ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0244.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Stress; epigenetics; senescence; cognition; age-related cognitive decline; Alzheimer’s disease; SAMP8; SAMR1; oxidative stress; inflammation; autophagy
Online: 21 January 2020 (11:44:35 CET)
Cognitive and behavioural disturbances are growing public healthcare issue for the modern society, as stressful lifestyle is becoming more and more common. Besides, several pieces of evidence state that environment is crucial in the development of several diseases as well as compromising healthy aging. Therefore, it is important to study the effects of stress on cognition and its relationship with aging. To address these queries, Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) paradigm was used in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) and resistant 1 (SAMR1). On one hand, we determined the changes produced in the three main epigenetic marks after 4 weeks of CMS treatment, such as a reduction in histone posttranslational modifications and DNA methylation, and up-regulation or down-regulation of several miRNA involved in different cellular processes in mice. In addition, CMS treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and loss of antioxidant defence mechanisms, as well as inflammatory signalling activation through NF-κB pathway and astrogliosis markers, like Gfap. Remarkably, CMS altered mTORC1 signalling in both strains, decreasing autophagy only in SAMR1 mice. We found a decrease in glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3β) inactivation, hyperphosphorylation of Tau and an increase in sAPPβ protein levels in mice under CMS. Moreover, reduction in the non-amyloidogenic secretase ADAM10 protein levels was found in SAMR1 CMS group. Consequently, detrimental effects on behaviour and cognitive performance were detected in CMS treated mice, affecting mainly SAMR1 mice, promoting a turning to SAMP8 phenotype. In conclusion, CMS is a feasible intervention to understand the influence of stress on epigenetic mechanisms underlying cognition and accelerating senescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0122.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: spatial; age-related; phytochemical; bamboo; rhizome; GC-MS
Online: 7 September 2018 (03:01:53 CEST)
This study was designed to assess variation of possible phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic extracts of Gigantochloa scortechinii rhizome. Destructive sampling was done by using selective random sampling method on four consecutive rhizomes from healthy clumps and was conducted at two natural forests and one secondary forest (planted). Homogenized sample were extracted using solvent extraction (70% ethanol) method. Ethanolic extracts of G. scortechinii rhizome were qualitatively analyzed using GC/MS GC2010 Plus, Shimadzu to determine the composition of phytochemical compounds and identified using FFNSC 1.3, NIST11, PMW_tox2, and Wiley229 spectral library. A qualitative variation was observed with a total of 56 compounds were identified and differentiated between study site and rhizome age. Results revealed that G. scortechinii rhizome contains various phytochemical compounds with potential as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. This is the first finding on the spatial and age-related effects of phytochemical compounds in a consecutive rhizome and of G. scortechinii rhizome specifically.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0528.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Intermittent fasting; cognition; brain-related diseases; prevention and progress
Online: 27 August 2021 (16:22:57 CEST)
The importance of diet and the gut-brain axis for brain health and cognitive function is increasingly acknowledged. Dietary interventions are tested for their potential to prevent and/or treat brain disorders. Intermittent fasting (IF), the abstinence or strong limitation of calories for 12 to 48 hours, alternated with periods of regular food intake, has shown promising results on neurobiological health in animal models. In this review article, we discuss the potential benefits of IF on cognitive function and the possible effects on the prevention and progress of brain-related disorders in animals and humans. We do so by summarizing the effects of IF which - through metabolic, cellular and circadian mechanisms - lead to anatomical and functional changes in the brain. Our review shows that there is no clear evidence of a positive short-term effect of IF on cognition in healthy subjects. Clinical studies show benefits of IF for epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis on disease symptoms and progress. Findings from animal studies show mechanisms by which Parkinson’s disease, ischaemic stroke, autism spectrum disorder and mood- and anxiety disorders could benefit from IF. Future research should disentangle whether positive effects of IF hold true regardless of age or the presence of obesity. Also, variations in fasting patterns, total caloric intake and intake of specific nutrients may be relevant components of IF success. Longitudinal studies and Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) will provide a window into the long-term effects of IF on the development and progress of brain-related diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0350.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Proteomics, Age-related macular degeneration, inflammation, biomarker, oxidative stress.
Online: 21 November 2022 (02:35:09 CET)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common ocular disease characterized by the de-generation of the central area of the retina in elderly population. Progression and response to treatment is influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors. Proteomics is a powerful tool to study, at the molecular level, the mechanisms underlaying the progression of the diseases, to identify new therapeutical targets and to establish biomarkers to monitor progression and treatment ef-fectiveness. In this work we pursue to systematically review the use of proteomic-based ap-proaches for the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of AMD, as well as the progression of the disease and the on-treatment patient monitoring. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines were followed. Proteomic approaches have identified key players on the onset of the disease, such as proteins involved in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, but also in the progression to advanced stages, including factors related to extracellular matrix integrity and angiogenesis. Although an-ti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF)-based therapy has been crucial in the treatment of neovascular AMD it is necessary to get deeper into the underlying disease mechanisms to move forward to next-generation therapies of the later-stage forms of this multifactorial disease.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: apathy; neuropsychology; Korsakoff’s syndrome; alcohol use disorder; alcohol-related cognitive disorders
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:12:13 CEST)
Apathy is a fundamental neuropsychiatric symptom of Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS) and has also been reported in patients with alcohol use disorder with no (AUD) or less severe cognitive disorders (ALC). However, research on the nature of apathy is limited in these groups. Aim of this study was to examine the multidimensional nature of apathy in patients with KS, ALC and AUD. Moreover, we examined differences between apathy ratings by patients and their professional caregivers, and related apathy to everyday functioning and overall cognition. Twenty-four patients with KS, 24 patients with ALC and 21 patients with AUD participated in this study. Apathy was measured using the Apathy Motivation Index (AMI), which distinguishes behavioral, emotional and social apathy. Both patients and professional caregivers reported social apathy as most prominent symptom, compared to behavioral and emotional apathy. Apathy ratings did not differ across the three patient groups. Discrepancies between patient and caregiver ratings were observed in patients with KS and ALC, with more severe apathy reported by caregivers. Caregiver-reported behavioral and social, but not emotional, apathy was related to everyday functioning. These results show that apathy is present in a substantial proportion of patients with alcohol addiction with or without cognitive impairments.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Odds Ratio; Prevalence; Knee Joints; Osteoarthritis (OA); Age-related degeneration (ARD)
Online: 7 July 2020 (03:01:34 CEST)
Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) and age-related degeneration (ARD) are stimulants for the development of the fabella in the knee joint. This meta-analysis updates previous studies and reviews on the prevalence of the fabella in OA or ARD knee joints. In addition, it provides a quantitative estimation of the fabellar prevalence in knees having OA and ARD. Methodology: Twenty studies comprising of data from 11,056 knee joints were included in the analysis, consisting of 6,819 Knees of OA subjects (including those with age more than 40 years) and 4,237 knees of non-OA subjects (including less than 40years) knees, respectively. 2,434 knees had fabellae present in OA subjects (including more than 40years), and 844 fabellae were present in non-OA subjects (including less than 40years). The Odds and Risk Ratios were calculated. Sensitivity analysis and cumulative analysis were conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Results: Prevalence of fabella was found to be higher in OA knees, where the Risk Ratio of developing fabella was 2.50 (2.07-3.01). Compared with this, the Risk Ratio for the incidence of fabella in OA with ARD knee was 1.84 (1.66-2.03). The bilateral occurrence of fabella was more common than unilateral. The risk of developing fabella in individuals aged less than forty-year was 63% less than individuals aged more than forty years. Conclusion: OA and ARD would increase the prevalence of fabella by 84%, thus acting as stimulants and risk factors for ossified fabella.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0347.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: choroidal neovascularization; neovascular age-related macular degeneration; calreticulin anti-angiogenic domain
Online: 18 September 2018 (06:27:47 CEST)
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a key pathological feature of several of the leading causes of vision loss including neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Here we show that a calreticulin anti-angiogenic domain (CAD)-like peptide 27, CAD27, inhibited in vitro angiogenic activities, including tube formation and migration of endothelial cells, and suppressed vascular sprouting from rat aortic ring explants. In rat model of laser-induced CNV, we demonstrate that intravitreal injection of CAD27 significantly attenuated the formation of CNV lesions as measured via fundus fluorescein angiography and choroid flat-mounts (19.5% and 22.4% reductions at 10μg and 20μg of CAD27 injected, respectively). Similarly, the reduction of CNV lesions was observed in the groups of rats that had received topical applications of CAD27 (choroid flat-mounts: 17.9% and 32.5% reductions at 10μg/mL and 20μg/mL of CAD27 installed, respectively). Retinal function was unaffected, as measured using electroretinography in both groups received interareal injection or topical applications of CAD27 at least for 9 days. These findings show that CAD27 can be used as a potential therapeutic alternative for targeting CNV in the diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: aging; age-related disease; mortality rate; positive feedback loop; vicious cycle
Online: 18 April 2017 (02:45:04 CEST)
Age-related diseases (ARDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide, and contribute to 90% of mortality in developed countries. Interestingly, the mortality rates of individual ARDs increase exponentially with age. Processes described by the exponential growth function typically involve a branching chain reaction or, more generally, a positive feedback loop. Here I propose that each ARD is mediated by one or several positive feedback loops (vicious cycles). I then identify critical vicious cycles in five major ARDs: atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. I also propose that the progression of ARDs can be halted by selectively interrupting the vicious cycles and suggest the most promising targets. An evolutionary perspective is also offered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0359.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: oxidative damage; organophosphates; neurotoxicity; spatial working memory; anxiety-related behaviors
Online: 16 October 2018 (12:04:13 CEST)
The mechanization of agricultural activities has led to indiscriminate deposition of toxic xenobiotics, including organophosphates in the biomes, and this has led to intoxication characterized with deleterious oxidative and neuronal changes. This study investigated the consequences of oxidative and neurogenic disruptions that follow exposure to two organophosphates, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and dichlorvos (DDVP) on neuro-cognitive performance and anxiety-like behaviors in rats Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats (150 – 170g) were randomly divided into 4 groups, orally exposed to normal saline (NS), DDVP (8.8mg/kg), CPF (14.9mg/kg) and DDVP+CPF for 14 consecutive days. On day 10 of exposures, anxiety-like behaviors and amygdala dependent fear learning were assessed using Open Field and Elevated Plus Maze paradigms respectively, while spatial working memory was assessed on day 14 in the Morris water maze paradigm, following 3 training trials each on days 11, 12 and 13. On day 15, the rats were euthanized, and their brains excised, hippocampus and amygdala removed, 5 of which were homogenized and centrifuged to analyze nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total reactive oxygen species (ROS), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and the other three processed for histology (cresyl violet stain) and proliferative marker (Ki67 immunohistochemistry). Marked (p≤0.05) loss in body weight, AChE depletion, and overproduction of both NO and ROS were observed after repeated exposure to individual and combined doses of CPF and DDVP. Insults from DDVP exposure appeared more severe owing to the observed greater losses in the body weights of exposed rats. There was also a significant (p≤0.05) effect on the cognitive behaviors recorded from the exposed rats, and these deficits were related to the oxidative damage and neurogenic cell loss in the hippocampus and the amygdala of the exposed rats. Taken together, these results provided an insight that oxidative and neurogenic damages are central to the severity of neuro-cognitive dysfunction and increased anxiety-like behaviors that follow organophosphate poisoning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0585.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Triamcinolone acetonide; Liposomes; Neovascular age related macular degeneration; Wet macular degeneration; Adjuvant therapy; Ranibizumab
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:56:55 CEST)
Novel strategies have been developed to reduce or to avoid the intravitreal injections (IVTs) of the antiangiogenic (ranibizumab; RBZ) and the anti-inflammatory (triamcinolone acetonide; TA) agents used to treat vitreoretinal diseases. One of the strategies include liposomes. In this study, it was evaluated the safety and efficacy of topical triamcinolone-loaded liposomes formulation (TALF) as an adjuvant to intravitreal RBZ therapy in treatment-naive patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (nAMD). Subjects were randomly assigned to the RBZ-TALF or the RBZ-pro re nata (RBZ-PRN) group. Patients from the RBZ-TALF group were instructed to apply TALF for a 12-month period after a single dose of RBZ. Patients from the RBZ-PRN group received three monthly RBZ-IVTs. Retreatment with RBZ was considered in case of nAMD reactivation. Related to safety, non-ocular abnormalities were observed during TALF therapy. Owing to the efficacy, non-significant differences are identified in visual acuity or central foveal thickness when the RBZ-PRN and RBZ-TALF groups are compared. Importantly the average number of RBZ injections was significantly lower in the RBZ-TALF group (2.5 ± 1.4 vs 6.1 ± 1.3 IVTs; p=0004). Therefore, TALF used as an adjuvant to RBZ reduce the number of RBZ-IVTs retreatment with optimal visual and anatomic results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0081.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: age-related skeletal muscle loss; sarcopenia; malnutrition risk assessment; DXA; multi-frequency BIA; aging
Online: 23 August 2017 (17:57:14 CEST)
Background: Appendicular skeletal muscle (or lean) mass (ALM) estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered to be a preferred method for sarcopenia studies. However, DXA is expensive, has limited portability, and requires radiation exposure. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is inexpensive, easy to use, and portable; thus BIA might be useful in sarcopenia investigations. However, a large variety of models have been commercially supplied by different companies, and for most consumer products, the equations estimating ALM are not disclosed. It is therefore difficult to use these equations for research purposes. In particular, the BIA equation is often age-dependent, which leads to fundamental difficulty in examining age-related ALM loss. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to develop and validate an equation to estimate ALM using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA) based on theoretical models, and (2) to establish sarcopenia cutoff values using the equation for the Japanese population. Methods: We measured height (Ht), weight, and ALM obtained using DXA and a standing-posture 8-electrode MF-BIA (5, 50, 250 kHz) in 756 Japanese individuals aged 18 to 86-years-old (222 men and 301 women as developing equation group and 97 men and 136 women as a cross validation group). The traditional impedance index (Ht2/Z50) and impedance ratio of high and low frequency (Z250/Z5) of hand to foot values were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with ALM as dependent variable in men and women separately. Results: We created the following equations: ALM = (0.6947 × (Ht2/Z50)) + (−55.24 × (Z250/Z5)) + (−10,940 × (1/Z50)) + 51.33 for men, and ALM = (0.6144 × (Ht2/Z50)) + (−36.61 × (Z250/Z5)) + (−9332 × (1/Z50)) + 37.91 for women. Additionally, we conducted measurements in 1624 men and 1368 women aged 18 to 40 years to establish sarcopenia cutoff values in the Japanese population. The mean values minus 2 standard deviations of the skeletal muscle mass index (ALM/Ht2) in these participants were 6.8 and 5.7 kg/m2 in men and women, respectively. Conclusion: The current study established and validated a theoretical and age-independent equation using MF-BIA to estimate ALM and provided reasonable sarcopenia cutoff values.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0320.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: aging; longevity; supplements; geroprotectors; SIRT1; NAD+; NMN; resveratrol; nutraceuticals; age-related diseases; flavonoids; senolytics; healthspan
Online: 17 November 2022 (02:51:11 CET)
Disrupted biological function, manifesting through the hallmarks of aging, poses as one of the largest threats to healthspan and risk of disease development, such as metabolic disorders, cardiovascular ailments, and neurodegeneration. In recent years, numerous geroprotectors, senolytics, and other nutraceuticals have emerged as potential disruptors of aging and may be viable interventions in the immediate state of human longevity science. In this review, we focus on the decrease of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) with age and the supplementation of NAD+ precursors, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR), in combination with other geroprotective compounds to restore youthful NAD+ levels. Furthermore, these geroprotectors may enhance the efficacy of NMN supplementation while concurrently providing their own numerous health benefits. By analyzing the prevention of NAD+ degradation through inhibition of CD38 or supporting protective downstream agents of SIRT1, we provide a potential framework of the CD38/NAD+/SIRT1 axis through which geroprotectors may enhance the efficacy of NMN supplementation and reduce the risk of age-related diseases, thereby potentiating healthspan in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0224.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; light-induced photoreceptor degeneration; anti-inflammatory drug; toll-like receptor 4
Online: 17 May 2022 (08:03:11 CEST)
Age-related macular degeneration is a progressive retinal disease that is associated with factors such as oxidative stress, decreased phagocytic activity, and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of SIG-1451, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug developed for treating atopic dermatitis and known to inhibit toll-like receptor 4, on light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. SIG-1451 was intraperitoneally injected into rats once a day before exposure to 1000 lx light for 24 h; one day later, optical coherence tomography showed a decrease in retinal thickness, and electroretinogram (ERG) amplitude was also found to have decreased 3 d after light exposure. Moreover, SIG-1451 protected against this decrease in retinal thickness and increase in ERG am-plitude. One day after light exposure, upregulation of inflammatory response-related genes was observed, and SIG-1451 was found to inhibit this upregulation. Iba-1, a microglial marker, was suppressed in SIG-1451-injected rats. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying these effects, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat immortalised Müller cells. The upregu-lation of C-C motif chemokine 2 by LPS stimulation was significantly inhibited by SIG-1451 treatment, and western blot analysis revealed a decrease in phosphorylated I-κB levels. These results indicate that SIG-1451 protects photoreceptor cells by attenuating light damage progression through inhibiting inflammatory responses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0184.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Retinal degenerative diseases; Age related macular degeneration; Biomaterials, Stem cells, Retinal pigment epithelium; Tissue engineering
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:46:50 CET)
The retina is a complex and fragile photosensitive part of the central nervous system which is prone to degenerative diseases leading to permanent vision loss. No proven treatment strategies exist to treat or reverse the degenerative conditions. Recent investigations demonstrate that cell transplantation therapies to replace the dysfunctional retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and or the degenerating photoreceptors (PRs) are viable options to restore vision. Pluripotent stem cells, retinal progenitor cells and somatic stem cells are the main cell sources used for cell transplantation therapies. The success of retinal transplantation based on cell suspension injection is hindered by limited cell survival and lack of cellular integration. Recent advances in material science helped to develop strategies to grow cells as intact monolayers or as sheets on biomaterial scaffolds for transplantation into the eyes. Such implants are found to be more promising than the bolus injection approach. Tissue engineering techniques are specifically designed to construct biodegradable or non-degradable polymer scaffolds to grow cells as a monolayer and construct implantable grafts. The engineered cell construct along with the extracellular matrix formed, can hold the cells in place to enable easy survival, better integration and improved visual function. This article reviews the advances in the use of scaffolds for transplantation studies in animal models and its application in current clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE); endosomes; phagosomes; lysosomes, autophagy; RPE cultures; Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Online: 29 January 2018 (08:07:19 CET)
Chronic degeneration of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) is a precursor to pathological changes in the outer retina. The RPE monolayer, which lies beneath the neuroretina, daily internalises and digests large volumes of spent photoreceptor outer segments. Impaired cargo handling and processing in the endocytic/phagosome and autophagy pathways leads to the accumulation of lipofuscin and N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine aggregates and chemically-modified compounds such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal within RPE. These contribute to increased proteolytic and oxidative stress, resulting in irreversible damage to post-mitotic RPE cells and development of blinding conditions such as Age-related Macular Degeneration, Stargardt disease and Choroideremia. Here, we review how impaired cargo handling in the RPE results in their dysfunction, discuss new findings from our laboratory and consider how newly discovered roles for lysosomes and the autophagy pathway could provide insights into retinopathies. Studies of these dynamic, molecular events have also been spurred on by recent advances in optics and imaging technology. Mechanisms underpinning lysosomal impairment in other degenerative conditions including storage disorders, a-synuclein pathologies and Alzheimer’s disease are also discussed. Collectively, these findings help transcend conventional understanding of these intracellular compartments as simple waste disposal bags to bring about a paradigm shift in the way lysosomes are perceived.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0066.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: carotenoid; lutein; zexanthin; dehydrolutein; retina; retinal pigment epithelium; singlet oxygen; photosensitized oxidation; age-related macular degeneration.
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:04:44 CEST)
Dehydrolutein accumulates in substantial concentrations in the retina. The aim of this study was to compare antioxidant properties of dehydrolutein with other retinal carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, and their effects on ARPE-19 cells. The time-resolved detection of characteristic singlet oxygen phosphorescence was used to compare the singlet oxygen quenching rate constants of dehydrolutein, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The effects of these carotenoids on photosensitized oxidation were tested in liposomes, where photooxidation was induced by light in the presence of photosensitizers, and monitored by oximetry. To compare the uptake of dehydrolutein, lutein, and zeaxanthin, ARPE-19 cells were incubated with carotenoids for up to 19 days, and carotenoid contents were determined by spectrophotometry in cell extracts. To investigate the effects of carotenoids on phototocytotoxicity, cells were exposed to light in the presence of rose bengal or all-trans-retinal. The results demonstrate that the rate constants for singlet oxygen quenching are 0.77x1010, 0.55x1010, and 1.23x1010 M-1s-1 for dehydrolutein, lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively. Overall, dehydrolutein is similar to lutein or zeaxanthin in protection of lipids against photosensitized oxidation. ARPE-19 cells accumulate substantial amounts of both zeaxanthin and lutein but no detectable amounts of dehydrolutein. Cells pre-incubated with carotenoids are equally susceptible to photosensitized damage as cells without carotenoids. Carotenoids provided to cells together with the extracellular photosensitizers offer partial protection against photodamage. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of dehydrolutein are similar to lutein and zeaxanthin. The mechanism responsible for its lack of accumulation in ARPE-19 cells deserves further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: AGING; Age-related comorbidities; Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme; Amyloid-degrading enzyme; Alzheimer’s disease; Dementia; Hypertension; Life extension; Stress resistance
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:04:43 CEST)
A recent report from the American Heart Association in 2018 shows that over 103 million American adults have hypertension. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (EC 18.104.22.168) is a dipeptidyl carboxylase that, when inhibited, can reduce blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system. ACE inhibitors are used as a first-line medication to be prescribed to treat hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure among others. It has been suggested that ACE inhibitors can reduce the symptoms in mouse models. Despite the benefits of ACE inhibitors, previous studies also have suggested that alterations in the ACE gene are risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological diseases. In mice, overexpression of ACE in the brain reduces symptoms of the AD-model systems. Thus, we find opposing effects of ACE on health. To clarify the effects, we dissect the functions of ACE as follows: (1) angiotensin-converting enzyme that hydrolyzes angiotensin I to make angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin system; (2) amyloid-degrading enzyme that can hydrolyze beta-amyloid and reduce amyloid toxicity. The efficacy of the ACE inhibitors is well established in humans, while the knowledge specific to AD remains to be open for further research. We provide an overview of ACE and inhibitors that link a wide variety of age-related comorbidities from hypertension to Alzheimer’s disease to aging. ACE also serves as an example of the middle-life crisis theory that assumes deleterious events during the midlife, leading to age-related later events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0392.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Age-related Macular Degeneration; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Optical Coherence Tomography; Fundus Autofluorescence; regular fundus photography; Ultra-Widefield Fundus
Online: 21 November 2022 (12:14:18 CET)
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is one of the most causes for elders’ vision loss, early screening and treatment are the most efficient way to reduce the rate of blindness. AI-based methods based on ophthalmic images play a gat potential for AMD diagnosis. However, the difficulty of computing device obtaining, multiple evidence of image sources, time-wasting, and low level of explanation are challenges for AI models applicated in clinics. Thus, this study proposed a fusion learning method for AMD detection. Three steps are involved, which are image feature extraction, feature matrix fusion, and MLP-based AMD classification. Unsupervised (Hierarchical Clustering, SVM, and ResNet-K Means), supervised (VGG-16 and ResNet) methods and the proposed method are compared based on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Fundus Autofluorescence (FAF), regular fundus photography (RCFP) and Ultra-Widefield Fundus (UWF), respectively and comprehensively. Findings show that the proposed method presents a high performance for integrated ophthalmic image diagnosis, it is timesaving (0.09s per image) with high precision (0.95), sensitivity (0.93), specificity (0.92) and AUC (0.94). Thus, this study concluded that the proposed method is a solution to AMD automatic quick detecting based on multiple data sources. A real-world UWF database is involved from Shenzhen Aier Hospital. Practical and theoretical contributions are delivered. A reference value for medical diagnosis based on multiple digital images is contributed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; anti-inflammatory agents; dry AMD; geographic atrophy; intravitreal injection; complement inhibitors; neuroprotective agents; non-exudative AMD
Online: 12 February 2019 (11:00:52 CET)
The present review focuses on recent clinical trials that analyze the efficacy of intravitreal therapeutic agents for the treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as neuroprotective drugs, and complement inhibitors, also called immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory. A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials published prior to January 2019. Patients affected by dry AMD treated with intravitreal therapeutic agents were included. The changes in the correct visual acuity and the reduction in geographic atrophy progression were evaluated. Several new drugs have shown some promising results, including those targeting the complement cascade and agents called neuroprotective. The action potential of the two groups of drugs is to block the complement cascade model for immunomodulating agents, and prevent the degeneration and apoptosis of ganglion cells for the neuroprotectors, respectively. To the best of knowledge, and after extensive studies on the matter, there are still many investigations to be carried out on dry AMD in collaboration between researchers. They will have to identify truly effective molecules, understand the practical potential of pluripotent stem cells, and refine gene therapies. Only in-depth clinical trials will be able to allow the most appropriate and personalized treatments for each dry AMD patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0369.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Gut-retina axis, Gut microbiota, Dietary habits, Micronutrients, Fish oil, omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Personalised medicine
Online: 16 October 2018 (17:39:27 CEST)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease and the primary cause of legal and irreversible blindness among individuals aged >=65 years in developed countries. Globally, it affects 30-50 million individuals, with an estimated increase of approximately 200 million by 2020 and approximately 300 million by 2040. Currently, the neovascular form may be able to be treated with the use of anti-VEGF drugs, while no effective treatments are available for the dry form. Many observational studies, such as AREDS-1 and AREDS 2, have shown a potential role of micronutrient supplementation in lowering the risk of progression of the early stages of AMD. Recently, low-grade inflammation, sustained by dysbiosis and a leaky gut, has been shown to contribute to the development of AMD. Given the ascertained influence of the gut microbiota in systemic low-grade inflammation and its potential modulation by macro- and micro-nutrients, a potential role of diet in AMD has been proposed. This review discusses the role of the gut microbiota in the development of AMD. Using PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, we searched for recent scientific evidence discussing the impact of dietary habits (high fat and high glucose or fructose diets), micronutrients (vitamins C, E, and D, zinc, beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and omega-3 fatty acids on the modulation of the gut microbiota and their relationship with AMD risk and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0532.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Locus Coeruleus; Reserve; Brain Age; Visual Attention; Alzheimer’s Disease; Mild Cognitive Impairment; normal Aging; Neuroimaging; Voxel Based Morphometry
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:41:40 CEST)
The noradrenergic theory of Cognitive Reserve (Robertson, 2013-2014) postulates that the upregulation of the Locus Coeruleus - Noradrenergic System (LC-NA) originating in the Brainstem might facilitate cortical networks involved in attention, and protracted activation of this system throughout the lifespan may enhance cognitive stimulation contributing to Reserve. To test the above-mentioned theory, a study was conducted on a sample of 686 participants (395 controls, 156 Mild Cognitive Impairment, 135 Alzheimer’s Disease) investigating the relationship between LC volume, attentional performance and a biological index of brain maintenance (BrainPAD – an objective measure which compares an individual’s structural brain health, reflected by their voxel-wise grey matter density, to the state typically expected at that individual’s age). Further analyses were carried out on Reserve indices including education and occupational attainment. Volumetric variation across groups was also explored along with gender differences. Control analyses on the Serotoninergic (5-HT), Dopaminergic (DA) and Cholinergic (Ach) systems were contrasted with the Noradrenergic (NA) hypothesis. The antithetic relationships were also tested across the neuromodulatory subcortical systems.Results supported by bayesian modelling showed that LC volume disproportionately predicted higher attentional performance as well as biological brain maintenance across the three groups. These findings lend support to the role of the noradrenergic system as a key mediator underpinning the neuropsychology of Reserve, and they suggest that early prevention strategies focused on the noradrenergic system (e.g. cognitive-attentive training, physical exercise, pharmacological and dietary interventions) may yield important clinical benefits to mitigate cognitive impairment with age and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0094.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Retinal pigment epithelium of the eye; RPE; AMD (Age-related Macular Degeneration); GPR143; L-DOPA; Melanin; Ocular albinism; Exosome; Photoreceptor outer segment; Cathepsin D.
Online: 5 January 2023 (02:58:31 CET)
Age-related macular degeneration is one of the most common causes of blindness, and the incidence exhibits profound racial bias, occurring most frequently in Caucasians. A primary cell type affected in the disease is the retinal pigment epithelium, but the etiology is unclear. The end 10% of the photoreceptor outer segments are shed each day, and the underlying retinal pigment epithelium engulfs, digests, and recycles molecules back to the sensory retina. In previous work, we showed that GPR143 signaling in response to L-DOPA may be effective in the prevention or delay of age-related macular degeneration. In this study, we explore a novel potential effector of GPR143 signaling, that of outer segment uptake and digestion. Using isolated outer segments, labelled with a pH-sensitive marker to fluoresce in lysosomes, we show that GPR143 signaling does not impact outer segment uptake, but does have a significant effect on subsequent degradation. Interestingly, GPR143 signaling did not affect the digestive capacity of the cells, marked by total proteolytic capacity and cathepsin D activity. Rather, our data suggest GPR143 improved endosomal trafficking efficiency of the phagocytosed outer segments to the lysosome. This result is similar to the effect we previously reported for GPR143 on exosome release from the endosomal compartment. Our data illustrate that GPR143 is active in endosomal traffic A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: briefly describe the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article’s main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article and it must not contain results that are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0081.v2
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:17:28 CEST)
Background The link between age at marriage and first birth in explaining completed family size is not always direct, due to heterogeneity in circumstances, that compel individual women to marry or initiate childbearing at a particular age. We analyzed data for 1020 women aged 45-49 in 2014 of the 1965-1969 birth cohort from the 2013-14 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS). Methods We fitted a bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression to establish the relationship between a mother’s age at first marriage and at first birth on completed family size (CFS). Chi-square test of proportions measuring differences in proportions and relative risk ratios (RRR) with confidence intervals at 95% are reported. Results Our results show that the average CFS was 6.7 (95% CI: 6.5 – 6.9) among women completing their reproductive span in 2014 with mean age at first marriage and birth being 18.3 years (95% CI: 18.0 – 18.5) and 18.9 years (95% CI: 18.7 – 19.1) respectively. Women marrying at younger ages and having their first birth at younger ages were more likely (RRR: 1.187; 95% CI: 1.138-1.239 and RRR: 0.195; 95% CI: 0.074-0.511 respectively) to have higher CFS than their compatriots that initiated both marriage and childbearing at or after age 22 controlling for covariates as presented in the controlled model. The independent effects model shows that the risk of having 1-3 children compared to 6 or more children was lower (RRR: 0.073; 95% CI: 0.009-0.611; RRR: 0.136; 95% CI: 0,046-0.402 and RRR: 0.421; 05% CI: 0.135-1.312) for women whose ages at first marriage were <15, 15-18 and 19-21 respectively relative to 22+. Women with 1-3 children were 2.5 times more likely to use contraception than women with 6 or more children. Conclusion Having no education, being a rural resident and having a medium household wealth all increase the risk of having higher CFS. Women that marry before age 19 have a higher likelihood of having 6 or more children by the end of their reproductive period. The study concludes that apart from a woman’s age at first marriage and first birth, a complex network of factors interact to determined CFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0030.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsion (NME) stabilisation; identifying construction problems; preventing construction related problems; material related problems; constructability using nanotechnology applications; nano-silane stabilisation of granular materials; construction quality control problems; construction equipment problems; practical implementation of nano-silane stabilisation.
Online: 11 January 2022 (10:37:34 CET)
The use of New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME) for the stabilisation of marginal materials for use in the upper-pavement layers of roads have been proven in laboratories, through Accelerated Pavement Tests (APT) and in practice. In addition, material design methods have been developed based on the scientific analysis of granular material mineralogy and the chemical interaction with the binder to design a material compatible NME stabilising agent for naturally available (often marginal) materials. However, the introduction of any new disruptive technology in a traditionally well-established industry, such as the road construction industry, is usually associated with considerable resistance. This is especially relevant when the new technology enables the use of granular materials traditionally considered to be of an unacceptable quality in combination with relatively new concepts such as New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME). In practice, few road construction projects are without any problems. The introduction of new-technologies obviously makes it an easy target to blame for any non-related problem that may arise during construction. This article aims to assist in pre-empting, recognising, preventing and resolving material or non-material related construction problems through the correct identification of the cause of the problem and recommending the best, most cost-effective way to correct any deficiencies on site.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss; age-related sensorineural hearing loss; inflammation, immune senescence; interleukin 1 receptor type II -positive T cells; naturally occurring regulatory T cells; immune rejuvenation; thymus
Online: 4 January 2019 (11:37:31 CET)
Although congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) in the bilateral cochleae mainly results from genetic abnormalities, chronic SHL progressing in later life is often influenced by systemic immune disturbances, including autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, and immunosenescence. We have investigated the relationship between the inner ear and systemic immunity and reviewed the possibilities to prevent SHL, including autoimmune SHL and age-related SHL. We also demonstrated two lymphocyte populations, interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL-1R2)-positive T cells (T1R2) and naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs) in CD4+ T cells, which increase with aging, suppress host immune function and promote organ degeneration. Alterations in systemic immunity by fewer microbial antigen challenges in the living environment, elimination of immune suppressive lymphocytes, or immune rejuvenation with a reconstituted thymus may contribute not only to renew the cochlear function in SHL, but also to extend the healthy life of functional organs in a vigorous and youthful body, one of humanity’s greatest dreams.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: Atelectasis; Hypoxia; Old age; Spontaneous respiration
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:36:47 CEST)
There are several causes of hypoxia during and after surgery, and atelectasis is a common symptom that occurs during surgery. In particular, elderly patients are more vulnerable to hypoxia due to their existing lung diseases or respiratory muscle weakness. This study presents the cases of two elderly patients who developed hypoxia during total hip arthroplasty under general anesthesia. Positive end expiratory pressure, recruitment maneuver, and increased fraction of inspired oxygen improved hypoxia only temporarily, and patients’ oxygen saturation level again dropped to 79%–80%. We suspected that hypoxia was caused by atelectasis and, therefore, re-sumed spontaneous respiration. Thereafter, both the patients showed an improvement in hypoxia. Intraopera-tive hypoxia that is suspected to be caused by atelectasis can be improved by securing sufficient lung volume for respiration through increased muscle tone with spontaneous respiration
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Age; Antibody titers; Diphtheria; Immunosenescence; Vaccine
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:33:20 CEST)
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antibody responses in two adult age groups after diphtheria vaccination. Study Design: An observational analytic study was carried out to determine the difference in serum titer of anti-diphtheria antibody. Methods: Serum antibody titers were measured just before and 3 months after injection of Diphtheria toxoid vaccine. Vaccine was given to two adult age groups of health care personnel in hospital: the young (< 40 years) and the middle-aged (≥ 40 years). Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). Results: Significant increase in serum anti-diphtheria antibody titers were recorded after vaccination in both age group (p < 0.001 in young adult and p = 0.001 in middle-aged adult, respectively). There were no substantial differences between the two groups in terms of antibody titer before vaccination (p = 0.741), 3 months after vaccination (p = 0.317) and in the increase of antibody titer (p = 0.479). Conclusions: This study showed that there was no significant difference in the increase of anti-diphtheria antibody titers between the two age groups, proving that both young and middle-aged adults had an equal immune response to a given diphtheria vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0501.v1
Online: 23 February 2021 (08:16:52 CET)
Glioma accounts for 80% of all malignant brain tumors and is the most common adult primary brain tumor. Age is an important factor affecting the development of cancer as somatic mutations accumulate with age. In this study, we aimed to analyze the significance of age-related non-silent somatic mutations in glioma prognosis. Histological tumor grade depends on age at diagnosis in patients with IDH1, TP53, ATRX, and EGFR mutations. The hierarchical clustering of patients was dominantly separated by IDH1 and EGFR mutations. Furthermore, patients with IDH1 mutation were dominantly separated by TP53 and ATRX double mutation and its double wildtype counterpart. Patients with the double mutation showed poorer prognosis than those with the double wild type genotype. In conclusion, among the many somatic mutations, those in IDH1, TP53, ATRX, and EGFR are important for glioma classification based on histological grade. Patients with EGFR mutation had the poorest prognosis, whereas those with only IDH1 mutation showed the best prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0029.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: eating disorder; gender; age; university degree
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:58:08 CET)
Background: The passage through university, as a complex experience, can heighten personal susceptibility to eating disorders. The objective of this research is to determine how gender, age, year of course, and center or faculty can influence the risk of an eating disorder among university students. Method: A transversal and descriptive study with a probabilistic sample of 516 Spanish students from 26 university degrees is performed, by administering the Inventory Eating Disorder-Reference criterion (EDI-3-RF) to the students. Results: It was found that the female students enrolled in second-year grades presented a greater obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction, that the male students did more physical exercise to control their weight, and that those under 20 years and the students from both the Health and Law Faculties presented greater bulimic behavior. Conclusions: It is necessary to implement preventive measures adapted to the university students.
EDITORIAL | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: carcinogenesis; cancer; age distribution of cancer
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:40:40 CEST)
Tobacco use, most people would say. Smoking tobacco increases the risk of developing many types of cancer and is responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. The association between tobacco use and lung cancer is well known; lung cancer occurs about 20 times more often in heavy smokers than in nonsmokers . However, many lung cancers are diagnosed in never smokers , and most smokers do not develop lung cancer [3,4].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0040.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: adolescents; emotional sphere; ethnic-related peculiarities; North
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:33:20 CET)
The combined ecological, geophysical, climatic, and social factors of the Northeast of Russia influence the organism from the early childhood being too intense for the functional systems. The purpose of the research is to study the emotional characteristics of adolescents of different ethnic groups in the northeast of Russia. Presented in the paper are results of the study that covered 826 adolescents (445 females and 381 males) at the age of 15–17, different by ethnic origin. We used standard methods of psycho-diagnostics. Our study has showed that the formation of the adolescents’ emotional sphere in the North is undoubtedly influenced not only by the climatic and socio-economic environmental factors but also by ethnic features. There are intergroup differences in the aggressiveness profile of older adolescents living in the remote settlement vs. the regional center. It is shown that high school students in the remote settlement of Evensk, compared to their peers in Magadan, regardless of gender and ethnicity, are characterized by more pronounced hostile and auto-aggressive reactions. In adolescents of the Aboriginal population, as compared with their age mate Caucasians, the indicators of impairment in the field of Neuro Psychic Adaptation, Situational and Personal Anxiety, and Social Frustration are significantly more pronounced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0019.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: glaciers; Little Ice Age; reconstruction; retreat; Altai
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:30:31 CET)
The recent glaciation of the southern part of the Altai is estimated (1256 glaciers with the total area of 559.15±31.13 km2), the area of the glaciers of the whole Altai mountains is evaluated by 1096.55 km2. In the southern part of Altai 2276 glaciers with the total area of 1348.43±56.16 km2 were reconstructed, the first estimate of the LIA glacial area for the whole Altai mountain system is given (2288.04 km2). Since the LIA the glaciers decrease by 59% in the southern part of Altai and by 47.9% for the whole Altai. The ELA in the southern part of Altai increased averagely by 106 m. The higher changes of ELA in relatively humid areas is probably caused by decrease of precipitation. Glaciers of Tavan Bogd glacial center degraded with higher rates after 1968 relative to the interval between 1850-1968. One of the intervals of the fastest shrinkage of the glaciers in 2000-2010 was caused by unfavorable for the glaciers dry and warm interval 1989-2004. However, the fast decrease of the glaciers in 2000-2010 was mainly caused by the shrinkage or disappearance of the smaller glaciers, large valley glaciers started fast retreat after 2010.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0210.v1
Online: 8 March 2021 (10:56:37 CET)
Vascular pathogens are the causal agents of main diseases threatening the health and growth of olive crops worldwide. The use of endophytic microorganisms represents a challenging and promising strategy for management of vascular diseases in olive. Although current research has been focused on analyzing the structure and diversity of the endophytic microbial communities inhabiting the olive xylem, the characterization of this ecological niche has been overlooked and to date remain unexplored, despite that the characterization of the xylem sap composition is essential to unravel the nutritional requirements of xylem-limited microorganisms. In this study, branches from plantlets and adult olive trees of cultivars ‘Picual’ and ‘Arbequina' were selected to characterize the chemical composition of olive xylem sap extracted using a Scholander pressure chamber. Metabolome and ionome analyses of xylem sap were performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based and by inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. Olive xylem sap metabolites included a higher relative percentage of sugars (54.35%), followed by alcohols (28.85%), amino acids (8.01%), organic acids (7.68%) and osmolytes (1.12%). Within each of these groups, the main metabolites in the olive xylem sap were mannitol, ethanol, glutamine, acetate and trigonelline, whereas K and Cl- were the main element and inorganic anion, respectively. Metabolomic profile varied when comparing olive plant age and genotype. The levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose and mannitol, choline, B and PO43 were significantly higher in adult trees than in plantlets for both olive genotypes, whereas NO3- and Rb content showed the opposite behavior. On the other hand, levels of aspartate, phenylalanine and Na were significantly higher in ‘Picual’ than in ‘Arbequina’ whereas Fe showed the opposite behavior but only for adult trees. Non-supervised hierarchical clustering analysis separated xylem sap composition firstly according to the plant age and then by the olive cultivar. Supervised PLS-DA analysis revealed that B, ethanol, Fe, Fructose, glucose, mannitol, sucrose and Sr were the most significative compounds discriminating adult trees from plantlets, whereas asparagine, aspartate, glutamate and phenylalanine or aspartate, arginine, ethanol and Sr were the most contributory compounds in the discrimination of both olive genotypes for adult trees or plantlets, respectively. Knowledge of the chemical composition of xylem sap will lead to a better understanding of the complex nutritional requirements of olive xylem-inhabiting microorganisms, including its vascular pathogens, and would allow the design of artificial growing media to improve culturing the olive microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: terminology, health, aging, biological age, wellbeing, biomarker
Online: 1 August 2018 (15:00:47 CEST)
Despite increasing research efforts, there is a lack of consensus on defining aging or health. To understand the underlying processes, and to foster the development of targeted interventions towards increasing one’s health, there is an urgent need: (1) to find a broadly acceptable and useful definition of health, based on a list of features (which may or may not be molecular); (2) to operationalize features of health so that it can be measured; (3) to identify predictive biomarkers and (molecular) pathways of health, and (4) to suggest interventions, such as nutrition and exercise, targeted at putative causal pathways and processes. Based on a survey of the literature, we propose to define health as a state of an individual characterized by the core features of (a) physiological function, (b) cognitive function and (c) physical function, amended, specifically in case of humans, by (d) lack of disease, and by (e) reproductive function. Often used concepts such as lack of frailty, allostatic load, or self-reported health (in case of human), and indices such as the Healthy Aging Index can be viewed as projections or surrogates of our definition. We further define aging as the set of all processes in an individual that reduce its “wellbeing”, that is, its health or survival or both. We define biomarkers of health by their attribute of predicting future health better than chronological age. We define healthspan pathways as molecular features of health that relate to each other, specifically by belonging to the same molecular pathway. Our conceptual framework may integrate diverse operationalizations of health and guide precision prevention efforts that are a key to reducing the need for medical and nursing care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0402.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Tuberculosis; Vulnerable populations; Homeless Persons; Substance-Related Disorders
Online: 31 March 2022 (08:05:32 CEST)
Abstract: (1) Background: tuberculosis presents an epidemiological trend towards inequality, especially among people in social exclusion and situations of vulnerability. To analyze territories where there is a concentration of people diagnosed with tuberculosis, in a street situation, and who make chronic use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. We will also analyze trends in this health condition in southern Brazil; (2) Methods: Ecological study, developed in the 399 municipalities of Paraná, Southern Brazil, with all tuberculosis cases in the homeless population registered in the Information System of Notifiable Diseases between 2014 to 2018. For data analysis, we used descriptive statistics, for the time series, the Prais-Winsten autoregression method, whereas for spatial analysis, we used the Getis-Ord Gi technique*; (3) Results: in total, 560 cases were reported. We found a predominance of alcohol, smoking, and illicit drugs users, with an increasing trend in the state and clusters of spatial risk in the East health macro-region; (4) Conclusions: We observed territories with critical levels of highly vulnerable people who use psychoactive substances and are in a street situation. The results highlight the importance of incorporating public policies of social protection to these individuals and resolutive health services that receive and assist in eradicating TB.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0148.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Cancer related Inflammation; miRNA; LncRNA; Epigenetics, immune polarization
Online: 8 September 2021 (12:07:58 CEST)
Accumulating evidences demonstrate that the host genome's epigenetic modificationsare essential for living organisms to adapt extreme conditions.DNA methylation, covalent modifications of histone, andinter-association of non-coding RNAs facilitate the cellular manifestation ofepigenetic changes in the genome. Out of various factors involved in the epigenetic programming of the host, miRNA (microRNA) and LncRNA (Long non-coding RNA) are new generationnon-coding molecules that influence a variety of cellular processes like immunity, cellular differentiation, and tumor development. During tumor development, temporal changes in miRNA/LncRNA rheostat influence sterile inflammatory responses accompanied by the changes in the carcinogenic signalling in the host. At the cellular level, this is manifested by the up-regulation of Inflammasome and inflammatory pathways, which promotes cancer-related inflammation. In view of this, we discuss the potential of lncRNA and miRNA directed interventions in regulating inflammation and tumor development in the host.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: fire-related death; viability; light microscopy; bronchiolar epithelium
Online: 25 February 2021 (13:12:51 CET)
Fire-related deaths are issues for forensic pathologists particularly in ascertaining if death occurred before or during fire. The authors highlight a unique bronchiolar epithelial cytological clue (nuclear heat-induced elongation) determined by active inhalation of hot gases and fumes, not yet described in the literature at distal small airways level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mast cells; mastocytosis; mediator-related symptoms; anaphylaxis; children
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:36:31 CET)
Mastocytosis is characterized by pathological accumulation of mast cells (MC) in various organs. In these patients, MC may degranulate and thereby contribute to clinical symptoms, especially when a concomitant allergy is present. However, MC activation can not only be induced by high-affinity receptors for IgE, but also by anaphylatoxins, neuropeptides, IgG immune complexes, complement-components, drugs, products of bacteria or parasites, as well as physical factors such as heat, cold, vibration, stress, sun, or physical effort. Symptoms due to mediators released by activated MC may develop in adults suffering from systemic mastocytosis, but also evolve in children who usually have cutaneous mastocytosis (CM). Clinically, CM is otherwise characterized by typical brown, maculopapular skin lesions or mastocytoma associated with a positive Darier’s sign. Pruritus and flushing are common and blistering may also be recorded, especially in diffuse CM (DCM). Pediatric patients with mastocytosis may also have gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurologic complaints. Although anaphylaxis is not a typical finding, pediatric patients with massive skin involvement and high tryptase levels have a relatively high risk to develop anaphylaxis. This paper reviews MC mediator-related symptoms and anaphylaxis in children with mastocytosis, with special emphasis on risk factors, triggers, and management.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: meta-analysis; chitosan; lifestyle-related disease; cholesterol lowering
Online: 18 November 2020 (10:59:37 CET)
This study presents a meta-analysis of studies that investigate the effectiveness of chitosan administration on lifestyle-related disease in murine models. A total of 34 published studies were used to evaluate the effect of chitosan supplementation. The effect sizes for various items after chitosan administration were evaluated using the standardized mean difference. Using Cochran’s Q test, the heterogeneity of effect sizes was assessed, after which a meta-ANOVA and –regression test was conducted to explain the heterogeneity of effect sizes using the mixed-effect model. Publication bias was performed using Egger’s linear regression test. Among the items evaluated, blood triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol showed the highest Q statistics and I2 values, respectively. Other than blood HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in feces, most items evaluated showed a negative effect size with high significance in the fixed- and random-effect model (p<0.0001). In the meta-ANOVA and -regression test, administering chitosan and resistant starch was revealed to be most effective in lowering body weight. In addition, chitosan supplementation proved to be an effective solution for TNF-α inhibition. In conclusion, chitosan has been shown to be somewhat useful in improving symptoms of lifestyle-related disease. Although there are some limitations in the results of this meta-analysis due to the limited number of animal experiments conducted, chitosan administration nevertheless shows promise in enhancing the quality of human life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Medication-related burden; Questionnaire; chronic disease conditions; adherence
Online: 25 June 2018 (14:35:31 CEST)
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the perceived medication-related burden among patients with multiple non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and to investigate the association between perceived burden and adherence to medication therapy. Medication-related burden was measured in three primary care clinics in Qatar using the Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) among adults with diabetes, with or without other comorbidities. Adherence was measured using the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Two hundred ninety-three eligible patients participated in the study. Majority of participants reported experiencing minimum (66.6%) to moderate (24.1%) medication-related burden. There was a significant positive correlation between the medication-related burden (measured by the LWQ) and medication adherence (measured by ARMS) (rs (253) = 0.317, p <0.0005). The duration of diabetes diagnosis, adherence score, marital status, employment status, and presence diagnosis of hypertension were significant predictors of medication burden. A considerable proportion of the patients in this study have reported experiencing medication-related burden. Healthcare providers should seek strategies to address this burden especially among patients with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, non-adherent to their medication therapy, living alone, or non-employed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer etiopathogenesis; breast cancer treatment; hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer; pH-related paradigm; H+-related therapeutics of breast cancer
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:04:24 CEST)
A brand-new approach to the understanding of breast cancer (BC) is urgently needed. In this contribution, the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this disease is approached from the new pH-centric anticancer paradigm. Only this Unitarian perspective based upon that the hydrogen ion (H+) dynamics of cancer, allows understanding and integrating the many dualisms, confusions, and paradoxes of the disease. The new H+-related wide range model can embrace under a unique frame of mind the many aspects of the disease and at the same time therapeutically interfere with most, if not with all, the hallmarks of cancer known to date. The pH-related armamentarium available for the treatment of BC here reviewed may be beneficial for all types and stages of the disease. In this vein, we have attempted a mega synthesis of traditional and new knowledge in the different areas of breast cancer research and treatment based upon the wide range approach afforded by the hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer. The concerted utilization of a pH-related drugs nowadays available for the treatment of breast cancer is advanced.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0075.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: DNA methylation; epigenetic aging; bottlenose dolphin; chronological age
Online: 5 July 2021 (07:59:15 CEST)
Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, allows for estimation of animal age from blood or remotely sampled skin. This multi tissue epigenetic aging clock uses 110 longitudinal samples from 34 Navy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), identifying 195 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites associated with chronological aging via leave-one-individual-out-cross-validation (R2=0.95). With a median absolute error of 2.5 years this clock improves age estimation capacity in wild dolphins, expanding conservation efforts, enabling better understanding of population demographics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: spatiotemporal parameters; gait; gender; age; Body Mass Index
Online: 9 September 2020 (07:12:18 CEST)
Studies on the gait's parameters have been identified on the patients population. Most researchers confirm that the patients walk differently than normal people and they may have a risk for falls. Consistent finding and description of gender, age, and body mass index differences in gait studies is rare in healthy subjects. A cross-sectional study with forty-five young adult (F = 20, M = 25) was conducted. Stadiometer and Physilog 4 inertial sensors were used for data collection. A gait analyser 5.2 software (GaitUp, S.A. Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to determine spatiotemporal parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in any bilateral foot gait parameters with respect to gender, age, and body mass index. Females are found with higher total double support and cadence than males. Cadence also increases with age. Obese people showed lower gait speed, cadence, and total double support. These findings may be beneficial to those who have abnormal gait pattern due to age, body mass index differences, decreased muscle strength, spasticity, and joint mobility. This important informations should be considered to rehabilitate patients with abnormal gait patterns to controlling dynamic balance and riks to falling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Confirmed cases, case fatality rate, province, age, gender.
Online: 17 July 2020 (06:24:55 CEST)
The initial outbreak of COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan (China) during the latter part of December 2019. Indonesia has the fourth-largest population globally and reported the country’s first case of the virus on 2nd March 2020. The World Health Organisation (WHO) in addition to several neighbouring provinces and educational institutions within the region began questioning the Indonesian government upon the initial case reported. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia during March 2020. The data were collected from Indonesian government databases and non-government organisations (NGOs). The data were analysed using Microsoft Office 2019 (Excel) and Adobe Illustrator 2017 software, was used in drawing the map depicting the distribution of COVID-19 in Indonesia. As at 31st March 2020, a total of 1,528 people in Indonesia have been infected by COVID-19, in addition to 136 mortalities (CFR of 8.9%). Jakarta, as the principal capital of Indonesia, quickly has become the epicentre of the virus since this period. Most patient cases were attributed to those aged between 31 and 70 years (72.64%), with male patients (64.93%) representing the highest incidence of cases compared to female patients (35.07%). The number of ventilating machines was 3,326, with hospital numbers at 859. The distribution of cases depicting COVID-19 was mainly seen in urban areas compared to rural areas. Males compared to females, are at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, including those aged below 30, between 30 and 60 or above. Indonesia also has the highest case fatality rate (CFR) with respect to mortalities in Southeast Asia and has the second-highest CFR globally. Similarly, while the number of ventilator machines as at 31st March 2020 were sufficient in meeting the growing number of COVID-19 cases in the country, it is possible that the government may need to increase the number of ventilators if the cases continue to escalate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0335.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: social and moral education; preschool age; communitarian approach
Online: 27 November 2019 (08:46:55 CET)
The article deals with issues related to social and moral education and development of preschool children. The theoretical understanding of the current state of this field is reflected in the modern normative documents "On education in the Russian Federation", the state educational standards. Analysis of theoretical and practice-oriented research in this area shows that the phrase "moral education" today is gradually replaced by "social and moral education", "social and moral development". This trend is found in preschool pedagogy (work L. V. Abramova, R. S. Bure, S. M. Zyryanova, N.A. Karataeva, G. M. Kiseleva, I. F. Sleptsova, etc.). It is the study of social and moral representations of preschool children that many relevant diagnostic methods are aimed at: to explain the actions of children, their relationship with each other and adults, to assess these actions (i.e. to correlate the situation with the moral norm). The presented research was based on the method of research of moral representations of children of senior preschool age, developed by G. A. Uruntaeva and Yu.A. Afon'kina. The analysis of the results showed that children of senior preschool age willingly included in the retelling of the actions described in the situation, but find it difficult to assess what is happening from a moral point of view. It is obvious that psychological and pedagogical work is necessary in this direction, taking into account the age characteristics of children, as well as social and moral guidelines relevant to the current situation of development of society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0106.v1
Online: 12 February 2019 (17:14:54 CET)
The black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron is the most abundant fish species in the Nakwa (a closed lagoon) and Brenu (an open lagoon) in the Central region of Ghana. Aspects of the life history characteristics and the ecology of the fish populations in both lagoons were studied to assess the bio-ecological status of this important resource. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞ = 12.04 cm; K =2.76 year-1 for the Nakwa Lagoon samples and L∞ = 13.44 cm; K = 3.27 years-1 for Brenu Lagoon samples. Daily otolith incremental rate ranged from 0.01-0.03mm per day and 0.01-0.02mm per day for Nakwa and Brenu lagoons respectively. Stomach content analysis of the fish samples revealed that the species are planktivorous and the range of food varied between the lagoons. Green algae was the most prevalent food item in the stomachs of the fish samples from Nakwa with frequency of 69% while diatoms (80.5%) were most prevalent phytoplanktonic food item in for the fish in Brenu lagoon. The results of this study of Sarotherodon melanotheron from the two lagoons and can be used to improve on management policies, maximize yield and to sustain the fishery resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0187.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: remote sensing; multi-temporal; Landsat; age; canopy; FCD
Online: 9 October 2018 (11:33:18 CEST)
In the oil palm industry, stands age is an important parameter to monitor the sustainability of cultivation, to develop the growth yield model, to identify the disease or stressed area, and to estimate the carbon storage capacity. This research is focused to estimate and distinguish oil palm stands age based on crown/ canopy density obtained using Forest Canopy Density (FCD) model derived from four indices as follows; Advanced Vegetation Index, Bare Soil Index, Shadow Index, and Thermal Index. FCD model employs multi temporal image analysis resulting four classes of oil palm stands age categorized as seed with FCD value of 29–56% (0 years), young with FCD value of 56–63% (1–9 years), teen with FCD value of 63–80% (10–15 years), and mature with FCD value of >80% (>15 years). Minimum canopy density value is 29% even in the zero years old indicates incomplete land clearance or the type of seed planted in the land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0137.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Archaeology; Archaeogenetic Model; Neolithic; Chalcolithic; Bronze Age; Migration
Online: 19 December 2017 (15:49:22 CET)
Migrations are much more important than currently recognised, for explaining important patterns observed in the European archaeology record – according to this archaeology led model. At a high level, they explain the introduction of different farming, monument building, the spread of metalworking and patterns of trade and exchange. This paper presents an archaeogenetic model based on a strategic review of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic archaeology of Europe, alongside a review of recently published ancient DNA data. The model is archaeology led. It takes archaeology themes and proposes migratory events to explain them. Ancient DNA data and further archaeology evidence is then used to test these proposed migrations- to reject or refine them. The model introduces a new and more strategic way of looking at archaeological cultures - that updates early 20th century approaches to studying archaeology cultures, and integrates with the detailed ‘post processual’ studies of the late 20th Century. The model consists of seven maps – each showing multiple migration events – with key evidence to support each migration map. It proposes a new category of a ‘Black Sea’ related population that makes a major genetic contribution to the Middle Neolithic of Europe. The proposed migrations provide an explanation for the observed patterns of archaeology, for example: • multiple Neolithic migrations that introduced, farming and metalworking into Europe; • a major ‘Black Sea’ related ‘Middle Neolithic’ migration that carried advanced knowledge of astronomy that can be recognised in a variety of types of monument from the Neolithic through to Bronze Age Europe; and, • migrations of related cultures (‘supercultures’) that explain patterns of trade and exchange in Bronze Age western Europe. The model also provides ancient DNA and archaeology based support for the key aspects of Childe’s ‘dawn of civilisation’ in Europe and Egypt and Gimbutas’ ‘Old Europe’ and “three waves of migration from the Steppe”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0016.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: soil; Robinia pseudoacacia; PLFA; stand age; microbial community
Online: 5 September 2017 (15:28:05 CEST)
Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) can be used as biomarkers for qualitative and quantitative analyses of soil microbial community diversity. In this study, we collected soil samples at 10-cm intervals to a depth of 1 m from Robinia pseudoacacia plantations of four different ages (10, 15, 25 and 40 years) in a loess area and analysed the soil microbial community structure by PLFA analysis. A total of 97 PLFAs were detected in soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations of different ages. The individual PLFA contents gradually decreased in the 0- to 40-cm soil layers, with little variation in the 40- to 100-cm soil layers. The individual PLFAs were similarly distributed in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations of different ages, and there was a clear variation with stand age and soil depth. The individual PLFA contents in the 0- to 20-cm soil layers were highest for the 25-year-old plantation, while those in the 20- to 40-cm soil layers were relatively high for the 25- and 40-year-old plantations; the 16:0 content was the highest among individual PLFAs. The total PLFA content and the PLFA contents of different microbial groups [bacteria, fungi, Gram-positive bacteria (G+), Gram-negative bacteria (G-) and actinomycetes] initially increased before decreasing in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations with increasing stand age, whereas these contents gradually decreased with increasing soil depth; the highest PLFA contents was found in the 25-year-old plantation. The total PLFA content and the contents of fungal, G- and actinomycete PLFAs in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations differed significantly among stands of different ages in the 0- to 10-cm, 10- to 20-cm and 30- to 40-cm soil layers, while no significant differences were found in the 20- to 30-cm soil layers; the G+ and bacterial PLFAs contents in each of the 0- to 40-cm soil layers were significantly different. The PLFA ratios between different microbial groups differed among the stands of different ages. The fungi/bacteria ratio showed a “decrease-increase-decrease” trend with stand age, while the G+/G- ratio showed an “increase-decrease” trend. The saturated/monounsaturated PLFA ratio initially decreased before plateauing, while the opposite trend was observed for the cyclopropyl/precursor ratio. The PLFA contents of different microbial groups were ranked as follows: bacteria > G- > G+ > actinomycetes > fungi. In the principle component analysis, 18:1ω9c, 10Me18:0, i17:0, a17:0, 18:1ω7c, 18:1ω5c and 18:0 made the greatest contribution to principal component 1, and a14:0, i14:0 3OH, i14:0, i14:1ω7c and 14:0 made the greatest contribution to principal component 2. In conclusion, soil nutrient status and other soil eco-environmental stress factors should be considered in 10- to 25-year-old (particularly ~15-year-old) plots for the management of R. pseudoacacia plantations to prevent forest soil degradation and improve forest stand quality, thereby achieving better soil and water conservation and environmental improvement in R. pseudoacacia plantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0351.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Tuberculosis; Health-related quality of life; COVID-19; Guinea
Online: 25 July 2022 (05:37:10 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on all facets of life and has exacerbated many challenges faced by people living with tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of TB patients in Guinea during the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed-methods study was conducted using two validated psychometric tools to assess HRQoL and qualitative interviews among TB patients enrolled in treatment at three centers in Conakry, Guinea. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the deterioration of HRQoL. We included 439 participants in the study, among whom 44% and 31% experienced pain and anxiety, respectively. We found that an increase in the number of household members and the distance from participants’ residence to the health centre were significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Qualitative interviews highlighted nutritional and financial concerns which were exacerbated during COVID-19 pandemic and beliefs that the Guinean Government’s assistance plan was insufficient. This study supports the implementation of specific relief plans for TB patients which includes nutritional and psychological support, especially those whose movements are limited by travel restrictions, impeding access to TB care, reducing work opportunities and exacerbating financial needs and stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0389.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Ricefish; Microbiome; Ampicillin; Erythromycin; Immune and Stress-Related Genes
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:05:46 CEST)
Antibiotics have been used in various fields such as livestock farm and fish farm as well as hospital in order to treat diseases caused by bacteria. However, the antibiotics that are not completely decomposed, but remains as residue and discharge to aquatic environment, can cause an imbalance in the gut flora of host, as well as regulate abnormal host gene regulatory system. We investigated the effects of chronic exposure with the low concentrations of erythromycin and ampicillin on gut microbiome and immune and stress-related gene expression using Korea native ricefish (Oryzias latipes). As a result of microbiome analysis, the proportion of Proteobacteria was increased in the ricefish when exposed to erythromycin and ampicillin chronically, whereas the proportion of other bacterial phyla decreased. In addition, the immune and stress-related genes were significantly influenced in the ricefish under the chronic antibiotics exposure. These results show that the internal microbial flora and the host gene expression are susceptible even in the low concentration of chronic antibiotic existing environments. This study provides the importance of the appropriate use of antibiotics dose to maintain the sustainable and healthy aquaculture industry and water ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0068.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: IT related services; strategy development; SWOT; TOWS Matrix Analysis
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:25:09 CET)
This study presents an in–depth analysis and strategic planning techniques for approaching a situation or achieving progress related to information technology services of Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology, particularly the San Isidro Campus. As an educational organization and one in the region excellence providers in education, the University has so much vital information to manage and services to offer to provide the student's needs through the Management Information System department, application of IT services as a competing instrument to combat tedious tasks such as online admission, grade release, enrollment information, and online learning, university announcement, and possible students’ internship. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of information technology in day–to–day activities of the organization and strategy applied to streamline processes more conveniently. The researchers develop a conceptual model that would analyze the IT services' impact by identifying its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats and cleverly act on it using the TOWS Matrix in generating strategic decisions. The overall results were beneficial to the University and MIS as a basis for formulating competitive strategies and integrating it in an extended development plan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0122.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: music; language; syntax; attention; comprehension; electroencephalography; event-related potentials
Online: 13 June 2019 (13:13:57 CEST)
Music and language are hypothesized to share neural resources, particularly at the level of syntax processing. Recent reports suggest that attention modulates this sharing of neural resources, but the time-course of the effects of attention, and the degree to which attention operates similarly on music and language, are yet unclear. In this EEG study we manipulate the syntactic structure of simultaneously presented musical chord progressions and garden-path sentences in a modified rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, while varying top-down attentional demands to the two modalities. The Early Right Anterior Negativity (ERAN) was observed in response to both attended and unattended musical syntax violations. In contrast, an N400 was only observed in response to attended linguistic syntax violations, and a P3 only in response to attended musical syntax violations. Results show that top-down allocation of attention indeed affects the processing of syntax in both music and language, with different neural resources acting upon the two modalities particularly at later stages of cognitive processing. However, the processing of musical syntax at an earlier stage of the perceptual-cognitive pathway, as indexed by the ERAN, is partially automatic, and is strongly indicative of separate neural resources for music and language.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: wheat allergy; specific immunoglobulin E; children; gluten-related disorders
Online: 28 December 2016 (10:37:23 CET)
IgE-mediated wheat allergy is a gluten-related disorder. Wheat is one of the five most common food allergens in children. However, the natural history of IgE-mediated wheat allergy has seldom been described in the research literature. This study presents the current state of knowledge about the IgE-mediated wheat allergy in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: chronic limb-threatening ischemia; outcome; sex; age; limb salvage
Online: 8 December 2022 (09:39:30 CET)
Background: Identifying sex-related differences/variables associated with 30-day/1-year mortality in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Multicenter/retrospective/observational study. Database sent to all-the-Italian vascular surgeries to collect all-the¬-patients operated for CLTI in 2019. Acute lower-limb ischemia and neuropathic-diabetic foot not included. Follow-up: 1-year. Data on demographics/comorbidities, treatments/outcome, and 30-day/1-year mortality investigated. Results: Information on 2399 cases (69.8% men) from 36/143 (25.2%) centers. Median (IQR) age: 73 (66-80) and 79 (71-85) yrs for men/women, respectively (p<.0001). Women more over-75 (63.2%vs40.1%, p=.0001). More men smokers (73.7%vs42.2%, p<.0001), on hemodialysis (10.1%vs6.7%, p=.006), affected by diabetes (61.9%vs52.8%, p<.0001), dyslipidemia (69.3%vs61.3%, p<.0001), hypertension (91.8%vs88.5%, p=.011), coronaropathy (43.9%vs29.4%, p<.0001), bronchopneumopathy (37.1%vs25.6%, p<.0001), underwent more open/hybrid surgeries (37.9%vs28.8%, p<.0001), and minor amputations (22%vs13.7%, p<.0001). More women underwent endovascular revascularizations (61.6%vs55.2%, p=.004), major amputations (9.6%vs6.9%, p=.024), and obtained limb-salvage if with limited gangrene (50.8%vs44.9%, p=.017). Age >75 (HR3.63, p=.003) associated with 30-day mortality. Age >75 (HR2.14, p<.0001), nephropathy (HR1.54, p<.0001), coronaropathy (HR1.26, p=.036), infection/necrosis of the foot (dry, HR1.42, p=.040; wet, HR2.04, p<.0001) associated with 1-year mortality. No sex-linked difference in mortality statistics. Conclusion: Women exhibit fewer comorbidities, but are struck by CLTI when over-75, a factor associated with short/mid-term mortality, explaining why mortality doesn’t statistically differ between the sexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: knowledge; food consumption behaviors; hematocrit level; school-age children
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:06:28 CEST)
Anemia is a significant public health problem among children, especially school-age children because their body quickly produces red blood cells to provide sufficient blood volume with plasma expansion to maintain blood concentration. This research aimed to study the anemia situation, knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and the association between knowledge, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit level among school-age children in primary school, in Thasala district, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. This is a descriptive study among 408 students, Grades 4 to 6, aged 9-12 years. Research instruments included the demographic data of the children and their knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit assessment. Data were analyzed using descriptive, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression statistics. The results revealed that 23.2% of the samples had anemia, whereas 22.22% had mild anemia and 0.98% had moderate anemia. The children knew about anemia, where the mean score was at a moderate level (Mean= 6.63; SD= 2.51) out of 10. The mean score on food consumption behaviors was in the moderate level (Mean= 17.49; SD= 3.68) out of 24. There were significantly positive correlations between the knowledge about anemia and the hematocrit level at a moderate level (r= 0.45, p< 0.001). Correlation analysis revealed moderate food consumption behaviors with the hematocrit level (r= 0.40, p< 0.001). When confirm with Logistic regression found that knowledge about anemia (OR = 9.15, 95% CI: 4.57-18.34), and food consumption behaviors (OR = 19.09, 95% CI: 9.71-37.53) were significantly associated with the hematocrit level. Conclusions: This study showed that knowledge and appropriate food consumption behaviors are associated with hematocrit levels. Enhancing knowledge about anemia and food consumption behaviors may be reduced the prevalence of anemia in school-age children. The health care providers in primary care should be encouraged children to have health education and eat sufficient food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0091.v1
Online: 7 June 2022 (03:44:33 CEST)
Background: Prior to the federal law passed in late 2019, many states passed an increased age of sale law prohibiting youth under age 21 (or Tobacco 21) from purchasing tobacco products and e-cigarettes. Although previous research has documented tobacco retail sales violations, fewer studies have examined age verification and illegal tobacco sales in the context of Tobacco 21 or in repeated purchase attempts in various settings. Methods: In this study conducted between 2019 and 2022, buyers aged 18 to 20 years made repeated unsupervised purchase attempts of cigarettes, cigars, e-cigarettes, tobacco-free nicotine pouches and/or smokeless tobacco in store visits to over 180 tobacco or vape retailers in New Jersey, New York City, and Pitt County, North Carolina. Buyers documented whether they were asked for identification and whether they were able to successfully purchase a tobacco or nicotine product at each visit. Results: The primary outcome will be the percent of retailers that checked buyers’ identification at store visits and the precent of visits that resulted in a successful underage tobacco product purchase. We will aim to compare the results across time periods and study sites while controlling for other factors (including repeated visits). Conclusion: These results will be beneficial to designing compliance check inspections and/or interventions that reduce youth access to tobacco.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Citation patterns; Age groups of researchers; Types of publications.
Online: 17 August 2021 (15:09:37 CEST)
The evaluation of research proposals and academic careers is subject to indicators of scientific productivity. Citations are critical signs of impact for researchers, and many indicators are based on these data. The literature shows that there are differences in citation patterns between areas. The scope and depth that these differences may have to motivate the extension of these studies considering types of articles and age groups of researchers. In this work, we conducted an exploratory study to elucidate what evidence there is about the existence of these differences in citation patterns. To perform this study, we collected historical data from Scopus. Analyzing these data, we evaluate if there are measurable differences in citation patterns. This study shows that there are evident differences in citation patterns between areas, types of publications, and age groups of researchers that may be relevant when carrying out researchers’ academic evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease; histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis; prognosis; children; age
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:37:36 CEST)
Background: Little information exists regarding the differences in the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) according to age. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of KFD according to age. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients diagnosed with KFD at Pusan National University Hospital between 2010 and 2020. Results: Eighty patients (46 children and 34 adults) with a mean age of 21.5 ± 11.8 years (range, 3–49 years) were included in the study. Among children, the male sex ratio was higher, in adults, the female sex ratio was higher. Fever, tenderness in the lymph node, and skin rashes were more common in children, while myalgia and weight loss were more common in adults. In children, the recurrence rate was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.8% vs 0.0%, P=0.001). EBV and ANA positivity rates were higher in boys than in girls. In adults, the recurrence rate was significantly higher in women than in men (18.2% vs 0.0%, P=0.005). ANA positivity rates were higher in women than in men. Conclusion: The clinical features, laboratory findings, and recurrence of KFD may differ depending on age and sex. Clinicians should be aware of this.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0729.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: age; behaviour; open field; physical activity; anxiety; Wistar rat.
Online: 30 June 2021 (10:57:00 CEST)
The aim of this work was to study age-related changes in the behaviour of adult Wistar rats using the open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Behavioural changes related to motor activity and anxiety were of particular interest. Results showed that as male and female rats progressed from 2 to 5 months of age there was a decrease in the level of motor and exploratory activities, and an increase in the level of anxiety. Age-related changes were dependent upon initial individual characteristics of behaviour. For example, animals that demonstrated high motor activity at 2 months become significantly less active by 5 months, and animals that showed a low level of anxiety at 2 months become more anxious by 5 months. Low-activity and high-anxiety rats did not show any significant age-related changes in OF and EPM tests from 2 to 5 months of age, except for a decrease in the number of rearings in EPM. Significant individual differences in the behaviour of rats in OF and EPM tests observed at 2 months were not apparent by 5 months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0536.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: playable city; age-friendly environments; games; mobility; active ageing
Online: 23 October 2018 (10:11:15 CEST)
A key concern in an ageing society is citizens’ mobility. As populations age, disability impairments can affect active ageing, health-related wellbeing and quality of life. In this paper, we present the on-going research project SeriousGiggle—Game-based learning for triggering active ageing. Its goal is to assess the potential of game-based learning for active ageing and contribute to a sense of wellbeing and quality of life. It also seeks to improve the mobility of older adults by creating a set of journey plans with route guidance that are rated in terms of safety, community support, environment and age-friendliness. Drawn on our field work with 33 co-designers, 40 end users and 10 semi-structured interviews with Subject Matter Experts, we identify a set of necessary design requirements to an Age-friendly Playable City. This study recommends the use of gamification and playful techniques to engage the end-users to provide information about local traffic signs, pavement conditions, wayfinding and, therefore, help to create route guidance and walking assistance that are personalized to older adults’ context in terms of location, travel fitness, mobility impairments and motivations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: hypertension; GWAS; precision medicine; rural population; SNP-age interaction
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:34:37 CET)
Background: As part of the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project, we developed a practice level intervention to improve blood pressure control. The goal of this study was: i) determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that associate with blood pressure variation, identified in large case-control studies, are applicable to blood pressure control in subjects from a rural population; ii) measure the association of these SNPs with subjects’ responsiveness to the hypertension intervention; and iii) identify other SNPs that may help understand patient-specific responses to an intervention. Methods and Results: We used a combination of candidate SNPs and genome-wide analyses to test associations with either baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) or change in systolic blood pressure one year after the intervention in two genetically defined ancestral groups: African Americans (AA) or Caucasian Americans (CAU). Of the 48 candidate SNPs, 13 SNPs associated with baseline SBP in our study; however, one candidate SNP, rs592582, also associated with a change in SBP after one year. Using our study data, we identified 4 and 15 additional loci that associated with a change in SBP in the AA and CAU groups, respectively. Our analysis of gene-age interactions identified genotypes associated with SBP improvement within different age groups of our populations. Moreover, our integrative analysis identified AQP4-AS1 and PADI2 as genes whose expression levels may contribute to the pleiotropy of complex traits involved in cardiovascular health and blood pressure regulation in response to an intervention targeting hypertension. Conclusions: Identification of SNPs associated with the success of a hypertension treatment intervention suggests that genetic factors in combination with age may contribute to an individual’s success in lowering SBP. If these findings prove to be applicable to other populations, the use of this genetic variation in making patient-specific interventions may help providers with making decisions to improve patient outcomes. Further investigation is required to determine the role of this genetic variance with respect to the management of hypertension such that more precise treatment recommendations may be made in the future as part of personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: calorie restriction; PUFA; meal replacement; metabolic syndrome; middle age
Online: 13 August 2016 (03:39:38 CEST)
The increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles has led to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide. In Taiwan, middle-aged women are at a greater risk of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than men are because they have more subcutaneous fat and larger waist circumferences compared to men with equal visceral fat levels. This study investigated the effects of calorie restriction supplemented with fish oil (CRF) in middle-aged women with MetS. For 12 weeks, 75 eligible participants were randomly assigned either calorie restriction (CR) or CRF. Both dietary intervention groups were further divided into two age groups: ≤45 and >45 years. The changes in MetS severity, inflammatory status, iron status, and red blood cell fatty acid profile were evaluated. Seventy-one participants completed the trial. Both dietary interventions significantly ameliorated MetS and improved the participants’ inflammatory status. CR significantly increased total iron binding capacity, whereas CRF increased hepcidin levels. Furthermore, CRF significantly increased the n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratios. In conclusion, CR and CRF improved the anthropometric and MetS characteristics of early-middle aged women, including body weight, blood glucose levels, triglyceride levels, as well as the scores for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity cheque index. Dietary intervention was more effective in >45-year-old women than ≤45-year-old women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0260.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Heat Wave; Heat-related illness; Early heat-health warning systems
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:14:10 CEST)
Exposure to extreme heat is a known risk factor that is associated with increased heat-related illness (HRI) outcomes. The relevance of heat wave definitions could change across the health conditions and geographies due to the heterogenous climate profile. This study compared the sensitivity of 28 heat wave definitions associated with HRI emergency department visits over five summer seasons (2011-2016), stratified by two physiographic regions (Coastal and Piedmont) in North Carolina. The HRI rate ratios associated with heat waves were estimated using the generalized linear regression framework assuming a negative binomial distribution. We compared the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) values across the heat wave definitions to identify an optimal heat wave definition. In the Coastal region, heat wave definition based on daily maximum temperature with a threshold >90th percentile for two or more consecutive days had the optimal model fit. In the Piedmont region, heat wave definition based on the daily minimum temperature with a threshold value >90th percentile for two or more consecutive days was optimal. Additionally, we observed that the optimal heat wave definitions from this study captured moderate and frequent heat episodes than the national weather service (NWS) heat products that worked best for extreme heat episodes. This study compared the HRI morbidity risk associated with epidemiologic-based heat wave definitions and with NWS heat products. Our findings could be used for public health education and suggest recalibrating NWS heat products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Cold Sensation; Heat Loss; Cold Related Risks; Real Feel Temperature
Online: 21 December 2021 (14:06:58 CET)
Abstract: Windtech device is a novel tool for measuring the sensation of the ‘cold’. Cold poses numerous challenges for industrial operations, human survival, and living convenience. The impact of the cold is not possible to be quantified just based on temperatures; however other factors such as wind speed, humidity, irradiance have to be taken into consideration. Efforts have been made to develop combined indices such as wind chill temperature (WCT), AccuWeather RealFeel®, and others. The presented article discusses these along with the industrial standards that emphasize on the quantification of the ‘cold’. The following article introduces the Windtech device and its operating principle involving ‘heated temperature’, where the ‘heated temperature’ is affected by environmental parameters including ambient temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and irradiance. The discussed Windtech device is calibrated for operation according to the ISO 11079:2007 standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0341.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: AGEs; aortic calcification; type 2 diabetes mellitus; diabetes-related complications
Online: 21 May 2020 (09:46:56 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from January 2017 to June 2018. One-hundred and four consecutive patients with DM2 were given lateral lumbar X-rays in order to quantify aortic abdominal calcification AAC. Circulating levels of AGEs and classical cardiovascular risk factors were determined. Clinical history was also registered. Patients with higher AGEs values had higher grades of aortic calcification and higher number of diabetic related complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being older, male and having high levels of AGEs and triglycerides were the independent risk factors associated to moderate-severe AAC when compared to no-mild AAC. Our results suggest that AGEs plays a role in the pathogenesis of aortic calcifications. In addition, the measurement of AGEs levels may be useful for assessing the severity of AAC in the setting of diabetic complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: menstrual cycle-related syndrome; neuroimmunomodulation; biomarkers; inflammation; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Online: 29 March 2020 (03:22:06 CEST)
Objective: To examine the associations between menstruation features and symptoms and hormone-immune-metabolic biomarkers. Methods: Forty-one women completed questionnaires assessing characteristic menstruation symptoms, duration of menstrual cycle and number of pads used/day and completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) during the consecutive days of their menstrual cycle. Menses-related symptoms (MsRS) were computed from the sum of 10 pre- and post-menses symptoms and the menstruation blood and duration index (MBDI) was computed based on the daily number of pads and duration of menses. We assayed serum levels of various biomarkers at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the subjects’ menstrual cycle. Results: MBDI was significantly associated with a) MsRS including low abdominal cramps, and gastro-intestinal (GI) and pain symptoms (positively); b) plasma levels of haptoglobin (Hp), CCL5, insulin growth factor (IGF)-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)1 (all positively); and c) estradiol and paraoxonase (PON)1 arylesterase activity (both inversely). MsRS were significantly predicted by CCL5 and IGF-1 (both positively) and progesterone (inversely). Low-abdominal cramps, and gastro-intestinal and pain symptoms were associated with lower progesterone levels. The MBDI+MsRS score was significantly predicted by the cumulative effects of (in descending order of importance): Hp, IGF-1, PON1 arylesterase, estradiol and PAI. Conclusion: Menstruation-related features including estimated blood loss, duration of menses, cramps, pain and GI symptoms are associated with hormone-immune-metabolic biomarkers, which mechanistically may explain those features. Women with an increased MBDI+MsRS index ≥ 0.666 percentile may be considered to have menstruation-related distress, including dysmenorrhea symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: malnutrition; disease related malnutrition; risk factors; nutrition care; mortality; recommendations
Online: 12 November 2019 (16:46:08 CET)
Disease related malnutrition (DRM) is prevalent in hospitals and is associated with increased care needs, prolonged hospital stay, delayed rehabilitation and death. Nutrition care process related activities such as screening, assessment and treatment has been advocated by scientific societies and patient organizations but implementation is variable. We analyzed the cross-sectional nutritionDay database for prevalence of nutrition risk factors, care processes and outcome for medical patients. In 59126 medical patients included between 2006-2015 the prevalence of recent weight loss (45%), history of decreased eating (48%) and low actual eating (53%) was more prevalent than low BMI (8%). Each of these risk factors was associated with a large increase in 30 days hospital mortality. Nutrition care processes increases slightly with presence of risk factors but never done in more than 50% of patients. Only a third of patients not eating in hospital receive oral nutritional supplements or artificial nutrition. We suggest that political action should be taken to raise awareness and formal education on all aspects related to DRM for all stakeholders, to create and support responsibilities within hospitals, and to create adequate reimbursement schemes. Collection of routine and benchmarking data is crucial to tackle DRM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: daptomycin; antibiotic lock therapy; gentamicin; azithromycin; catheter-related bloodstream infections
Online: 10 September 2019 (10:43:51 CEST)
Background: Antibiotic lock therapy is an interventional modality used for treatment and prevention of central-line associated bloodstream infections. Stability and compatibility data for combinations are lacking, limiting clinical use. Objective: Compatibility and stability of daptomycin lock solutions in combination with azithromycin, gentamicin, and heparin or sodium citrate were evaluated up to 96 hours. Methods: Eight candidate lock solutions were prepared for compatibility and stability testing. All solutions were prepared in glass vials, and included daptomycin 1mg/mL in varying combinations with heparin 100 – 1,000 units/mL, trisodium citrate, azithromycin and/or gentamicin. Lactated Ringer’s solution was added as a diluent in a sufficient quantity to bring the total volume up to 5mL. Drug stability in the admixture was determined by the degradation of the components. The quantification of drugs was performed using Waters Alliance HPLC using Phenomenex Luna C8 (2), 150*2.6mm, 5µ column. A gradient run was executed for 20 minutes with 0.45% ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 3.25 as eluent A and acetonitrile as eluent B at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. Each solution was visually inspected for particulates and color change. Lock solutions were tested in triplicate. Results: Daptomycin degradation was <10% for all solutions at 48 hours, and for 7 of the 8 solutions at 72 hours. Gentamicin degradation was <5% for solutions in combination with daptomycin and trisodium citrate. No physical incompatibilities were detected. Conclusion: Study data support the stability and compatibility of daptomycin with additives in solution, allowing for fewer exchanges and longer dwell times for a lock solution. The addition of azithromycin or gentamicin may offer synergy and/or extended spectrum of activity. Daptomycin bioactivity with trisodium citrate needs confirmation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0207.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: language; motor system; event related potentials; action simulation; embodied semantics
Online: 21 January 2019 (11:03:56 CET)
The link between language processing and motor systems has been the focus of increasing interest to Cognitive Neuroscience. Some classical papers studying Event Related Potentials (ERPs) induced by linguistic stimuli have found differences in electrophysiological activity when comparing action and non-action words; more specifically, a bigger p200 for action words. On the other hand, a series of studies have validated the use of a grip force sensor (GFS) to measure language-induced motor activity during both isolated words and sentence listening, finding that action words induce an augmentation in the grip force around 250-300 ms after the onset of the stimulus. The purpose of the present study is to combine both techniques to assess if the p200 is related to the augmentation of the grip force measured by a GFS. We measured ERP and GFS changes elicited by listening to action and non-action words while maintaining an active grasping task in 10 healthy subjects. Our results show that the amplitude of the p200 in central electrodes is correlated to the augmentation in the GFS around 300 ms induced by linguistic stimuli. To our knowledge, this is the first study where the electrophysiological activity and the changes in the grip force induced by auditory language processing are put together, opening new venues of interpretation for the sensorimotor interaction in language processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: childhood trauma; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; sex difference; age
Online: 31 May 2022 (03:39:57 CEST)
Background. We investigated, for the first time, whether there are any sex differences in retrospective self-reported childhood maltreatment (CM) in Italian adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Furthermore, the potential impacts of patients’ age on the CM self-report was investigated. Methods. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used the data documented in the electronic medical records of patients who were hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. The CM was assessed using the 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which evaluates emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect. The linear and logistic regression models were used (α = 0.01). Results. Three hundred thirty five patients with MDD (255 women and 80 men) and 168 with BD (97 women and 71 men) were included. In both samples, considerable CM rates were identified, but no statistically significant sex differences were detected in the variety of CTQ-based CM aspects. There was a significant association, with no sex differences, between the increasing patients’ age and a decreasing burden of CM. Conclusion. Both women and men with MDD or BD experienced a similar and considerable CM burden. Our findings support the routine CM assessment in psychiatric clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: uterine cervical neoplasms; mortality; age-period-cohort analysis; forecasting; Brazil
Online: 16 February 2022 (05:03:16 CET)
Cervical cancer is a public health issue with high disease burden and mortality in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were analyzing age, period, and cohort effects on cervical cancer mortality in women 20 years old or older from 1980 to 2019 in the North, South, and Southeast Regions of Brazil; and evaluating whether the implementation of a national screening program and the expansion of access to public health services caused impacts over the examined period and reduced the risk of death over the past years and among younger cohorts. The effects were estimated by applying Poisson regression models with estimable functions. The highest mortality rate by 100,000 women was found in Amazonas (24.13), and the lowest in São Paulo (10.56). A positive gradient was obtained for death rates as women’s age increased. The states in the most developed regions (South and Southeast) showed a reduction in the risk of death in the period that followed the implementation of the screening program and in cohort from the 1960s onwards. The North Region showed a decreased risk of death only in Amapá (2000–2004) and Tocantins (1995–2004; 2010–2019). The findings indicated that health inequities remain in Brazil and suggested that the health system has limitations regarding decreasing mortality associated with this type of cancer in regions with lower socioeconomic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: endometrial cancer; fertility-sparing management; molecular classification; reproductive age; pregnancy
Online: 26 November 2021 (12:42:15 CET)
Conclusions: Molecular classification could provide reliable supplementary information for evaluating prognostic and contribute to treatment option decision-making in EEC patients. Fertility-sparing treatment is not recommended for EEC patients with CNH and MSI-H. Furthermore, fertility-sparing treatment can be attempted in EEC patients with CHL, but regular follow-up should be carried out to early detection of EC relapse and prevention of disease progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Age; Sex; Stroke Types; Outcomes; SEM; Tertiary Hospitals; Rivers State
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:45:13 CEST)
This study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to evaluate the direct effect of sex and age on stroke types and outcomes in Tertiary Health Facilities in Rives State, Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional retrospective hospital-based research that utilized specific stroke patients’ information between 2015-2019. The study obtained the sex and age, stroke type (ischemic/hemorrhagic), and outcomes (No disability/disability/death) from the records. The retrieved data was Microsoft Excel (2016), then analyzed using SPSS (version 21, Amos) and STATGRAPHICS centurion (Stat Point Tech., Inc.). From the result, out of the recorded 1916 stroke patients, 1229 (64.1%) were female, while 687 (35.9%) were males. The older adults (>55 years) had more recorded cases (n=1289) than young adults (ages 18–35 years; n=77) and middle-aged adults (ages 36–55 years, n=550). The SEM results showed that age was significantly associated with stroke type (P<0.001) and outcomes (P=0.038), while sex was significantly associated with stroke outcomes (P<0.001). The likelihood of death was 1.3 times higher in hemorrhagic stroke than ischemic stroke. In conclusion, age and sex had direct effects on stroke type, while age had a direct effect on stroke outcome. Hemorrhagic stroke was more likely to cause death than ischemic stroke in the studied population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0696.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Help Seeking; Same-age Peer Tutoring; Revealed Preferences; Data analytics
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:36:26 CEST)
When in doubt, asking a peer can be very helpful. Students learn a lot of social strategies from peers. However, stated preference studies [Newman, 1993] have found that for elementary school students with math questions they prefer to ask the teacher. In this paper, we study revealed preferences instead of stated preferences. We analyze the behavior of fourth-grade students seeking face-to-face assistance while working on an online math platform. Students start by working independently on the platform before the teacher selects two or three tutors from among those who have answered 10 questions correctly. Each student is then able to choose between the teacher or one of these tutors when requesting assistance. We study the students’ preferences over 3 years, involving 88 fourth-grade classes, 2,700 students, 1,209 sessions with classmate tutors, and a total of 16,485 requests for help when there was an option to choose between a teacher or a classmate. We found that students prefer asking classmates for help 3 times more than asking their teachers when given the choice. Furthermore, this gap increases from the first to the second semester. We also found that students prefer to request help from classmates of the same sex and of higher academic performance. In this sense, students from the two highest tertiles sought help from classmates in the same two tertiles, and students from the medium tertile prefer to seek help from students of the highest tertile. However, students in the two lowest tertiles do not prefer asking for help from students from the top tertile more than from their own tertiles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0392.v1
Subject: Keywords: Age; adherence; anti-hypertensive; Controlled hypertension; clinic; hypertension; Prevalence; Systemic
Online: 17 May 2021 (15:57:01 CEST)
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of controlled systemic hypertension and its associated risk factors among the hypertensive patients who attended the clinic at Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital in Tanzania. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was used determine the prevalence of co to 252 hypertensive patients were recruited during clinic visit from September to November 2020 and participant was randomly selected interviews using structured self-administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed using chi square test to find the risk factors associated with controlled hypertension. Results: Among 252 participants, 94(39.7%) individuals with controlled hypertension giving the prevalence of controlled hypertension. The proportion of females with controlled hypertension was slightly higher than male (49 females to 45 males). The prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension was 152(60.3%) participants. The prevalence of controlled hypertension was higher among patients who have regular clinic visit (p< .05) and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. A similar trend was observed among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic, short duration of illness, higher level of education and there was no association between age, sex, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having health insurance and having chronic illness. Conclusion: Prevalence of controlled hypertension is higher among patients who have regular clinic visit and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. Also, it is higher among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic so they can have regular clinic visit and checkup. Reinforcement on regular drug intake and clinic visit, good nutrition and reduced salt intake and modifying lifestyles of patient with hypertension is important.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: systematic review; cannabis; neuroimaging; age-of-onset psychosis; psychosis; schizophrenia
Online: 14 May 2021 (09:58:14 CEST)
Acute exposure to cannabis has been associated with an array of cognitive alterations, increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, and other neuropsychiatric sequelae including the emergence of acute psychotic symptoms. However, the brain alterations associating cannabis use and these behavioral and clinical phenotypes remains disputed. To this end, neuroimaging can be a powerful technique to non-invasively study the impact of cannabis exposure on brain structure and function in both humans and animal models. While chronic exposure studies provide insight into how use may be related to long-term outcomes, acute exposure may reveal interesting information regarding the immediate impact of use and abuse on brain circuits. Understanding these alterations could reveal the connection with symptom dimensions in neuropsychiatric disorders and, more specifically with psychosis. The purpose of the present review is to: 1) provide an update on the findings of pharmacological neuroimaging studies examining the effects of administered cannabinoids and 2) focus the discussion on studies that examine the sensitive window for the emergence of psychosis. Current literature indicates that cannabis exposure has varied effects on the brain, with the principal compounds in cannabis (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) altering activity across different brain regions. Importantly, we also discorvered critical gaps in the literature, particularly regarding sex-dependent responses and long-term effects of chronic exposure. Certain networks often characterized as dysregulated in psychosis, like the default mode network and limbic system, were also impacted by THC exposure, identifying areas of particular interest for future work investigating the potential relationship between the two.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0589.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Shale compaction; Geological age; Thailand shale; Compaction model; Standard curve
Online: 21 April 2021 (16:50:54 CEST)
Shales are well known for their strong anisotrophic properties. The classical Athy’s model on the exponential porosity reduction with the depth commonly uses based on localities only. Shale compaction curve affects the results of the basin modeling as it is important input data, thus the standard compaction curve of shales needs to be established. This study provided a new data and complies available data of Thailand shales to propose the new empirical relationship among porosity, burial depth, and geological age. The numerical data of the geological time were estimated by the application from the relationship of velocity and depth in each geological ages. The variation of the Thailand shale data due to the different geological ages was found in this study. Finally, the standard curve of shale compaction proposed by Puttiwongrak et al.  was examined and confirmed by this research findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0478.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Down's Syndrome; perception; quality of life; sport; age; gender; scale
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:17:41 CET)
The hypothesis posed was whether participation in LaLiga Genuine Santander (competitive football) influenced the quality of life (QL) of the people who participated in it, since their perception of themselves is enhanced by all the aformentioned factors (self-determination, social inclusion, emotional well-being, physical well-being, material well-being, rights, personal development, interpersonal relationships). The objective was to evaluate the QL of people with Down's Syndrome (DS) using their self-perception (n=39) and the perception of the informants (family members, teachers) (n=39). The KidsLife-Down Scale, with a few modifications was used. In general, differences of opinion between the subgroups of participants with DS and informants showed that results were higher in terms of perception for participants in the DS subgroup. Scores for all variables were higher for those participants with DS who said they did engage in practicing competitive football. Despite the perception of informants provides a great deal of information regarding the QL of participants with DS, the latter should be involved in the evaluation process and their self perceptions taken into account. Our research shows that participation in the league modifies the perceptions of the participants with Down's Syndrome regarding their quality of life. However, these perceptions are not shared by the informants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0090.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: age; coring sample; forest productivity; Nepal; P. roxburghii; stand structure
Online: 4 September 2020 (08:08:30 CEST)
Distinguishable annual growth rings produce in Pinus roxburghii are an asset to find out the age of individual tree. This paper aimed to determine the age of P. roxburghii through coring samples and test the relationship with forest production. The biomass estimated, girths measured at two different sections and heights measured which allowed to determine the rate of tapering of the stand. The regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between various variables. The mean age of the P. roxburghii stand was found to be 23.97 (~24 years). The result showed the significant (p<0.05) positive correlation coefficient has been seen between age with girth at breast height, biomass, volume and carbon stock. However, no significant (p>0.05) correlation (r = 0.08) was found between age and height of the stand. In contrast, a correlation between diameter at breast height (DBH) was significant (p<0.05) and positive with volume, biomass, but no significant (p>0.05) correlation (r = 0.14) found between DBH and height of the stand. However, height has a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation with biomass. The mean biomass was 375 kg and mean annual increment (MAI) was 15 kg per tree. Rate of tapering of the studied stand predicted to be 3 cm diameter decreased with trunk height running at 100 cm from base to upward of P. roxburghii stand and vice versa. Result suggests that height-age relation is very weak whereas age, DBH, biomass and carbon has a significant correlation signifies that time-based forests' production and potential production estimation can be obtained in a relatively accurate way by utilizing the age of stand. The time-based forest production analysis is pioneer work in Nepal. The study affirms the tree ring count in P. roxburghii would be a credible and accurate method to determine the age of standing trees.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0005.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: social intervention; COVID-19; health policy; public health; age; gender
Online: 2 May 2020 (12:04:58 CEST)
Many governments particularly in Europe are designing social interventions for the first post COVID-19 emergency phase. Definition of a ‘best practice’ for restriction release is urgent. Although data uncertainty generate difficulties, we believe near term analysis must shift from attempting to understand the numerous ‘unknowns’ to the clarification and interpretation of the few ‘knowns’, to create stepping stones towards rapid evidence-based decision making.Here, open access data on COVID-19 severity in three European countries were analyzed. Spain’s data were more comprehensive than those from Italy and Germany. Overall, COVID-19 severity shows a remarkable nonlinear growth with age that is significantly higher in adult males. Hence, age-adaptive and gender-balanced social interventions might represent efficient repopulation options for public health policymakers. Furthermore, we urge wider governmental effort for open access to relevant data. Their analysis will allow consolidation of existing trends, validation of key observations and thus facilitation of timely decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0051.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Wuhan 2019-nCov; ACE2; expression; susceptibility; race; age; gender; smoking; single cell
Online: 2 March 2020 (01:38:52 CET)
In current severe global emergency situation of 2019-nCov outbreak, it is imperative to identify vulnerable and susceptible groups for effective protection and care. Recently, studies found that 2019-nCov and SARS-nCov share the same receptor, ACE2. In this study, we analyzed five large-scale bulk transcriptomic datasets of normal lung tissue and two single-cell transcriptomic datasets to investigate the disparities related to race, age, gender and smoking status in ACE2 gene expression and its distribution among cell types. We didn’t find significant disparities in ACE2 gene expression between racial groups (Asian vs Caucasian), age groups (>60 vs <60) or gender groups (male vs female). However, we observed significantly higher ACE2 gene expression in former smoker’s lung compared to non-smoker’s lung. Also, we found higher ACE2 gene expression in Asian current smokers compared to non-smokers but not in Caucasian current smokers, which may indicate an existence of gene-smoking interaction. In addition, we found that ACE2 gene is expressed in specific cell types related to smoking history and location. In bronchial epithelium, ACE2 is actively expressed in goblet cells of current smokers and club cells of non-smokers. In alveoli, ACE2 is actively expressed in remodelled AT2 cells of former smokers. Together, this study indicates that smokers especially former smokers may be more susceptible to 2019-nCov and have infection paths different with non-smokers. Thus, smoking history may provide valuable information in identifying susceptible population and standardizing treatment regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: physical activity; kidney transplantation; elder age; vascular anomalies; marginal kidneys
Online: 29 December 2019 (11:06:25 CET)
Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage disease. To expand the donor reserve, it is necessary to use marginal/sub optimal donors that provide marginal organs. We retrospectively evaluated the short and long-term outcome of elderly kidney transplantation using allografts with vascular abnormalities. Between January 1999 and December 2018, 740 transplants from cadaveric donors were performed. Thirty-four elderly patients received a kidney transplantation with vascular anatomical variants (Group 1) were compared with 34 patients who received a kidney transplantation with single renal artery (SRA) (Grroup2) pair-matched by age, dialysis age, donor age, comorbidity. All participants completed the Long Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks after transplantation. The overall rate of surgical complications was 17.6% in Group 1 and 20.6% in Group 2, indicating that kidney with vascular anatomical variant might be successfully transplanted. Our data also emphasizes the importance of individualized physical activity in kidney transplantation with multiple arteries. Physical activity should be considered as an essential part of the medical care for renal-transplanted recipients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: earnings quality; growth opportunities; discretionary accruals; corporate age; corporate size
Online: 23 August 2019 (04:40:37 CEST)
We examined the causality between growth opportunities and earnings quality of the emerging economies. We develop an argument that growth opportunities should lead to high-quality earnings of the developing economies against the prior studies from developed economies which posit that growth opportunities result in a lower quality of earnings. The findings revealed that Growth Opportunities had a positive significant effect on Earnings Quality (EQ). Thus, the study concluded that growth opportunities are useful in determining the earnings quality of firms. The study recommends that managers should take advantage of their firms' growth opportunities to provide quality accounting information which will directly provide expanded opportunities for business growth. Though literature confirms that generally, earnings management might not be necessarily bad in business operational practice, managers are advised to avoid extreme aggressiveness in managing earnings as this may culminate in the negative manipulation of accounting information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0260.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: interior design; questionare; life situation; data evaluation; different age groups
Online: 23 April 2019 (13:12:57 CEST)
The role of the submission was to find out what changes people think they need to make in their home because of getting older. At advanced age, the likelihood of different limitations such as vision impairment, hearing impairment or physical inability is increased. Currently, tenants are often forced to leave their long-term living space, as these spaces cannot serve “new” individual needs. This transition from the privacy of their home to the new environment often appears to be a painful change. They will not have a well-known environment because their homes cannot be adapted to their new needs. The aim is a comprehensive approach to the design of such an exterior and interior space which could serve people at all stages of their life, including the terms of mobility. This means that even if there is an unexpected situation and changes in movement abilities and physiological limitations of man, not only by natural aging, but according to accidents or disabilities we can adapt the living space to the given conditions. The survey results are presented in Germany and Slovakia. In the survey, respondents expressed their opinion on what they considered important in creating an adaptive environment considering various life changes. Results are processed graphically with explanation. The results could be of an interest to architects and designers of the environment. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, studies of possible modifications of flats and houses were developed. The contribution brought these results to three age groups of respondents; people aged 35, 50 and over 50.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Ecological concrete; Cement/cementitious materials; Durability-related properties; Carbonation; Chloride; Diffusion
Online: 14 December 2022 (02:03:05 CET)
The durability of ecological concrete in a marine environment was studied. Specimens of a six-year-old submerged ecological concrete from a breakwater located in the East Mediterranean sea were analyzed for their biological carbonate deposition cover, chloride effective diffusion, carbonation, and mineralogy. About 57% of the surface was found to be covered by biogenic-deposited carbonates. The effective chloride diffusion coefficient and the carbonation rate were found to be reduced proportionally to the biogenic-carbonate cover. Most of the aluminates were found in non-crystalline minerals. No evidence of a sulfate attack was found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0360.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: tourism and related; SMEs; small particulate matters; association rules; data mining
Online: 27 June 2022 (10:24:27 CEST)
In northern Thailand, the problem of small particulate matter happens every year, with the pri-mary source being agricultural weed burning and wildfire. The tourism industry is strongly impacted and has been the spotlight for the past few years. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of small particulate matter on tourism and related SMEs in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The data was collected from 286 entrepreneurs in the tourism and related SMEs sectors. The data was analyzed using data mining and association rule techniques. The study revealed that small particulate matter has a considerable impact on customer factors, especially the number of customers has decreased. Operational factors and prod-uct/service factors are also affected by the dust in the form of adjustments to keep the business running and the protection of the health of employees and customers. Certainly, financial factors are affected by the small particulate matter situation, both lower revenues and higher costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: biomarkers; electroencephalography; event related potentials; heart rate variability; diagnosis; sensitivity; specificity
Online: 17 March 2022 (15:19:38 CET)
The combination of statistical learning technologies with large databases of psychophysiological data has appropriately generated enthusiastic interest in future clinical applicability. It is argued here that this enthusiasm should be tempered with the understanding that significant obstacles must be overcome before the systematic introduction of psychophysiological measures into neuropsychiatric practice becomes possible. The nonspecificity of psychophysiological measures complicates their use in diagnosis. Low test-retest reliability complicates use in longitudinal assessment, and quantitative psychophysiological measures can normalize in response to placebo intervention. Ten cautionary observations are introduced and, in some instances, possible directions for remediation are suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related endocrine dysfunction; hypothyroidism; targeted therapy; malignancy
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:49:40 CEST)
Abstract Background The number of immune-related endocrine dysfunctions (irEDs) has concurrently increased with the widespread use of immunotherapy in clinical practice and further expansion of the approved indications for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations using different modalities of anti-cancer treatment. Method A retrospective analysis was conducted on consecutive patients >18 years of age with advanced solid malignancies who had received at least one dose of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) and/or anti-CTLA4 antibodies between January 2014 and December 2019 at a Hong Kong university hospital. Patients were reviewed for up to two months after the last administration of an ICI. The types, onset times and grades of irEDs, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and immune-related diabetes mellitus, were recorded. Factors associated with irEDs were identified using multivariate analysis. Result A total of 953 patients (male: 603, 64.0%; median age: 62.0 years) received ICIs during the study period. Of these, 580 patients (60.9%) used ICI-alone, 132 (13.9%) used dual-ICI, 187 (19.6%) used an ICI combined with chemotherapy (chemo+ICI), and 54 (5.70%) used immunotherapy with a targeted agent (targeted+ICI). A significantly higher proportion of patients using targeted+ICI had irEDs and hypothyroidism; in contrast, a higher proportion of patients using dual-ICI had adrenal insufficiency. There was no significant difference in the incidence of irED between the younger (<65 years) and older (>65 years) patients. Using logistic regression, only treatment type was significantly associated with irEDs. Notably, older patients had a higher risk of having immune-related diabetes mellitus. Conclusions This large, real-world cohort demonstrates that combining ICI with targeted therapy has a higher risk of overall irED and hypothyroidism. Immunotherapy is safe and well-tolerated regardless of age, but close monitoring of fasting glucose is needed in older populations.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bismuth selenide nanoparticles; photothermal killing; apoptosis; autophagy; stress-related signaling pathway
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:52:30 CEST)
With a highly efficient optical absorption capability, bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) nanomaterial can be used as an outstanding photothermal agent for anti-tumor treatment and shows promise in the field of nanotechnology-based biomedicine. However, little research has been done on the relevant mechanism underlying the photothermal killing effect of Bi2Se3 nanomaterial. Herein, the photothermal effects of Bi2Se3 nanoparticles on A549 cells were explored with emphasis put on autophagy. Firstly, we characterized the structure and physicochemical property of the synthesized Bi2Se3 and confirmed their excellent photothermal conversion efficiency (35.72%), photostability, biocompatibility and ability of photothermal killing on A549 cells. Enhanced autophagy was detected in Bi2Se3-exposed cells under an 808 nm laser. Consistently, an elevated expression ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I, a marker of autophagy occurrence, was induced in Bi2Se3-exposed cells upon NIR irradiation. Meanwhile, the expression of cleaved-PARP was increased in the irradiated cells dependently on the exposure concentrations of Bi2Se3 nanoparticles. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) further strengthened the photothermal killing effect of Bi2Se3. Meanwhile, stress-related signaling pathways including p38 and SAPK/JNK were activated coupled with the attenuated PI3K/Akt signaling. Our study figures out that autophagy and the activation of stress-related signaling pathways were involved in the photothermal killing of cancerous cells by Bi2Se3, which provides a more understanding of photothermal nanomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0282.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: EEG; event-related potentials; schizophrenia; fearful expressions; perception; non-congruent sounds
Online: 11 December 2020 (12:58:55 CET)
Emotional dysfunction, including flat affect and emotional perception deficits, is a specific symptom of schizophrenia disorder. We used a modified multimodal odd-ball paradigm with fearful facial expressions accompanied by congruent and non-congruent sounds to investigate the impairment of emotional perception and reaction to other people's emotions. We analyzed subjective assessments and ERP data for emotionally charging congruent and non-congruent stimuli in patients with schizophrenia and healthy peers. The results showed the deficit of multimodal perception of fearful stimuli in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. The amplitude of N50 was significantly higher in subjects of the control group for non-congruent stimuli than congruent and did not differ in patients with schizophrenia. The dynamics of P100 and N200 components confirmed the impaired sensory gating in patients with schizophrenia. The lower amplitude of P3a could be associated with deficits in verbal memory and attention, less emotional arousal, or incorrect interpretation of emotional valence as specific features of patients. The difficulties in identifying the incoherence of facial and audial components of emotional expression could be significant in understanding the psychopathology of schizophrenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0243.v2
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Daphne wolongensis; distribution; morphology; relationships; genetics; AFLP; related species; Rehdera section
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:12:31 CEST)
Daphne wolongensis described on the basis of a few known individuals was investigated in the wild, in Baoxing Valey, Sechuan. Its status of valid species was verified morphologically and genetically. Three newly found populations were compared to the closely related species Daphne retusa, D. tangutica, D. longilobata, D. acutiloba, D. sureil, to clones available in cultivation and selected cultivars. The high bootstrap values indicate a good level of genetic differentiation between each of the studied species. The hypothesis whether D. wolongensis is a hybridogenous species was rejected, it is a well-defined independent species. Based on morphological and genetic data, it seems likely that another species, D. limprichtii can be a mountain form of D. tangutica. Variability of populations in Wolong gives a good opportunity to select genotypes with a higher or better performance of combination of traits. From 51samples collected in Wolong it was possible to select the top ten different types as genetic resources for breeding. Daphne wolongensis, in the visited sites of Wolong area, occupies less than 1 km2. Together with isolated finds, the number of found individuals is less than 500 and the area is not larger than 10 km2, thus it falls to the IUCN category of “Critically Endangered” plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0080.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: cancer-related viruses; CRISPR-Cas diagnostic tools; DETECTR; infectious disease; SHERLOCKv2
Online: 7 April 2020 (09:43:22 CEST)
Sensitive and precise nucleic acid detection is critical for clinical diagnostics and biotechnological advancements. Diagnostic in infectious disease field is very unique from diagnosing any other disease, that is time is of the essence; in outbreaks people die even with each passing hour in some cases, if the correct diagnosis wasn't make; for example Zika in particularly is a very challenging virus to diagnose, because it's in very few numbers of copies in the infected person, so it need high sensitive diagnostic approach to spot it, In particular, the advanced tools SHERLOCKv2 and DETECTR, give almost an immediate detection of attomolar amounts of pathogenic nucleic acids with specificity similar to that of PCR but with slight technical settings and that will guide the correct intervention for the patient. SHERLOCKv2 and DETECTR technologies are game changers for our ability to identify infectious disease and rapid detection of tumor DNA or cancer-related viruses with ultra-sensitive tests that don’t require a lot of complicated processing to go through. In this paper, we will review cutting-edge infectious disease diagnosis by CRISPR-Cas systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0009.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: tea polyphenol; serum hormone; enzyme activity; immune function, enzyme-related genes
Online: 1 August 2019 (05:18:08 CEST)
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of tea polyphenol （TP） on serum hormone, serum enzyme activity, antioxidant-related and immune-related gene expression of laying hens under heat stress. A total of 288 Chinese yellow chicken (186 days old) were randomly distributed among two treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens. Dietary treatments were that the basal diet was supplemented with 200 mg / kg tea polyphenol. The study lasted for 7 weeks, including 1 week of adaptation and 6 weeks of the formal test. The content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP) in serum significantly decreased by dietary supplementation with tea polyphenol. Dietary tea polyphenol supplementation improved serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in treatments compared to the control. However, supplementation of tea polyphenol did not affect the activity of serum catalase (CAT). The results indicated that long-term feeding of tea polyphenols help to increase the amount of hormones (FSH, E2) associated with reproduction in laying hens and thus improve egg production. It also improved the immune function of laying hens in high temperature environments. Adding tea polyphenols to the diet can significantly increase the serum IgG, IgM content of the laying hens and can upregulate the IgA content. Dietary supplementation of tea polyphenols in the laying hens significantly increased the expression of antioxidant enzyme-related genes (SOD, CAT and GPX1) in the liver. Moreover, the addition of tea polyphenols significantly increased the expression of immune-related genes (Interferon-γ (INF-γ), Interleukin 2 (IL-2) and Interleukin 4 (IL-4)) in the spleen. It is concluded that addition of tea polyphenols has a positive effect on antioxidant activity and immune function of laying hens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0565.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: EZH2; epigenetic regulation; DZNep; tumor-related genes; head and neck cancer
Online: 24 October 2018 (10:34:10 CEST)
EZH2 overexpression is associated with tumor proliferation, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Targeting and inhibiting EZH2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We previously analyzed EZH2 mRNA expression in a well-characterized dataset of 230 (110 original and 120 validation cohorts) human head and neck cancer samples. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhibiting EZH2, either via RNA interference or via pharmacotherapy, on HNSCC growth. EZH2 upregulation was significantly correlated with recurrence (P < 0.001) and the methylation index of tumor suppressor genes (P < 0.05). DNMT3A was significantly upregulated upon EZH2 upregulation (P = 0.043). Univariate analysis revealed that EZH2 upregulation was associated with poor disease-free survival (log-rank test, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, EZH2 upregulation was evaluated as a significant independent prognostic factor of disease-free survival (hazard ratio: 2.085, 95% confidence interval: 1.390–3.127; P < 0.001). Cells treated with RNA interference and DZNep, an EZH2 inhibitor, showed the most dramatic changes in expression, accompanied with a reduction in the growth and survival of FaDu cells. These findings suggest that EZH2 upregulation is correlated with tumor aggressiveness and adverse patient outcomes in HNSCC. Evaluation of EZH2 expression might help predict the prognosis of HNSCC patients.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0527.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: implicit prosody; rhythm sensitivity; event related potentials; reading achievement; musical aptitude
Online: 23 October 2018 (08:30:00 CEST)
Recent evidence suggests the existence of shared neural resources for rhythm processing in language and music. Such overlaps could be the basis of the facilitating effect of regular musical rhythm on spoken word processing previously reported for typical children and adults, as well as adults with Parkinson’s disease and children with developmental language disorders. The present study builds upon these previous findings by examining whether musical rhythmic priming also influences visual word processing, and the extent to which such cross-modal priming effect of rhythm is related to individual differences in musical aptitude and reading skills. EEG was recorded while participants listened to a rhythmic tone prime, followed by a visual target word with a stress pattern that either matched or mismatched the rhythmic structure of the auditory prime. Participants were also administered standardized assessments of musical aptitude and reading achievement. ERPs elicited by target words with a mismatching stress pattern showed an increased fronto-central negativity. Additionally, the size of the negative effect correlated with individual differences in musical rhythm aptitude and reading comprehension skills. Results support the existence of shared neurocognitive resources for linguistic and musical rhythm processing, and have important implications for the use of rhythm-based activities for reading interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Work-related stress; occupational stress; coping profile; garment workers; textile workers
Online: 7 February 2018 (10:26:49 CET)
Garment sector has crucial working field in Turkey.It has also very high risky occupational health conditions and safety.The objective of this study is to define level of job level, work-related stress’ symptoms, social support and coping mechanisms of garment workers and to determine any related factors.This study is descriptive and cross-sectional. The study population comprised garment workers in the 16-65 age range. The data was collected by Assessment Form, The Brief Stress Coping Profile and Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. The level of work-related stress was statistically higher among the workers who had chronic disease, low economic, education status and poor quality of sleep. Psychological and physical physiological reactions to stress were found higher among women workers and those with chronic disease.It also was seen that job stress scores had a meaningful relationship with “emotional expression involving others” (r =.20) and “Avoidance and suppression” coping profile (r =.16; p <.01).Psychological symptom scores were found to have a low level of meaningful relationship with “Seeking help for solution” (r =-.08), “changing point of view” (r=.13) and “emotional expression involving others” coping profiles (r=.21). Work-related stress causes many health and behavioral problems. Work related reasons and coping profiles have powerful effects on stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: age of information; cached files updating; stationary distribution; discrete time model
Online: 5 September 2020 (04:22:43 CEST)
In this paper, using the discrete time model, we consider the average age of all files for a cached-files-updating system where a server generates N files and transmits them to a local cache. In order that the cached files are fresh, in each time slot the server updates files with certain probabilities. The age of one file or its age of information (AoI) is defined as the time the file stays in cache since it was last time sent to cache. Assume that each file in cache has corresponding request popularity. In this paper, we obtain the distribution function of the popularity-weighted average age over all files, which gives a complete description of this average age. For the random age of single file, both the mean and its distribution have been derived before by establishing a simple Markov chain. Using the same idea, we show that an N dimensional stochastic process can be constituted to characterize the changes of N file ages simultaneously. By solving the steady-state of the resulting process, we obtain the explicit expression of stationary probability for an arbitrary state-vector. Then, the distribution function of the popularity-weighted average age can be derived by mergering a proper set of stationary probabilities. For the possible applications, the distribution function can be utilized to calculate the probability that the average age violates certain statistical guarantee.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0383.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: child speech; speech production; speech perception; learning; consonant age of acquisition
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:07:44 CEST)
Purpose: Perceptual learning and production practice are basic mechanisms that children depend on to acquire adult levels of speech accuracy. In this study, we examined perceptual learning and production practice as they contributed to changes in speech accuracy in three- and four-year-old children. Our primary focus was manipulating the order of perceptual learning and baseline production practice to better understand when and how these learning mechanisms interact. Method: Sixty-five typically-developing children between the ages of three and four were included in the study. Children were asked to produce CVCCVC nonwords like /bozjəm/ and /tʌvtʃəp/ that were described as the names of make-believe animals. All children completed two separate experimental blocks: a baseline block in which participants heard each nonword once and repeated it, and a test block in which the perceptual input frequency of each nonword varied between 1 and 10. Half of the participants completed a baseline-test order; half completed a test-baseline order. Results: Greater accuracy was observed for nonwords produced in the second experimental block, reflecting a production practice effect. Perceptual learning resulted in greater accuracy during the test for nonwords that participants heard 3 or more times. However, perceptual learning did not carry over to baseline productions in the test-baseline design, suggesting that it reflects a kind of temporary priming. Finally, a post hoc analysis suggested that the size of the production practice effect depended on the age of acquisition of the consonants that comprised the nonwords. Conclusions: The study provides new details about how perceptual learning and production practice interact with each other and with phonological aspects of the nonwords, resulting in complex effects on speech accuracy and learning of form-referent pairs. These findings may ultimately help speech-language pathologists maximize their clients’ improvement in therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder; FDG-PET/CT; elder age; physical activity
Online: 29 December 2019 (10:37:20 CET)
The incidence of cancer in organ transplant patients is higher than in the non-transplanted population. The incidence increases with increasing age. The use of Fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) is sensitive and specific to detect PTLD LD compared with conventional CT imaging. We analyzed the medical data of 127 patients aged over 60 years, who underwent heart transplantation in the above period, who have been practicing early CT-PET for diagnostic purposes between February 2007 and October 2018. Of 127 consecutive patients who underwent CT-PET, SUVs up than 4, were found in 84 patients of which 20 were affected by PTLDs, seven patients were affected by chronic non neoplastic inflammatory diseases, the remainder were affected by other neoplasms. The favorable effect of physical activity programs on cardiorespiratory and psychomotor function occur in all patients. In conclusion, CT-PET at the first doubts about the possibility of the development of neoplasms has allowed a diagnosis and then a treatment more quickly. Education in behavioral norms that improve the patient's quality of life is necessary.