-0.95). Depressed mood and worthlessness were the symptoms associated with moderate and high PA. Tiredness, change in appetite, and problems with concentration only with high PA. Although only high PA was sufficient for people intending changes among depression categories, the moderate PA may be enough for slight changes in depressive symptoms, and a good strategy when starting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiorespiratory Fitness; Cardiometabolic Risk Factors; Population Health; Adult; Middle Aged
Online: 23 August 2021 (12:18:10 CEST)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. However, there is no recent information about the impact of CRF on cardiometabolic risk specifically in Central and Eastern Europe, which are characterized by different biological and social determinants of health. Normative CRF values were proposed and the association between CRF and cardiometabolic outcomes was evaluated in an adult Czechian population. In 2054 participants (54.6 % females, median 48 years), the CRF was predicted from a non-exercise equation. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regressions were carried out to determine the associations. Higher CRF quartiles were associated with lower prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and dyslipidaemia. Comparing subjects within the lowest CRF, those within the highest CRF had decreased chances of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.22-0.60); T2D (OR=0.16; 95% CI 0.05-0.47), low HDL-c (OR=0.32; 95% CI 0.17-0.60), high low-density lipoprotein (OR=0.33; 95% CI 0.21-0.53), high triglycerides (OR=0.13; 95 CI 0.07-0.81), and high cholesterol (OR=0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.69). There was an inverse association between CRF and cardiometabolic outcomes, supporting the adoption of a non-exercise method to estimate CRF of the Czech population. Therefore, more accurate cardiometabolic studies can be performed incorporating the valuable CRF metric.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0051.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: natural disturbance; advance regeneration; planting; natural regeneration; uneven-aged silviculture
Online: 18 July 2017 (13:22:12 CEST)
Forest managers are often required to restore forest stands following natural disturbances, a situation that may become more common and more challenging under global change. In parts of Central Europe, particularly in mountain regions dominated by mixed temperate forests, the use of relatively low intensity, uneven-aged silviculture is a common management approach. Because this type of management is based on mimicking less intense disturbances, the restoration of more severe disturbance patches within forested landscapes has received little attention within the context of uneven-aged silviculture in the region. The goal of this paper is to synthesize research on the restoration of forests damaged by disturbances in temperate forests of Slovenia and neighbouring regions of Central Europe, where uneven-aged silviculture is practiced. We place particular emphasis on the most important biotic and abiotic drivers of post-disturbance regeneration, and use this information to inform silvicultural decisions about applying natural or artificial regeneration in disturbed areas. We conclude with guidelines for restoration silviculture in uneven-aged forest landscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1331.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Traumatic brain injury; Axonal injury; Micro pig; Diffuse pathology; Microglia; Aged tissue
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:33:47 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions of people annually, however, our knowledge of the diffuse pathologies associated with TBI is limited. As diffuse pathologies, including axonal injury and neuroinflammatory changes, are difficult to visualize in the clinical population, animal models are used. In the current study we used the central fluid percussion injury (CFPI) model in a micro pig to study the potential scalability of these diffuse pathologies in a gyrencephalic brain of a species with inflammatory systems very similar to humans. We found that both axonal injury and microglia activation within the thalamus and corpus callosum are positively correlated to the weight-normalized pressure pulse, while subtle changes in blood gas and mean arterial blood pressure are not. We also found that the majority of tissue generated up to 10 years previously is viable for immunofluorescent labeling after long-term refrigeration storage. This study indicates that a micro pig CFPI model could allow for specific investigations of various degree of diffuse pathological burdens following TBI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0622.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: aging; aged; sexual and gender minorities; quality of life; stereotyping; social discrimination
Online: 20 April 2023 (07:49:10 CEST)
There is a general lack of research involving older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people. This systematic review aimed to synthesize Japanese and Swedish qualitative research on LGBTQ people aged 60 years or older. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Japanese and Swedish articles, published in English-language journals, were searched across PsychINFO, Medline, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases. Additional searches were carried out to include studies written in Japanese or Swedish. There were no papers from Japan, and five from Sweden were reviewed. Four articles were included, including 48 participants aged 60–94 years. We summarized the findings using a deductive thematic synthesis. Two major themes emerged: (a) quality of life, minority joy, and resilience (positive aspects), and (b) experiences of discrimination, stigmatization, and minority stress (negative aspects). The participants described a wish to be acknowledged for their own assets and unique life histories, and to be treated as everyone else. They emphasized the importance of knowledge of LGBTQ issues among nursing staff, so that older LGBTQ people are treated in a competent and affirmative way. The study revealed several important topics for understanding older LGBTQ people’s life circumstances and the severe lack of qualitative studies in Japan and Sweden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Dehumanisation; dementia care; healthcare education; residential aged care facilities; positive dehumanisation; negative dehumanisation
Online: 8 January 2021 (11:23:42 CET)
The term dehumanisation refers to the ways in which a person is perceived to be less than human or treated as if they are less than human. It involves treating a person as if they are a child or infant, like an animal or non-living object, or as if they are dead, or any other way in which someone fails to be treated like a human being with an adult identity. Dehumanisation is widespread in dementia care; it is a major obstacle to person-centred care and has poor outcomes for people with dementia. This article proposes a new model of dehumanisation. The New Model presents a new way of describing dehumanisation that has been synthesised from current understanding about the phenomenon and reflects what is presently known about the subject. The model aims to summarise existing theories and models of dehumanisation and make dehumanisation theory accessible to students and trainees in healthcare. This article describes the new model, discusses existing models and theories in the literature, and explores the potential role of the new model in solutions for reducing dehumanisation in dementia care.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: obesity; overweight; socioeconomic status; Health Behaviour of School-aged Children (HBSC) Study; trends
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:50:00 CEST)
The main objective of the study is to analyse time trends in excessive body weight (obesity, overweight) of Czech adolescents between 2002 and 2018 with regard to the socioeconomic status (SES) of adolescents’ families and to find SES-mediated correlates of adolescents’ obesity. A nationally representative sample of 29,879 adolescents (49.6% of them boys) aged 10.5-16.5 years was drawn from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional, self-reported questionnaire surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018 in the Czech Republic. Across the quadrennial surveys from 2002 to 2018, we observed a clear increase in the prevalence of excessive body weight (overweight/obesity) in all SES categories of adolescents, which was most striking (p < 0.05) in adolescents with low SES (boys: +5.2/+7.5 percent points (p.p.); girls +6.3/+2.4 p.p.). When all the survey cycles were compared, the highest prevalence of overweight/obesity was evident in the low-SES adolescents in 2018, both in girls (14.9%/5.1%) and boys (20.4%/12.0%). The lower odds of obesity were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with regular vigorous physical activity, participation in organized sport. An unreasonable increase in the prevalence of obesity in adolescents with low SES suggests that national health-related and sports programmes have the least impact on children from low-SES families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Aged, 80 and over; ischemic stroke; cerebrovascular disorders; female; hospital mortality; patient blood management
Online: 31 August 2023 (08:44:53 CEST)
Background: The oldest old people (≥ 85 years) represent the fastest growing age group in Western populations. Knowledge on early outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in very old female patients remains limited. Methods: We assessed gender differences and female-specific clinical data and in-hospital mortality in very old patients with AIS. Acute cerebral infarction was diagnosed in 506 very old female patients from a total of 4,600 acute cerebrovascular infarctions available in an ongoing 24-year hospital stroke data bank. A comparative analysis of vital status at discharge (alive versus dead) was performed in terms of cardiovascular risk factors, clinical data, and early outcomes. Results: The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 20.4%. In multivariate analysis, sudden onset, altered level of consciousness, and neurological, respiratory, cardiological or hemorrhagic complications, and lacunar infarcts appeared to be independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Female patients ≥85 years with AIS are an unfavorable subgroup of stroke patients with a high risk of early mortality, which may be due to comorbidity, stroke subtype distribution, and higher frequency of medical complications. However, the presence of lacunar infarcts showed a significant protective effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Uneven-aged forest management; Forest growth modelling; Machine learning; Diameter distribution; Silvicultural decision support
Online: 19 July 2022 (10:03:36 CEST)
Growth models of uneven-aged forests on the diameter class level can support silvicultural decision making. Machine learning brings added value to the modeling of dynamics at the stand or individual tree level based on data from permanent plots. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of machine learning for modeling growth dynamics in uneven-aged forests at the diameter class level based on inventory data from practice. Two main modeling approaches are conducted and compared: i) fine-tuned linear models differentiated per diameter class, ii) an artificial neural network (multilayer perceptron) trained on all diameter classes. The models are trained on the inventory data of the Canton of Neuchâtel (Switzerland), which are area-wide data without individual tree-level growth monitoring. Both approaches produce convincing results for predicting future diameter distributions. The linear models perform better at the individual diameter class level with test R2 typically between 50 and 70% for predicting increments in the numbers of stems at the diameter class level. From a methodological perspective, the multilayer perceptron implementation is much simpler than the fine-tuning of linear models. The linear models developed in this study achieve sufficient performance for practical decision support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0451.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: systematic review; ADR assessment; elderly; aged-care facilities; medications monitoring; nursing home; drug review
Online: 29 February 2020 (03:41:22 CET)
Aim: this scoping review was designed to identify studies that assess the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for older people in Australian aged-care facilities. This review critically evaluated each published study to identify the risk of, or actual adverse drug events in older people. Inclusion criteria: This review considered any clinical studies that examined the adverse effects of medications in older people who were living in aged-care facilities. This review considered qualitative studies, analytical studies, RCTs, descriptive cross-sectional studies, and analytic observational studies that explored the use of medications and their adverse effects on older people in clinical settings (including aged care facilities). Methods: An initial search of the PubMed, OvidSP, EBSCOHost, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Wiley Online, SAGE, and SCOPUS databases, with full text was performed, followed by an analysis of the article’s title and abstract. Additionally, MeSH was used to describe the article. The initial round of the database search was based on inclusion criteria from studies that assessed tools or protocols aiming to identify the adverse effects of medications on the elderly population suffering chronic conditions or multiple co-morbidities. Two reviewers screened the retrieved papers for inclusion. The data presented in this review are in tabular forms and a narrative summary which aligns with the review’s objectives. Results: Seven studies were identified, and the extracted data from these studies were grouped according their characteristics and the auditing results of each study. Conclusion: There was no comprehensive or broadly adverse drug reaction assessment tool derived from Australian data that has been used on the elderly in an Australian healthcare setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; school closures; school-aged children; physical activity; screen time; sleep; Hong Kong
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:57:32 CEST)
Despite concerns about the negative effects of social distancing and prolonged school closures on children’s lifestyle and physical activity (PA) during the COVID-19 pandemic, robust evidence is lacking on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s wellbeing and daily life. This study aimed to examine changes in the PA levels, sleep patterns and screen time of school-aged children during the different phases of COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong using a repeated cross-sectional design. School students (Grades 1 to 12) were asked to report their daily electronic device usage and to fill in a sleep dairy recording their daily sleep and wake-up time. They were equipped with a PA monitor, Actigraph wGT3X-BT, to obtain objective data on their PA levels and sleep patterns. Students were recruited before the pandemic (Sep 2019 – Jan 2020; n=577), during school closures (Mar 2020 – Apr 2020; n=146), and after schools partially reopened (Oct 2020 – Jul 2021; n=227). Our results indicated lower PA levels, longer sleep duration, and longer screen time among participants recruited during school closures than those recruited before the COVID-19 outbreak. Primary school students were found to sleep on average for an extra hour during school closures. Our findings illustrate the impact of social distancing policies during the COVID-19 pandemic on the sleep pattern, screen time, and PA level in school-aged children in Hong Kong. Professionals should reinforce the importance of maintaining a physically active lifestyle, good sleep hygiene, and healthy use of electronic devices to parents and school-aged children during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0806.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutrition disorders; risk factors; body composition; physical functional performance; independent living; and aged; 80 and over
Online: 13 September 2023 (09:38:11 CEST)
Background and aims: Only one cohort study exists on the incidence of the risk of malnutrition (RM) in older adults, though numerous cross-sectional –and that cohort research– have reported several risk factors associated with the prevalence and incidence of this condition. However, alterations of body composition and impaired physical performance as exposition variables of RM have not been explored. This study assessed the incidence of RM and determined its association with excess fat mass, low total lean tissue, gait speed, and handgrip strength as exposition variables for RM in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: This is a secondary analysis in older adults (≥60 years old) derived from the study “Frailty, dynapenia, and sarcopenia in Mexican adults (FraDySMex)” a prospective cohort project conducted from 2014 to 2019 in Mexico City. At baseline, volunteers underwent body composition analysis and physical performance tests. Several covariates were identified through comprehensive geriatric assessment. At baseline and follow-up, RM was assessed using the long form of the mini nutritional assessment (MNA-LF) scale. Associations between the exposition variables and RM were assessed by multiple logistic regression. Results: The cohort included 241 subjects. Average age was 75.6±7.8 years; 83.4% were women. The mean follow-up period was 4.1 years, during which 28.6% of subjects developed RM. This condition was less likely to occur in subjects with excess fat mass index, even after adjusting for several covariates. RM was also more likely to occur in subjects with low total lean tissue index, according to both an unadjusted model and after adjusting for the corresponding variables. Regarding the association between RM and gait speed, RM was also more likely to occur in subjects with low gait speed according to both the unadjusted and adjusted models. Similar results were found for RM in relation to low handgrip strength; however, after adjusting for the associated covariates, models 1 and 2 no longer reached the level of significance. Conclusion: The risk of malnutrition diagnosed by MNA-LF was significantly less likely to occur among subjects with excess fat mass, but possibility was significantly higher in those with low total lean tissue and low gait speed after 4.1 years of follow-up in community-dwelling older adults. These results highlight that excess fat mass, low total lean tissue, and low gait speed are first than risk of malnutrition and not vice versa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: extreme weather; heat waves; anvironment and public healt; aged; older adults; social behaviour; interpersonal relation; social isolation; mortality; lonelliness
Online: 11 October 2021 (08:59:11 CEST)
Background: Heat waves are correlated with increased mortality in the aged population. Social isolation is known as a vulnerability factor. This study aims at evaluating the correlation between an intervention to reduce social isolation and the increase in mortality in the population over 80 during heat waves. Methods: The study adopts a retrospective ecologic design. We compared the excess mortality rate (EMR) in the over 80 population during heat waves in urban areas of Rome (Italy), where a program to reduce social isolation was implemented compared to others where it was not implemented. We measured mortality of the summer periods from 2015 to 2019 compared with 2014 (a year without heat waves). Winter mortality, cadastral income and proportion of over 90 were included in the multivariate Poisson regression. Results: The EMR in the intervention and controls was 2.70% and 3.81%, respectively. Rate ratio 0.70 (c.i. 0.54 - 0.92, p-value 0.01). The Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) of the interventions with respect to the controls is 0.76 (c.i. 0.59 - 0.98). After adjusting for other variables, the IRR was 0.44 (c.i. 0.32 - 0.60). Conclusions: Reducing social isolation could limit the impact of heat waves on the mortality of the elderly population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0111.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: helminthiasis dynamics in Ghana, preventive chemotherapy, school-aged children, high-risk adults, neglected tropical diseases, age-structure, infection risk, cost analysis
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:43:33 CET)
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) remains a major health problem all over the world including Ghana, which has STH prevalence of 25.4%. To control the disease, the government of Ghana currently concentrates on implementing mass drug administration (MDA) efforts focusing only among school-aged children. However, various studies have suggested that focusing on only a specific group for MDA may not be cost-effective. Moreover, some adults such as teachers and school-workers spend large fraction of their time with children, who shed more parasite in environment due to unhygienic behavior, and thus have a higher risk of getting infected as compared to other adults. In this study we use a mathematical model to evaluate age-structured and risk-based policies for implementing MDA while capturing transmission dynamics of STH in Ghana. A cost model was developed that included various costs related to MDA to study cost-effectiveness of current policies of MDA in Ghana against novel policies to control STH in Ghana. We carry out analysis for five different scenarios— I: no MDA (baseline), II: current MDA policy (focusing children) in Ghana, III: MDA for different age groups (adults and children groups) for unlimited budget, IV: MDA for different age groups with limitations of number of individuals treated, and, V: MDA for different groups based on their risk of getting infected (adults school workers (high-risk group), adults non-school workers and children groups). Our results suggest that it might be more cost-effective to allocate treatment through MDA to at least some proportion of adults along with children. In case of unlimited budget, the best strategy in Scenario IV would be to treat approximately 22% of adults and approximately 45% of children. The most cost-effective among the 5 scenarios is suggested through scenario V, where high-risk adults group and children are provided MDA at higher level than low-risk adults. In conclusion, age-structured and risk-based allocation of treatment and resources is crucial to reducing STH load in developing countries.